UBC Graduate Research

(Re)presenting Sites : Unfolding Realities Peruniak, Kathryn 2021-05-04

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( re )present ing  s i tes             unfo ld ing  rea l i t iesgraduate project report ii(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities iii( re )present ing  s i tes  :  unfo ld ing  rea l i t iesby Kathryn PeruniakBachelor of Science in Architecture with distinction, McGill University, 2017Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramChair:    Leslie Van Duzer Committee Members:  Daniel Irvine    Chad Manley    Thena TakThe University of British Columbia© May 2021 Kathryn Peruniakgraduate project report iv(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities vABSTRACTThe purpose of this thesis is to examine and critique the current limitations of architectural drawing and cartographic conventions, and to explore different means of drawing that prioritize the expression and synthesis of place, time, and realities.This will be done through an investigation into the characteristics, purposes and powers of mapping and drawing in order to better understand exactly what is missing from these representations, and why. Focusing on time as a crucial element that is absent from representation, connections will be strengthened between temporality and space, and temporality and representation. This foundation of how representation, time and space are interconnected is strengthened and materialized by exploring ways for dynamic site aspects and systems to be expressed in maps and drawings instead of stasis and permanence. This will be explored through found drawings, precedent mapping projects, and existing notation systems.The second part of this thesis involves developing a different way of representing a site, aimed towards better demonstrating time, site aspects, and identities. A Vancouver site will serve as a case study for this exploration, displaying ways to synthesize site histories. This project is intended to act as a catalyst for investigating how different ways of approaching, understanding and representing a site could benefit and influence the path of design.graduate project report vi(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities viiCONTENTSAbstract     vList of Figures   viiiLand Acknowledgement  xviiAcknowledgements xixThesis Statement  xxiPART 11. Representation  12. Drawing & Mapping   53. Dynamism  184. Drawing Time   25 Movement  25 Weather   30 Light  33 Land   36 Material  39 Territory  42PART 2Introduction 46Drawing 48Drawing - Reflections & Discoveries  50Conclusion  68Notes 70Bibliography  74graduate project report viii(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities ixLIST OF FIGURESCover - Kathryn Peruniak,  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing,  section 10, 2021. Images used to produce the drawing (from left to right):Glen E. Erickson, Expo Centre, 1985, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/expo-centre-1986.Ray Allan, Loggers Burling Logs in False Creek, photograph, https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/this-week-in-history-1947-a-pravda-writer-predicts-a-red-star-will-shine-over-canada.Major J.S. Matthews, View of Leamy and Kyle Sawmill on False Creek, 189?, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-leamy-and-kyle-sawmill-on-false-creek.Revery Architecture, Seǹáḵw Schematic Design, Westbank Corp. (in partnership with Nch’kaỷ Development Corporation), https://reveryarchitecture.com/projects/sen%CC%93a%E1%B8%B5w/.Don Coltman, Salmon fishing - Gene Black and load of salmon, 1943, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/salmon-fishing-gene-black-and-load-of-salmon.Fig. 1 - Alexander von Humboldt, Tableau Physique - Chimborazo Volcano, 1807,    illustration, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/09/global-warming-   has-made-iconic-andean-peak-unrecognizableFig. 2 - Rebecca Solnit, The Names Before the Names, 2010, artistic map, Infinite    Cities, 10.Fig. 3 - ARCHSTUDIO, Qishe Courtyard Section, 2020, Drawing, https://www.   archdaily.com/931216/qishe-courtyard-archstudioFig. 4 - Vancouver Real Estate Board, Street Map of Greater Vancouver, B.C.,    1957, map, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/street-map-of-greater-   vancouver-b-c-6Fig. 5 - Typological Survey of Canada, Dominion Land Survey, 1929, survey,    http://www.legallandconverter.com/files/n0043265.pdfFig. 6 - Francis Harvey,  A Primer of GIS: Fundamental Geographic and     Cartographic Concepts (Guildford Publications, 2016), 97.Fig. 7 - Saul Steinberg, View of the World from 9th Avenue, 1976, drawing,    https://saulsteinbergfoundation.org/essay/view-of-the-world-from-    9th-avenue/Fig. 8 - Kathy Prendergast, Tehran, 1977, drawing, https://www.prolegomena.net/   blog/2016/city-drawing-series-kathy-prendergastFig. 9 - Heatherwick Studio, The Vessel, 2013, rendering, http://www.    heatherwick.com/project/vessel/Fig. 10 - Zaha Hadid Architects, Cairo Expo City, 2009, rendering, https://www.   dezeen.com/2009/06/09/cairo-expo-city-by-zaha-hadid-architects/Fig. 11 - Kathryn Peruniak, Diagram of Time, 2020, drawing.Fig. 12 - Kathryn Peruniak, Diagram of Systems, 2020, drawing.Fig. 13 - Kathryn Peruniak, Working from Home, 2020, pen on trace paper.Fig. 14 - Louis Kahn, Plan of Proposed Traffic – Movement Pattern for     Philadelphia,  1952-53, ink and graphite on paper, https://www.quondam.   com/40/4003u.htmFig. 15 - Louis Kahn, Traffic Study Aerial Perspective,  1952-53, ink and graphite    on paper, https://www.quondam.com/40/4003u.htmFig. 16 - Bernard Tschumi, The Manhattan Transcripts Project, New York, New    York, Episode 4: The Block, 1980-81, mixed media, https://www.moma.org/  collection/works/55?artist_id=7056&page=1&sov_referrer=artistFig. 17 - Bernard Tschumi, The Manhattan Transcripts Project, New York, New    York, Episode 4: The Block, 1980-81, mixed media, https://www.moma.org/  collection/works/55?artist_id=7056&page=1&sov_referrer=artistgraduate project report x(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xiFig. 18 - Olafur Eliasson, Memories from the Critical Zone, 2020, pen on paper,    https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK110935/memories-from-   the-critical-zone-germanypolandrussiachinajapan-no-1Fig. 19 - Sarah Wigglesworth, Jeremy Till, Increasing Disorder in a Dining Table,    n.d., drawing, https://www.architectural-review.com/essays/folio/folio-   sarah-wigglesworths-dining-tablesFig. 20 - Leya Tess, That Day Blackfish Sound Became the Bermuda Triangle,    2018, illustration on map, https://thefunambulist.net/articles/calm-surge-   somewhere-paradise-desolation-art-project-leya-tessFig. 21 - Sayan Skandarajah, Scenes from Another Kyoto, 2017, drawing, https://   sayanskandarajah.com/SCENES-FROM-ANOTHER-KYOTOFig. 22 - Rakuchu Rakugai zu, Seiganji Screens, 1600-1700, painting on screen,    https://drawingmatter.org/imaginal-cloud-spaces/Fig. 23 - Andrew G. Fisher, Forgotten Corners, 2016, drawing and photographs,    http://socks-studio.com/2017/04/28/forgotten-corners-by-andrew-g-fisher/Fig. 24 - Louis Kahn, Sketch for a Mural, 1951-1953, ink on paper, https://    drawingmatter.org/work-on-paper-part-ii-simplification/Fig. 25 - Peter Zumthor, Homes for Senior Citizens, Chur Switzerland, 1989,    coloured pencils on paper, https://www.dezeen.com/2009/04/18/    key-projects-by-peter-zumthor/Fig. 26 - Peter Zumthor, Therme Vals sketch, 1996, drawing on paper, https://   issuu.com/camilosuarquez/docs/___________________________________Fig. 27 - Jean Houel, Plan de la Barriere de la Santé, à Malte, 1972, engraving,    https://www.cnrs-scrn.org/northern_mariner/vol19/tnm_19_149-170.pdfFig. 28 - Harold Fisk, Mississippi River Meander Belt, 1944, coloured pencil on    map, http://www.radicalcartography.net/index.html?fiskFig. 29 - Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Ruins of a Gallery of Statues in Hadrians    Villa at Tivoli, 18th c., etching, https://harvardartmuseums.org/art/311726Fig. 30 - Jorge Otero-Pailos, Distributed Monuments 6, 2017-2018, dust on latex in   lightbox, http://www.oteropailos.com/Fig. 31 - Jason Payne, Rawhide: The New Shingle Style, 2011, drawing, https://   archinect.com/blog/article/31935353/jason-payne-hirsuta-rawhide-the-   new-shingle-style-at-sci-arcFig. 32 - Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Warlugulong 1977, 1977, paint on canvas,    https://artsearch.nga.gov.au/detail.cfm?irn=167409Fig. 33 - Christi Belcourt, Good Land, 2014, painting, https://briarpatchmagazine.   com/articles/view/reclaiming-ourselves-by-nameFig. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 - Kathryn Peruniak, (re)presenting    sites : unfolding realities, 2021, drawing.(Figure 34 contains all sources. Sources for Figure 35-44 noted in list.)Images used to produce the drawing (from left to right):Figure 35: Major J.S. Matthews, Draft map of Indian villages and landmarks, Burrard Inlet and English Bay, before the whiteman came, 1932, cartographic material, 76 x 106cm, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/draft-map-of-indian-villages-and-landmarks-burrard-inlet-and-english-bay-before-whiteman-came.Satellite view of Vancouver, Google Earth, accessed April 20, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.2828988,-123.1379011,3218m/data=!3m1!1e3.Plan of portions of False Creek (Kitsilano) Indian Reserve, Vancouver, B.C., required for Burrard Street Bridge right-of-way, 1930, cartographic material, 30 x 42cm, 1:2400 scale, Vancouver (B.C.). Engineer’s Office, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/plan-of-portions-of-false-creek-kitsilano-indian-reserve-vancouver-b-c-required-for-burrard-street-bridge-right-of-way. R. E. Palmer, Plan of the City of Vancouver. Western Terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1891, cartographic material, 70 x 120cm, 1:24000 scale, Rand Brothers Real Estate Brokers, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/plan-of-city-of-vancouver-western-terminus-of-canadian-pacific-railway.Zoning Map: City of Vancouver, British Columbia, March 14, 1963, cartographic material, 74 x 102cm, 1:18460 scale, City of Vancouver Planning Department, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/zoning-map-city-of-vancouver-british-columbia-7.Plan of the City of Vancouver, 1918, cartographic material, 31 x 62cm, graduate project report xii(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xiiiVancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/plan-of-city-of-vancouver-2.Dominion Map Limited, False Creek development survey occupation plan, September 1952, cartographic material, 87 x 156cm, 1:2400 scale, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/false-creek-development-survey-occupation-plan.Plan of Vancouver Harbour and False Creek, Vancouver, B.C., showing proposed improvements as outlined in Jos. R. Roy’s reports dated 15th Sept. 1906, 1906, cartographic material - lithographic print, 52 x 56cm, 1:18000 scale, Canada. Department of Public Works, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/plan-of-vancouver-harbour-and-false-creek-vancouver-b-c-showing-proposed-improvements-as-outlined-in-jos-r-roys-reports-dated-15th-sept-1906. Aerial survey map of Vancouver, looking north west showing English Bay coast line, False Creek and Burrard Inlet, February 22, 1951, Photograph, 28 x 49.5cm, Vancouver (B.C.). Engineer’s Office, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/aerial-survey-map-of-vancouver-looking-north-west-showing-english-bay-coast-line-false-creek-and-burrard-inlet.