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Water Walk : A Research-Driven Guide to Clean Water in Indigenous Communities Hock, James 2021-05

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Water WalkA Research-Driven Guide to Clean Water in Indigenous CommunitiesJames HockM.Arch Graduate ProjectThe University of British Columbia2021Waterworks: A Research-Driven Guide to Clean Water in Indigenous CommunitiesJames HockBachelor of Commerce, McGill University, 2017Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Architecturein The Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee Members:John Bass (Chair)Fionn ByrneAnthony PersaudPatrick StewartThe University of British Columbia© James Hock, May 2021Water WalkWater WalkAn Anishinaabe ceremonial walk reminding us of the importance of water and of our duty to protect itWater WalkAn Anishinaabe ceremonial walk reminding us of the importance of water and of our duty to protect it.iiiLand AcknowledgementAs a student at the University of British Columbia, I have spent the better part of the past three years working and living on the unceded, traditional, and ancestral territories of the xwməθkwəỳəm (Musqueam), the Skwxwú7mesh (Squamish), and the səÌílwəta? (Tsleil-Waututh) peoples.For much of this year, I have been working in Toronto, on the unceded, traditional, and ancestral lands of the Mississaugas of the Credit, the Anishnabeg, the Chippewa, the Haudenosaunee, and the Wendat. I respectfully acknowledge that this is not my land, and I am grateful to have lived on these lands for much of my life.vAbstractCanada’s Indigenous communities are at a disproportionately higher risk of living with deficiencies in their water systems. Federal government-led programs have failed to address the fundamental, historical issues found in these communities, and year after year have left many Indigenous com-munities without safe or reliable access to clean drinking water. To achieve sustainable results requires a holistic understanding of these communities, combined with site and community-specific interventions.Architects have the research capabilities and representational tools at their disposal to present a clearer picture of the water crisis. By using these tools to properly understand the issues contribut-ing to the crisis, this thesis posits that architecture has the agency to propose informed, site-specific design strategies that truly work towards the goal of providing Indigenous communities with sus-tainable access to clean drinking water. From this work emerged three schematic designs, ideas of how in-depth research and architectural representation can inform more appropriate strategies for these communities.Given the need for site-specific design strategies, this thesis proposes a framework of engagement with Indigenous communities to work towards solving this long-standing issue and ensure all Ca-nadians have access to clean drinking water.viiTable of ContentsixAbstractList of FiguresAcknowledgementsThesis StatementPrefaceField of InterestChapter I: Clean Water Crisis in Indigenous CommunitiesChapter II: Framework of Indigenous Community EngagementChapter III: Contributing Factors in the Clean Water CrisisChapter IV: PrecedentsChapter V: Design Strategies for Sustainable Access to Clean WaterConclusionTechnical Notes: Water Treatment ProcessesEndnotesBibliographyvxixvxviixixxxiii1233763719799127139List of FiguresxiFigure 1. Long-Term Advisories Timeline Figure 2. Long-Term Advisories MapFigure 3. Timeline of Government Investment Figure 4. National Average Risk Score of Water Systems on First NationsFigure 5. Drinking Water Governance in CanadaFigure 6. Framework of Community EngagementFigure 7. Factors in the Clean Water CrisisFigure 8. Trucked Water Underground CisternsFigure 9. Six Nations of the Grand RiverFigure 10. Canada Road Network MapFigure 11. Lack of Certified OperatorsFigure 12. Causes of Water AdvisoriesFigure 13. NeskatangaFigure 14. Water Source ContaminationFigure 15. Ineffective Wastewater ContaminationFigure 16. Lagoons Figure 17. Septic TanksFigure 18. North Caribou LakeFigure 19. Water Treatment System, Lytton BC (Redacted)478 11152438 414345474951535557596164xiiixiiFigure 20. Interior of Water Treatment System, Lytton BC (Redacted)Figure 21. Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment Constructed Wetland (Redacted)Figure 22. Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment (Redacted)Figure 23. Sechelt Water Resource Centre (Redacted)Figure 24. Interior Sechelt Water Resource Centre (Redacted)Figure 25. Overview of Design StrategiesFigure 26. Cistern in BasementFigure 27. Kinship-Based Cluster - AxonometricFigure 28. Kinship-Based Cluster - GreenhouseFigure 29. Kinship-Based Cluster - Kitchen SmokehouseFigure 30. Kinship-Based Cluster - Constructed WetlandFigure 31. Hybrid Treatment Design - AxonometricFigure 32. Hybrid Treatment Design - ClassroomFigure 33. Hybrid Treatment Design - BathroomsFigure 34. Hybrid Treatment Design - GreenhouseFigure 35. Hybrid Treatment Design - LibraryFigure 36. Hybrid Treatment Design - Constructed WetlandFigure 37. Water Types and UsesFigure 38. Water and Wastewater Treatment LifecycleFigure 39. Comparison of Wastewater Systems6466666868737577798183858789919395103107124Acknowledgements I want to give a huge thank you to my committee of John Bass, Patrick Stewart, Fionn Byrne, and Anthony Persaud for their time, valuable input and support towards my thesis over the past several months. Their thoughtful ideas and guidance were instrumental in bringing this project to where it is today. Thank you to all my friends, colleagues and teachers at SALA who have been a part of this incred-ible journey these past three years. Thank you to my family for home-cooked meals and constant words of encouragement. Thank you to Maddie for her endless support.xvThesis StatementArchitects have the research capabilities and representational tools at their disposal to present a clearer picture of the clean water crisis affecting Indigenous Canadians. By using these tools to properly understand the issues contributing to the water crisis, this thesis posits that architecture has the agency to propose informed site-specific design strategies that truly work towards the goal of providing Indigenous communities with sustainable, reliable access to clean drinking water. xvii With a thesis taking on sensitive issues in Indigenous communities, it is important that I frame the intent and position of this project. I am not Indigenous. I am a white Canadian with European heritage who has lived for much of his life in Toronto, Vancouver or Montreal, urban areas where the endless supply of clean water from our taps is considered a given. I have not been personally impacted by this crisis, nor can I speak for the thousands of Indigenous Canadians who have struggled for the right to clean water their entire lives.  The clean water crisis in Indigenous communities deals with the most basic and fundamen-tal of human rights, and as Canadian citizens, this is a human rights crisis that should both disturb us and interest us all, and one which we all should feel compelled to end.  I am aware of the importance of community engagement in a project such as this. Given the time constraints of this graduate project and added challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, my ability to engage with specific Indigenous communities has been limited. However, I recognize that thorough engagement with community members is required when working with Indigenous communities outside the scope and time restrictions of a graduate project. Many of the issues discussed in this thesis are a result of a long history of systemic racism, discrimination, and colonialism that Indigenous peoples of Canada have been subject to for de-cades. This project does not seek to solve these issues. Rather, this project proposes that architecture can play a greater role in increasing a community’s identity and independence and decreasing its reliance on a government that has failed deliver for Indigenous Canadians.  