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Designing for unhoused people: An inclusive public space strategy Zhang, Wan 2021-05-04

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Designing for unhoused people:An inclusive public space strategyWan ZhangMater of Landscape ArchitectureGraduate Project Part I&IIThe University of British ColumbiaFaculty Advisor: Cynthia GirlingSupervisor: Kees LokmanSubmitted in partial fulfilment for the Master of Landscape Architecture,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,The University of British Columbia-i- This project explores how landscape design can support social equality in the urban scale landscape after the Covid-19 pandemic. The pandemic totally changed the human lifestyle. It has also exacerbated spatial injustice within the urban fabric and among different socioeconomic groups. It has brought to the fore questions, such as What is the role of landscape/public space in mitigating the spatial injustices in the city?  Furthermore, how can landscape design contain social care to design public space in a neighbourhood that includes large numbers of people who are experiencing homelessness? The Oppenheimer neighborhoods in Vancouver is one of those areas where the pandemic has had a significant impact, particularly on the homeless population. As such, this project will focus on interventions within the vacant lot, streetscape, and parking lot in an attempt to shift urban design focuses to include all users of the urban realm, including the homeless. Proposed designs demonstrate how flexibility, durability and inclusiveness can improve the wellbeing of the homeless communities through a healing garden, multi-use plaza, modular streetscapes etc.AbstractRELEASE FORMLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureThe University of British ColumbiaName: Wan ZhangUBC Student Number: Graduate Project Title: Designing for Unhoused PeopleAn inclusive design strategyIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Name Signature Date-iii--ii-ContentsAbstract ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iContent ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iiAcknowledgements �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ixIntroduction ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11� Project Statement ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������42� Literature Review ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52.1 The Covid-19 Pandemic Exposes Social Inequality ...............................................................................62.2 Urban Form, Urban Life and Spatial Justice ............................................................................................92.3 How Does Public Space Exclude the Homeless? ................................................................................. 132.4 Significance of Inclusive Design .............................................................................................................. 183� The Role of Design ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������213.1 What is the Role of Design in A Post-COVID City?  ........................................................................... 224� Site Matters ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������264.1 Downtown Eastside Context ..................................................................................................................... 274.2 Homeless Analysis: Homeless in Vancouver ........................................................................................ 424.3 Homeless Condition in the Covid-19 Pandemic ................................................................................. 484.4 The Government Plans ............................................................................................................................... 535� Programmatic Issues �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������615.1 Project Intention .......................................................................................................................................... 626� Precedent Studies ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������636.1 Garden Street ............................................................................................................................................... 646.2 The Design for Distancing Ideas ............................................................................................................. 676.3 Hospitality Hub ............................................................................................................................................ 717� Project Schedule ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������758� Design Methodology �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������788.1 Activating Neglected Spaces  .................................................................................................................. 799� Oppenheimer District Analysis ���������������������������������������������������������������������8110� Design Matrix ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10210.1 Oppenheimer District – Space Classification .................................................................................. 10410.2 Type A – Streetscape (Sidewalk & Streetparking) .......................................................................... 10610.3 Type B – Parking Space (Public) .......................................................................................................... 11010.4 Type C – Vacant Lot ................................................................................................................................ 11411� Design Proposal �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12212� Design Materials & Modular ���������������������������������������������������������������������13413� Design Details ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14414� Conclusion �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18415� Bibliography ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������186ContentList of FiguresFig 1. Black & Hispanic ZIP Codes With Low Density See More Infection  ................................................................................................................. 5Fig 2. ZIP Codes With More Crowding See Higher Infection Rates  ............................................................................................................................ 5Fig 3. Right to the City, an illustration from Learning UCLG ..................................................................................................................................... 7Fig 4. The City of Vancouver says these wavy, metal vent covers on Cambie are an art installation and weren’t intended to prevent people from sleeping there. Photo Dan Toulgoet.  ............................................................................................................................................................................11Fig 5. “No loitering“ Signs on a armrest bench. George Etheredge for The New York Times ..................................................................................... 12Fig 6. An empty plaza in Midtown Manhattan, New York. George Etheredge for The New York Times ................................................................... 13Fig 7. Hostile Architecture Illustration. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15Fig 8. MASS Design Group’s project: The Gun Violence Memorial Project. Photo: courtesy MASS......................................................................... 21Fig 9. Downtown Eastside Collage. ............................................................................................................................................................................ 26Fig 10. Downtown Eastside History Timeline ............................................................................................................................................................. 28Fig 11. Downtown Eastside Plan - Sub Areas .............................................................................................................................................................. 30Fig 12.  Hosing Types & Housing Mix in DTES 2006 & 2011.  ......................................................................................................................................33Fig 13.  Household Tenure, 2006.  ................................................................................................................................................................................ 34Fig 14.  Percentage of population low-income range, 2006 & 2016.  ...........................................................................................................................35Fig 15.  After-Tax Low-Income Status, 2005.  ...............................................................................................................................................................35Fig 16. The Downtown Eastside Parks and Green Space ............................................................................................................................................ 36Fig 17.  Vancouver Heat Map, 2018.  ............................................................................................................................................................................ 39Fig 18.  Public Toilets Locations and Accessibility, 2011.  ........................................................................................................................................... 39Fig 19.  Vancouver Homeless Population Trends 2005 to 2019.  ..................................................................................................................................41Fig 20.  Unsheltered Individuals by Homeless Count Areas, 2020.  ........................................................................................................................... 42Fig 21.  2020 Homeless Count: Cause of Losing Housing, 2020.  ............................................................................................................................... 43Fig 22.  2020 Homeless Count: Types of Health Conditions, 2020.  ........................................................................................................................... 43Fig 23.  Number of Substances, 2019.  ......................................................................................................................................................................... 43Fig 24.  Types of Addictions Issues, 2019.  ................................................................................................................................................................... 43Fig 25.  Where the Unsheltered Homeless Stayed the Night of the Count, 2019.  .....................................................................................................44Fig 26.  Reasons for Not Staying in a Shelter, 2019.  ...................................................................................................................................................44Fig 27.  Shelter Stays in the 12 Months Prior to the 2019 Homeless Count, 2019.  .....................................................................................................44Fig 28.  Services Accessed in the Past 12 Month, 2020.  .............................................................................................................................................. 45Fig 29.  Homeless tents in the city ..............................................................................................................................................................................46Fig 30.  Stores closed, and a unhoused individual carries his belongings at Chinatown .......................................................................................... 47Fig 31.  A report released Wednesday on a Metro Vancouver homeless count in March revealed a slight dip in population in Vancouver.  .........48Fig 32.  Fencing surrounds a portion of a homeless camp at Oppenheimer Park  ....................................................................................................49Fig 33.  The Strathcona Park tent city in Vancouver pictured on July 2, around two weeks after homeless people began relocating there. ..........51Fig 34.  The City of Vancouver and Park Board says it has a strategy to end the tent city in Strathcona Park, where over 300 people are living.55 Fig 35.  The Strathcona Park homeless tents during raning day ............................................................................................................................... 54Fig 36.  The homeless along the street at Chinatown to get public services ............................................................................................................. 55Fig 37.  Shops along the Powell Street in Downtown Eastside ................................................................................................................................... 56Fig 38.  Housing along the Powell Street in Oppenheimer District ........................................................................................................................... 57Fig 39. Downtown Eastside Poem ............................................................................................................................................................................... 58Fig 40.  Existing neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens.  ................................................................................................. 62Fig 41.  Proposed neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens.  ................................................................................................ 63Fig 42.  Different activities are indicated by the size of the individual circular “islands.” Rendering by Christopher Odusanya.  .........................66Fig 43.  Parking spaces become parklets in this car-free street revamp. Rendering by EDSA.  ................................................................................67Fig 44.  A vacant lot becomes an al fresco dining destination. Rendering by Department Design Office. ..............................................................68Fig 45.  Hospitality Hub Plaza, courtesy of Haizlip Studios ...................................................................................................................................... 70Fig 46. Hospitality Hub. Rendering by A2H Engineers Architects Planners. .............................................................................................................71Fig 47. Downtown Eastside Context Map. ..................................................................................................................................................................80Fig 48. Oppenheimer District - Existing Green Space ............................................................................................................................................... 82Fig 49. The Oppenheimer Park, photo taken by Ben Nelms /CBC News ...................................................................................................................84Fig 50. The Oppenheimer Park, photo taken by Jeff Culter, from Space 2 Space.......................................................................................................84Fig 51. The Oppenheimer Park during the Covid-19 pandemic, photo by author. ..................................................................................................... 85Fig 52. The Oppenheimer Park during the Covid-19 pandemic, photo by author. ..................................................................................................... 85Fig 53. Oppenheimer District - Existing Indoor Public Services ...............................................................................................................................86Fig 54. Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Parking and Vacant lot ...................................................................................................................88Fig 55. Oppenheimer District - Existing Street Hierarchy .........................................................................................................................................90Fig 56. Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Transit Network .............................................................................................................................. 92Fig 57. Oppenheimer District - Annual Wind Speed Analysis ...................................................................................................................................94Fig 58. Oppenheimer District - Summer Solar Analysis ............................................................................................................................................96Fig 59. Oppenheimer District - Summer Solar Analysis ............................................................................................................................................97-v--iv-Fig 60. Oppenheimer District - Winter Solar Analysis ..............................................................................................................................................98Fig 61. Oppenheimer District - Winter Solar Analysis ...............................................................................................................................................99Fig 62. Oppenheimer District - Space Classification ................................................................................................................................................ 102Fig 63. Type A - Streetscape  .......................................................................................................................................................................................104Fig 64. Type A - Streetscape Existing Site Photos .....................................................................................................................................................105Fig 65. Type A - Streetscape Activties Rank ...............................................................................................................................................................106Fig 66. Type B - Public Parking Space ........................................................................................................................................................................108Fig 67. Type B - Public Parking Space Existing Site Photos ......................................................................................................................................109Fig 68. Type B - Parking Space Activities Rank ..........................................................................................................................................................110Fig 69. Type C - Vacant Lot. ........................................................................................................................................................................................112Fig 69. Type C - Vacant Lot Existing Site Photos. ......................................................................................................................................................113Fig 70. Type C - Vacant Lot Activities Rank. ..............................................................................................................................................................114Fig 71. Proposed Design Functions. ............................................................................................................................................................................116Fig 72. Type of Spaces Matching. ................................................................................................................................................................................118Fig 73. Oppenheimer District - Proposed Network. .................................................................................................................................................. 122Fig 74. Zoom in Street View 1. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 124Fig 75. Zoom in Street View 2. ....................................................................................................................................................................................126Fig 76. Streetscape Parklet Design. ...........................................................................................................................................................................128Fig 77. Streetscape Parklet Design. ............................................................................................................................................................................ 130Fig 78. Material List. .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 134Fig 79. Modual Bench + Cover. ................................................................................................................................................................................... 136Fig 79. Modual Bench + Green Elements. .................................................................................................................................................................. 138Fig 80. Modual Other. ................................................................................................................................................................................................140Fig 81. Japantown Collage  .........................................................................................................................................................................................144Fig 82. Oppenheimer District - Proposed Schematic Plan. .......................................................................................................................................146Fig 83. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Existing Conditions. .....................................................................................................................................................148Fig 84. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Users & Programs. ....................................................................................................................................................... 150Fig 85. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Circulation.................................................................................................................................................................... 152Fig 86. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Site Plan. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 154Fig 87. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Bird View. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 156Fig 88. Type A - Section Sunny View. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 159Fig 89. Type A - Section Rainy View. ...........................................................................................................................................................................161Fig 90. Type B - Section Sunny View. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 163Fig 91. Type B - Section Rainy View. ...........................................................................................................................................................................165Fig 92. Type C - Section Sunny View. .........................................................................................................................................................................167Fig 93. Type C - Section Night View. ..........................................................................................................................................................................169Fig 94. Aneki 姉貴 Square – View of Aneki Garden...................................................................................................................................................170Fig 95. Aneki 姉貴 Square – View of Community Garden. ....................................................................................................................................... 172Fig 96. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Street Market. .................................................................................................................................. 175Fig 97. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Festival Events. ................................................................................................................................ 177Fig 98. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Outdoor Movies. .............................................................................................................................. 179Fig 99. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Emergency Shelter. ...........................................................................................................................181-vii--vi--ix- I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my primary advisor Prof. Cynthia Girling, for her invaluable supervision, support, and direction; you helped me to put my ideas well above the level of simplicity into something concrete and meaningful. Thanks to Prof. Kees Lokman, for his continuous support and invaluable advice during the whole graduate project process. Thanks and appreciation also to my outside supervisor, Catarina Gomes., for her mentorship. Your expertise and enthusiasm always bring energy and motivation to me.Thanks and appreciation to my loveable family, Kan and Zhen, both support me over the last two years in SALA. Also, I am deeply thankful for all the support I received from my friends, Siyi, Jacky, Ziqi, Treasure, Bowei, Cathy. And thanks Kendra, for helping with my final work.Without their tremendous understanding and encouragement, it would be impossible for me to complete my final thesis.Acknowledgements-1- Human history has seen many major pandemics, such as cholera outbreak in London in the 19th century, the Spanish flu in 1918 in New York and Mexico City, SARS in China and other part of the world in 2003, and Ebola in West Africa in 2014 (Salama, 2020). When humans overcame the impacts of each pandemics, strategies were established by planners and designers that reshaped cities (Salama, 2020). Across the globe city developers implemented urban planning solutions such as reducing housing density to control transmission and prevent future spread. Unlike previous pandemics, globalization and its associated human movements has caused the rapid spread of Covid-19 across the world (Moser et al., 2020). Therefore, each pandemic situation brings a lesson to city planner and designers. Also, it offers opportunities for city pay close attention to human living environment. As the virus spreads, the function of the public space is shifting; for example, people have to keep a safe distance from others, social communication becomes a threat, and public services and facilities are locked. In the meantime, the virus also exacerbates social inequality among the wealthy and vulnerable groups in society. For instance, some low-income people have to go to work and use public services which makes them more vulnerable. The wealthier group can choose to work from home and use delivery services to acquire daily supplies. Within the vulnerable group, the homeless seem to struggle the most, and become expose to the pandemic because they usually gather at the homeless camps, public parks or lay on street without any protection. This paper will mainly focus on the homeless, the most vulnerable in Vancouver, to address social inequality issues in public space as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic effect. How does disproportionate accessing public spaces put the homeless in a worse situation during the Covid-19 pandemic? How might the role of landscape architecture in the post-pandemic city mitigate social inequality? Furthermore, it is essential to address the significance of the inclusiveness idea for future urban public realm design.Overall, the paper begins from the literature Introduction-2-review to illustrate the social inequality and spatial justice issues caused by the Covid-19 pandemic and argues for the importance of inclusive design. The paper explores the inclusive ideas and public streetscape design from precedent studies and applies them to designing public spaces in Vancouver for the homeless. After that, the paper will focus on Downtown Eastside in Vancouver as a focus study area to show how homeless conditions have worsened during the pandemic. Lastly, the design direction will provide a conceptual design idea to apply inclusiveness into the public spaces that improve the homeless living environment.-4-address public issues as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic effect. How do we design public space in a neighbourhood that includes large numbers of people who are experiencing homelessness?This thesis project argues that understanding the demands and perspectives of the homeless allows designers to re-think the nature of urban public space and provide appropriate design strategies. The problem that I seek to explore specific to people who are experiencing homelessness in our society. It seems like the Covid-19 pandemic has hit this group in society the hardest. The people are lived unhoused struggle in this situation and become more exposed to the pandemic because they usually gather at tents, public parks or lay on the street without any protection.Public space is essential to people who experience homelessness in their daily life, and it is a place for them to find survival resources and manage their everyday life. In other words, public space provides space for them to set a shelter or lay down, on the other hand, homeless people modify the urban space for their own needs.The study site is the Oppenheimer district in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. Downtown Eastside is one of the oldest neighbourhoods in the heart of Vancouver. Today, it is an area with many social problems, such as alcohol and drug abuse and large numbers of people experiencing homelessness. The thesis project is going to focus on people who are experiencing homelessness, the most vulnerable group in Vancouver, to Literature ReviewProject StatementFig 1. Black & Hispanic ZIP Codes With Low Density See More Infection  Retrieved from: U.S Census, Illinois Department of Public Health data as of April 29, 2020. Chart: Haru CoryneFig 2. ZIP Codes With More Crowding See Higher Infection Rates  Retrieved from: U.S Census, Illinois Department of Public Health data as of April 29, 2020. Chart: Haru Coryne-7--6-long-standing social structures disadvantage and oppress the vulnerable communities.” (German et al., 2020). Although no city can escape the destructive spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, the virus has had a profoundly uneven impact on different social class of people in the same city. Recent studies find little correlation between population density in cities and rates of the Covid-19 pandemic, instead attributing the spread of the virus to overcrowding due to the inequality distribution of spaces and delays in governmental responsiveness. According to WHO’s (World Health Organization) news, numbers of evidence suggest that Covid-19 pandemic mainly spread by close contact in an enclosed space. It is the crowds of people within buildings/shared room rather than the city’s compact/dense urban form (Wang, 2020). In Chicago, the highest infection rates were taken in the 60636 ZIP code area, predominant by African Americans. There had about 10 confirmed Covid-19 cases