“Climate Central | Land Projected to Be below 100-Year Flood Level in 2100” n.d.Figure 36:Major J.S. Matthews, Dredge No. 1, August 1916, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/dredge-no-1.Walter E. Frost, C.P.R. Steam, Pass. Eng. #2850 Class H1D, Hudson Royal train, May 29, 1939, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/c-p-r-steam-pass-eng-2850-class-h1d-hudson-royal-train-3.Ernie Plant, View of a C.N.R. train and the Cisco Bridge, 1940-1948, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-c-n-r-train-and-cisco-bridge.Jack Lindsay, Train pulling a load of logs over a trestle, 1940-1948, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/train-pulling-load-of-logs-over-trestle.Norman Caple, Train at station in Glacier, B.C., 189?, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/train-at-station-in-glacier-b-c.Brooks-Scanlon-O’Brien Company Limited main line train of logs, 1924, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/brooks-scanlon-obrien-company-limited-main-line-train-of-logs.Figure 37:Major J.S. Matthews, View of Leamy and Kyle Sawmill on False Creek, 189?, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-leamy-and-kyle-sawmill-on-false-creek.James Crookall, Log booms in False Creek, 1936, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/log-booms-in-false-creek.Stephen Joseph Thompson, Unidentified sawmill, 1900, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/unidentified-sawmill-4.James Crookall, View of mills and log booms on False Creek, 1936, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-mills-and-log-booms-on-false-creek-2. Ray Allan, Loggers Burling Logs in False Creek, photograph, https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/this-week-in-history-1947-a-pravda-writer-predicts-a-red-star-will-shine-over-canada.James Glossop, How to be a better runner, 2020, photograph, The Times, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/how-to-be-a-better-runner-act-like-an-ethiopian-n89n7q7kr.Paul Warchol, Shangri-La Vancouver, photograph, https://archinect.com/jameskmcheng/project/shangri-la-vancouver.Vancouver House, 2020, photograph, https://www.dialogdesign.ca/our-work/projects/vancouver-house-2/.Figure 38:Komatsu Digger, photograph, C.N. Construction, https://cnconstructions.lk/about-us/.graduate project report xiv(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xvFigure 40:Sunset Beach Park, https://vancouver-canada.ca/parks/sunsetbeachpark.htm.Street view images of Vancouver, Google Maps, accessed April 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.2696322,-123.1306688,3a,45y,29.23h,97.35t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s3gmJLVebrY-XsX71t6fFZw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656.Street view images of Vancouver, Google Maps, accessed April 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.2680929,-123.1263369,3a,29.9y,355.12h,97.58t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s5vKaP6Grwd2TEahEM3Y5SA!2e0!7i13312!8i6656.Darryl Dyck, Kayakers paddle past BC Place Stadium on False Creek, 2019, photograph, The Canadian Press, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/bc-place-rename-1.5006138.Street view images of Vancouver, Google Maps, accessed April 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.2721367,-123.1042656,3a,75y,17.3h,95.13t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sH0h2KKmhkZT-wXzewqGETw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656.Dan Toulgoet, Habitat Island, 2017, photograph, https://www.vancouverisawesome.com/courier-archive/news/beer-island-how-human-made-nature-habitat-became-an-urban-oasis-3058564.False Creek South leases on City land, photograph, The City of Vancouver, https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/false-creek-south-leases-on-city-land.aspx.Street view images of Vancouver, Google Maps, accessed April 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.270749,-123.1266415,3a,17.8y,178.14h,92.99t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sUh3Zvg2R5v6lRZpRg2D1lg!2e0!7i13312!8i6656.Giants, 2014, photograph, Vancouver Biennale, https://www.vancouverbiennale.com/artworks/giants/.Street view images of Vancouver, Google Maps, accessed April 2, 2021, https://www.google.com/maps/@49.2706876,-123.138389,3a,49.1y,212.44h,93.1t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s0ymzvw_-UELgDwDDZQRF6A!2e0!7i13312!8i6656. Bard on the Beach, September 28, 2014, photograph, https://cityhallwatch.wordpress.com/2014/09/28/bard-on-the-beach-all-season-surface/.Figure 41:Stuart Thomson, Burrard Bridge, June 28, 1932, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/burrard-bridge-7. Don Coltman, Salmon fishing - Gene Black and load of salmon, 1943, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/salmon-fishing-gene-black-and-load-of-salmon.Don Coltman, Port Alberni Tyee Club Fishing Derby, 1940, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/port-alberni-tyee-club-fishing-derby-3.Don Coltman, Sockeye salmon in brail net, 1943, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/sockeye-salmon-in-brail-net.Don Coltman, Imperial Salmon Cannery - packing boxes, 1943, photograph, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/imperial-salmon-cannery-packing-boxes.W.J. Moore, West Coast Shipbuilders Limited site under construction, November 18, 1941, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/west-coast-shipbuilders-limited-site-under-construction-45.W.J. Moore, View of Western Canada Shipyards, False Creek, May 23, 1918, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-western-canada-shipyards-false-creek.Jack Lindsay, View of a sawmill, 1940-1948, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-sawmill.Figure 42: Paul Yee, Dragon boat race on False Creek, 1987, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/dragon-boat-race-on-false-creek-4.Expo ‘86 Egypt Pavilion, 1986, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/expo-86-egypt-pavilion-2.Glen E. Erickson, Expo Centre, 1985, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/expo-centre-1986.graduate project report xvi(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xviiLAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to acknowledge that I was born and raised as an uninvited guest upon the traditional territories of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the Anishinabek Nation. I currently reside and am writing this from the unceded territories of the xʷməθkʷəyəm (Musqueam), Skwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Selílwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) Nations. I recognize that the land and places that compose so-called “Canada” have a rich history predating the arrival of European settlers – my ancestors. I acknowledge that these territories carry cultural significance for the Indigenous Peoples and cultures that have occupied these lands since time immemorial. These unceded territories were stolen by settlers, and this colonial violence continues today in the occupation and governance of these lands. I strive to act as an ally to Indigenous Peoples, issues, and voices and will continue the process of learning and unlearning through reading, listening and reflecting. I aim to support decolonizing initiatives and Indigenous perspectives as I move through my life and career. Hong Kong Pavilion, Expo 86, 1986, Vancouver, British Columbia, http://bingthomarchitects.com/project/hong-kong-pavilion-expo-86/.Lyle Stafford, Millennium Water condominium complex, 2011, photograph,  https://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/20/travel/20headsup-vancouver.html.Lineup on Expo ‘86 grounds, 1986, photograph, Vancouver, British Columbia, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/lineup-on-expo-86-grounds.Figure 43:The Arc, https://www.gisborne.com/portfolio/the-arc/.Revery Architecture, Seǹáḵw Schematic Design, Westbank Corp. (in partnership with Nch’kaỷ Development Corporation), https://reveryarchitecture.com/projects/sen%CC%93a%E1%B8%B5w/. graduate project report xviii(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xixACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to thank my chair, Leslie Van Duzer, for her guidance, time and kindness throughout this project. I thoroughly enjoyed working alongside Leslie and our weekly conversations to progress and develop this project. I am appreciative of my committee members Daniel Irvine, Chad Manley and Thena Tak for sharing their knowledge and providing constructive feedback throughout the semester.Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for their support, love and patience throughout this project and the entirety of my education. I am especially grateful to Zahra and Myriam for their invaluable input, and continual encouragement.graduate project report xx(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities xxiThis thesis aims to challenge the traditional methods of site analysis and drawing, and seeks to find better ways to connect human perception and understanding of a place to its representation. How can various, dynamic notions of time and place be given preference in representation over static, binary and conventional elements? THESIS  STATEMENTgraduate project report xxii(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 11.  REPRESENTATIONThis thesis aims to engage with the role of representation in the architectural discipline, and the importance of representation as it mediates between architects and built works. In general, representation is thought of as ‘standing in for something else’. In architecture, representation would typically be standing in for a design, building, built work or landscape, often through the mediums of text, graphics, images, drawings and models.1 Unlike most creative disciplines, architects usually do not work directly with the object of their thought, and instead must navigate various representational techniques as mediating mediums.2 This separation between the architect and the building leads to translations that must occur from thought, to representation, to building. Translations such as these allow for things to be lost, changed, or misunderstood. This is like language translations, where words, ideas or significance can be construed incorrectly. It is a common, yet untrue assumption that there is an ability for meaning to move through space without any alteration.3 This relationship between representations and buildings is also unique since typically, the subject – the building, will only exist after the drawing – the representation. This reversed directionality of creation, often referred to as generative drawing, leads to the situation where architects do not produce based on considerations of reality, and instead, their created realities will be brought to fruition outside of the drawing.4 This generative power of design representation not only leads to buildings, but it creates extensive alternative realities that exist within drawings. PART Igraduate project report 2(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 3There is a strong connection between language and architecture, as there is between language and all things with conceptual dimensions.5 Many aspects of architecture could be thought of as being language-like, but architecture is not its own language. Architecture exists due to the existence of other fields, and methods of communication, such as writing and representation. Without successful architectural representation, the communication of intended ideas, meanings and goals becomes much more challenging or impossible. Intention is an important thing to consider in both writing and other methods of representation. Each piece of writing, art, drawing or mapping is begun with some sort of intention, whatever that may mean to an author. Intention is important, as this is what will guide the selection of information to be included in visual representation or writing. With an intentional selection of information, both mediums have the amazing ability to give readers new perspectives or experiences.6Language could be considered humans’ most effective and important tool, allowing positions, opinions and cultures to be expressed. Literacy has grown to become a necessity in our lives, and this ability to read and write inherently gives us the ability to abstract. The phonetic alphabet that we use, merely represented by marks on a page (or screen), conveys meaning and ideas by a learned agreement of abstraction.7 Letters and words themselves are a representation, a type of signifier, and it seems as though these signifiers and the signified are getting confused; but words are not real. The Latin alphabet is derived from historical pictorial, ideographic and hieroglyphic scripts, where the characters (the signifiers), were direct representations of the thing (the signified). This type of writing allowed readers and writers to maintain an awareness and connection to the wider, non-human world that they were representing. But with our phonetic system of writing, a greater distance has been set between our human language, and the expressions of the non-human world. Our alphabet does not represent anything other than the sounds we make for each letter, syllable and word. The alphabet can be considered a concentrated form of animism, as written words bring our imaginations alive, but it is solely happening through a human voice and human words.8 Language perpetuates a human-centric view of the world and a growing disregard for the animals, plants, systems and matter that also occupy the earth. This is not to say that writing or the Latin alphabet are bad, but rather to highlight the importance of reconnecting the signifier to the signified. REPRESENTATION AND LANGUAGEfig.1 -  One of Alexander von Humboldt’s main scientific contributions was the use of visualizations to represent the interconnectedness of many scientific and sociological fields. In this sectional illustration of the Chimborazo volcano, Humboldt graphically and textually represented the altitudinal vegetation zones, which he referred to as a sort of  ‘botanical geography’.graduate project report 4(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 52 .  