Finally, I recognize that architecture cannot solve all the world’s problems. This project isIntent & Positionxixnot trying to solve a scientific issue, nor is it proposing final, definitive solutions to the clean water crisis. This crisis is an overwhelming, complex issue, and one with no single silver bullet solution. This is compounded by a misunderstanding of the challenging conditions present in Indigenous com-munities, resulting in ineffective, quick fixes. Given these complexities and a need to understand the issues to propose design strategies of value, my project shifted from more of a design focus to one speculating on the role of the architect as a translator for Indigenous communities, with the goal of proposing more appropriate or effective design strategies. From this research emerged three schematic designs, ideas of how water treatment infrastructure can be rethought within indigenous communities, ideas that would be further developed through thorough consultation and engage-ment with an indigenous community.xxixxPrefacexxiii At the height of the Great Depression, the Tennessee River Valley was one of America’s most impoverished regions. It suffered from rapid deforestation, land erosion, flooding, and high unemployment. As part of his New Deal to fuel economic growth, President Franklin D. Roos-evelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act in 19331. The Act established the Tennessee Valley Authority as a federally owned electric utility and regional economic development agency and tasked it with modernizing the valley, developing commerce, industry and agriculture, providing flood control through reforestation, and improving the navigability of the Tennessee River. The Ten-nessee Valley Authority built dams, reservoirs, and power plants, creating thousands of jobs. It re-duced soil erosion through reforestation and expanded farmers skillsets through training programs2. Despite also being responsible for community displacement and flooding in certain areas, the Tennessee Valley Authority is seen today as a prototype of public ownership in natural resource planning. The successes of the Tennessee Valley Authority have inspired other site-specific partner-ships focused on natural resource management and social and economic development3.  Beth Rose Middleton is a professor of Native American studies at the University of Cali-fornia, Davis. Her research focusses on Native environmental policy and Native activism for site protection using conservation tools, as well as conservation partnerships led by California Native Nations. In her book, Upstream, Middleton discusses the cultural and physical disruptions on Na-tive American communities created by California’s State Water Project4. She highlights the need for policy reform and learning from Indigenous cultures and history in contemporary conservation reform: “The world would look different if stewarded from a different way of knowing”5. After decades of federal government inaction and countless broken promises, Indigenous peoples across Canada are increasingly frustrated by the water crisis plaguing their communities. Investment and water infrastructure development programs have failed to produce tangible results, erasing what little faith these communities had in the federal government. In the face of consistent xxvxxivgovernment inaction, site-specific public partnerships might offer the most viable solutions to the clean water crisis and could empower Indigenous communities to take control of the water re-sources and systems in their communities.  The Atlantic First Nations Water Authority (AFNWA) is an initiative established in June 2020 by fifteen First Nation communities in the Maritime provinces to transfer control and manage-ment of their water and wastewater services from the Canadian government to an independent, First Nation owned and operated water authority. The agreement covers the water and wastewa-ter operations of 4,500 households and seeks to combine Western, science-based methods with traditional Indigenous knowledge6. The AFNWA was established to enable First Nation commu-nities to gain greater control over their water quality and projects. In creating the authority, the At-lantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs Secretariat (APC) worked with non-Indigenous water experts to develop a comprehensive water strategy. The AFNWA is expected to be up and running by the spring of 20227. Site-specific water management partnerships like the AFNWA may offer the best ap-proach to ending the clean water crisis. This project seeks to empower site-specific partnerships such as the AFNWA, where architecture can serve as a means of communicating between Indig-enous communities and outside parties. This project positions the architect as a translator, working with Indigenous communities and partnerships to better communicate the water issues plaguing these communities, with the goal of proposing more site-specific and appropriate design strategies that tackle the root issues contributing to the clean water crisis. Clean Water Crisis in Indigenous CommunitiesChapter 11Canada3 The issue of water scarcity rarely comes to mind when we think of Canada. Canada is home to approximately 20% of the planet’s freshwater resources and 7% of its renewable water8. Renewable water is water that is replenished naturally through precipitation and consists of fresh surface water and groundwater. Canada has the third largest renewable freshwater supply in the world, behind Russia and Brazil and, with over 100,000 cubic meters per person, the second most per capita amongst developed nations, behind only Iceland9. Much of this water drains into Hudson’s Bay and the Arctic Ocean and are therefore not accessible to the 85% of Canadians that live along the southern border. There have also been growing fears that Canada is nearing a shortage of renewable freshwater, as consumption grows. However, a recent Fraser Institute study determined that Canada only consumes about 1% of the fresh water that is available annually10. Additionally, Canada’s freshwater is consistently ranked among the cleanest in the world. The Envi-ronmental Performance Index (EPI) listed Canada as the country with the second-best water quality among selected industrialized nations and ninth overall among 157 countries surveyed, with a score of 93.1 out of 10011. Economically, Canada is one of the wealthiest nations in the world. It’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 was $1.736 bn (USD) in 2019, the 12th highest in the world while its GDP per capita – $51,589 (USD) – ranked 13th in the world12. As one of the wealthiest and most developed countries in the world, the vast majority of Canadians are served by world-class water infrastructure and have access to clean drinking water in their own homes. While most Canadians take safe and readily available drinking water for granted, Indigenous communities across Canada are denied this basic human right every day. 19952000200520102015WawakapewinSandy LakeCowichanTataskweyak Cree NationOneida of the ThamesPikangikumMohawks of the Bay of QuinteMohawks of the Bay of Quinte Mohawks of the Bay of QuinteMohawks of the Bay of QuinteMohawks of the Bay of QuinteAlgonquin/ Kitigan ZibiAlgonquin/ Kitigan ZibiAlgonquin/ Kitigan ZibiBlack LakeFrog LakeGod’s LakeShamattawaRed Earth Cree NationEabametoong FNPinaymootangDeer LakeDeer LakeHollow WaterKehewinLake ManitobaLake ManitobaMishkeegogamangMishkeegogamangMishkeegogamangMishkeegogamangFond Du Lac DenesulineMinistikwan Lake Cree NationGrassy NarrowsWabaseemoongMiawpukekWhite BearWebequieCowessessLac SeulLittle PineConstance Lake FNPoundmakerPoundmakerCurve LakeBig Island Lake Cree NationChippewas of Nawash First NationTl’azt’enLittle SaskatchewanCumberland HouseCumberland HousePauingassiSweetgrassPeepeekisisPeepeekisisEel GroundStanding Buffalo #78PotlotekBearskin LakeSachigo LakeSachigo LakeNorth Spirit LakeNorth Spirit LakeKahkewistahawNibinamikEsk’etemcAbegweitAbegweitAdams LakeWhitefish LakeKinonjeoshtegonKinonjeoshtegonAlexis C reekAlexis CreekRocky Bay Anishinabe of Wauzhushk OnigumAnishinabe of Wauzhushk OnigumAnishinabe of Wauzhushk OnigumGull Bay (Kiashke Zaaging Anishinaabek)Pic MobertPic MobertMarten FallsAldervilleCanupawakpaWeenuskNeskatangaLac La CroixWilliams LakeBig GrassyTsal’alhChippewa of Georgina IslandShoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Shoal Lake No. 40Star BlanketXeni Gwet’inXeni Gwet’inBonaparteLower