for every 1,000 residents (Coryne, 2020). However, the area is one of the sparsely neighborhood in Chicago, their incomes per year  The coronavirus has caused the catastrophe on the human societies, the Covid-19 pandemic spread rapidly which has significantly impacts on urban public spaces around the world. As the world continues to fight the spread of the pandemic, confining many people to their homes and radically changing the way of work and live in our communities. In this precarious period, will a Covid-19 vaccine or herd immunity return us back to “normal”, or will we need to re-think about our cities to adjust the urban public spaces that could improve people’s outdoor living condition? Besides, Covid-19 exposes social inequality issue and exacerbate it. Ayana Webb notes that “COVID-19 has made obvious that wealthier group (middle class) are able to isolate themselves from the general public, work from home and still can have access to goods and services through online purchases. The social status of the middle class has therefore become the first lines of defence in the fight against the pandemic. On the other hand, the vulnerable populations mostly the working class are hit harder by the pandemic, indicating the manner in which the are below average. In contrast with the 60657 ZIP code where majority occupied by affluent group (middle class) Lakeview neighborhood. In that area shows only three Covid-19 cases per 1,000 residents, even they live within dense urban form (Coryne, 2020). Apparently, a neighborhood with lower income rates is more likely susceptible to Covid-19. People in low-income communities general live in crowded spaces and they are mostly working class who work in restaurants or grocery stores (front line workers) (Grove, 2020), making it difficult for such people to obey physical distance rules thereby increasing their risk of infection. Thus, these data demonstrate that the lower-income group is more susceptible to the pandemic than the wealthy group. Take another example in the city of New York, when the city was the global epicentre of the pandemic, downtown Manhattan had roughly 925 per 100,000 people tested positive for the virus. Compare the above figure to the Queens neighborhood (less than 25 minutes away from Downtown New York), where 4,125 per 100,000 Covid-19 cases were recorded. This gap also revealed the inequality neighborhood distribution in New York: the wealthiest residents were able to access health services and work remotely The Covid-19 Pandemic Exposes Social InequalityFig 3. Right to the City, an illustration from Learning UCLGRetrieved from: Spatial Justice and the Right to the City-9--8-in spacious multi-story buildings. Manhattan and Queens are less than 25 minutes away from subway, but the income gap between these two areas is quite large - $78,000 (Goldin & Muggah, 2020).Similar inequalities exist in Vancouver as well, and Covid-19 further amplifies the gaps. Even though, Vancouver is Canada’s second riches city ---- right behind Toronto. In both cities, population of working poverty is growing faster than any other cities in the country (Culbert & Sherlock, 2018b). B.C. has the highest rate of working poor in the country as well, these group have a median income of just $15,000 CAD. Among Canada’s largest cities, Vancouver was rank second-worst with more than 100,000 low-income earners, or nearly one in ten of the working-age population (Culbert & Sherlock, 2018b).The economic inequality aspect through Covid-19 aggravates the existing social equality problems. The vulnerable group (equity seeking group) is getting hit the most; they struggle when parks are closed, and public spaces have been locked (Mesley, 2020). How might landscape architecture mitigate the social inequality problems revealed by pandemic through urban public design strategy? Look at built forms in cities; while designing our urban form, some wealthier group have benefited from it, and some working-class group have failed to include. These are significant contributors to the disproportionate impacts of  Covid-19 pandemic. Besides, the effect shows spatial injustice, especially towards the low-income population who can be define as equity seeking group. The next section will mainly discuss how spatial justice as a matter correlates to the pandemic to influence our society. When there is talked about urban form and urban life, these always complement each other. Urban form refers to the spatial concentration of populace within a specific area of land, limits to building and population densities, and certain qualities of building and spaces. (Salama, 2020). On the other hand, urban life describes the dispersion of the system of values, attitudes, customs, and behaviours of a specific group of people (Salama, 2020). Together, urban form and urban life contributes to urban public spaces where people might participate in various activities. Public space is associated with urban form and makes urban life energetic and dynamic. The quality of public spaces supports the city and shapes our neighborhoods; thus, public spaces make the city vibrant. Moreover, social sustainability describes an urban development that contains quality of open spaces and is home to urban residents and occupants that identify themselves with the city and urban environment (Siláči & Vitková, 2017). Different types of urban spaces are associated with specific activities of different social groups. Unorganized public space exists with mess and safety concerns; this space’s lack of cleanliness will reduce usability and attractiveness. Thus, human activities need a good quality public space environment. The relationship between people and space can be defined as: people create and co-create space while at the same time quality of the space influences the character of users (Siláči & Vitková, 2017). Therefore, when public spaces are associated with human activities, it is important to find the distribution of space’s function, people’s movement patterns and accessibility for vulnerable populations (Salama, 2020).Urban Form, Urban Life and Spatial Justice-11--10-However, the breakout of the Covid-19 pandemic forced the government to decide to close or fence around some public spaces or public services. The pandemic also disrupts the usual social norms for people using public spaces. When people spending time in outside, they are required to keep a safe distance outside. In this situation, the wealthier community may have its private garden, back yard to take a breath or to have their safety enclosure space. But low-income groups who live in crowded neighborhoods might not have a private yard to relax. Also, some of lower income groups (working class) may depend on public space to work. How can they survive during lockdown from the pandemic? Thus, the Covid-19 pandemic hits the spatial justice, and impacts on the rights of people to access public spaces.Spatial justice refers to the same discipline as radical geography and a desire to connect space with justice (Culture House, 2018). It illustrates that being a human and living life is a social, temporal, and spatial experience (Culture House, 2018). Edward Soja (2019) has done significant work on the concept of spatial justice in cities; he argues that being a human and living life is a social, temporal and spatial experience. Humans produce space; thus, space is socially produced and can be socially changed. The idea of socio-spatial relations is fundamental: space shapes social relations as much as social relations shape space (Soja, 2019). The spatial justice represents a particular emphasis and interpretive perspective; it is not an alternative to other forms of justice (Soja, 2010). In this way, conceptualizing justice is an attempt to recenter the spatial element to analyze how our physical world enforces and produces injustice. As Andrea Rigon (2020) argues, the space we live in contains positive and negative consequences resulting in how humans act. When simply identifying spatial injustice outcomes, it is complex to interpret the processes that produce spatial injustices. Despite that, this is a fundamental point of analysis, in order for inequities to be addressed and to work towards justice. Therefore, justice is spatial, and spatial design can inform justice. All the injustices discussed in the context of a larger social justice movement are baked into the built environment in human living conditions. The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the social and spatial inequalities in the world. From the World Health Organization’s (WHO) suggestion: social distancing and frequent soapy handwashing will slow the viral spread. But in considering this situation within lower-income communities, the advice is almost impossible for them when these people live in informal settlements with limited access to public services. However, accompanied by lockdowns in the pandemic, those lower-income communities must take this advice while struggling harder than ever for the daily wages. They have to make a decision between starving or viral exposure during this crucial period (Kihato and Landau, 2020). In Abuja, a food seller complained that “I cannot afford to stay at home and not feed my children. I know it is risky to be out here, but if I don’t come out to look for what to feed my family, we will die of hunger faster than being killed by the virus.” (Salaudeen, 2020, par.13).Take an example in Vancouver, Canada. Jean-Pierre Kigonga and Sansdrine Ekoko are couple; they came to Canada as refugees from the Congo about nine years ago. Jean-Pierre Kigonga works at a manual labour job with night shift working conditions and earns $17 CAD per hour. He and his wife need to raise their two young kids in Vancouver. His salary is roughly $30,000 after taxes, plus $10,000 a year from the federal child benefit payments (Culbert & Sherlock, 2018b). The Kigonga family lived in a two-bedroom old apartment. Their room had mouldy window frames, frayed wires in the stove and a living room lined with boxes, toys and food because there was no storage space in the cramped unit. According to the B.C “living wage,”: a family of four needs closer to $75,000 to make ends meet in expensive Metro Vancouver (Culbert & Sherlock, 2018a). The Kigonga family mostly rely on public transit to work, and they have little access to a green space near their home. “When you take my salar), you pay rent, insurance, gas, it is not enough,” said Kigonga. “We go to Superstore, and I say, ‘Don’t buy too much food because we need diapers.’(Culbert & Sherlock, 2018b, par.10).” They are still struggling with poverty, and when the Covid-19 pandemic breaks out, the pandemic is putting them in the most vulnerable situation. Fig 4. The City of Vancouver says these wavy, metal vent covers on Cambie are an art installation and weren’t intended to prevent people from sleeping there. Photo Dan Toulgoet. Retrieved from: Vancouver’s ‘defensive architecture’ is hostile to homeless, say critics-13--12-The public urban resources are unevenly distributed; they are made by power and decision-making structures that determine who, where and how to access public spaces. Moreover, the policies, such as social distancing, lock-down, curfews and uneven security services, enhance these structural injustices. Not only does the Covid-19 pandemic disproportionately affect the poor, but policy interventions often exacerbate problems. These will inadvertently erode the resilience towards lower-income families or working-class individuals to build for survival. Also, those injustices will ultimately worsen the vulnerabilities associated with economic and spatial marginalization (Kihato and Landau, 2020).  Public space is essential to people who experience homelessness in their daily life, it is a place that the homeless population can find survival resources and manage their everyday life (Waldron, 1991). In other words, public space provides the homeless with resources such as a shelter, a washroom and water sources etc. That is, homelessness modifies the urban space for its own needs (Bergamaschi et al., 2014).Typically, when public space uses design to exclude and restrict certain groups of people, it is called “Hostile Architecture,” also known as defensive architecture or defensive design (McMaken, 2019). The photographer Marc Vallée who has documented anti-skateboarding architecture, says that we have seen many examples of defensible architecture added on to the street environment in urban landscapes. With many new development growths in the city, city planners and designers ask questions of ‘who do we want in public space, who do we not want’ (Quinn, 2014). This type of design is often covertly integrated into urban landscape environments, such as benches with How Does Public Space Exclude the Homeless?Fig 5. “No loitering“ Signs on a armrest bench. George Etheredge for The New York TimesRetrieved from: ‘Hostile Architecture’: How Public Spaces Keep the Public OutFig 6. An empty plaza in Midtown Manhattan, New York. George Etheredge for The New York TimesRetrieved from: ‘Hostile Architecture’: How Public Spaces Keep the Public Out-15--14-armrests designed to prevent people from sleeping on them, adding metal spikes to sidewalks and planting edges to deter sitting, and installing large planters or boulders to avoid loitering in certain areas. Hostile architecture also includes removing objects altogether, such as no sitting benches in outdoor areas or shopping malls to deter people from staying there for a long time (Antony, 2019). Some less visually obvious design is using unpleasant colours or lighting in bathrooms or using high-frequency sounds or “anti-teen music” (classical music) played loudly in public spaces to discourage young people from hanging around (Antony, 2019). The fundamental principle behind “Hostile Architecture” is that public spaces are designed for specific purposes. This kind of design strategy applies to urban planning as part of a Crime Prevention Through Environment Design (CPTED) approach (Antony, 2019).  It reduces the cost of employing security personnel, such as police officers and private security, to discourage people who are misusing public areas (McMaken, 2019). Some point out that preventing loitering at the bus stop benches helps people who are waiting for the bus feel safer, and that avoiding loitering and sleeping in parks reduces criminal activity. However, these actions, sometimes referred to as “anti-homeless” are more likely a way of covering up the larger issues of affordable housing and access to public resources instead of reducing crime and increasing safety (Antony, 2019). Alex Andreou addresses these behaviours as “It keeps poverty unseen and sanitizes our shopping centres, concealing any guilt for over-consuming.” (McMaken, 2019). On the other hand, Meenakashi Mannoe of Vancouver ‘s Pivot Legal Society also states that the hostile architecture exacerbates the prevailing social stigma associated with homelessness. Not only does hostile architecture reinforce negative stigma, but it pushes homeless individuals to set up “informal tent city structures” where people can stay and feel a sense of protection and belonging to communities (Mussett, 2019).Despite the criticism, defensive architecture is not new to the cities. Throughout human history, defensive architecture designs have been in cities in many ways, such as walls that have kept people out; guard towers protect the people inside. Cara Chellew, a researcher, and advocate of public spaces says that most of the defensive elements are hidden within more socially acceptable ones in recent design trends. It is not to be seen but to be felt by the people who are targeted (Pelley, 2019).According to the New York Times, in New York, there about 79,000 people who are homeless, and about 5% are estimated to live on the street (Hu, 2019). However, the hostile design has flourished in the city to maintain order and ensure public safety; even so it is inhumane and targets the homeless. Proponents argue that these types of design are imperative to help the city maintain order, ensure individuals’ security and curb unwanted behaviour such as sleeping, loitering, or skateboarding. But hostile architecture has drawn many critics’ attention who say that such measures are unnecessary and disproportionately target vulnerable populations (Hu, 2019). It is inequitable to blame people who have nowhere else to go when many cities are contending with a homelessness crisis. New York City prohibited Fig 7. Hostile Architecture Illustration.Illustration by author.