D raw i n g  &  M a p p i n gThis research on representation will focus on architectural drawing and cartography. In many ways, cartography – or a map, could be thought of as a drawing, and an architectural drawing could be considered a map. Both forms of representation are generally two dimensional and conform to existing sets of conventions and notations. These definitions demonstrate my personal interpretation of these terms, and serve as a base point for categorization and specification in this thesis.Drawing:(n.) the technique of representing objects, as well as concepts, thoughts, attitudes, emotions, symbols or abstract forms by a means of lines.(v.) the use of various drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. The drawing instrument releases material onto a surface, leaving a visible mark (whether by hand or digitally), producing a representation.Map:(n.) a diagram or other visual representation that shows the relative position of the parts of something, often of or relating to the celestial sphere. mapped; mapping (v.) the act or process of making a map.fig.2 - This map by Rebecca Solnit strips the San Francisco area of its modern appearance, and instead populates the map with the names of the Indigenous Nations, languages and terrain that existed in 1769, the year before the first documented European arrival to this area.graduate project report 6(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 7Drawings can generally be thought of as artifacts that provide something to look at, question, challenge and understand as a medium to communicate design knowledge and ideas.9 In this thesis, hand drawings and digital drawings are both considered valid and important to the discourse surrounding representation. Both types of drawings are inseparable from the act of drawing; the processes of creation that serves as a means of learning and discovery.10 Architectural drawings can be strictly two dimensional, such as plans, sections or elevations, but often depth is integrated into drawings to more effectively represent a space or form. The type of drawings that are created is typically dependent on who the drawing is for. Between colleagues, a sketch may suffice to describe a key concept; for clients, presentation drawings that communicate spaces, atmospheres and experiences are often important; and for builders, working drawings and specifications are used to describe the structure and construction of the project.11 Architectural representation has the capability of bringing the Earth forward into current issues as it can help visualize absent things and synthesize sciences, systems, issues, actors and scales.12  Drawings can combine meaning, arguments and narratives into complex worlds or realities. Mapping has played a vital role in how we understand and move through the world since the beginning of humanity. However, with increasingly accurate methods of cartography since Gerardus Mercator’s Maps in 1569 and the technological advances of the 20th and 21st centuries, the way maps influence our lives has changed dramatically. This section aims to provide an overview of the realities of mapping, and advocate for a type of mapping that goes beyond our current static representations and limitations of directionality, scale, Cartesian coordinates, strict shorelines and city blocks.DRAWING MAPPINGfig.4 - Map of Greater Vancouver - annotated.fig.3 - Qishe Courtyard - ARCHSTUDIO - annotated. distinction of borders/territories (neighbourhoods)named bodies of waterinset mapshaded greenspaces / parkshierarchy ofroadsscaletitle & boundslegend clear shorlinecompass rosecity gridpoché sectioncut scalehierarchy of line typesground plane numeric symboldrawing namelegend graduate project report 8(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 9Maps provide realities, realities that do not exist, will not exist, and cannot exist. Every map facilitates a negotiation between the past, present and future and what is seen, known and understood. All places have an inexhaustible number of maps that could be created to represent it, and regardless of the number created, there will always remain a distance between the representation and the subject.13 Maps are generally used to record and represent “who we are, where we are, what is, and what might be”.14 In providing various realities, maps suggest endless explanations while simultaneously proposing new questions. Maps gain power and definition by what information is included and what is excluded. A map of Vancouver will exclude the rest of the world, and a map of the world will not show Vancouver as anything other than a dot or a label. This information that is omitted from a map is not necessarily unknown, but in many cases is left out as it is unimportant to the purpose or context of a specific map. These decisions of content can also be used to promote singular, damaging perspectives and spatial violence. For example, early colonial land surveys of most of the Americas did not include the locations of Indigenous Nations, which further perpetuated the European vision of “terra nullius”.15 As said by Bernard Neitschmann, “More Indigenous territory has been claimed by maps than by guns.”16 The capability of cartography to assert and impose political borders and territories is a demonstration of the power of drawing and mapping as representational tools. fig.5 - The Dominion Land Survey demonstrates the erasure of Indigenous Nations from colonial maps.graduate project report 10(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 11There is a tendency to believe all the information that is presented on maps as being a factual reality. This is especially true as cartography is often associated with land-based sciences and related factual fields or principals. Maps are loaded with scientific data such as geographic coordinates and topography, reinforcing the truthfulness of the map. This perception has gone unchanged, as most daily interactions with maps do not require the factual nature or geopolitical role of maps to be challenged. There is no such thing as an objective map or drawing. Each map is created with a specific intention by its author, and each map is chosen by a user based on what information they need. This realization that personal biases and institutional positionality influence all maps hopefully encourages more critical and careful reading of maps.17 The accuracy of maps should also be questioned, and this once again has to do with the intention or purpose of the map. As said by Peter Turchi, “you can probably draw on a scrap of paper what is called a sketch map sufficiently accurate to guide a new colleague from your workplace to your home.”18 Accepting that accuracy can mean a range of things, depending on what the goals of the drawing are, it becomes easier to understand that a distinct version of reality exists in each map. Almost all architectural designs engage in some way with the earth – whether a built design or not. This simple fact, that architecture is a land-based practice encourages graphic languages to be shared or at least understood fig.7 - View of the World from 9th Avenue - Saul SteinbergTRUTH AND ACCURACYfig.6 - Three common map projections, each approach ‘accuracy’ in a different way.graduate project report 12(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 13across architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, cartography and surveying. Cementing these relationships is the fact that all architectural drawings stem from some sort of other drawing, whether that be a map or a survey.19 This inherently ties any sort of architectural plan to local, regional, and global parameters and predetermined lines or rules. This includes links to early colonial land surveys, which are the basis for rectilinear, gridded land division, and right-angled buildings.20 But too often, this connection between architectural designs and preexisting cartographic and natural surroundings is ignored. The architecture then exists in conflict with the external history and conditions. But even when an architect does take the time to incorporate dynamism, histories or movements, the design and drawing language remain very linear and static. Even with the goal of integrating dynamic systems into a design, continuing to conform to standard drawing and mapping conventions removes any sense of these experiences from being read in the design. “Is there another way of drawing (and thinking) that allows the movement forms characteristic of spatial history to find a place in the design of places? Can the relationship between inside and outside be negotiated in a way that does not take the form of a bridge in which the difference between theory and practice is pre-emptively equalized and in this way canceled out? Can the difference between thinking and walking be notated, and what kind of line would do justice to this difference?” 21fig.8 - A map, or portrait of Tehran.graduate project report 14(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 15Despite the discussed shortcomings of  architectural  drawings,  the hyperreal movement does not serve as a solution. Hyperrealism encourages the production of highly realistic and believable images, often nearly indistinguishable from a photograph.22 These new, hyperreal images remove any ability for a project to exist in a viewer’s imagination, as everything is shown. This lack of selection of information once again removes an understanding of hierarchy, and any positionality becomes unapparent. New technologies, digital design tools and software now lead to digital models with highly specified design parameters, geometry and building data. These models operate as simulations and allow for designs to be preexperienced through renderings, animations or immersive environments such as virtual reality.23As first described by Jean Baudrillard, hyperreality is a condition where meaning is replaced with operation, and a thing or idea becomes defined as what it does instead of what is represents. This notion of hyperreality omits any knowledge about causes or means, and only demonstrates operational understandings.24 Baudrillard used the word ‘simulation’ to describe how hyperreality works. Generally, a ‘simulation’ is an experience that feels realistic, and that is produced by artificial and often digital means. Representation can be thought of as a predecessor to simulations, as it relies on the use of signs to make note of object in the real world, leaving more ambivalence between the representation and reality.25 But simulation does not leave any ambiguity in its relationship to reality, as it claims to be reproducing a part of reality, and therefore no external references or signs alluding to reality exist. With these understandings of representation and simulation, it can then be said that a simulation cannot be considered as a representation. For something to be considered a representation, it HYPERREALITY must be partial, as the awareness of these disparities and exclusions in a representation allow us to create meaning and exploration in an experience. In a simulation, reality gets fully replaced by its sign.26 This leads to the main characteristic of hyperreal visuals being the elimination of the distinction between image and reality.Looking more specifically at architectural visualizations, these visual devices of the design process generally serve as a reference to potential built works. Due to the necessary translation from visual media to a real building, maintaining a clear delineation between these two steps in the design process has historically been important. This was due to the nature of architectural drawing and representation, since like all representation, it uses signs and notations to signify aspects of reality without replacing it. But now, digitally produced, hyperreal images, animations and virtual reality experiences promote an exact potential reality of a project at completion.27fig.9 - A hyperrealistic and idealistic rendering of the Vessel in New York City. graduate project report 16(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 17When drawings were used as a primary method of communication and design development, there was little to no concern for confusing image and reality. Imitating reality has always been a part of architectural representation; however, these drawn representations allow for a clear distinction between the design in representation and the design in reality.28 But especially since the digital revolution, Western culture has been immersed in and obsessed with hyperreality. Architecturally, importance has been reduced to building appearance rather than being given to more meaningful aspects of the built environment. This transition to hyperreality in the architectural realm has led to a practical sterility of representation.29fig.10 - A hyperrealistic rendering showing a rather sterile interior environment. This critique of architectural drawing, mapping and hyperreality intends to convey the fact that there is a lack of representational techniques that effectively express ephemeral qualities or dynamic systems. In drawing and mapping, there is a general conformity to convention and stasis. In hyperreal images, any expression of dynamism or hierarchy is diminished with the ‘show everything’ approach. “It is not the art’s purpose to create an illusion over senses, an exact imitation; instead, the artist should enhance one essential characteristic of the subject of the artwork.”30“How remarkably silent our graphic descriptions of the world are: no breaking surf is heard in them, no animated conversation, no reports of gunfire or anguished whale song. Could a richer animation be possible? Could we read- and write – our environment in a way that did not mummify its dynamic character?” 