SimilkameenStellat’enWuskwi SipihkSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNSlate Falls FNNorthwest Angle No. 33Northwest Angle No. 33Northwest Angle No. 33Muskrat Dam LakeT’it’q’etAnishnaabeg of NaongashiingNekaneetNekaneetTooseyNorthwest Angle No. 37Northwest Angle No. 37NigigoonsiminikaaningWahta MohawkWashagamis BayWashagamis BayPabineauNazkoWabauskangTaykwa Tagamou NationShuswapKapawe’noIndian IslandWet’suwet’enOjibway Nation of SaugeenOjibway Nation of SaugeenSiskaMississaugas of Scugog Island FNMississaugas of Scugog Island FNMississaugas of Scugog Island FNMississaugas of Scugog Island FNSemiahmooMississaugas of Scugog Island FNCat LakeSerpent River First NationFort SevernSlate Falls FNPeter Ballantyne Cree NationPeter Ballantyne Cree NationSapotawayakLake ManitobaNekaneet0 - 99100 - 199200 - 299300 - 399400 - 499500 - 599600 - 699700 - 799800 - 899900 - 9991000 - 1999more than 2000Cause of Water AdvisoryDistribution or Lack of Access to InfrastructureLack of OperatorsBroken or Inadequate Treatment InfrastructureOther/ UnknownContaminated Water Sources4 5Water Quality in Indigenous Communities Access to clean drinking water is a major and longstanding issue in Canadian Indigenous communities. In Canada, indigenous communities disproportionately live with third world water quality issues and lack basic access to safe and reliable water for drinking and other household activities. People on First Nations reserves are 90 times more likely to not have access to running water than other Canadians13. A Council of Canadians report found that 73% of First Nations’ wa-ter systems are at a high or medium risk of contamination14. While many First Nations experience chronic water quality and access issues, neighbouring communities or municipalities have reliable access to safe and clean water, pointing to the long-standing and ongoing history of colonialism and systemic racism that First Nations peoples have been subject to for hundreds of years15. Drinking Water Advisories A drinking water advisory is issued by the community or the government when running wa-ter is deemed unsafe to consume or use. There are three tiers of drinking water advisories: boil wa-ter advisories, do not consume advisories, and do not use advisories. According to the Council of Canadians, at any given time, there are over 100 active water advisories in place in First Nations across Canada16. Additionally, a 2015 CBC News investigation revealed that two-thirds of all First Nation communities in Canada had been under at least one drinking water advisory between 2004 and 201417. Several water advisories may be in place in one First Nation or community at the same time, with different water systems impacted. These water advisories may last several days or may stretch beyond a year when they become long-term advisories. Some communities have been under water advisories for decades. Residents of Neskatanga, a fly-in community of around 400 in northern Ontario, have not been able to drink from a tap since 1995. As of May 2021, there are 52 long-term drinking water advisories in place in 33 communities, with dozens of additional Figure 1. Long-Term Advisories Timeline76First Nation CommunityLong-Term Water AdvisoryNumber of Advisories in Effectshort-term advisories in place at any given time18. The diagram on page 4 is an attempt to capture the complexities and the scale of the water crisis (see Figure 1). It shows a timeline of long-term drinking water advisories in effect at some point over the past 6 years, with each ring radiating out of the center representing one year, beginning in 199519. The advisories are arrayed by the popu-lation size of the community where the advisory is in effect, from under 100 people to over 2,000. These long-term advisories are in effect in communities across the country. This is not just an issue of water access in the cold, desolate north. Each of these advisories requires different approaches, catering to different geographic conditions and climatic environments (see Figure 2)20. There are substantial gaps in the data available on the real number of impacted communi-ties. Indigenous communities may be on and off short-term advisories for several months, with issues persisting over several years. Additionally, many houses or small communities have never been connected to a clean water source and are still living entirely off-grid. A representative from the First Nations Health Authority – a province-wide health service delivery organization responsible for administering health programs and services in British Columbia – stated in 2019 that “the vast majority of drinking water advisories in BC are off, not on, reserve”21. According to Dr. Pamela Pal-mater, an associate professor and Chair in Indigenous Governance at Ryerson University, “Ottawa also doesn’t track homes and community buildings that are not connected to a public water system: in other words, communities or homes that don’t have access to running water don’t get included in the advisory counts”22.Impacts Contaminated water means that communities must pay exorbitant prices for bottled water, of which there are often shortages, work everyday to get their hands on and sterilize water, or settle for the bacteria-filled water. As a result of the lack of reliable, safe water, residents of Indigenous communities have experienced a number of wide-ranging impacts to their physical and mental health. Contaminated water can lead to severe rashes, stomach problems, and other major health issues, all while crippling a community financially and hindering its development23. Waterborne infections on reserves are 26 times greater than the Canadian national average24. In Lytton, BC, drinking the tap water would often result in flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, and vomiting25. Residents of Neskatanga in Ontario have reported skin rashes and infections after bathing in the town’s water. When asked about the community’s health concerns of using the water, Indigenous Services Can-ada stated that it “has not been made aware of an outbreak of skin rashes”26. Despite the wide range of physical health consequences, the most severe impact of dirty water is to the mental health of a community’s residents. Dawn Martin-Hill, a professor of Indigenous studies at McMaster Uni-Figure 2. Long-Term Advisories Density Map9854689590104 1056776565259$1bn$2bn$3bn$4bn$5bn$6bn$7bn$8bn$9bn202120202019201820172016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995Cumulative government investment in clean water in Indigenous communitiesLong-term drinking water advisories in effect in Indigenous communitiesFirst Nations Water Management StrategyFirst Nations Water Management Strategy First Nations Water Management Strategy Trudeau Government Pledge$1.9B $1.6B $3.1B $1.8versity stated that “mental health is the leading concern for First Nations regarding access to clean water”27.Timeline of Government Action The water crisis in Indigenous communities has been ongoing for decades, with little signs of improvement. Stemming from a long history of colonialism and racism, and a complex gov-ernance structure, Indigenous communities receive substantially less funding that non-Indigenous Canadians. Increases in steady funding are required to tackle the clean water crisis, but simply throwing money at the problem is not the solution either. Despite billions of dollars spent on building and updating water infrastructure in these communities, there has been very little real progress in the fight for clean water.   