-17--16-“devices that inhibit seating” in privately owned public space (a space required to be open to the public by their owners) since 2007. However, in 2017 the city comptroller has found that more than half of the spaces had violated various city requirements and failed to provide mandated amenities for public use. For example, in the public atrium at Trump Towner on Fifth Avenue, marble benches had been removed and replaced by a vendor who sells Trump memorabilia. Another ironic case in New York is at a sprawling plaza on East 56th Street and Third Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. It is hard to find a single table or chair at the empty plaza. Office workers had to lean against a wall for a quick break. This case suggests, “Don’t hang out here,” said Sean Orlando, “It definitely doesn’t feel like a public space; it seems like they’re trying to keep people from using it.” (Hu, 2019).Take another case in Vancouver: there is little evidence of any siege mentality behind hostile architecture in the Fairview neighbourhood, which mostly are built with fences, gates, and natural hedge and rock obstacles (Woodvine, 2015). Many residents require protection elements against break-ins in this neighbourhood, and they enjoy keeping out all strangers. Therefore, many parking garages are gated to prevent thieves and deflect rough sleepers and people looking for a dark corner where they can stay. Also, the Fairview neighbourhood has a similar design characteristic of locked wrought-iron gates and chain-link fencing. It also means to serve more than the purpose of defensible design: enhance security, protect the privacy, and beautify. Fairview neighbourhood’s defensive designs are always invisible, integrating within urban landscapes (Woodvine, 2015). According to Pivot Legal Society, hostile architecture not only prevents homeless, but also it engenders a city-wide atmosphere of exclusion, driving Vancouver’s most vulnerable off the street into the city’s park (Mussett, 2019).In short, hostile architecture does not solve social issues, but its defensive strategies keep homeless and marginalized people out of public spaces. As Rowland Atkinson, co-director of the Centre for Urban Research at the University of York, states, the spikes and related architecture are part of a broader pattern of hostility and indifference toward homeless and marginalized people within cities (Quinn, 2014). City government and urban residents have seldom been tolerant of people once referred to as “vagabonds (citation).” That is, the policies are employed to force these people to move and result in people being homeless. These people tend to congregate in neglected, undesirable, impoverished parts of the city on the periphery (McMaken, 2019).-19--18- As the previous discussions about the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic have convulsed human perceptions of urban public spaces. For example, San Marco Plaza in Venice remains silent atmosphere, only the architectures/buildings witnessing the empty space. There have novel signs reminds people of a new rule: keep a safe social distancing. Freedom is restricted and measures of mitigation in public space becomes a new rule to defense the virus and ensure people’s safety (Landman, 2020). This will lead landscape architectures and urban designers to rethink the meaning of public space to inclusive multi-backgrounds people, especially for people who live unhoused (homeless).To begin with, the word inclusive refers to include and integrate all people and groups in activities, organizations, political processes, etc., especially those who are disadvantaged, have suffered discrimination, or are living with disabilities (Collins English Dictionary, 2012). Based on that, inclusive public space allows different groups of society to be integrated into public space and let people feel social and physical inclusion (Landman, 2020). In other words, actively inclusive public space in the city lays a foundation for civic life that provides a sense of attachment and belonging for everyone and makes people participate in their community (Peinhardt & Storring, 2019). Yet, the idea of inclusive public space always confronts challenges about growing security concerns and debates related to whether inclusive or exclusive spaces/certain groups of people would be safer (Landman, 2020). Consequently, these challenges, along with several typical questions: How can we consider people’s safety without excluding some? How can we let multi-backgrounds people have sense of belonging in the public space? How can we allow for different groups to voice their concerns within public space? And How can we ensure public space maintains multicultural activities? In light of Karina Landman’s article on inclusive public space, it illustrates four major constrains of public space that hinder inclusiveness in cities: firstly, the relationship between users’ experience in public space and designed public space. How does the designed spaces can make people feel comfortable to enjoy seeing activities from a distance or to engage with spaces from close distance in safe priority? Secondly, the value of mixed activity spaces hard to avoid from exclusion. Landman provides a positive relationship between mixed activity spaces and the potential for multicultural activity. It indicates people are likely to see people of different colour, culture, and social class participates together in public spaces. However, it still faces two challenges for implementing democracy in the public space: homogenization and exclusion. Third, ethnic and gender dis-association hampered the creation of inclusive public space. Since multicultural groups always feel socially isolated, the challenge is to design a meaningful inclusion of multiple cultural identities in shaping the public space. Lateral, the uneven distribution of public space and privately owned public space exacerbates the limitation of public space. In a high-density city such as Hong Kong, it lacks public space for people to access; in addition to this, some accessible spaces are controlled by private ownership, which deters people from using them (Landman, 2020).While focusing on homeless populations in the society, they are more likely to be excluded from certain public spaces. These group use of public spaces, such as plazas, parks, and streetscapes, become social problems (Kingery-Page & Brown, 2019). North American cities have attempted to use legal ordinance to set strictures on where homeless may get together or receive public services (Kingery-Page & Brown, 2019). However, this can not resolve the problem but puts the homeless in a more vulnerable situation. According to the United States National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, the shortage of affordable housing causes people to be homeless. Over 12.8% of the United State’s supply of affordable housing has been permanently lost since 2001. Therefore, homeless advocates suggest that the criminalization of being homeless in public does nothing to improve the homeless population’s situation or result in better access to public services (Kingery-Page & Brown, 2019).Overall, the United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres, has put resilient and inclusive cities at the center of achieving the Sustainable Significance of Inclusive Design-20-Development Goals. It is a good example of the significance of inclusive public spaces (Goldin & Muggah, 2020). Enhancing inclusive public space will become a key element in re-thinking cities. Public space is kept safe and livable by letting people who care enough look out for each other. By encouraging this, cities need well-designed strategies to include different social groups (Woodvine, 2015). Moreover, public space adaption practices, including large numbers of diverse people gathering in public space, require city planners and landscape architectures to reconsider the nature of inclusive public space and what should take place in such spaces (Landman, 2020). Eventually, inclusive public space will benefit humans both physically and mentally; it makes people feel comfortable staying and tend to be more active in attractive public spaces. Also, a good public space will illustrate the diversity of the city and invite people to live together effortlessly (Pacheco, 2017).The Role of DesignFig 8. MASS Design Group’s project: The Gun Violence Memorial Project. Photo: courtesy MASSRetrieved from:  A new national memorial to victims of gun violence makes its debut.-23--22- The paper has explained how the Covid-19 pandemic exacerbates social equality and hits harder on spatial justice in society from previous sections. Also, the impacts of the pandemic make the homeless population in a defenceless situation. When landscape architecture confronts these complex social issues, designers can not prevent people from becoming homeless or deter a series of social problems, which caused by social equity. However, these complex social problems provide optimal opportunities for landscape architecture to rethink the existing urban landscape design: to reconsider the meaning of public space to the homeless population and the social marginalized group. What is the role of design in a post-COVID city to mitigate the social equity issues raised by inequality and spatial injustice?MASS Design Group has done several design cases associated with spatial justice. They are a non-profit architecture firm, specializes in building environments for under-served populations (Mitchell & Dearing, 2020). The firm believes that architecture is the realm of human rights, and to access a well and a purposefully designed environment is the realm of rights. The firm argues that the Covid-19 reveals cracks of the system in the urban built environment. And the vulnerable group has the most disproportionately affect by the pandemic; they might live in conditions like nursing homes, senior housing, incarcerated individuals, or people who live unhoused, those within structures where they are most disenfranchised and unable to control the environment around them effectively (Mitchell & Dearing, 2020). Designers can not just address the kind of structural injustices in our community and support for those who are having trouble advocating for themselves in these conditions, also rethinking the built environment in cities that are encasing the vulnerable group. Thus, designing spaces requires a healing purpose that concerns human physiological health, sociological health, and environmental health (Mitchell & Dearing, 2020).Furthermore, MASS Design Group considers an essential part of the design process is to integrate users’ demand (Brown, 2019b). Designers would learn from participation and community engagement processes as well. This immersion process makes designers listen and hear what the users want out of the building and develop a shared vocabulary of what design will look like, and take users’ comments into the decision-making (Brown, 2019b). MASS Design Group provides a meaningful project, “glass houses,” to arouse people’s attention about victims of gun violence at the Chicago Architecture Biennial. By making a network of donated items that belonged to the deceases, the team successfully designed a narrative not of death but of lives lived (Brown, 2019b). The team thinks that the archetype of the house is immediately understandable and resonant with people. They hope to think through a design to communicate and manage the tension between the enormity of the problem and the individual narrative of the families and communities that are affected by the gun violence events (Brown, 2019a). That is, MASS Design Group, through the design of “glass houses,” to raise awareness to people about gun violence.What is the Role of Design in A Post-COVID City? -25--24-democracy as something neither community nor ecological design but is a hybrid of both (Hester, 2006).  The value and forms of ecological democracy are defined by shared experiences, civic participation, inhabiting science (Hester, 2006). Therefore, urban/landscape design should enable people to be communities instead of zoning-segregated enclaves and function as informed democracies (Hester, 2006). For example, a bench in front of the post office provides an opportunity for connection and shared experience. The city needs ecologically resilient and adaptable to the surrounding ecology rather than dependent on technological fixes. An urban built environment might encourage people with energy rather than compel people with social stigma and fear (Hester, 2006).Extending from Hester’s principles, the realms of socially based landscape architecture and ecological design rapidly expanding, landscape architecture is a dynamic field to create a connection to a place in built environment in cities (Chanse, 2009). Also, the business model of architecture/landscape architecture/urban Michael Murphy, one of the MASS Design Group’s principles, says that “We are interested in the way each building and each block can tell a story, and a story of the place. …  When people come together and build something, we are inspired by the history of architecture … from the mosques of Mali to Quaker communities, we build what we need, and we build what we desire to feed our collective.” (Brown, 2019 b). Besides, the design team argues that the role of design is to practice reinserting the public benefit into the centre of human value proposition in the world. It is better not to maximize profit or the maximization of capital (Theron, 2020).On the other hand, in light of Design for Ecological Democracy by Randolph Hester, his design principle focuses on the Ecological Democracy base. It inspires the practice and research in the design of landscape architecture. His design philosophy is also associated with environmental design, community participation, and social justice (Hester, 2006). Hester’s contribution provides design principles for spaces that are ecologically and community-based. He examines ecological All in all, creating an equity worldview demands cities to design public spaces for all people, regardless of colour, class, and disability. Landscape architectures have an influential role in promoting the inclusion of public services and amenities for the homeless population in urban spaces, such as parks or streetscapes (Kingery-Page & Brown, 2019). And while designing public space serves the most well-being in the city, this also creates beauty, not just the form we see. Yet, the beauty is the successful resolutions of all practices of mitigation, inclusiveness, adaptation, and transformation of public spaces coming together and serving the public in its most effective form (Mitchell & Dearing, 2020).design must be constantly redesigned and redefined when confronting the complex social problems. It is an essential for designers take responsibility to serve the public good, and to be a part of the changing and evolving condition of the public realm. (Theron, 2020). Thus, architecture/landscape architecture/urban design should rethink practices of mitigation, adaptation, and transformation of public space. And how these practices can apply to the homeless group in the city. In some cases, design public space can be flexible, shifts in a temporary change of use, either in terms of activities or users. This may mitigate a range of safety concerns (Hu, 2019). In addition, design interventions can accommodate different activities, it either temporarily or on a more permanent basis. And then, designing public space contains meaningful and inclusive that need a complete re-imagination of public space. This requires urban/landscape design interventions to create new opportunities for a much broader multicultural public and remove signs of exclusion in both physically and socially (Hu, 2019).