31Moving forward, this thesis will focus on time as being a key element missing in representation. The next chapter will examine the importance of time, the passage of time, and the application of systems thinking in our daily lives. Through recognition of the significant connections between time and space, the absence of temporal considerations in current architectural drawings and maps should be questioned. graduate project report 18(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 19The daily rotation and yearly orbit of the earth provide an abstracted measure of cyclical time for clocks and calendars. Before clocks, computers, or calendars were inundating humans with dates and times, there was a more profound understanding of the connections between time and space. The constant movement of astronomical bodies signified a passage of time, and a cyclical understanding of time was gained from the consistent re-occurrence of these movements.32 Many cultures and cultural cosmologies continue to view time as cyclical, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, classical Greek cosmology, as well as Indigenous Nations across Australia and the Americas.33 Within most of these world-views, where time is viewed as a circle, life and death are continual and there is no separation from beginnings and ends. The Indigenous cultures who did and do view their human perception of time as being inseparable from the cyclical nature of the earth often have a more animistic understanding of non-human beings and natural systems. Black Elk, a Oglala Lakota medicine man articulated Indigenous perspectives of time by saying, 3 .  D y n a m i s mTIME“Everything the Power of the World does is done in a circle. The sky is round, and I have heard that the earth is round like a ball, and so are all the stars. The wind, in its greatest power, whirls. Birds make their nests in circles, for theirs is the same religion as ours. The sun comes forth and goes down again in a circle. The moon does the same, and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves.” 34If it is believed that time is cyclical, then it is also assumed that everything that has happened will happen again, and that the future and the past are one and the same. However, Western society post-Enlightenment have stepped away from accepting from this cyclical notion of time, and replaced it with a singular, linear understanding of time. This linear focus stems from the modern man’s quest for progress, and the desire for continual improvement. Whether focusing on the potential greatness or misery of the future, both result in a linear experience of life. From the Industrial Revolution onward, the obsession with time measurement and time keeping has led to markings, sounds and lights serving as unavoidable reminders of times and dates.35 This new emphasis on industry, standardization and mechanization changed humanity and placed more and more importance on work, individualism and control. If cyclical time embraces the ideas of continual, unavoidable change and re-occurrence, then linear time is a human concept aimed at controlling nature. In addition to working towards overpowering nature, this linear perspective has also framed this narrow world-view as the only modern, acceptable understanding of time. This report suggests that attention should be returned to cyclical thinking and time, as this could restore a greater respect for the other entities, elements and systems that occupy the Earth. graduate project report 20(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 21“Landscape is generally thought of as being about land, and the earth is solid matter that changes only slowly, imperceptibly. But light and weather hourly give it new aspects, new moods: the tentative, fleeting radiances of dawn and dusk; the flat, objective glare of shadowless midday; the ambiguity of days when scattered clouds drag shadows across the terrain, storms not brewing but brooding.” 36It is important to now consider, how is time represented? Yes, humankind has found many ways to display the common conventions of time that we are now so familiar with. Inventions such as sun dials, hourglasses, clocks and calendars have allowed humans to break time into measurable, basic units – years, weeks, days, hours, minutes and seconds, and from there find ways to organize time. In maps and drawings, somehow time is largely ignored and forgotten. “Anything that changes fast enough to render the map genuinely obsolete before it can reach an audience doesn’t belong in the map in the first place.”, is common approach to considering how time and representation are integrated.37 But since maps are a representation of space, they therefore are also a representation of time, whether that is directly acknowledged or not. It then becomes a question of how behaviours and systems can be mapped rather than solely geological fixtures or objects or permanence.38As this century unfolds, it is becoming more evident that the issues associated with the Anthropocene cannot be understood independently. Problems surrounding the environment, sea level rise, climate change, energy sources and food security are all systemic, interconnected problems.39 It is an issue of primarily Western perceptions and world-views which promote inadequate understandings of our global realities, and how most of these realities are strongly connected to time. A radical shift in thinking is needed in order to forefront the more modern, scientific understandings of the world as a series of networks, systems and related patterns. This new consideration of life and the world as functioning through relationships, patterns and networks is known as “systems thinking”.40 Although this is typically a scientific phrase or understanding, it is also important to emphasize this consideration for the interconnected systems and dynamisms of the world through drawing and mapping. Using words to represent systems is limiting, as thoughts must be broken into sentences and presented one by one in a logical order. Representing the interconnected, multi-directional, overlapping nature of systems through drawing and mapping allows for more information to be digested and viewed simultaneously.41A system is, “an interconnected set of elements that is coherently organized in a way that achieves something”.42 A system can also be thought of as being more than a sum of its parts, as it can be adaptive, dynamic and evolutionary.43 Instead of necessarily breaking a system down into all of its elements, which could be an endless process, it is more important to understand the interconnections and relationships between the various parts. In order to properly represent a system, it must be studied so that the way it works, its history, behaviours and patterns are first understood.44 SYSTEMS THINKINGfig. 11 - Diagram showing notions of timecyclical time linear timepast futureno beginning, no endgraduate project report 22(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 23Fred Kofman wrote,“[Language] can serve as a medium through which we create new understandings and new realities as we begin to talk about them. In fact, we don’t talk about what we see; we see only what we can talk about. Our perspectives on the world depend on the interaction of our nervous system and our language—both act as filters through which we perceive our world . . . The language and information systems of an organization are not an objective means of describing an outside reality—they fundamentally structure the perceptions and actions of its members. To reshape the measurement and communication systems of a [society] is to reshape all potential interactions at the most fundamental level. Language . . . as articulation of reality is more primordial than strategy, structure, or . . . culture.” 45Generally, Western perspectives favour the measurable and the quantitative over the immeasurable and the qualitative. If more importance is given to these measurable and material goals, then that is what continues to be perpetuated through institutions, language and representation.46 In order to better represent dynamism and qualitative systems, the larger, encompassing conventions of representation must be challenged, and importance transferred to the qualitative aspects of life. The world is generally dynamic, non-linear and continually in a state of transience. For some reason, humans are drawn towards actualities, straight lines, uniformity and regularity. But if systems and dynamic aspects of the Earth, such as time, are challenging to represent under these typical conventions of drawing and mapping, perhaps these must be challenged. “A static map cannot describe change, and every place is in constant change.”47 It is usually understood and accepted that time acts as a fourth dimension in spatial experiences. Our understanding of a space or a building cannot be captured in a single view, but rather the continual collection of these views as the space around us changes or as we move through a building. Architects and designers have found ways to represent these experiences of moving through a building; a series of drawings/views demonstrating a person moving along a path through a building, or an animation that demonstrates a ‘walk-through’ of a project.48 Time has many ways of manifesting, whether that be through growth, change, dynamics, progress or systems. Time can suggest an infinitely wide range of durations, as well as the happenings of repetitive or rare events. Despite the general understanding that demonstrations of time are constantly occurring, this awareness is not well translated into representations. Noël van Dooren, a Dutch landscape architect suggests that the basic system of representation should be restructured; partitioned into domains of spatial and temporal representation. This idea encourages for the standard drawings, plans, sections, elevations, to exist in this spatial category, and for new drawings demonstrating the passage of time to be created for the temporal category. He envisions drawings which make clear the time scale of the design, the actions needed to guide the manifestations, and the potential evolution of TIME AND SPACEfig.12 - Diagram of systems thinking aspectsdisconnection interconnections parts relationshipsgraduate project report 24(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 25the design.49 These ideas from van Dooren raise the question of if these two categories of drawings need to be distinct? Is there a type of drawing that can demonstrate both spatial and temporal existence? These categories aim to highlight some of the main ways that time and natural systems are experienced in our world. By breaking down time and dynamism down into more specific categories, we can begin to look at examples of how various architects, cartographers, artists and designers have shown consideration for time in representation.Our movement through space and the movement happening around us form our understanding of our surroundings and the relationships between places and things. In Dark Writing, author Paul Carter comments on the absence of movement and motion in our representations of the world. “Our world is composed of the traces of movement, but our representations conceal this. Our thinking is a movement of the mind, but our forms of thought are static. Whether it is the outside world or the inner world, we write about it and draw it as if it were motionless. Look at geography’s maps; you would never guess they were the cumulative trace of many journeys. Or look at the drawing architects make; what 4. Drawing TimeMOVEMENTfig.13 - Working from Home.graduate project report 26(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 27are the performances of everyday life that their diagrams are meant to foster?” 