Over the past 40 years, a number of federal programs have been implemented with the goal of tackling unsafe and unreliable water in First Nations. In 1977, a federal policy was laid down for the general standard of living on reserves. Its intent was “to provide Indian homes and communities with the physical infrastructure that meets commonly accepted health and safety standards, is similar to that available in neighbouring, non-Indian communities or comparable lo-cations, and is operated and maintained according to sound management practices”28. Included in this policy was a promise to provide First Nations with water and sanitation services comparable to non-Indigenous communities living in the same geographic regions. Fourteen years later, in 1991, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) made a com-mitment to ensure the First Nations communities had equal access to safe and reliable drinking water by 200129. Just four years later, in 1995, INAC publicly acknowledged that one quarter of First Nations were experiencing serious issues with their water and pledged to fix the water crisis by 2004. From 1995 to 2003, the federal government spent $1.9bn on building and improving water treatment infrastructure in First Nations 30. In 2003, a national assessment found 218 of 740 drink-ing-water systems on reserves were high risk. With 54 long-term water advisories still in effect, the federal government promised to “address all of the high-risk systems by the end of March 2008”31. Two years later, with 95 long-term water advisories now in effect, an audit found that reserves still did not have the same level of water infrastructure as other Canadian communities and that there were no laws or regulations governing drinking water on First Nation reserves. Under the Kelowna Accord, Paul Martin’s Liberal federal government came together with provincial and territorial governments, as well as five national Indigenous groups to pledge to close the gap between living standards on First Nations and non-Indigenous Canadian communities. This pledge included a $1.6bn commitment to building and improving housing and infrastructure, $400m of which would go towards water facilities. However, four days later, the liberal government was dissolved and the newly elected conservative government, under Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s leadership, drastically reduced the financial pledges made under the Kelowna Accord32. Figure 3. Timeline of Government Investment1110Over the next several years, billions of dollars were spent on the construction and im-provement of infrastructure on First Nations. From 2008 to 2016, the First Nations Water Manage-ment Strategy allocated $3.1bn to water facilities and infrastructure in Indigenous communities33. There are substantial gaps in the data available on water advisories in effect during this time frame: the number of long-term water advisories in effect each year is not available, and the number of short term advisories in place at any given moment is even harder to track. The lack of a compre-hensive and effective process for tracking water advisories is a substantial contributing factor to the severity of the crisis in Indigenous communities. Despite billions of dollars spent on improving water infrastructure, the number of long-term water advisories in effect in 2016 had risen to 105 from 104 in 2007, when the last figures on long-term advisories were publicly available34. In 2015, as part of his campaign pledge, liberal leader Justin Trudeau promised to end all long-term water advisories on Indigenous reserves by March 2021. This pledge included the ex-penditure of $1.8bn on water infrastructure in First Nations but made no mention of short-term ad-visories35. In fact, in 2018, Indigenous Services Minister Jane Philpott stated that Trudeau’s pledge referred only to long-term boil water advisories, and not all advisories. Although the number of long-term advisories has been brought down over the past five years, 52 remain in place in 33 communities as of May 2021, several of which are recent additions to the list36. Despite the prog-ress that has been made, the numbers are deceiving. From 2016 to February 2020 – when there were 61 active long-term advisories – the total number of homes on long-term water advisories fell from 5,400 to 3,80037. Many more homes in Indigenous communities not included in these figures were never connected to water lines and do not fall under the federal government’s pledge.  In December 2020, Marc Miller, who replaced Philpott as Indigenous Services Minister in 2019, announced that the Trudeau government would not meet its pledge to end all long-term advisories by March 2021. However, the federal government expanded on its 2016 pledge by committing an additional $1.5bn over six years towards improving access to safe and reliable water on First Nations: $616.3m for the training and retention of water treatment plant operators, $553.4m for the prevention of future drinking water advisories,  and $309.8m towards the com-pletion of ongoing projects38.  Despite the government’s positive announcements about the improvement in water access and quality on First Nations and the promise of additional funding, there is serious concern among communities and advocates that the federal’s government’s solutions are temporary, quick fixes39. Experts worry that ending long-term water advisories is a short-term politically motivated goal that does not equate providing consistently safe and reliable drinking water40. The Integrated Capi-tal Management System (ICMS) is a database used by Indigenous Services Canada to assess the risk that water systems pose to the people they serve. Water systems are inspected annually and scored on risk scale from 1 (low risk) to 10 (extreme risk) based on how well the system is maintained and operated, the quality of the water, the operator’s training level, and records that are kept. A Globe and Mail analysis of the ICMS data found that, from 2014 to 2018, despite a substantial decrease in the number of active long-term water advisories, the national average risk score among the 800 systems in Indigenous communities tracked by the database had barely budged (See Figure 4)41.  In “Reconciling Promises and Reality: Clean Drinking Water For First Nations”, a 2018 report investigating the status and success of the Trudeau government’s plan to end all long-term water advisories, the David Suzuki Foundation concludes the following: “ The issue of clean drink-ing water cannot be addressed in isolation; rather, it requires interdepartmental collaboration Figure 4.National Average Risk Score of Water Systems on First Nations Reserves from 2014 to 2018National average risk score 542014 2015 2016 2017 2018321and must be equipped alongside capacity building and adequate resources”42. By announcing large investments in water infrastructure in Indigenous communities, the government is attempting to address the significant issues of underfunding. However, little innovation or new modes of think-ing appear to be proposed to deal with water issues in these communities43. Under the current agreement, the federal government covers 80% of operating and maintenance costs of built in-frastructure. First Nations are responsible for the remaining 20%. However, most First Nations do not generate enough revenue to cover these operating and maintenance costs, leading to further breakdowns44. The current programs and policies fail to address these funding gaps, leading to serious concerns over the long-term sustainability and success of water infrastructure in Indigenous communities. Additionally, while Indigenous Services Canada is responsible for providing clean drinking water to First Nations, it only considers groupings of five or more households as eligible for funding45. That means that countless Indigenous Canadians living in houses or small communities off reserve fail to qualify for federal funding. They are essentially looked over and left behind. A decades-long water crisis and countless unsuccessful federal programs have left little confidence that new water systems and infrastructure will provide real, long-lasting results for First Nations. Community trust in recently completed, ongoing, or proposed water infrastructure projects have eroded to the point that many residents may not drink from the tap even when a project in their community is completed and the water is deemed safe. Tara Sakanee is a resident of Neskatan-ga, Ontario who has lived through decades of bad water. When asked by Maclean’s if she was planning on drinking water from the tap once the new water treatment plant was completed, she replied “To be honest, no. I don’t think so”46.131214Contributing Factors15  One of the biggest challenges in addressing the Indigenous water crisis is the wide range of causes and contributing factors. Officially, the causes of drinking water advisories range from the presence of E. coli or other bacterial particles