-27-The Downtown Eastside provides a high concentration of resources such as shelters, food, low rent accommodations, street nurses and drop-in health facilities for the homeless groups. However, the area associates with a series of social problems, including substance use, crime, sexually transmitted infections, and poverty (Somers et al., 2016). The environment context, such as single-room occupancy hotels, contains poor health status and disease risk (Somers et al., 2016). Therefore, understanding the site context will help achieve an overall design outcome that is suitable for the users.PrefaceSite MattersDowntown Eastside ContextFig 9. Downtown Eastside Collage.Illustration by author. -29--28-Fig 10. Downtown Eastside History TimelineIllustration by author. -31--30-Before Europeans settled on the south shore of the Burrard Inlet  First Nations, Stó:Lo hunted and fished Coast Salish territory.In 1833, Japanese immigrants to the Downtown Eastside.In 1935 The Great Depression, rallies, demonstrations and strikes.In 1965, the forty to fifty blocks of the Downtown Eastside included twenty-six beer parlours and two liquor stores.In the late 1960s, the City began building a new centre for Downtown Vancouver that enticed Eaton’s, one of the large department stores that had previously been in the heart of the Downtown Eastside, to relocate.In 1992, Woodward store closed.In the late 1980s, the drug situation in the Downtown Eastside became increasingly troublesome as more people started using cocaine.In 2002-2003, protest about lack of affordable and secure housing in Downtown Eastside.Today many homeless people around the street, crime, drug person in Downtown Eastside.with single-family dwellings predominating, Chinatown is a vibrant commercial district consisting of both residential housing and industrial land sided by East Hastings Street, which is seen as the central artery through the Downtown Eastside, and the other two districts are Thornton Park and Victory Square (City of Vancouver, 2020).  The Downtown Eastside locates on the shores of Burrard Inlet in the city of Vancouver. The area is bounded by Cambie Street to the west, the waterfront to the north, Clark Street to the east and Malkin Avenue to the south. The total area of the neighbourhood is roughly 205 hectares (Carten, 2014). The Downtown Eastside includes seven main districts (communities): Gastown is primarily commercial land, Oppenheimer are residential land, Strathcona is primarily residential neighbourhood (City of Vancouver, 2013).Beginning in the 1960s, the Downtown Eastside experienced an economic and social decline. The gradual loss of affordable housing in other parts of the city forced many people to search for accommodation in the neighbourhood. Throughout the 1990s, the neighbourhood’s condition worsened, and it was deemed no longer functioning economically and socially as a viable low-income community when confronting the overwhelming city development initiatives (City of Vancouver, 2005).  The Downtown Eastside (DTES), also called “Q’umg’umal’ay,” is one of Vancouver’s oldest neighbourhoods and used to be the region’s heart of the city, retail, commercial, transportation, and entertainment district (Fink, 2011). This neighbourhood has a diverse, mixed and predominantly low-income population. It has a rich history and strongly connects to the neighbourhood’s founding of aboriginal communities, including the Musqueam and Squamish First Nations. Also, Chinese, Japanese, and other cultural groups have early ties to the Geography HisotryFig 11. Downtown Eastside Plan - Sub AreasIllustration by author. -33--32-Fig 12.  Hosing Types & Housing Mix in DTES 2006 & 2011. Retrieved from: Downtown Eastside Local Area Profile 2013.Illustration by author.-35--34-Housing Types - Downtown Eastside 200541% Apartmentbuilidng with <5 storeys4,30029% Market housing4,6646% Community care facilities90532% Non-market housing5,1849% Non-market SROs1,52224% Market SROs3,9754%Apartment, duplex4103%Single-detached 3703%Row house 3001%Semi-detached  11548% Apartmentbuilidng with >5 storeys5,085Housing Mix - Downtown Eastside 2011 According to a report on Community Consultations in Downtown Eastside (2014), the neighbourhood’s population is approximately 18,000. Among these populations, 60% are male, and 40% are female. 21% of the population is over the age of 65, and 31% of the population is between 45 and 65; This neighbourhood has been recognized as having the highest proportion of seniors in Vancouver.The rate of unemployment is higher in Downtown Eastside than in the rest of the city, while the median educational attainment is lower than across the city. (Carten, 2014). The Downtown Eastside is home to a mix of multicultural background groups.  50% of the population speaks English as a primary language, and Chinese as a secondary language. Although the immigrant demographics match that of the city, there is an uneven distribution of different immigrant populations throughout the district. There are large immigrant groups in Chinatown and Strathcona districts, including Chinese, Ukrainian, Russian, Italian, and Jewish. In other areas to the north of the Downtown Eastside are mostly non-immigrant, including a First Nations cohort that makes up 14% of the population. There appears to be a division in the ethnic distribution between the north (non-immigrant) and the south (immigrant) (Carten, 2014). In the Downtown Eastside, the housing types compose roughly 90% apartments. Also, data shows houses for residents in the area, 88% are rented, and only 12% are owned by individuals. The low rental rates are still expensive to many people living in the Downtown Eastside; 51% of the population spend more than 30% of household income on rent compared to 23% in and average Vancouver household.According to the Downtown Eastside Local Area Profile 2013 (2013), in the 2006 census, average gross rent in the area was $477, compared to $898 across the city of Vancouver., In the household tenure (Fig. 12), single room occupancy (SRO) residences offer the lowest cost rents in the Downtown Eastside. However, even these units are unaffordable to many low-income groups on social assistance.Among rental housing types, 29% are rented at market rates (~$809 per month.) or owned, 32% are non-market (or subsidized) self-contained apartments, 9% are non-market single room occupancies, 24% are private single Demographic Ethnicity HousingFig 13.  Household Tenure, 2006. Retrieved from: Downtown Eastside Local Area Profile 2013. Illustration by author.Fig 15.  After-Tax Low-Income Status, 2005. Retrieved from: Downtown Eastside Local Area Profile 2013. Illustration by author.Fig 14.  Percentage of population low-income range, 2006 & 2016. Retrieved from: 2019 Downtown Easide Local Area Profile-37--36-Household Tenure88% rentedn=10,605 dwellingsn=253,385 dwellings n=4,145 dwellings52% rented 95% rented12% ownedDowntown Eastside OverallCity of Vancouver Overall Oppenheimer District Overall48% owned 5% ownedAfter-tax Low Incomes Statusn=568,930 persons in private householdsn=16,215 persons in private householdsn=5,360 persons in private householdsDowntown Eastside OverallCity of Vancouver Overall Oppenheimer District Overall21%Low income53%Low income70%Low incomeroom occupancies, and 6% are community care facility units (Carten, 2014). These statistics also mean that 47% of housing is subsidized for low-income groups. Also, 33% of renters who live in their apartments do not have private kitchens or bathrooms, and they must share these facilities (Carten, 2014).Oppenheimer District in the Downtown Eastside is a central neighbourhood for the low-income community. This area (Oppenheimer) has a high a concentration of single-room occupancy (SRO) rooms that have served those with very low-income and those who are barred from other housing and communities due to systemic racism (City of Vancouver, 2020). Until now, the Oppenheimer community is still home to those groups with very low-income and is regarded as a community assets for those who experience discrimination and structural barriers to health and housing (City of Vancouver, 2020).rates in industrial districts; a shortage of skilled workers; and safety and security concerns. According to the report on Community Consultations in the Downtown Eastside (2014), the median household income is $13,671, below 30% of average revenues in the rest of the city. 55.3% of the population in the area are considered as low-income groups (based on the after-tax low-income cut-off). According to a report on the Implementation of the Downtown Eastside Plan (2020), the local businesses in the Downtown Eastside are impacted dramatically due to several challenges such as the high cost of upgrading buildings; rising rents and property costs; high vacancy rates in neighbourhoods and low vacancy Local Economy and IncomeFig 16. The Downtown Eastside Parks and Green SpacePOPS = population, illustration by author. -39--38-Fig 17.  Vancouver Heat Map, 2018. Retrieved from: Rapid Response to Homelessness Through PartnershipsFig 18.  Public Toilets Locations and Accessibility, 2011. Retrieved from: Downtown Eastside Local Area Profile 2013. Illustration by author.-41--40- In the Downtown Eastside, there are nine city parks: Victory Square, Pigeon, Wendy Pool, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, Thornton Extension, Oppenheimer, MacLean, Strathcona, and Strathcona Linear as shown Figure 16. The ratio is 1.65 ha per 1,000 residents, compared to the city of Vancouver park standard which is 2.73 ha per 1,000 residents. Also, the central, built-up core of DTES has little space for relaxation and active recreation, apart from Oppenheimer Park (City of Vancouver, 2013).In the area, 65% of residents take trips to work by walking, cycling, or taking transit, compared to 41% in the rest of the city, while only 35% of residents use motorcycle, taxi or private car, compared to 59% city-wide (City of Vancouver, 2013).Moreover, it is essential for people who live in the Downtown Eastside to have access to basic needs, such as public washrooms, particularly due to the rate of homelessness and the single room occupancy stock with inadequate bathroom facilities (City of Vancouver, 2013).In the Downtown Eastside, residents’ access to public space from indoor or from outdoor, is at a crucial juncture. The Covid-19 Pandemic demonstrates that the area lacks adequate access to public spaces for low-income groups to get basic needs, find respite and rest, and be safe and access with dignity (City of Vancouver, 2020).The Heat Mapping (Fig. 17.) in 2018 identifies the Downtown Eastside as one of Vancouver’s hottest areas. Because most of the ground cover in this area is impermeable surface (City of Vancouver, 2020).Parks and Open Spaces & Public FacilitiesFig 19.  Vancouver Homeless Population Trends 2005 to 2019, 2019. Retrieved from: Rapid Response to Homelessness Through Partnerships.Illustration by author.-43--42-Homelessness refers to people who have no fixed place to sleep or live for more than seven nights and a low chance of obtaining accommodation in the coming month (Somers et al., 2016). The homeless are constantly developing tactics, strategies and means of mediation to survive and secure their territory in the city (Waldron, 1991). Homeless groups’ movement reveals that many places in the city connect to basic needs such as sleeping, eating, and all forms of human interaction. Since they lack daily supplies, the homeless are always seeking resources in the city. Eventually, people can find some typical homeless’ behaviours in the city, such as meeting other homeless people, finding something in the garbage, looking for money or begging, looking for a place to sleep (Waldron, 1991).Therefore, it is necessary to understand the homeless situations in Vancouver to develop a design intervention for the homeless. Before the 1980s, the federal government invested in a program called the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) to serve low-income groups with adequate affordable housing in the city. However, the federal government disinvested after the 1980s, which led to decreased CMHC capabilities, and this weakened social program caused an increase in housing prices (Features, 2020). After that, in the mid-1980s, Vancouver began facing issues of people being homeless. By 1999, roughly 600 people were unhoused in the city; since lower-income groups were no longer able to afford housing, the number of homeless populations increased every day in Vancouver. By 2002, the number of people experiencing homelessness reached 1,121, which doubled since 1999. Continually, the numbers of homeless population doubled again to about 2,174 in 2005. At the same time, the total population in Vancouver had only grown to 30,000 (Features, 2020).In the 2020 Homeless Count report (2020b), PrefaceHomeless Context & Demographic in VancouverHomeless Analysis: Homeless in VancouverFig 20.  Unsheltered Individuals by Homeless Count Areas, 2020. Retrieved from: Homelessness & Supportive Housing Strategy.Illustration by author.Fig 22.  2020 Homeless Count: Types of Health Conditions, 2020. Retrieved from: Homelessness & Supportive Housing Strategy.Illustration by author.Fig 23.  Number of Substances, 2019. Retrieved from: Vancouver Homeless Count 2019 Final Report.Illustration by author. Fig 24.  Types of Addictions Issues, 2019. Retrieved from: Vancouver Homeless Count 2019 Final Report.Illustration by author.Fig 21.  2020 Homeless Count: Cause of Losing Housing, 2020. Retrieved from: Homelessness & Supportive Housing Strategy.Illustration by author.-45--44-DTES52%Vancouver East side20%Vancouver West side9%VancouverDowntown19%Housing & financial issuesInterpersonal & family issuesHealth or correctionsOther80% Learning disability or cognitive impairmentPhysical disability23%35%44%45%60%31%38%33%29%22%21%14%5%0%0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%Medical condition/illnessMental health issueAddiction31% two or more substances45% no addiction1% substances not indicated22% one substancemultiple responses possible70% 69%39% 39%19%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%no addictionscigarettesopioidsmethamphetaminealcoholmarijuanacocaineotherthere were 2,095 people identified as homeless in Vancouver on March 4, 2020, with 547 unsheltered and 1,548 sheltered. The homeless population in the Downtown Eastside accounts for 52% of total unsheltered population in Vancouver In the Downdown Eastside, emergency shelters and social services are located in the north part (Carten, 2014).Reasons for People Become Homeless Health ConcernsFig 25.  Where the Unsheltered Homeless Stayed the Night of the Count, 2019. Retrieved from: Vancouver Homeless Count 2019 Final Report.Illustration by author.Fig 26.  Reasons for Not Staying in a Shelter, 2019. Retrieved from: Vancouver Homeless Count 2019 Final Report.Illustration by author.Fig 27.  Shelter Stays in the 12 Months Prior to the 2019 Homeless Count, 2019. Retrieved from: Vancouver Homeless Count 2019 Final Report.Illustration by author.Fig 28.  Services Accessed in the Past 12 Month, 2020. Retrieved from: Homelessness & Supportive Housing Strategy.Illustration by author.