50The philosophies and works of Lawrence Halprin demonstrate how the motion of people, the ephemerality of nature and complexities of communities can be better represented and integrated into a design. By allowing movement to act as one of the main motivations in design, spaces that encourage movement, exploration and engagement will be created.51 Halprin developed a concept he called ‘Motation’, which was basically a notational system used to represent, design with and record movement in landscape and environmental design. These ‘scores’ that he developed using motations served as an innovative way to represent temporality by integrating a component of ‘who’ and ‘when’ into the more standard ‘what’ and ‘where’ of drawings.52Every map ever made is a result of man’s journeys and migrations around the Earth. We move through cities everyday, taking different routes and having our own unique experiences as we move through space. Movement is one of the most direct and consistent expressions of how temporality exists in space. The motion of humans and other non-static elements of the world needs to be represented with the same amount of significance that it has in reality.“Since movement and the complex interrelations which it generates are an essential part of the life of a city, urban design should have the choice of starting from movement as the core- the essential element of the plan. Only after programming the movement and graphically expressing it, should the environment- an envelope within which movement takes place- be designed. The environment exists for the purpose of movement.” 53The Traffic Study of Philadelphia was a conceptual plan that Kahn proposed as a way to mitigate traffic congestion and unplanned spread of parking lots. This drawing uses a distinct notation system to distinguish the various types of vehicular movement such as the stop-and-go movement, high-speed traffic and the stasis of parked cars. 54fig.14 - Traffic study planfig.15 -  Traffic study aerial perspectivegraduate project report 28(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 29This series in the Manhattan Transcripts Project presents several theoretical events; which Tschumi proposes as the figurative origin of any architecture. The Transcripts suggest that outside of standard architectural conventions, architecture operates within the coexistence of space, movement and events. 55fig.16 -   The Manhattan Transcripts Project, Episode 4: The Blockfig.17 - The Manhattan Transcripts Project, Episode 4: The Blockfig.18 - Memories from the Critical Zone (Germany-Poland-Russia-China-Japan)This series of drawings was created by  the  response of  a  drawing machine (a suspended ballpoint pen) to the movements of various modes of transportation (truck, train, boat) across Europe and Asia. Each circular drawing is composed of one singular line that represents the journey. These drawings serve as visual records of the distance, terrain and means that the artwork itself traveled.56T h i s  d r aw i n g  d o c u m e n t s  t h e progression of a dining table from the beginning, through a motion trace palimpsest of dining, to the f inished meal. These drawings aimed to explore if the  temporal and spatial relationship between diners at a table could be compared to the movement and interaction of people within a home.57fig.19 - Increasing Disorder in a Dining Tablegraduate project report 30(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 31Architecture has long been considered as something to physically and psychologically ‘protect’ humans from the ‘threat’ of weather.58 In his Essay on Architecture (published in 1753) Marc-Antoine Laugier explains his philosophies of architecture, largely through his ideas surrounding ‘The Primitive Hut’. This has been an influential concept in the architectural discourse and is often an introductory reading in architectural history survey courses. ‘Mans need for shelter’ was reinforced through this writing, which has perpetuated the idea that architecture and weather must exist in opposition. If architecture can be thought of as an experience, then weather can be thought of as a contribution or influencing factor of that experience. Whether there is sun, rain, snow, smoke or fog, the way we understand the world and move through space – architectural or not, is influenced. Considering weather is ever-changing and ever-present, it is interesting that there is usually seldom done by architects to encourage the ministrations of these natural systems. During the Enlightenment, the changing weather came to be understood similarly to changing perceptions and was considered to be as exceptional as the imagination. This new-found significance of weather and the natural environment lead to the belief that weather could act as a creative architectural force alongside both the designer and user.59 Weather is often demonstrated on maps, with animated radars on the weather channel showing various storm systems moving across a region. These weather maps display meteorological features such as winds, cloud patterns, pressure systems and temperatures changing or developing over time. However, these maps do not usually exist at any scale that is productive to relating this information back to human experiences. In architectural WEATHER drawings, weather and seasons are typically unaccounted for. This is quite shocking, as both weather and seasons have a huge influence on the way that built space is used. But the ever-present cyclical pattern of nature and spatial occupancy continue to be missing from our representation.  fig.20 - That Day Blackfish Sound Became the Bermuda TriangleColonial maps legitimize ideas, and convince us that all maps are factual, and that the land and water are static and measurable. Colonial place names have been rather arbitrarily given to stretches of water, not accurately representing the fluid, dynamic nature of the ocean or weather. Leya Tess aims to counter the misleading colonial mapping and meaningless naming by drawing her experiences moving through and across these areas during the forest fire smoke of summer 2018.60graduate project report 32(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 33Rakuchu Rakugai zu, translated as “scenes in and around Kyoto” are a form of Japanese genre paint ing  that  demonstrate public and private activity within Kyoto. In the historical work, a total view is obscured by the use of gold clouds. I am interested in the literal m e a n i n g  o f  t h e s e  w o r k s , and how weather alters our experience of space and the way that we inhabit the urban fabric. 61fig.21 - Scenes from Another Kyotofig.22 - Rakuchu Rakugai zu, Seiganji ScreensLike weather, light connects the land to the sky. As the sky continually changes, the human experience of the land also changes. The colour of light at sunrise and sunset, the crisp and short midday shadows and the grey skies that blur the distinction between days, each influence how we see our surroundings.62 The daily path of the sun influences how we go about our lives, specifically our circadian rhythms. The way that the world is perceived at night is extremely different from how it is experienced in the day. This experience of darkness is also different depending where you are. In a city it is much harder, if not impossible, to find true darkness that is undisturbed by artificial light. The existence of artificial light has altered the influence of the daily rotation of the earth, as now in the hours of darkness, we have found ways to see without needing the sun. It is not often that we consider how we should be mapping or drawing this difference between night and day, even though our lives, buildings and cities exist in darkness about half of the time.  Light and space are inseparable, as light brings life and atmosphere into a space, and spaces provide a backdrop for which light can exist. Light can alter our moods and create evocative or emotive spaces. Despite light being a key component in architectural discussions and designs, it is generally lacking representation in architectural drawings and even more so from maps. LIGHTgraduate project report 34(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 35With both of these drawing sets, I find the portrayal of light compared to space to be very interesting. Forgotten Corners shows the varied perception of a space when represented as just lines as compared to a photograph. The high contrast between light and shadow in the photographs and the atmosphere of the space is lost when you cannot see the light. fig.23 - Forgotten Cornersfig.24 - Sketch for a MuralThese sketches by Peter Zumthor for two different projects demonstrate the very early consideration and integration of natural light in his projects. His sketches clearly delineate the areas of brightness from the areas of darkness. This is related to his contrasting use of masses and voids as a way to shape space, but also as a way to create moments of expansion and compression.fig.25 - Homes for Senior Citizens, Chur, Switzerlandfig.26 - Therme Valsgraduate project report 36(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 37LANDBoth architecture and cartography are land-based practices, so regardless of the work, land is a defining feature. But on both maps and architectural drawings, the land and natural features are typically drawn as static entities, rather than expressing the changes that they experience over time. The field of landscape architecture does a better job at acknowledging the temporal nature of the natural environment, but generally there is still a lack of adequate representation. Many landscape projects may create a series of visualizations, imagining a design five, ten or twenty years into the future; but each of these images still reads as static.  As we know, climate change is dramatically altering the planet, and this will eventually render all maps or atlases with coastlines obsolete. Sea level rise is one example of temporal land change that should be accounted for in our maps and drawings, as it is an occurring reality; our shorelines are not a singular fixed line as drawn on our maps. Various locations and mediations of land and water (such as the now-navigable Northwest Passage, glaciers, polar ice, beaches, coral reefs, rivers, low-lying land masses, and so on) will need to be re-presented (through maps and drawings) as the effects of climate change grow more extreme.63 But instead of continually re-mapping these areas that we know are changing and will continue to change, there must be a way of representing these ongoing, dynamic negotiations between land and water.It is also interesting to note the endless ways that land has been mapped throughout history, and the variety of characteristics and qualities that cartographers aim to represent. Generally, not nearly the same attention or consideration has been given to the representation of water on maps. I expect that this is at least partially due to man’s inability to conquer water to the same extent to which we have dominated the land. The line of inductive reasoning that creates a hard divide on maps between water and land acts a sign which only signifies this idea of polarity between the land and sea, “…the coastline is an artifact of linear thinking, a binary abstraction that corresponds to nothing in nature. This would not matter except that the construction of the coast as ideally thin and oppositional has real-world consequences.”64This engraving clearly visualizes the contrasting perceptions of land, water and coastline. Here you can see man’s built intervention that is imposed on the mediating landscape and is which must be passed by anyone seeking to cross from one medium to another. These rows of columns graphically