in the water to issues with equipment and pro-cesses. In 2019, 87% of water advisories were a result of breakdowns of equipment or processes, with 11% and 2% being due to the presence of E. coli or other microbiological water parameters, respectively47. The percentage of water advisories issued as a result of a technological breakdown has been increasing steadily since 2010, leading to questions surrounding the viability of current water treatment systems. Many of these communities have had water treatment facilities for years, but they are flawed in their design or operation48. However, a number of other contributing factors feed into the water crisis in Indigenous communities. All of these factors are intertwined, further exacerbating the complexities of this issue. In all factors, a long history of systemic racism, colonial-ism and discrimination towards Indigenous peoples has and continues to play a major role. The following is a brief overview of some of the larger-scale issues present in Indigenous communities. Lack of Governance In 1867, the Constitution Act of Canada was signed in 1867, leading to the union of Canada as a state. Under section 91 (24) of the Act, the Canadian federal government assumed legal responsibility over “Indians, and land reserved for the Indians”49. As such, the federal gov-ernment is legally responsible for the infrastructure on reserves. Off-reserve, in communities, towns, and cities, the responsibility to provide safe water supply to residents lies with the provincial gov-ernment. On-reserve, however, the federal government is responsible for enforcing regulations, building and maintained public infrastructure, and providing a standard of living that is on par with most other municipalities in Canada50. Provincial regulatory water standards do not apply to on-reserve First Nations communities. The management and provision of clean water on reserves is split between Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), Health Canada, Environment and Climate Change Canada, and First Nations communities. In 2006, an expert panel on Safe Drinking Water for First Nations determined that “these arrangements are neither comprehensive nor easily deciphered; most critically, there are numerous gaps and a lack of uniform standards, as well as enforcement and accountability measures”51. As a result, water quality control processes are flawed and often fail to recognize issues with the water supply in Indigenous communities.  A number of Indigenous communities have complained about the quality of their water for years with the federal government failing to acknowledge that their water does not meet health Figure 5. Drinking Water Governance in CanadaFirst Nations Health AuthorityProvincial GovernmentsIndigenous Services CanadaFirst Nations GovernmentsHealth CanadaGuidelinesRegulationsMunicipal Governments16 17standards52. Once drinking water advisories are issued, the process of finding the issue and pro-posing and funding solutions are bureaucratic, inefficient, and slow. Furthermore, the Constitution Act of 1867 effectively limits the ability of Indigenous groups and communities to fix water issues within their own communities. In a report on the water crisis, the Council of Canadians stated the following: “Greater control by and for First Nations over water is a basic step toward reconcilia-tion, a requirement of the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and a necessary precondition to ending drinking water advisories in First Nations for good”53.  Any effective solutions to the water crisis on First Nations need to provide communities with a greater independence and ownership of the solutions to these issues. This will ensure that the solutions that are implemented actually address the needs of the community, while reducing the community’s reliance on the federal government or any outside expertise or funding. Lack of Funding Another major factor in the water crisis in Indigenous communities is the lack of effective and sustained funding for infrastructure and operations. Despite billions of dollars allocated to tackling the water crisis over the past several decades, experts argue that past and current levels of investment do not meet the necessary levels of funding. In 2016, the Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives argued that an annual investment of $470 million over the next decade would be needed to improve on-reserve drinking water across Canada54.  Trudeau’s 2016 commitment of $1.8bn over five years falls short of this estimate. In 2017, the Parliamentary Budget Officer issued a report that determined that the federal government was providing at most 70% of the total finan-cial commitment needed to end water advisories55. Not only are projects in remote Indigenous communities expensive to build, they also require sustained capital to ensure that they continue to operate. One of the problems with the federal government’s programs are that they are capital in-tensive in the short run but fail to provide enough funding for long-term maintenance and operation of the water systems56.  However, simply increasing funding will not suffice as a solution to the water crisis. To date, the government’s approach has been quite narrow, failing to recognize that the water crisis is a multi-layered issue and only one of the many problems Indigenous communities deal with. Smart investments need to be made in solutions that tackle several issues at once. Additionally, more thought needs to be put into how these systems will be paid for and whether there is potential for other program or infrastructure to help the communities cover operating and maintenance costs once the water infrastructure is built. Remote EnvironmentsThe remote geographic location and challenging environments of many Canadian Indigenous communities is another major factor in the water crisis. Many communities are only accessible by plane or by winter roads. As a result, supplies are expensive to ship to the communities. Construc-tion costs are high, and projects take a long time to complete due to the slow response time and complications in completing a project. Individuals with the required expertise and technical know-how often need to be flown into the community. Once built, small remote communities often lack the necessary technical knowledge or the manpower capable of operating and maintaining the infrastructure.  Another key challenge is that, because many Indigenous communities are in remote re-gions across Canada, in different geographic locations with varying water sources, solutions need to be tailored to each community. The problems faced in each community are diverse: a one-size-fits-all model does not work. Shoal Lake 40, for example, is a community located on the border of Ontario and Manitoba. Its traditional water supply was cut off in the early 1900s when waterways were diverted to provide water to Winnipeg57. Neskatanga in Ontario has been on a water ad-visory for 25 years because its water treatment plant was not properly built58. In almost all cases, colonialism and racism has played a major role.  Solving the water crisis requires a de-centralized approach that learns from each indi-vidual community, proposes tailored infrastructure and solutions, and enables each community to monitor their own water system. They need to be more accessible to the community or provide opportunities to educate the community on its water treatment system and process. Solutions need to rely on local knowledge and expertise and infrastructure needs to be built using, cost-effective, locally sourced materials. Water Source Degradation Decades of colonialism and a complete lack of regard for the health and wellbeing of Indigenous communities has had a major effect on the water sources these communities rely on. The water sources of many communities are often contaminated by pollen, E. coli, waste, or indus-trial pollution. Grassy Narrows, a community in Ontario, is one such community. Since the 1870s, the traditional and ancestral lands of Grassy Narrows have been subject to unlawful logging and flooding, as a result of the construction of a hydro-electric dam. In the 1960s, the community was 18 19coerced into relocating to a reserve on a small-stagnant lake. The community was told that this was the only place a school could be built in their community59. In the 60s and 70s, industrial pollution from a paper mill upstream contaminated the water on which the community relied with mercury. Three generations have been impacted, and 90% of the community today experiences symptoms of mercury poisoning60.  