-47--46-OutsideAble to stay with a friendNo stay in shelterReasons for Not Staying in a ShelterShelter Stays in the 12 Months Prior to the 2019 Homeless CountUnsheltered TotalUnsheltered TotalUnsheltered Totalnumbernumbernumber3776025661%11%46%698730511%17%54%31585615%11%100%050536140%9%2230%4%106517%1%32440%46%265274%100%61487614100%percentagepercentagepercentageIn a makeshift shelter or tentDislikeStay in shelterIn a vehicleDon’t feel safeRespondentsOn a boat - not paying moorageTurned awayDon’t Know / No Answer / UnclearAbandoned/vacant building Bedbugs / pestsSomeone else’s or a friend’s placeStayed in safe house/transition house/hospital/jail/detoxOtherRespondentsUnsheltered RespondentsDon’t Know / No Answer / UnclearTotalTotalParent or Guardian’s place - This is a temporary situation and do not have a house or apartment can safely return to Other reasonsFood servicesEmergency roomHealth clinicHousing servicesHospital (non ER)AmbulanceEmployment and financial servicesSupervised injection siteLegal servicesMental health servicesAddiction servicesAddiction clinic or dentistOther servic0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%61%60%56%52%50%48%44%33%31%29%28%24%9% According to the 2020 Homeless Count (2020b), it shows food services and emergency room are the most demand for the homeless. Night Staying Location Services AccessFig 29.  Homeless tents in the cityRetrieved from: ‘Necessary protections’ must be in place to reduce tent cities during pandemic: advocateFig 30.  Stores closed, and a unhoused individual carries his belongings at ChinatownPhoto by author-49--48- The homeless based news and reports indicate that people who are unhoused are the most vulnerable to the spread of disease of the Covid-19. Thus, the homeless brings challenges to the containment of Covid-19. Since these groups do not have a permanent place to stay, they are more likely to move from place to place and work in the informal economy. They are also not able to regularly access public services, such as showering facilities or hygiene supplies, which could facilitate the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (Tan & Chua, 2020).In the report on Covid-19 and Persons Experiencing Homelessness or Vulnerable Housing (2020),  three main challenges for controlling the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic in the homeless populations in Canada are presented: 1, People residing in shelters are at an increased risk of transmission due to crowded conditions and lack of isolation facilities. 2, Homeless or vulnerably housed people may no longer have access to safe shelters, drop-in facilities, and programs including those that maintain food security.  3, Community transmission in the shelter system could result in rapid increases of COVID-19 cases that could overwhelm the capacity of the healthcare system, including emergency departments and intensive care units.Genral Homeless ConditionsHomeless Condition in the Covid-19 PandemicFig 31.  A report released Wednesday on a Metro Vancouver homeless count in March revealed a slight dip in population in Vancouver. File photo Dan Toulgoet.” Retrieved from: Vancouver sees slight decrease in homeless populationFig 32.  Fencing surrounds a portion of a homeless camp at Oppenheimer Park.Retrieved from: Coronavirus: BC Housing to move homeless people out of Vancouver’s Oppenheimer Park-51--50- Although people fear the Covid-19 pandemic, it does not stop people, homeless campers, and vendors from continuously performing regular activities on the streets in DTES (Woodward, 2020). Ray Trottier, a street vendor, says, “I have to come here to make some money for my food (Woodward, 2020. par. 8).” Also, the Covid-19 pandemic has revealed an underestimation of homeless counts, and when people are not allowed to sleep in a room with their friends, they might have to move out on the street, further increasing the homeless population (Howell, 2020). On the other hand, since the Covid-19 has reduced shelter capacity, eliminated incomes, and forced people from single-room occupancies, these pushed many people onto the street (Crawford, 2020). The city also notices that operators of single-room-occupancy hotels begin restricting visitors to obey physical distancing measures. City councillor Jean Swanson worries that since welfare rates remain low, yet no rent controls have been enforced on private single-room occupancy hotels, and rents are hiked when a person moves out or is evicted, the homeless population will eventually increase (Howell, 2020). Vancouver mayor Kennedy Stewart says, and crime in the DTES, and danger associated with cooking and heating equipment in the park (Armstrong & Little, 2020). City councillor Jean Swanson also explained the homeless situations on April 4, 2020, that individuals living in single-room-occupancy hotels might share washrooms and lack kitchen space, and those who still live-in shelters share spaces with dozens of other people (Takeuchi, 2020). In addition to this, Stanley Q. Woodvine, a blogger of Homeless in Vancouver, indicates that the homeless confront difficulties in finding places to wash their hands or find washrooms due to the closure of libraries, “The fastest way to help and get people back into safe housing with the wraparound services to stabilize people’s lives and communities is through securing spaces in hotels, vacant buildings and SROs (Single Room Occupancy) (Crawford, 2020, par.3).”Due to the inadequate sanitation facilities, it is impossible for the homeless to obey self-isolating rules in the park, and advocates for the homeless are fighting for these vulnerable groups during the Covid-19 pandemic. Those concerns also exacerbate long-running issues with violence Homeless Conditions in Downtown Eastside (DTES)Fig 33.  The Strathcona Park tent city in Vancouver pictured on July 2, around two weeks after homeless people began relocating there. (Ben Nelms/CBC)Retrieved from: Vancouver releases strategy to move homeless people out of Strathcona Park-53--52-community centres, and restaurants (Takeuchi, 2020).After the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Vancouver, between April and May, the B.C. government announced plans to move the homeless campers at Oppenheimer Park, located at DTES, into temporary housing (Armstrong & Zussman, 2020). However, some homeless campers have declined this action (Little, 2020b).  According to Global News, on May 11, 2020, the government estimated about 256 homeless had been living in the park and were transferred to temporary housing, but it was just a stopgap measure (Little, 2020a). However, despite the government cleared the homeless tents at Oppenheimer Park, the homeless campers subsequently pop up in a parking lot at CRAB park, and numbers of tents now exist at Strathcona Park (Howell, 2020). Until December 2020, there about are 400 homeless tents in Strathcona Park (Judd, 2020a).In April 2020, B.C. Housing plans to help transfer the homeless with their belonging to temporary shelters/hotels. The City of Vancouver and B.C. Housing have identified eight locations, including six hotels that are single-room occupancy hotels/buildings, and added bathrooms and shelters in the area (Armstrong & Zussman, 2020). Also, the Vancouver Coastal Health region provides a total of seven sites with 382 spaces. These include six sites and 367 spaces in Vancouver and 64 beds at the Coal Harbour Community Centre, and 79 beds at the Roundhouse Community Centre (Takeuchi, 2020). City and park board staff plan to use kitchens at Langara and Fraser view golf course clubhouses to deliver daily meals and food hampers to the vulnerable people in the DTES and Downtown Vancouver (Takeuchi, 2020). Besides, Vancouver Community College (VCC) states that they have prepared 2,000 meals (1,000 lunches and 1,000 dinners) three times per week, that is a total of 6,000 meals a week, and offer food hampers that include four hot and cold meals, Sources from NewsThe Government PlansFig 34.  The City of Vancouver and Park Board says it has a strategy to end the tent city in Strathcona Park, where over 300 people are living. (Ben Nelms/CBC)Retrieved from: Vancouver releases strategy to move homeless people out of Strathcona Park-55--54-drinks, snacks, napkins, and cutlery (Takeuchi, 2020).In October, the City of Vancouver plans to pass a $30 million COVID-19 housing action plan on the homeless population, and they will buy or lease rooms in vacant hotels, apartment buildings and single-room occupancy hotels to house residents during the pandemic (Crawford, 2020). The city will also use two city-owned lands, including a motel in east Vancouver and the Jericho Hostel in Kitsilano, to offers shelters. Moreover, the city begins to find places for the homeless groups in Strathcona Park (Crawford, 2020).In December 2020, the City of Vancouver is working with the park board to prevent the homeless’s tent camp in Strathcona Park and transfer those groups indoor (Judd, 2020a). In response to the increased needs during the pandemic, efforts to address homeless’ demand for space in the public realm using flexible and creative solutions have been made. For example, reallocating street space to augment limited indoor spaces for community support organizations for uses such as outdoor medical clinic waiting rooms, seating and food services, areas of shade and respite, partnered with local non-profit organizations (City of Vancouver, 2020a).The city also states that safe spaces and basic public amenities such as secure access to washrooms, hygiene and drinking water, Wi-Fi/information and charging stations, and harm reduction supplies will contribute to people’s health and well-being. Also, considering needs for women, in particular Indigenous women, trans and two-spirit people who experience gendered and racialized violence, strongly need support for accessing public services and safe living conditions. In addition to this, the city provides the following Greenspace & Open spaceFig 35.  The Strathcona Park homeless tents during raning dayPhoto by authorFig 36.  The homeless along the street at Chinatown to get public servicesPhoto by author-57--56-programs and services.  3, The call for Indigenous healing and wellness space has been made for decades. Together with Indigenous community members, the City identified space at 312 Main; however, this space is not suitable due to seismic issues. Staff continue to search for space opportunities with government and community partners.Since the DTES lacks green spaces and tree canopy, guidelines (City of Vancouver, 2020a): 1, Seniors and youth are also in need of dedicated spaces, including culturally safe places to socialize and gather. Lack of youth programs/amenities are leading to more homeless youth, especially those that age out of care.  2, Spaces for children and families are also needed, such as expanded drop in and gathering spaces, family and children’s programming, and licensed childcare including Indigenous-led it is  important  to work with Vancouver Park Board to explore opportunities to increase green space and tree canopy cover through the area as well as maintain existing green space conditions. The city also needs to support greenspace activation projects such as eight pop intergenerational dance events at Andy Livingstone and Thornton Parks to enhance build community and expand community use of public space (City of Vancouver, 2020a).Fig 37.  Shops along the Powell Street in Downtown EastsidePhoto by authorFig 38.  Housing along the Powell Street in Oppenheimer DistrictPhoto by author-59--58-address the safety, security and sanitation issues in certain areas. Partnerships with existing social enterprises, e.g., Community Impact Real Estate Society (CIRES), Embers and Mission Possible have been essential to the success of this program. The city plans to provide a special enterprise program with supports for legacy businesses and social enterprises. It can serve community needs, such as cultural organizations and artists. In light of the report on the Downtown Eastside Plan: Three-year summary of implementation 2017-2019 (2020a), the city provides three main strategies that can enhance the local economy: 1, Activate DTES project in which staff has partnered with the VEC to investigate opportunities to activate affordable vacant industrial or commercial retail spaces. Over 55 non-profit organisations and small businesses are looking for affordable space to expand operations.  2, The Community-serving Retail and Micro-enterprise project, led by Strathcona BIA, is an example of a vacant space activation initiative that contributes to local business retention with Chinese family clan and benevolent societies.  3, Working with Arts, Culture, Community Services, the Community Stewardship Program in Chinatown (and more recently under the COVID-19 response) created new peer employment opportunities for residents to help  When confronting the Oppenheimer District in DTES, the city’s plan prioritized rental housing by maintaining a low base density (1.0 FSR). They consider incentivizing a higher proportion of social housing units (60%) and supporting market rental development (40%) rather than strata-ownership housing in the DTES (City of Vancouver, 2020a). Overall, although the City of Vancouver works hard to accommodate housing for the homeless, questions about the uncertainties in the upcoming months and the post-pandemic life of the homeless remain. Or what happens to the homeless when the COVID was gone? Several reports state that the city transfers people who are referred to “visible” homeless in the park to accommodate housing; what about the groups that are “invisible” (Judd, 2020b)?  Although the city provides a number of social housing, especially for the mentally ill and drug-addicted, reality is that poverty will continue to concentrate and the situation in the area will worsen (Mackie, 2020).Local Economy Housing Intervention Focus on Oppenheimer DistrictTakeawayFig 39. Downtown Eastside PoemIllustration by author.-60-Programmatic Issues-62-project can make public space suitable for the homeless as well as benefit to the local residence. This project attempts to examines three principles:Design reflects inclusiveness.• Spaces welcome people who are experiencing homelessnessDesign flexible space.• Activating public spaces that can respond to different situations from society and shift functions for multi-purposes use.Introduce “Slow” idea into design.• Adding green element to slow down vehicle speed and create a walkable community.On the following chapters, more detailed data mapping and analysis, design matrix and design strategies will be outlined. After careful research and analysis about Downtown Eastside in Vancouver, a decision was made to zoom in and focus on the Oppenheimer District within the Downtown Eastside. The site has a big social issue which includes large numbers of people who are experiencing homelessness, Also, the area lacks green space for local residents to access, the only one park (Oppenheimer Park) used to occupy large numbers of homeless tents. During the pandemic, the park decided to close temporarily, because it is impossible for the homeless to obey self-isolating rules in the park. Even the government transferred many of them to temporary housing. Still, some of the homeless campers subsequently pop up in adjacent parks or parking lots. Also, people who are experiencing homelessness are more likely to gather along streetscape besides the specific indoor public services.Therefore the project will focus on designing public spaces in the Oppenheimer District, such as streetscape, parking space, and vacant lot. By providing different modular and functions, the The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic have changed the way people use public space. What follows are these three case studies which provide a conceptual idea for how public space might change after the Covid-19 pandemic.Project IntentionPrecedent StudiesFig 40.  Existing neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens. Retrieved from: From garden streets to bike highways: four ideas for post-Covid cities – visualisedFig 41.  