serve as an interstitial zone between the land, something that has been conquered by man (rendered as a flat, controlled surface), and the water,(rendered as a storming terror) which was largely unknown.65fig.27 - Plan de la Barriere de la Santé, à Malte graduate project report 38(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 39fig.28 - Mississippi River Meander Belt This map is a part of a collection, tracing the shifting banks of the Mississippi River from Illinois to Louisiana. This meander belt, the area of a valley where the river channel has existed over the last millennia, is very immense and is a part of the third largest watershed in the world. This change over time has been expressed by mapping overlapping courses as separate colours. Many of these changes in course happened naturally, over time, but between 1765 a n d  1 9 4 4 ,  m a n y  o f  t h e s e changes occurred due to human interventions.66MATERIALThe effects of weather over time, weathering, act as an acknowledgement of time, decay and brevity. Picturesque drawings of buildings in extreme decay and weathering from the 18th century set a precedent for ruins to signify a romantic notion of the passage of time.67 However, the idea of buildings or any human interventions persisting indefinitely in time must also be challenged. Buildings do not stand forever; the materials of a building deteriorate because of environmental conditions. On Weathering by Mohsen Mostafavi suggests that the process of weathering should not only be considered as subtractive, but also as additive. If the unavoidable implications of time and weather are considered at the beginning of a design, the future process of weathering could be intentionally designed into the building. This approach may encourage a shift in mindset, where the ongoing process of deterioration can be seen as part of the ever-changing life-cycle of a building.68“This temporal structure of building can be compared to a person’s experience of time. At every moment in one’s life earlier times of infancy, childhood, youth, and all other stages up to now are still present, increasing in number yet unchanged and familiar, and subject to redefinition and appropriation. Never is one’s past not present, nor is the individual’s past ever cut off from the tradition of one’s culture and the time of the natural world.”69  Beginning from the Industrial Revolution, the development of new materials and an increase of standardization shifted the way that buildings were designed and constructed. Mass produced materials, components and repetitive specifications altered the relationship between a building and graduate project report 40(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 41its site; often in disregard to local environment or site conditions.70 This divorcing of a building from its site inherently removes any traces of local information or environmental factors from appearing in the design or in the project drawings.On Weathering encourages designers to consider weathering as an intentional design feature and not merely a romantic aesthetic.71 In order to do this, better ways to draw environmental effects such as dust, dirt, water, ice, and smoke must be developed. These types of notations, if integrated within the design and construction phases, would allow for a deeper temporal understanding of buildings.72Etchings by Piranesi, such as this one, portray incredible d e t a i l  o f  t h e  e f f e c t s  o f weathering over time. These e t c h i n g s  e x p re s s  t h e  f a c t that time is incontrollable, and that  i t  wi l l  eventual ly r e c l a i m  h u m a n  i m p a c t s and interventions. In these drawings I  also appreciate the inclusion of nature and vegetation as an inherent part of the passage of time, one which is additive instead of subtractive. fig.29 - Ruins of a Gallery of Statues in Hadrians Villa at TivoliThis work by Jorge Otero-Pailos is composed, “of dust transferred from monuments onto latex casts and enclosed in light-boxes or canvas.”73 His ongoing work in this series, The Ethics of Dust, preserves dust and pollution from significant buildings. His work subverts the typical outlook on importance and preservation.fig.30 -  Distributed Monuments 6fig.31 -  Rawhide: The New Shingle StyleThis project is interesting for both it’s representation (signifier) and the design (signified). Without being a complex drawing, the way these shingles would change over time can be understood. These curly shingles are achieved through years of exposure to freezing and thawing conditions; a desired weathering.graduate project report 42(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 43TERRITORYMuch of human interaction with the Earth is now linked to ideas of property, politics and economy. This is based in notions of territory, often delimited territories, that have been created over time “through the occupation of the land and soil, peacefully or violently.” It is interesting to note the etymological links between “terror” and “territory”. There are two different roots of the word territory, one being “terra”, meaning “a piece of the earth”, suggesting a terrain that sustains people; and the other being “terrere”, meaning “to frighten”, suggesting a place that people are warned off from. “To occupy territory is to receive sustenance and to exercise violence.”74 This etymological breakdown draws a quick connection between the existence of territories and the exertion of spatial violence. Since cartography is based in biases and perspectives, maps inherently are connected to dynamics of power. On maps, political territories are marked by lines, representing borders, which are used to distinguish “us” from “them”. These territories and borders have moved and changed throughout time, especially since the spread of colonialism. One of the main ways that European colonizers asserted their dominance and claim over lands (occupied or not) was through cartography. Extensive surveying of invaded lands led to new maps that the colonizers could draw territorial boundaries on, and which served as a means for Indigenous erasure, and solidification of domination. The colonial implementation of a Cartesian division of space, new place names, and new settlements aimed to conceal the existence of Indigenous cultures and PeoplesI am interested in the counter-mapping movement, and the potential power that maps have as tools for communities to regain control over territory or resources. This type of mapping provides opportunities for alternative and decolonizing geographies to be presented. Many counter-mapping projects approach mapping as a process for Indigenous Peoples to demonstrate their presence on land (often since time immemorial), ancestral territories, resources, place names, and culturally significant places.75fig.31 - WarlugulongThis work, created by an Anmatyerr artist, is a palimpsest of nine dreamings. The depictions of these dreamings do not all follow the same orientation, with some narratives east is oriented upwards, and for others it is south. The various paths which are significant to each story are represented, as are footprints of culturally significant people or animals. The most prominent narrative, Warlugulong (or Bushfire Dreaming) depicts the beginnings of the ancestral fire, as seen in the centre of this work.76graduate project report 44(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 45This artistic map by Christi Belcourt emphasizes the power of naming, and the potential for reclamation through naming. This painting is composed of two depictions of the same map of so-called southwestern Ontario, contrasting the colonial/settler view of this area and an Indigenous perspective of the same land. In these maps, the main differences are the naming of places and the iconography used to represent variations of the land. The colonial renaming of places erased centuries of Indigenous knowledge and meaning from both maps and life, and decolonizing movements such as this allow ancestral names to be reclaimed by Indigenous Nations.77fig.33 - Good Landgraduate project report 46(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 47I began the second part of this project with the intention of focusing on developing and implementing new drawing notations and typologies that better represent time and dynamism. I planned to develop my own set of drawing and mapping notations related to my research on representation, architectural drawing, cartography, time and dynamism. From there, I anticipated creating a set of maps and drawings based on a specific site. I intended for this set of maps and drawings to subvert the static, conventional world-views that are typically presented in atlases or architectural drawing sets.Although many of these ideas from my earlier research carried through into the final project, the direction or focus of my project shifted slightly. I gained an interest in ‘site studies’, and the various issues that I felt they had. The most typical ways that sites are described, drawn, represented  and analyzed are heavily reliant on existing cartographic materials;  site aspects are typically separated and analyzed in isolation; historical information is usually presented chronologically; information is usually limited to a specific, singular narrative. These more traditional ways of studying and representing a site may not necessarily be considered problematic by everyone, however to me, they are limiting, and not-often challenged. PART I IINTRODUCTIONSo as I began this part of the project, I wondered, how could a site be better represented? I kept in mind the inherent subjectivity that would come with any sort of site study or representation, and I wondered if this could be embraced in order to strengthen the portrayal of a place. I also wanted to find ways to more accessibly represent research. As I spent time looking through the Vancouver Archives, reading government reports, combing through various published statistics and data, I realized how challenging it is to access and digest this information. Most research is done quite narrowly, so different site histories, realities or identities are not well synthesized. This led to an interest in finding a way to represent my specific path of excavation as I researched a site, representing various identities of a place as both distinct and interconnected site aspects.  I decided to try and allow for one research question to organically lead me to the next, following my own interests and being less predetermined with my work. GP2 Report 48(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 49fig.34 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawinggraduate project report 50(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 51This thesis is a personal project that aims to explore a different way of seeing and approaching a site through drawing. This text aims to weave together a reflection of my working process and intentions with the factual discoveries I made while excavating the histories of this specific site.My project could have materialized from any site, but I chose the area of False Creek, Vancouver as my case study. False Creek is an inlet off of English Bay and Burrard Inlet and it lies at the heart of Vancouver. I selected this body of water and its shores as the site for this project as it has a rich history and a significant presence in the city. This site is easily accessible, allowing for me to visit often, and there is extensive information available about the area. Throughout this project, I have embraced the subjectivity that comes with the representation and interpretation of a place, so this is very much my story of False Creek. It is rooted in my own interests and preconceived notions, and it has been supported and informed by site experiences, archival research - including maps, photographs, government reports and data, personal accounts and documents, as well as secondary research including books, journal articles and news sources.My original intentions with this project were to subvert and challenge traditional, colonial modes of mapping and representation. However, as I got deeper into my research and experiences of False Creek, my interests began to shift more towards the involved process of active discovery and the One of the most defining and interesting qualities of False Creek is the omnipresent shoreline. On a map, the inlet is defined by a line representing the distinction between water and land. This is an extremely subjective yet determinate line that disregards the continuous rise and fall of the water. At the site today, this line is materialized as the seawall, a man-made border intended to protect the city from being permeated by the sea. As you walk the seawall, you can’t help but to remain aware of the nearby opposite shoreline. False Creek today, is a narrow, concrete-bordered inlet, but this wasn’t always the case. fig.35 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 1SITE :  FALSE CREEKTHE DRAWINGmany - almost unrecognizable - identities that this site has transitioned through.  