Deeper and larger-scale issues are at play here that infrastructure may not provide a meaningful solution to. However, well-planned and built infrastructure may ensure that water treat-ment facilities work more effectively to treat contaminated water and clean wastewater before it is released back into nature. Buildings designed more sustainably may reduce the degradation of water sources or may improve the quality of the source water. Additional water management and treatment infrastructure may also be built to aid in the water treatment process, reduce the amount of water that needs to be treated, and overall reduce the stresses placed on water infrastructure. Poor Infrastructure Another major contributor to the water crisis in Indigenous communities is the water in-frastructure that is either in place or entirely lacking. Water infrastructure is inherently complex. Treatment plants involve high-tech systems and engineering processes, which need to be main-tained and operated by trained professionals. As a result, they require high operational costs and substantial maintenance requirements. In remote Indigenous communities, this poses a challenge. There aren’t enough operators to manage the facilities, nor is there enough education or training provided to these communities to ensure the steady operation of their water infrastructure61. When parts break down, the remote nature of these communities and high cost result in slow fixes to the facilities. When water treatment facilities were built in the mid 1990s, different types of treatment systems were built in different communities. This limited the ability of different communities or oper-ators to share expertise or parts, making it harder to fix breakdowns whenever they arise62.  The planning for the design and construction of these facilities is often conducted by out-siders with little input from the community. In one example, the water treatment plant in a reserve in Northern Ontario was built downstream from the community’s sewage lagoon63. To effectively tackle the water crisis in Indigenous communities, these communities need to be consulted to find out what the issues are, what resources are available to the community, and what solutions can be implemented.  One of the biggest criticisms of the federal government’s current plan to end all long-term water advisories is that it is failing to provide innovative solutions. The government’s current plan has been criticized for being too short-sighted, with the sole objective of ending long-term boil water advisories by the March 2021 deadline64. Many of the new treatment facilities look much like the old ones, albeit with more advanced and hopefully more reliable technology and engineering. The architecture of these facilities is foreign in these First Nation communities: they do not employ local materials and fail to engage with the vernacular, history, or culture of the community. A fail-ure to rethink the potential for the role of water infrastructure in a community may very well result in a resurgence of water advisories in the coming years. As we have seen over the past several decades, simply throwing money at the water crisis has failed to produce sustainable and tangible improvements in the quality of drinking water on First Nations. Water infrastructure, or at least cer-tain aspects of it, has the potential to be embedded in other program or structures, thereby helping to solve multiple issues facing Indigenous communities. By widening the scope of what infrastruc-ture could be offered, and considering the myriad of problems that contribute to the water crisis, new solutions could be proposed to provide communities with reliable, safe water. Making water infrastructure more accessible, both in terms of opening the door for more communities to have access to this infrastructure and in terms of educating the community on water treatment processes and systems, is critical to ensuring that Indigenous communities have sustained and reliable access to clean drinking water. Conclusion The lack of access to safe and reliable drinking water is a complex issue with layers of interconnected factors. The factors outlined in this section are some of the larger scale, overarch-ing factors that contribute to the wickedness of the clean water crisis. In turn, these factors result in a number of smaller, more concrete issues present in Indigenous communities, such as a lack of certified water treatment operators or ineffective wastewater treatment systems. This project will ex-amine three of these more specific factors in greater depth to highlight the importance of thorough research and architectural representation in proposing more site-appropriate design strategies.   There is no single end-all solution to the crisis and approaching the clean water crisis with the belief that a simple fix will automatically solve all issues will ultimately continue to lead to failure. This issue requires a multi-layered approach and a number of solutions that work to ad-dress inequalities in Indigenous communities from different standpoints. As such, this project does not propose a definitive solution to the water crisis. Rather, the three schematic designs proposed through this work are a product of the in-depth research. They are not final solutions, but examples of the importance of truly understanding the crisis in proposing strategies to end the water crisis.  2120Framework of Indigenous Community Consultation, Engagement, and GovernanceChapter 22324PlanOrganizeEvaluateEnvisionIdentifyOverview25One of the biggest issues in the ongoing clean water crisis is a failure to properly engage and consult with Indigenous communities. Given the time constraints of this project, my abilities to en-gage in thorough consultations with an Indigenous community have been limited. The work that I have carried out over the past several months lays the groundwork for specific community design strategies to be developed with in-depth consultation from a community. The following is a 5-step model of engagement through which this work can applied with thorough and complete engagement with a community. This framework was based on several models of engagement in Indigenous communities that have proven to be successful in empowering and mobilizing the communities and achieving sustainable, measurable results. One such success story was a source water protection plan created and carried out through a partnership between re-searchers at the University of Guelph and the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation. This framework emphasized a constant level of engagement between the researchers and the First Nation. No decisions were made without the consent of the community and its action items were largely determined and carried out by members of the First Nation65. This proposed framework of Indigenous community consultation, engagement, and governance relies on community input, consent, and decision making. It acknowledges that no one understands the water crisis facing a community more than the community members themselves. Only through a collaborative, respectful process can tangible, sustainable goals be met in ending the clean water crisis in Indigenous communities. This framework is designed as an ongoing cycle, a con-stant process through which objectives are regularly updated and the community’s successes are celebrated, and its shortfalls evaluated. In subsequent sections of this work, small icons on the upper left of a page indicate where the work falls into this framework.Figure 6. Framework of Community Engagement26PlanOrganizeEvaluate Identify“What are our goals as a community with regards to our water”EnvisionStage 1: EnvisionIn the first stage, the community organizes itself, forming a clean water committee consisting of community members with elected leaders. The committee’s roles and responsibilities are clearly outlined and communicated. Community