Proposed neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens. Retrieved from: From garden streets to bike highways: four ideas for post-Covid cities – visualised-65--64-Design Team: Foster and PartnersLocation: London The rapid spread of the pandemic prevented people from the collective experiences of a big city, such as socialization, parties, museums, restaurants, shops etc. Thus, Foster and Partners argues that the Covid-19 pandemic brings attention to the overlooked resource of our surrounding neighborhood (Michael et al., 2020).The research from Foster and Partners also shows that the average London commute is 42 minutes each way. Over an average individual lifetime, a person would spend one full year in transit in London, travelling more than 225,000 kilometres in total, which is the equivalent of going 5.5 times around the equator. Before the lockdown from the pandemic, 35.5% of London journeys relied on public transport, 37% used private motor vehicles, and 25% of travellers walked and only 2.5% cycled to work (Moser et al., 2020). Although there has an 85% reduction in vehicles on the spaces, which create a garden atmosphere for the street. Many cities fence around most of green space into private gardens, resulting in spatial inequality into the built environment. At the same time, roughly 65% of the public realm in the UK is dedicated to vehicles, but 80% of the time, cars are static along the street. On many streets in London, front gardens are occupied by bins and there is barely public space to socialize and relax (Michael et al., 2020).roads since the lockdown, the number of car rentals increased higher than usual. This trend reveals a threat to undo the painstaking efforts to limit inner-city air pollution due to car travel. During the Covid-19 pandemic, people are afraid to use public transport because of risks to public health; therefore, the government should incest in pedestrian and cycling infrastructure (Moser et al., 2020).The firm proposes to design the local streetscape by transforming them into green and parklike Garden Street-67--66-The firm’s proposal does not eliminate cars on the street, and still keep the basic street accessible to people with disabilities or public services. Bruno Moser, an urban designer at Foster and Partners, says that “If you can free up streetscape space, and if you can control the numbers of traffic that goes through those streets, we feel it will be an opportunity to create a decent public ground.” (Moser et al., 2020). We can reduce the trend for people to have their private garden; instead, the street provides a room for people to gather, play and relax.   This project challenges the current streetscape. The project proposes to transform the street into a flexible space used for green atmosphere and relaxation purposes. Also, encourage people to begin to pay attention to the immediate environment within our neighbouhodd during the Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, streetscape can be designed into a multi-functional space that provides people the opportunity to socialize, walk and relax. This will let people access green space equally. This idea can respond to the spatial inequality issues, how landscape architecture can mitigate social inequality through redesigning public space.Design Team: Christopher Odusanya/EDSA/Department Design Office (Maggie Tsang, Isaac Stein) etc.Mayor: City of Baltimore“To say that this has been a very challenging time for the world would be an understatement. Beyond the immeasurable magnitude of human loss, we know the economic impact of COVID-19 has severely affected small businesses and their employees. Here in Baltimore and around the world, streets, sidewalks and stoops are important gathering spaces, and in many ways the intersection of our lives. Recapturing these areas is critical to our reopening and economic recovery but public health must remain at the forefront of every move we make.” ------ Baltimore City Mayor Bernard C “Jack” Young.TakeawayThe Design for Distancing IdeasFig 42.  Different activities are indicated by the size of the individual circular “islands.” Rendering by Christopher Odusanya. Retrieved from: How to Design a Post-Pandemic CityFig 43.  Parking spaces become parklets in this car-free street revamp. Rendering by EDSA. Retrieved from: How to Design a Post-Pandemic City-69--68- The Design for Distancing Ideas develops in response to the Covid-19 pandemic influence on public space, and it associates with the local street-side business’s challenges. Keshia Pollack Porter argues that although the pandemic brings several problems from different aspects, it is a great opportunity for landscape/urban designers to rethink how people use public spaces and how people use streets. Are we able to transform public spaces into a safe social gather space in the post-pandemic era (Wittenberg, 2020)?This project provides several visions to reimage an innovation change in public space that devises socially distanced ways to navigate urban landscape design. After the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, it is perils for street-side businesses to reopen indoor activities. Thus, these street-side businesses such as café or restaurants need to work even harder on outdoor spaces, allowing people to re-engage in social activities and support street- side business.Firstly, a proposal idea “Find Your Tropical Island” designed by Christopher Odusanva. He proposes to transform the street into carpets with small accompanied by outdoor dining and curbside businesses. The idea explores how to re-design streetscapes by adding parklets in place of street parking and placing several infrastructures such as dining tables, chairs and planters etc. (City of Baltimore, 2020).  Jennifer Goold argues that it does not provide equitable access for surrounding communities when allowing car space to dominate the urban streetscape. Thus, re-designing streets can enhance connectivity for communities and guiding nearby residents to access public space. The design provides socialization and revives circular “islands.” People might choose to do yoga, sell food, or sit beneath the shade of umbrellas at each circle “island.” Different activities are indicated by the size of the individual circular “island.” Overall “Find Your Tropical Island” seeks to revive community socialization and performance street spaces by designing several social distancing “islands” and encouraging people with a safe physical distancing (Wittenberg, 2020).Secondly, a conceptual idea of “Organizing the Street” designed by EDSA’s Craig Stoner and Terri Wu creates a pedestrian promenade in the street Fig 44.  A vacant lot becomes an al fresco dining destination. Rendering by Department Design Office.Retrieved from: How to Design a Post-Pandemic City-71--70-local street-side businesses, which mainly benefits low-income neighbourhoods as well (City of Baltimore, 2020).The other design idea is “The Food Court” from the Department Design Office, Maggie Tsang and Isaac Stein. They propose to convert vacant alleys or lots into outdoor dining areas with tables separated by wildflowers and tall grass (Wittenberg, 2020). This idea also provides public health services such as a hand-washing station. A vacant urban space will shift into an alfresco dining destination. These three design ideas strongly relate to how to design public space during the post-pandemic period. These ideas provide innovative visions and take advantage of urban public space to transform into multi-functional spaces. Those ideas revive the residual urban space or vacant lots and encourage people to manage it from their interests. Therefore, if landscape architecture develops that type of public space, it will contribute to spatial justice, allow different social-classes groups to advocate social activities together, and mitigate social inequality.Design Team: Memphis Non-profitLocation: City of Memphis, Tennessee, USA“Too often, our public spaces are not made for someone to lie down and rest, charge their phone, use a restroom, things like that,” says Schmiedicke, an architect with the Memphis firm A2H. “If you’re using a park or a library as a means of last resort, you don’t feel welcome.”TakeawayHospitality HubFig 45.  Hospitality Hub Plaza, courtesy of Haizlip StudiosRetrieved from: The Big Reveal: Here’s What We’re Building.Fig 46. Hospitality Hub. Rendering by A2H Engineers Architects Planners.Retrieved from: Design public space for homeless people? This Memphis non-profit.-73--72-homeless, but have it look ugly.The project collaborates with local artists, architects, and landscape architects to design a plaza that energizes a public space. The plaza creates a public amenity and a welcoming space for homeless individuals where Hospitality Hub can conduct outreach. When people visit the plaza, they would feel comfortable, safe and secure, and the plaza gives people a sense of belonging to the community. (Nonko, 2019).Furthermore, the development team attempts to  The Hospitality Hub, organized by a non-profit group, includes caseworkers and volunteers known for customized care that connects the homeless for public resources, counselling, and sheltering spots. The Memphis Non-profit organization think it is an opportunity for the homeless “to begin their journey out of homelessness.” (Nonko, 2019) As Johnson states that when google homeless shelters or homeless plaza, the results are unattractive. It seems like we do not want to bring beautiful services to the a colorful art wall that integrates private space where individuals could lie down and rest. Tylur also adds the six-inch-thick concrete walls; it can moderate temperature for space. It will stay cooler in the daytime and warmer at night.  Moreover, the plaza includes the facilities that expand the functionalities, such as cell phone chargers and lockers for public use (Nonko, 2019).make the plaza acceptable for residents.  Because homeless shelters and homelessness are often stigmatized and feared by general thinking, it is essential to envision an urban space that can offer basic public services. The plaza will attract homeless people to use the area while also being a good neighbour to the community’s residents and businesses (Nonko, 2019). The team also design a sense of privacy around the plaza without building barriers. Memphis artist Tylur French of Youngblood Studio comes up with a creative idea: -74- This project shows a harmonious vision to let the homeless group engage with the well-design and inclusive plaza. Homelessness group are able to access public services and a shelter to rest. Most importantly, the plaza mitigates fear from nearby residents and invites them to engage in the plaza. However, according to homeless-related news, people still tag the homeless as a potential risk to their community. We can not eliminate the drug-users and addictions among the homeless group. Therefore, it is a challenge to design an inclusive space among the homeless group and nearby residents. Creating an inclusive space for the homeless and taking attention to nearby residents’ concerns. Moreover, how landscape architecture applies this strategy to urban public space contributes to the homeless having a sense of belonging to the community and inviting surrounding communities to engage with the public space equally.TakeawayProject Schedule-77--76-Sept�GP 1 ScheduleOct� Nov� Dec�BIG idea explorationDefining the projectLiterature ReviewCase studiesSite analysisGP 2 ScheduleJan� Feb� Mar� Apr�Site explorationDraft design planFramework refinementFinal deisgnOragnize documentDesign StrategiesConceptural design-79-as: ephemerality, cacophony, multiplicity, and simultaneity. It focuses on an informal bottom-up methodology in urban space. For example, it praises the indigenous and migrant groups use of informal strategies to intervene ad hoc conditions and marginal spaces in imaginative ways. Another characteristic of Everyday Urbanism is that it sometimes ignores the existing conditions of urban space in order to help people adapt to their living environment. For instance, people will occupy sidewalks, parking lots and other vacant lots for informal commercial or leisure purposes. Moreover, it sometimes takes private driveways and courtyards into a place for street market (Kelbaugh, 2000).  The design methodology of this project is inspired by Everyday Urbanism, as an experimental modular to test adaption of urban space in a vulnerable district --- the Oppenheimer District. The design will focus on people who are experiencing homelessness in public space,  to understand the demands and their everyday experience in public space. Site analysis is completed through a series of spatial functions and design modularizations as  Public space contains multiple unexpected possibilities; it is not only a container of human activity but also an active force that shapes human life. It has been shown that when people begin to use urban areas in creatives ways, the city might be encouraged to  sanction these activities, and we all earn benefits from it (UBC Brand and Marketing, 2020). For example, in China, a food vendor set up his shop by occupying a small corner along a bustling street, and in Tokyo, a community can build an informal open-air movie theatre under an elevated highway for surrounding residents.Everyday Urbanism is an informal paradigm of urban development. The foundation of this philosophy emphasizes the ordinary reality of everyday life (Kelbaugh, 2000).  It tries to refamiliarize urban environments, and an approach to urbanism that finds the meaning in everyday life. Everyday Urbanism intends to reconnect human and social meanings with urban design and planning (Crawford et al., 2005). Everyday Urbanism advocates that the urban planner and designers must be open to incorporating elusive elements in every life such Design MethodologyActivating Neglected Spaces -80-intervention through urban public space. Overall, the project intents to demonstrate flexibility, durability and inclusiveness that benefits both people who are experiencing homelessness and the rest of residences in Oppenheimer district. Oppenheimer District AnalysisFig 47. Downtown Eastside Context Map.Illustration by author.-83--82-Downtown Eastside Context MapFig 48. Oppenheimer District - Existing Green SpaceIllustration by author. -85--84-Oppenheimer District - Existing Green SpaceFig 49. The Oppenheimer Park, Photo taken by Ben Nelms /CBC News.Retrieved from: CBC NewsFig 50. The Oppenheimer Park, photo taken by Jeff Culter, from Space 2 SpaceFig 51. The Oppenheimer Park during the Covid-19 pandemic, photo by author.Fig 52. The Oppenheimer Park during the Covid-19 pandemic, photo by author.-87--86-The Oppenheimer Park  used to occupy large numbers of tents. During the pandemic, the park decided to close temporarily, because it is impossible for the homeless to obey self-isolating rules in the park. Even the government transferred many of them to temporary housing. Still, some of the homeless campers subsequently pop up in adjacent parks or parking lots. Fig 53. Oppenheimer District - Existing Indoor Public ServicesIllustration by author. -89--88-Oppenheimer District - Existing Indoor Public ServicesFig 54. Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Parking and Vacant lotIllustration by author. -91--90-Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Parking & Vacant LotFig 55. Oppenheimer District - Existing Street HierarchyIllustration by author. -93--92-Oppenheimer District - Existing Street HierarchyFig 56. Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Transit NetworkIllustration by author. -95--94-Oppenheimer District - Existing Public Transit  NetworkFig 57. Oppenheimer District - Annual Wind Speed AnalysisIllustration by author. -97--96-Oppenheimer District - Annual Wind Speed AnalysisFig 58. Oppenheimer District - Summer Solar AnalysisIllustration by author.Fig 59. Oppenheimer District - Summer Solar AnalysisIllustration by author.-99--98-The solar analysis  helped the design to understand which areas needed sun cover or offered good space for planting. Oppenheimer District - Summer Solar AnalysisFig 60. Oppenheimer District - Winter Solar AnalysisIllustration by author.Fig 61. Oppenheimer District - Winter Solar AnalysisIllustration by author.