graduate project report 52(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 53fig.36 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 2UNFOLDING SITE IDENTITIESArchitecture is a spatial practice, which also makes it inherently temporal. Generally, in practice, emphasis and focus is skewed towards spatiality, but in this project, I have aimed to re-present the temporal aspects of the site by drawing through various, overlapping realities, moments in time and site dynamics. Formatting this work as a scroll allows for a sense of time to be embedded into the project and allows for my own path of discovery and wonder to be present through the drawing.Just over a century ago, False Creek was a 4km2 inlet with rich plant and animal life, and vast tidal flats.78 The dense forests, sandy shores and protected waters served as an ideal location for fishing, hunting and for the Indigenous settlement of Seǹáḵw, located at the mouth of the inlet.79As Granville, later named Vancouver, was being settled in the mid to late 1800s, one of the first major undertakings was to get Vancouver connected to the east by rail. The growth of the city around World War I necessitated more rail lines, leading to an agreement between the government and the rail companies for 221 acres of eastern False Creek, which was ecologically rich tidal flats, to be infilled and converted into rail yards.80 This shallow waterway was further altered, when two sandbars were enclosed and infilled to create a 36-acre industrial island, which we now know as Granville Island.81 Simultaneously, dredging in False Creek began in order to create a 20ft deep channel, which provided infill material for these land reclamation projects.82In the 1960s, redevelopment and re-zoning plans for False Creek began along the southern shore, transitioning from heavy industrial to residential. This led to the beginnings of the present-day seawall in 1973.83 From the earliest alterations of the boundary between land and sea in the early 1900s, we have continued to falsify False Creek, to a point where today, no natural shoreline remains, and it has been reduced to one fifth of its original size.Unpacking the various histories, realities, characters, systems and patterns that have shaped this site over time, allows for connections to be drawn that deepen the understanding of a place as a continually shifting expression of its history. Rather than a traditional site analysis where existing site layers such as program, green space or sun studies are separated from each other, or a fully synthesized site study where everything is unified, I have aimed to focus on amplifying the threads pulling together various identities of this place to create a more holistic and meaningful approach to understanding a site. graduate project report 54(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 55fig.37 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 3My exploration into the infill of False Creek and the dramatic changes of its distinctive shoreline surfaced questions about what exactly was driving this extensive construction. As I learned, the growth of the rail and the boom of industry grew simultaneously, with each relying on the other for their success. False Creek quickly transformed from the lush, bio-diverse lands of the Coast Salish Peoples to an industrial wasteland by European settlers.Drawing these connections lead me to the logging history of False Creek. This area of the Pacific Northwest was once vast, dense old-growth forests, with Douglas Firs standing up to 90 meters tall. When logging began around southern False Creek in the late 1870s, it was highly selective, and only the largest, straightest trees were removed. False Creek served as a great place for sawmills as there was direct access to the forest, water and rail.84 As Vancouver grew, logging began to resemble what we consider clear cutting today, and as many as seventeen sawmills and lumberyards populated the shores of False Creek.85 The edges of the inlet became crowded with lumber stacks, the waters populated with undulating log booms, and smokestacks began to replace the Douglas Firs that stood there before. But in contradistinction to the Douglas Firs, these chimneys pumped pollutants into the air, each contributing to the smog that hung over False Creek for its industrial decades. Other industries, factories, landfills, and sewage disposal processes also contributed to an increasing contamination of the water, land and air. This pollution and de-naturalization of False Creek by European settlers also included the forceful eviction of the Squamish Peoples from their lands. In 1913, 36 years after the federal government first subjugated the Squamish Nation to ‘Kitsilano Indian Reserve No. 6’, an amendment to the Indian Act led to the manipulative relocation of the residents of Seǹáḵw, and the village was burnt down.86Despite much of my research for this project coming from visual sources such as maps and photographs, moving from these sources into drawing allows for more intentional and selective decisions in presenting information. Maps and photographs are often overwhelmed with information, making it more challenging to grasp onto a key idea or specific narrative. Can re-presenting existing visual material and data through drawing express more specific information and a clearer narrative? Is displaying site information in this way a more accessible expression of place?graduate project report 56(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 57fig.38 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 4For thousands of years, this land had been occupied by the Coast Salish Peoples, and they were closely linked to this inlet for its various resources including f i s h i n g ;  w i t h  f i s h  c o r r a l s erected along the sandbars. Smelt, salmon, sturgeon and herring were all plentiful. The sheltered waters and extensive eelgrass beds provided an ideal environment for Herring to spawn. The Herring returned to False Creek between February a n d  Ap r i l  e v e r y  s p a w n i n g season, with each female laying around 20,000 eggs among the eelgrass.87As False Creek was dredged, the sandbars, eelgrass and other natural features were destroyed. This was the catalyst for the steep decline in the health of False Creek. As industry crowded the shores, the water suffered the consequences, as industrial effluents, debris and sewage contributed to False Creek turning into a dead zone for decades. However, In 2009, False Creek saw its first notable Herring spawn in decades, due to an accidental reintroduction of Herring to the area when a fishing boat returned to False Creek, unaware that its hull was plastered with spawn.88 This initiated an effort by conservationists to re-naturalize some of the shoreline, wrap creosote-treated piles with plastic, and drop spawning nets from marina docks, all to provide more productive, safe spawning surfaces.89 Since 2009, there has been a continual increase of returning Herring and successful spawns.I have spent time considering the differences between looking and seeing, and figuring out how to highlight site aspects that are often overlooked or how to reveal the things that cannot be experienced by visiting the site today. Using drawing as a tool for excavation, the interrelatedness of these things can be materialized, and the significance of these connections and identities can be revealed.graduate project report 58(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 59fig.39 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 5The story of how Herring were reintroduced to False Creek turned my attention towards the fishing boats, and the other wa t e rc ra f t  wh i ch  p opu la t e the inlet. Throughout history, various boats, ships and vessels have  been the  main  actors animating the waterway. Today, there are twelve marinas in False Creek, as well as the many boats which anchor freely on either side of the inlet’s main channel. I became interested in the mooring of these boats, and how the prices for commercial f ishing vessels are massively reduced, in order to sustain the local fishing industry. It is nearly ten times more expensive to moor a recreational pleasure craft than it is a fishing boat. Not only do the approximately 2200 boats in False Creek serve as a spectacle when they cruise in and out of the inlet, but I have also become interested in how much our perspective and relationship to these boats changes based on the tides. With up to almost five meters in tidal changes, as a spectator on the seawall I can go from being nearly eye level with a sailboat, to having a dramatic view-from-above when the tide drops. This undulation of the water also reveals the striations of the inter-tidal zones, exposing the rockweed, barnacles and mussels that have gradually come to ornament the stone and concrete seawall. Architecture is inherently a place-based practice. All projects typically stem from existing maps that are a register of early colonial surveying. Despite the infinite realities that exist at a site, the expressions of the surveyor and cartographer remain omnipresent. If site plays an important role in dictating and influencing a building design, how could different ways of approaching, understanding and representing a site, influence the priorities or critical path of design? Would the outcomes be different?graduate project report 60(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 61fig.40 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 6I then began looking at the human experience of moving and circulating around False Creek. This is significant because False Creek divides downtown Vancouver from most of the city, so the ways that people can navigate around or across this prominent inlet are important. I was most interested in the human experience of moving around this site, and the options for walking, biking or taking the aquabus or ferry. Not only do these options for movement take different amounts of time, but they also provide very different understandings of the site. Walking the seawall is probably the most understood experience, circulating around the perimeter of the inlet; crossing the bridges provides a larger perspective, viewing the area from above; and the aquabus or ferry bring you down to the water level, and immerse you in the aquatic environment. I cannot think of other sites in this city that people can equitably experience in such different ways - this makes False Creek an even more unique public area. The way that people move around and within False Creek is vital to the personality of Vancouver. I have realized that the use of this area now is almost fully recreational, which drastically contrasts the not-so-distant past occupation of this place. I have tried to express the transformation of this site by unfolding and expanding various histories into this scroll of drawings. I did not want to reduce the site to just its physical attributes, or its more dynamic atmospheres or environments, so instead I hoped to find a middle ground, which balances both the physicality and personalities of False Creek. graduate project report 62(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 63fig.41 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 7Many of the various narratives of False Creek have global components that have played a role in shaping this area. It has been eye opening realizing the many international relations and roles that have occurred in and from this small Vancouver inlet. A lot of this has to do with the range of industries that have existed in False Creek throughout the last 150 years. If we look at the fishing industry, in the past, the main presence of fish in False Creek were the few canneries that operated along its shores; canning, boxing, and shipping fish around the world. Today, there is an active commercial fishing harbour, Fisherman’s Wharf, which is the only commercial fishing Harbour in Vancouver. Despite it being a small craft harbour, most of the catch from these boats is shipped outside of the city. The logs and lumber from False Creek were also shipped globally, beginning at the end of the 1800s.90 When