members of all ages and from across the community are engaged to collectively determine the scope and scale of the community’s objectives and work, as well as its values and visions for the future with regards to its water source, consumption, or treatment.Key Questions / Things to Consider1. What are the community’s visions and objectives for its water source, consumption, and treat-ment? What are its top priorities?2. How is the community already working towards cleaner and safer water?3. How will the community at large be fully engaged in the process?2728PlanOrganizeEvaluateEnvision“What issues around water are we experiencing in our community?”IdentifyStage 2: Identify29In the second stage, community members are asked to identify the water-related issues that they have experienced in their day to day lives. The clean water committee engages the entire com-munity to hear and learn from members’ lived experiences, stories, and knowledge, from which a complete list of water-related issues is consolidated. The committee also gathers feedback on proposed solutions or actions the community can take to address the water-related issues it is experiencing. Key Questions / Things to Consider1. How have community members been impacted by a lack of access to clean, safe, and reliable water? 2. As a community member, what do you believe is contributing to the lack of access to safe and reliable water in your community?3. What are the main threats, both present and future, to the current supply of clean water in the community?30OrganizeEvaluateEnvision“What actions align with our community goals and address the water issues we are experiencing?”IdentifyPlanStage 3: Plan31Once a more complete picture of the water issues in the community has been presented, the community can start determining what strategies or actions best address the issues they experience and best align with their stated goals and visions. The committee assembles all community input, identifies the greatest threats facing the community, and ranks priorities. The committee then works both with the community and with external experts (environmentalists, ecologists, hydrologists, etc.) to determine the best approach for the community. This includes an overview of appropriate design interventions, a risk assessment of proposed plans, and feasibility studies. Throughout the process, the community at large is engaged to gather feedback on the process and for approval on the proposed next steps. Key Questions / Things to Consider1. How is the community going to achieve its short and long-term goals?2. What design strategies best align with the community’s vision and objectives, and address the issues community members have identified? 3. What are the timelines of the action plan? Are there opportunities for overlap with existing com-munity projects?32EvaluateEnvision“How are we going to carry out our action plan?”IdentifyPlanOrganizeStage 4: Organize33In the fourth stage, an action plan is created, laying out responsibilities for the project during imple-mentation and upon completion. During this stage, the committee fleshes out priorities from the plan development stage to finalize the implementation plan. Target dates, milestones and outcomes are decided on and funding opportunities are identified. Experts from outside the community are continuously engaged to address gaps in the plan. Tasks are divided amongst community depart-ments and delegated to different community members. Throughout the entire process, community members are continuously engaged to ensure that the action plan and objectives align with the community values and address the issues that were identified in previous stages. Key Questions / Things to Consider1. How is the action plan going to be carried out?2. How is the success of the plan going to be measured?34Envision“How did we succeed and what can we do better?”IdentifyPlanOrganizeEvaluateStage 5: Evaluate35In the fifth stage, the community evaluates the work that has been completed. Community members celebrate their successes and identify areas for improvement and outstanding issues. A review of plans and programs implemented is carried out by the committee to determine where the commu-nity still faces challenges accessing safe and reliable drinking water. The committee gathers feed-back from community members on completed actions, ongoing programs, and areas of concern, and continues to engage with third parties to conduct external reviews. From here, the cycle begins again, continuously working to address issues with a community’s water supply.  Key Questions / Things to Consider1. Were the implemented strategies appropriate for the local context and the for the community? 2. How were the implemented strategies successful in addressing deficiencies in the community’s ability to reliably access clean water? 3. What areas can be improved upon, and what water-related issues are outstanding?Contributing Factors in the Clean Water CrisisChapter 33738Racism, Discrimination, and ColonialismGovernance IssuesFundingLack of certified operatorsTechnical Issues Lack of InfrastructureSub-standard InfrastructureCommunity Accessibility IssuesLack of Regulatory OversightPoor Planning and Project ManagementDistribution issues in sprawling, rural communitiesSource water contaminationOverviewEngagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify239There are many issues at play in the clean water crisis, all products of the five larger-scale factors outlined in Chapter 1. They are all intertwined and vary from community to community, and again highlight the wickedness of this problem. For the sake of this project, I focussed on three issues present in many communities across the country to better understand if and how design could play a role in providing sustainable access to clean water: 1. Distribution and infrastructure challenges in sprawling communities  2. Lack of certified water treatment operators 3. Contaminated source water from ineffective wastewater treatment  Figure 7. Factors in the Clean Water CrisisDistribution Issues in Low-Density, Rural CommunitiesTrucked water from a central water treatment facility is the federal government’s solution to high piping costsEngagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify24013.5%% of homes in First Nations communities rely on trucked waterDrivers lack adequate training and certificationTreated water is delivered weekly from central treatment facilityLack of proper cistern maintenance leads to contamination of stored waterFreeze-thaw cycles create cracks in  underground cisterns Eroded trust in water quality41Many Indigenous communities are located in rural environments, with houses spread out across a reserve. In these sprawling, low-density communities, the government has deemed that the cost to connect each house directly to a central water line is too high. Instead, clean water is trucked in weekly from a central water treat-ment facility. Cisterns are typically located below ground. They are poorly constructed and maintained and are often cracked as a re-sult of freeze-thaw cycles in the ground, resulting in contamination of the trucked water. The water is so contaminated that residents living in these communities refuse to consume it, instead spending money on bottled water. Despite these significant issues, communi-ties relying on trucked water are rarely placed under water adviso-ries. As far as the government is concerned, Indigenous Canadians in these communities have an abundant supply of clean and safe water66. Figure 8. Trucked Water Underground CisternsCase Study: Six Nations of the Grand RiverExpensive, centralized water treatment approach fails to provide clean water to majority of community’s homes42Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Estimated cost of replacing trucked water with piping to all homes  $120M$41M86% of wells contaminated Cisterns are poorly maintained, broken, and contaminated43Six Nations of the Grand River is the largest First Nation reserve in Canada with a population of over 13,000. Despite being located just over an hour away from Toronto, the majority of its members rely on trucked water. In 2013, a new water treatment facility was completed at a cost of $41M. However, only 500 homes on the reserve are