-101--100-Oppenheimer District - Winter Solar AnalysisDesign MatrixFig 62. Oppenheimer District - Space ClassificationIllustration by author. -105--104-Oppenheimer District – Space Classification Fig 63. Type A - Streetscape Illustration by author.Fig 64. Type A - Streetscape Existing Site PhotosPhoto by author.-107--106-Type A – Streetscape (Sidewalk & Streetparking)Fig 65. Type A - Streetscape Activties RankIllustration by author. -109--108-Activities rankFig 66. Type B - Public Parking SpaceIllustration by author.Fig 67. Type B - Public Parking Space Existing Site PhotosPhoto by author.-111--110-Type B – Parking Space (Public)Fig 68. Type B - Parking Space Activities RankIllustration by author. -113--112-Activities rankingFig 69. Type C - Vacant Lot.Illustration by author.Fig 69. Type C - Vacant Lot Existing Site Photos.Photo by author.-115--114-Type C – Vacant LotFig 70. Type C - Vacant Lot Activities Rank.Illustration by author. -117--116-Vacant lot space purpose rankingType AStreetscapeType BParking lotType CVacant lotProposedDesign FunctionsGreen elements Space for socializing Space for Individual Space for line upSpace for eatingornamental planting table/seat table/seattable/seattable/seatsemi-enclosure space awningbenchart signagedrinking fountainsemi-enclosure spacedrinking fountaindrinking fountainattractive art pieces street markettable/seatbenchattractive art pieces farmers markettemporary shelterattractive art pieces ornamental plantingaesthetic plantinghealing plantinghealing plantingvertical plantingeducational plantingfood gardenfood gardenFig 71. Proposed Design Functions.Illustration by author. -119--118-Type AStreetscapePermanentbench- hard material- low maintenance- long duration- durable in harsh weather- low maintenance- easy to replace- easy to assemble- movablecover spotplantingstoragepublic washroom/shower roomdining tablecommunitygardendrinkingfountainSemi-permanent Temporary Type BParking lotType CVacant lotFig 72. Type of Spaces Matching.Illustration by author. -121--120-Design Proposal2Fig 73. Oppenheimer District - Proposed Network.Illustration by author.-125--124-1Oppenheimer District – Proposed NetworkFig 74. Zoom in Street View 1.Illustration by author. -127--126-Bicycle landSlow streetlow traffic volumeBulb-outsStreet side planting to slow down vehicleSlow streetminimum traffic volumePainting vacant lotEnhance the spacePainting crosswalkDesign parkletBack alley RestaurantNon-marketing housing(residential)Non-marketing housing(residential)RestaurantCommunity careZoom-in Street View 1Fig 75. Zoom in Street View 2.Illustration by author. -129--128-Design parkletStreet parkingBack alley Slow streetlow traffic volumeSafety islandreduce traffic speedSlow streetminimum traffic volumeCommunity careHealth clinicConveniencestoreRestaurantRestaurantNon-marketing housing(residential)ResidentialapartmentZoom-in Street View 2Fig 76. Streetscape Parklet Design.Illustration by author. -131--130-Free/Low- Cost Meal ServiceGreen elementSpace for eatingSpace for individualSpace for sittingStreetscape Parklet Design - Free/Low-cost Meal ServiceFig 77. Streetscape Parklet Design.Illustration by author. -133--132-Community Care ServiceGreen elementGreen elementSpace for sittingSpace for sittingSpace for socializingStreetscape Parklet Design - Community Care ServiceDesign Materials & ModularFig 78. Material List.Illustration by author. -137--136-Fig 79. Modual Bench + Cover.Illustration by author. -139--138-Bench + Coverfirberglassfirberglass plasswood & lightweight metalstainless steel plaswoodFig 79. Modual Bench + Green Elements.Illustration by author. -141--140-Bench + Green ElementsfirberglassfirberglassWoodfirberglassplaswoodplasswood & lightweight metalstainless steel & plasswood & lightweight metal  Other ElementsFig 80. Modual Other.Illustration by author. -143--142-firberglassDinning tableStorageBulb-outs & Street planterfirberglassplasswoodplasswoodwoodconcreteDesign DetailsFig 81. Japantown Collage Illustration by author.-147--146-The word ‘‘Aneki’’ comes from the Japanese word, which means sister. Because the whole neighbourhoods was Japan town in the past, the name Aneki Square could celebrity the history of Japanese Canadians.Aneki 姉貴 SquareFig 82. Oppenheimer District - Proposed Schematic Plan.Illustration by author. -149--148-Aneki SquareOppenheimer District – Proposed Schematic PlanFig 83. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Existing Conditions.Illustration by author. -151--150-Aneki 姉貴 Square – Existing ConditionsFig 84. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Users & Programs.Illustration by author. -153--152-Aneki 姉貴 Square – Users & ProgramsFig 85. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Circulation.Illustration by author. -155--154-Aneki 姉貴 Square – CirculationFig 86. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Site Plan.Illustration by author. -157--156-Public parking Public washroomCenter plazamulti-use Communitygarden ParkletAnekigarden EntranceWomen supportive housingVacant  lotCommunity careParkletParkletWomen shower /washroomLoading zone & visitor parkingAneki 姉貴 Square – Site PlanFig 87. Aneki 姉貴 Square – Bird View.Illustration by author. -159--158-Aneki 姉貴 Square – Bird View PerspectiveFig 88. Type A - Section Sunny View.Illustration by author.-161--160-Resource Center- Community carespace for line up Planter and seat moveable plantereating space cover spotspace for individualType A – Streetscape Sunny dayFig 89. Type A - Section Rainy View.Illustration by author.-163--162-awning as sheltercover spottemporary shelterType A – Streetscape Rainy day Fig 90. Type B - Section Sunny View.Illustration by author.-165--164-sitting/sleep space with coverdrinking fountainpublic washroommoveable plantersitting/sleep space with coverdrinking fountainPermanent community garden Women only shower room and washroomType B – Parking LotSunny dayFig 91. Type B - Section Rainy View.Illustration by author.-167--166-temporary shelter temporary shelter Type B – Parking LotRainy day Fig 92. Type C - Section Sunny View.Illustration by author.-169--168- semi-permanent plantersittingType C – Vacant LotSunny dayFig 93. Type C - Section Night View.Illustration by author.-171--170- bench for sleepnight lightingType C – Vacant LotNight ViewFig 94. Aneki 姉貴 Square – View of Aneki Garden.Illustration by author. -173--172-Aneki 姉貴Square – View of Aneki GardenFig 95. Aneki 姉貴 Square – View of Community Garden.Illustration by author.-175--174-Aneki 姉貴Square – View of Community GardenFig 96. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Street Market.Illustration by author.-177--176-Aneki 姉貴Square – Center Plaza for Street MarketFig 97. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Festival Events.Illustration by author.-179--178-Aneki 姉貴Square – Center Plaza for Festival EventsFig 98. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Outdoor Movies.Illustration by author.-181--180-Aneki 姉貴Square – Center Plaza for Outdoor MoviesFig 99. Aneki 姉貴 Square –  Center Plaza for Emergency Shelter.Illustration by author.-183--182-Aneki 姉貴Square – Center Plaza for Emergency Shelter-184-In conclusion, this project showcases the benefits of flexibility  in order to allow for many different activities, durability in different weather, and, most importantly, inclusiveness to design public space that benefits both people who are experiencing homelessness and the rest of neighborhood residences. The design provides many elements such as sitting, shelter, individual space, and additional green space that enhances the overall Oppenheimer District. In my perspective, landscape architects cannot solve such complex social issues. However, we are able to make intervention to our urban space, understand the nature of the neighborhood and apply appropriate design strategies to change the streetsscape, parking space and vacant lots to have an impact on quality of life for unhoused people. It will eventually bring positive effects, especially for people who are experiencing homelessness in this particular neighborhood. Conclusion-187--186-Antony, J. (2019). Using Design to Effect Change: Hostile Architecture to Guerilla Gardening. EQ3 Stories.  https://storieseq3.com/en/2019/09/hostile-architecture. Armstrong, J., & Little, S. (2020, May 2). Spiked fences go up at Oppenheimer Park amid plan to house homeless    campers. 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Beyond.  https://beyond.ubc.ca/neglected-urban-spaces/. Waldron, J. (1991) “Homelessness and the issue of freedom.” Ucla law review 39, 295-324.Wang, B. (2020). WHO Says Prolonged Exposure in Confined Spaces Is Main Coronavirus Transmission. NextBigFuture.  com. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2020/03/who-says-prolonged-exposure-in-confined-spaces-is-main-  coronavirus-transmission.html. Wittenberg, A. (2020, July 24). How to Design a Post-Pandemic City. Bloomberg.  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-14/10-design-concepts-for-city-living-under-covid-19. Woodvine, S. Q. (2015). Homeless in Vancouver: Fairview’s inoffensive defensive architecture: Georgia Straight  Vancouver’s News & Entertainment Weekly. The Georgia Straight.  https://www.straight.com/blogra/419666/homeless-vancouver-fairviews-inoffensive-defensive-architecture. Woodward, J. (2020, April 10). Second COVID-19 case confirmed in Vancouver homeless shelter. CTV News.  https://bc.ctvnews.ca/second-covid-19-case-confirmed-in-vancouver-homeless-shelter-1.4891187. ImagesA report released Wednesday on a Metro Vancouver homeless count in March revealed a slight dip in population in Vancouver. File photo Dan Toulgoet.” Accessed December 10, 2020. Retrieved from: Vancouver sees slight decrease in homeless population. https://www.vancourier.com/news/ vancouver-sees-slight-decrease-in-homeless-population-1.24181454An empty plaza in Midtown Manhattan, New York. George Etheredge for The New York Times. Accessed October 20, 2020. Retrieved from: ‘Hostile Architecture’: How Public Spaces Keep the Public Out. https://www.nytimes.   com/2019/11/08/nyregion/hostile-architecture-nyc.htmlA vacant lot becomes an al fresco dining destination. Rendering by Department Design Office. Accessed October 19, 2020. Retrieved from: From garden streets to bike highways: four ideas for post-Covid cities – visualised. https://www.  bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-14/10-design-concepts-for-city-living-under-covid-19Black & Hispanic ZIP Codes With Low Density See More Infection. Accessed October 8,2020. Retrieved from: U.S Census, Illinois Department of Public Health data as of April 29, 2020. Chart: Haru Coryne.   https://www.propublica.org/article/in-chicago-urban-density-may-not-be-to-blame-for-the-spread-of-the- coronavirusDifferent activities are indicated by the size of the individual circular “islands.” Rendering by Christopher Odusanya. Accessed October 19, 2020. Retrieved from: How to Design a Post-Pandemic City. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-14/10- design-concepts-for-city-living-under-covid-19Existing neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens. Accessed October 18, 2020. Retrieved from: From garden streets to bike highways: four ideas for post-Covid cities – visualised. https://www. archdaily.com/940877/tactical-urbanism-reimagining-our-cities-post-covid-19Fencing surrounds a portion of a homeless camp at Oppenheimer Park. Accessed December 10,2020. Retrieved from: Coronavirus: BC Housing to move homeless people out of Vancouver’s Oppenheimer Park.   BC Housing to move homeless people out of Vancouver’s Oppenheimer Park. https://globalnews.ca/news/6866592/ coronavirus-homeless-oppenheimer-park-vancouver/Homeless tents in the city. Accessed December 14, 2020. Retrieved from: ‘Necessary protections’ must be in place to reduce tent cities during pandemic: advocate. https:// www.iheartradio.ca/purecountry/sudbury/news-trending/necessary-protections-must-be-in-place-to-reduce- tent-cities-during-pandemic-advocate-1.12195849-195--194-Hospitality Hub Plaza, courtesy of Haizlip Studios. Accessed October 20, 2020. Retrieved from: The Big Reveal: Here’s What We’re Building. https://www.hospitalityhub.org/the-big-reveal-heres- what-were-building/Hospitality Hub. Rendering by A2H Engineers Architects Planners. Accessed October 20, 2020. Retrieved from: Design public space for homeless people? This Memphis nonprofit. https://www.streetroots.org/ news/2020/01/03/design-public-space-homeless-people-memphis-nonprofit-didMASS Design Group’s project: The Gun Violence Memorial Project. Photo: courtesy MASS. Accessed December 5, 2020. Retrieved from:  A new national memorial to victims of gun violence makes its debut. https://www.fastcompany. com/90413467/a-new-national-memorial-to-victims-of-gun-violence-makes-its-debut“No loitering“ Signs on a armrest bench. George Etheredge for The New York Times. Accessed October 20, 2020. Retrieved from: ‘Hostile Architecture’: How Public Spaces Keep the Public Out. ‘Hostile Architecture’: How Public  Spaces Keep the Public Out. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/08/nyregion/hostile-architecture-nyc.htmlParking spaces become parklets in this car-free street revamp. Rendering by EDSA. Accessed October 19, 2020. Retrieved from: How to Design a Post-Pandemic City. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-14/10- design-concepts-for-city-living-under-covid-19Percentage of population low-income range, 2006 & 2016. Accessed December 15, 2020. Retrieved from: 2019 Downtown Easide Local Area ProfileProposed neighbourhood’s streetsacpe,illustration by Foster and Partens. Accessed October 18, 2020. Retrieved from: From garden streets to bike highways: four ideas for post-Covid cities – visualised. https://www.  archdaily.com/940877/tactical-urbanism-reimagining-our-cities-post-covid-19Right to the City, an illustration from Learning UCLG. Accessed November 13,2020. Retrieved from: Spatial Justice and the Right to the City. https://medium.com/@culturehouse/spatial-justice-and- the-right-to-the-city-55b8dcc4e5b5The City of Vancouver and Park Board says it has a strategy to end the tent city in Strathcona Park, where over 300 people are living. (Ben Nelms/CBC). Accessed December 10, 2020. Retrieved from: Vancouver releases strategy to move homeless people out of Strathcona Park. https://www.cbc. ca/news/canada/british-columbia/vancouver-strathcona-park-homeless-camp-strategy-1.5840332The City of Vancouver says these wavy, metal vent covers on Cambie are an art installation and weren’t intended to prevent people from sleeping there. Photo Dan Toulgoet. Accessed October 11, 2020. Retrieved from: Vancouver’s ‘defensive architecture’ is hostile to homeless. https://www.vancouverisawesome. com/courier-archive/news/vancouvers-defensive-architecture-is-hostile-to-homeless-say-critics-3102287The Oppenheimer Park, Photo taken by Ben Nelms /CBC News. Accessed April 13,2021. Retrieved from: CBC News : As homeless people were moved out of Oppenheimer Park, many were prescribed a  safe supply of drugs, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/safe-supply-guidelines-oppenheimer- park-1.5576390The Oppenheimer Park, photo taken by Jeff Culter, from Space 2 SpaceThe Strathcona Park tent city in Vancouver pictured on July 2, around two weeks after homeless people began relocating there. (Ben Nelms/CBC). Accessed December 10, 2020. Retrieved from: Vancouver releases strategy to move homeless people out of Strathcona Park. https://www.cbc. ca/news/canada/british-columbia/vancouver-strathcona-park-homeless-camp-strategy-1.5840332Vancouver Heat Map, 2018. Accessed November 20, 2020. Retrieved from: Rapid Response to Homelessness Through Partnerships.ZIP Codes With More Crowding See Higher Infection Rates. Accessed October 8,2020. Retrieved from: U.S Census, Illinois Department of Public Health data as of April 29, 2020. Chart: Haru Coryne.   https://www.propublica.org/article/in-chicago-urban-density-may-not-be-to-blame-for-the-spread-of-the-  coronavirus

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