the Panama canal opened in 1914, this altered the way that goods could be shipped across the world - making it more accessible for British Columbian lumber to make it to the Atlantic.91 Around this same time, some of the lumber and steel yards along False Creek transformed into shipyards in order to construct ships for the British throughout World War I. During World War I, 21 cargo ships and during World War II, 55 victory ships were constructed and launched into False Creek; these ships were some of the largest vessels built in British Columbia during the war times.92 These were massive war contributions from just a small Canadian inlet. Actively investigating and representing a place through a variety of lenses and focuses has been a different way of working for me. I tried to allow my own interests, questions and research discoveries to guide me through this project, attempting to be less predetermined with my work. graduate project report 64(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 65fig.42 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 8Besides the global connections through industry, False Creek has also played a role in the international movement of people and ideas into Vancouver. False Creek was the site for World’s Exposition of 1986, and the Athlete’s Village for the 2010 Winter Olympics. Both of these events put False Creek on the map globally, influencing future city development and the international movement and migration of people to this city. Expo ‘86 especially served as a catalyst for the development of Vancouver. The 204-acre Expo site on the north shore of False Creek was sold to a Hong Kong developer, later becoming Concord Pacific, in 1988.93 This parcel of land continues to be developed today and is the largest master-planned urban community in North America.94 This development of buildings and public amenities has made today’s False Creek unrecognizable from the industrial wasteland that existed here until the 1980s, yet it is also a far cry from the massive, lush inlet that supported diverse ecosystems and the Coast Salish Peoples.Not only has my connection to, and knowledge of this place grown through research and drawing, but it has also been shaped from direct observation and experience. Throughout this semester, I have spent time on this site walking, biking, running, photographing, sketching, and writing. By sitting in the parks, taking the aquabus and spending time around the marinas, I have become more intimately familiar with certain site details, and have a broader perspective of the inter-workings of the site. graduate project report 66(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 67fig.43 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 9The ongoing development of the area, although morphing this place towards a new identity, continues to foster individual human experiences and connections to this place. Like the subjectivity that this project holds, we each experience and perceive this area in a specific way. This has left me interested in the balance between the development and densification of this area, and the more personal, mundane or habitual experiences had at False Creek.The development I am most intrigued with is the monumental development, ‘Seǹáḵw’, by the Squamish Nation. This project takes the name and place of the Squamish village that existed here until just over 100 years ago, translating to “the place inside the head of False Creek”.95 This sustainability focused development will provide 6,000 rental units, and economically support the Squamish Nation. This development is a step forward for the Squamish Nation with land and place-name reclamation, and allows them to promote a forward thinking community where humanity and nature can once again coexist on these lands.96graduate project report 68(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 69CONCLUSIONTo conclude, I would like to acknowledge that this project will be perpetually unfinished, as it could continue to unroll to reveal endless other identities of False Creek. Demonstrating both personal and historical research and data through drawing has taught me the importance of selection and connection of information. Having time to reflect on and challenge my typical ways of approaching a site has been a rewarding, confusing, and introspective experience. I have spent more time contemplating how and why things occurred the way they occurred, and why this matters in the grand scheme of a place or time. I hope to preserve my interests in seeing places differently, continually working to understand the various dynamics and identities at play, and finding ways for this to benefit and strengthen my design work. After presenting this project and writing this report, I am left wondering, what will become of this project? Has this personal exploration now reached its end, or is there a way that this project can be expanded, and potentially become a functional resource for the community? Could this project become something more interactive, where others can contribute their site experiences and identities to the scroll? It would be quite interesting to convert this project into an interactive website, allowing users to learn more about specific aspects from the drawing. This could be combined with the ability for users to contribute to the scroll - creating a sort of crowd-sourced representation of False Creek; a drawing that represents a collective discovery and understanding of this place.         fig.44 -  (re)presenting sites : unfolding realities drawing, section 10As I move forward in my career, there are some questions stemming from this project that I intend to continue to explore, and maybe you, the reader, are interested in these as well. How can the subjectivity of cartography and site representation be emphasized rather than concealed? As designers, why do we typically design considering only the current identity of a site? Could spending more time on the site study portion of a project reduce the duration of the design phase? How can more perspectives of a place - other than that of the designer and client - be integrated into a site study? Could considering these questions and representing a site in this way benefit the equity and inclusion of design?graduate project report 70(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 711. Dooren, “Exercising Drawing Time,” 251.2. Evans, “Translations from Drawing to Building,” s1.3. Ibid.4. Ibid., 7. 5. Ibid., 3.6. Turchi, Maps of the Imagination: The Writer as Cartographer, 13.7. Kingsnorth, “The Language of the Master.”8. Abram, “The Ecology of Perception.”9. Dooren, “Exercising Drawing Time,” 251.10. Ibid.11. Sergison, “Working/Drawing : The Tension between Hand and Computer    Drawing,” 276.12. Ghosn and Jazairy, Geostories: Another Architecture for the Environment,   22.13. Solnit, Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas, 2. 14. Turchi, Maps of the Imagination: The Writer as Cartographer, 74.15. Ibid., 88.16. Engel, “Decolonial Mapmaking | Reclaiming Indigenous Places and Knowledge.”17. Turchi, Maps of the Imagination: The Writer as Cartographer, 73.18. Ibid., 91.19. Carter, Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design, 79.20. Ibid., 80.21. Ibid., 84.22. Kullmann, “Hyper-Realism and Loose-Reality: The Limitations of Digital    Realism and Alternative Principles in Landscape Design Visualization,” 4.23. Scheer, “Hyperreality, Vision and Architecture,” 169.24. Beaudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation.25. Scheer, “Hyperreality, Vision and Architecture,” 169.26. Ibid., 170.27. Ibid., 171.28. Ibid., 173.29. Ibid., 176-177.Notes30. Taine, The Philosophy of Art.31. Carter, Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design, 5.32. Solnit, Storming the Gates of Paradise : Landscapes for Politics, 147.33. Kingsnorth, “A Storm Blown from Paradise.”34. Ibid.35. Ibid.36. Solnit, Storming the Gates of Paradise : Landscapes for Politics, 143.37. Wood, Rethinking the Power of Maps, 94.38. Ibid., 95.39. Capra and Luisi, The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision, xi.40. Ibid., xii.41. Wright and Meadows, Thinking in Systems: A Primer, 5. 42. Ibid., 11.43. Ibid., 12.44. Ibid., 170.45. Ibid., 174.46. Ibid., 175-176.47. Solnit, Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas, 2. 48. Jain, “Building Biographies: Chronicling Time in Architectural     Representation,” 610.49. Dooren, “Exercising Drawing Time,” 250-252.50. Carter, Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design, 5.51. Wasserman, “A World in Motion: The Creative Synergy of Lawrence and    Anna Halprin,” 34.52. Dooren, “Exercising Drawing Time,” 252.53. Wasserman, “A World in Motion: The Creative Synergy of Lawrence and  Anna Halprin,” 41.54. “Louis I. Kahn. Traffic Study Project.”55. “Bernard Tschumi. The Manhattan Transcripts Project.”56. “Memories from the Critical Zone.”57. “Folio: Sarah Wigglesworth’s Dining Tables.”58.  Hill, Weather Architecture, 2.graduate project report 72(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 7359. Ibid., 8.60. Tess, “In the Calm, in the Surge.”61. Skandarajah, “Scenes from Another Kyoto.”62. Solnit, Storming the Gates of Paradise : Landscapes for Politics, 143.63. Solnit, Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas, 3. 64. Carter, Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design, 9.65. Ibid., 66.66. “Ancient Courses: Harold Fisk’s Meander Maps of the Mississippi River.”67. Jain, “Building Biographies: Chronicling Time in Architectural Representation,” 611.68. Mostafavi and Leatherbarrow, On Weathering, 1-16.69. Ibid., 112.70. Ibid., 29.71. Ibid., 6.72. Jain, “Building Biographies: Chronicling Time in Architectural  Representation,” 613.73. Oterio-Pailos, “Monuments.”74. Ghosn and Jazairy, Geostories: Another Architecture for the Environment,   13-14.75. Loften and Vaughan-Lee, “Counter Mapping.”76. “Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri | Warlugulong.”77. Belcourt, “Reclaiming Ourselves by Name.”78.  Oke & Wynn, Vancouver and its Region, 163.79.  Burkinshaw, False Creek: History, Images, and Research Sources, 4.80.  Oke & Wynn, Vancouver and its Region, 164.81.  Burkinshaw, False Creek: History, Images, and Research Sources, 35.82.  Gourley, Island in the Creek, 28-30.83.  Burkinshaw, False Creek: History, Images, and Research Sources, 59-64.84.  Ibid, 9.85.  Macdonald, Vancouver a Visual History, 26-39.86.  Sterritt, “The little-known history of Squamish Nation land in Vancouver”.87.  Buu et al., The Success of Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasi) Spawning Net    Deployment in False Creek, 12.88.  “False Creek herring offer real hope for a sustainable population in  Burrard Inlet”.89.  “Herring Restoration in False Creek Vancouver”.90.  Macdonald, Vancouver a Visual History, 25.91.  Ibid, 37.92.  “J. Coughlan & Sons Shipyard”.93.  “Terry Hui: the man who built Concord Pacific”.94.  “Our Cities”.94.  “Seǹáḵw”.96.  Ibid.graduate project report 74(re)presenting sites : unfolding realities 75Abram, David. n.d. “The Ecology of Perception.” Emergence Magazine.     Accessed December 17, 2020. https://emergencemagazine.org/    story/ the-ecology-of-perception/.“Ancient Courses: Harold Fisk’s Meander Maps of the Mississippi River.” n.d. The    Public Domain Review. Accessed December 19, 2020. https://    publicdomainreview.org/collection/maps-of-the-lower-mississippi-    harold-fisk.Baudrillard, Jean. 1995. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of    Michigan Press.“Bernard Tschumi. The Manhattan Transcripts Project.” n.d. MoMA. Accessed    December 19, 2020. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/55?artist_   id=7056&page=1&sov_referrer=artist.Burkinshaw, Robert K. 1984. False Creek : History, Images, and Research Sources.  Vancouver: City of Vancouver Archives.Buu, Nathalie, Xinchen Wang, Hailing Yang, and Kiana Yerxa. 2020. “The  Success of Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi) Spawning Net Deployment    in False Creek.” Vancouver. https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/   undergraduateresearch/52966/items/1.0390463.“Canron Building.” n.d. Places That Matter. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.   placesthatmatter.ca/location/canron-building/.Capdevila-Werning, Remei. 2013. Goodman for Architects. Routledge.Capra, Fritjof, and Pier Luigi Luisi. 2018. The Systems View of Life: A Unifying    Vision. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Carter, Paul. 2009. Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design. 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