actually connected to the treatment plant. After com-pletion, the government estimated that it would cost an additional $120M to connect the remaining 2,200 homes to the plant. Instead of connecting these homes, they now rely on wells and trucked water, both of which are contaminated by runoff from off-reserve farms. This case highlights not only the lack of funding Indigenous communities receive, but also a lack of engagement with the com-munity and failure to understand the local conditions and limitations present in a community. It also highlights the potential for decentral-ized treatment systems to serve smaller clusters of houses67.Figure 9. Six Nations of the Grand RiverLack of Certified Water Treatment OperatorsMajority of long-term drinking water advisories occur in remote communities(2015-present)44Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify245The majority of long-term advisories in effect at some point since 2015 were issued in communities either at the edge of Canada’s road networks or beyond these transportation routes. Remote First Nations communities are faced with a number of added challeng-es that further complicate the issue of clean water, such as challeng-ing construction processes and communication issues. Perhaps one of the most crucial is the lack of local expertise and trained profes-sionals required to operate and monitor complex water treatment systems68. Figure 10. Canada Road Network MapLack of Certified Water Treatment OperatorsRemote communities suffer from a shortage of trained water treatment operators, threatening the working operations of their water infrastructure46Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify247%26%59%67%50km350km% of Systems with Certified Primary Water Treatment Operators by Geographic ZoneBC and Ontario (2011)47In First Nations communities located within 50Km of a provincial service centre, 67% of water systems had a certified primary water treatment operator, a number still substantially lower than in non-in-digenous communities. As we move further away from service centres into more remote First Nations communities, however, this number decreases even further. In fly-in communities, communities accessible only by plane or by winter road, only a quarter of water systems have a certified primary water operator69.Figure 11.Lack of Certified OperatorsLack of Certified Water Treatment OperatorsLack of operators results in longer, more severe drinking water advisories(Causes of water advisories, 2004-2015)48Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2140 days243 days130 days47 daysOperators Not CertifiedSmall CommunitiesAverage duration of  advisories% of total advisories 49The presence of a trained and certified water treatment operator is crucial to the sustained provision of clean drinking water. Commu-nities with adequate water treatment infrastructure may be placed under a water advisory if they don’t have a certified primary oper-ator to run it. From 2004 to 2015, 40% of all drinking water adviso-ries, both short and long term, were issued as a result of operational issues. Advisories issued as a result of health concerns, meaning the water posed a serious threat to human health, on average lasted substantially longer and were typically issued in smaller communi-ties where the treatment operators were not certified70.Figure 12.Causes of Water AdvisoriesCase Study: NeskatangaLack of trained operators threatens success of upgraded water treatment facility50Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2450 km NorthWater treatment facility is completed 1993Treatment facility suffers technical breakdownTreatment facility has remained largely out of commission for 25+ years1995Broken Water Treatment PlantRemote Fly-in CommunityLack of Trained Operators andLimited Training & Education Opportunities51Neskatanga is a fly-in community located 450km north of Thunder Bay. It has been under a boil water advisory since 1995 when its two-year-old water treatment facility broke down. In the 25 years since, community members have relied primarily on bottled water for bathing and consumption. After countless delays, a new water treatment facility is being built in the community. However, experts have serious concerns that without a trained operator and local knowledge of water treatment systems, the new facility is at a high risk of failing again. Small, remote First Nations communities like Neskatanga lack the funding and education opportunities required to adequately train and hold on to local water system operators. Solutions that work in wealthier southern Ontario municipalities cannot be expected to be automatically successful in remote In-digenous communities. Instead, local conditions need to be stud-ied, and the communities need to be properly engaged to find site specific and appropriate strategies71. Figure 13.NeskatangaSource Water Contamination from Ineffective Wastewater TreatmentImpact of water source on number and average duration of advisories(2004-2015)52Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Surface WaterGroundwater Under Direct Influence of Surface Water (GUDI)GroundwaterMunicipal Type Agreement (MTA)129 days201 days203 days155 days184 advisories481 advisories84 advisories777 advisories34211234123453Another major contributing factor to the clean water crisis in Indig-enous communities is source water contamination. Many First Na-tion communities have been subject to forced relocation by the Ca-nadian government to reserves with extremely poor water quality, while others have had their water sources contaminated by outside industrial activity, like paper mills or mining. These are significant historical and colonial issues at play in these communities that are beyond the scope of this project. However, there are opportunities for design strategies to play a role in protecting the source water of these communities72.Figure 14.Water Source ContaminationSource Water Contamination from Ineffective Wastewater TreatmentLack of adequate wastewater treatment systems threaten source water quality54Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify22%36%8%Low RiskMedium RiskHigh Risk35%51%14%54%% of First Nation Communities Serviced by Wastewater Treatment System TypeCanada (2011)55There is a significant lack of adequate wastewater treatment in-frastructure and systems in Indigenous communities. Only 54% of Indigenous communities are directly connected to a central waste-water treatment system. The remaining either rely on septic systems, have their wastewater trucked to a treatment facility outside the community, or lack treatment systems entirely. Even in communities that are directly connected to a treatment plant, the majority of these plants were deemed to be at a medium or high risk of failing or contaminating surrounding environments73.Figure 15.Ineffective Wastewater Treatment Source Water Contamination from Ineffective Wastewater TreatmentIneffective wastewater treatment through lagoon systems leads to groundwater and surface water contamination56Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Wastewater flows from primary treatment process into lagoonPartially treated wastewater is released into nearby bodies of waterSolid particles settles on bottom of lagoon as sludgeContaminants seep through poorly constructed lagoonsPoorly maintained lagoons are proneto overflow into surrounding environments57These wastewater treatment systems often rely on lagoons to treat water, and while lagoons have been successfully deployed in non-Indigenous municipalities, in Indigenous communities they are often poorly constructed and not properly maintained. Con-taminants and pollutants from lagoon wastewater leach into the ground, contaminating ground and surface water. As a result of a lack of proper maintenance, they are prone to overflowing into surrounding environments. Furthermore, some communities’ waste-water treatment systems have been so poorly planned that untreat-ed effluent from the lagoons is released back into the community’s source water, upstream from the water intake, directly contaminat-ing the communities drinking water74. Figure 16.LagoonsSource Water Contamination from Ineffective Wastewater TreatmentIneffective wastewater treatment through septic systems in rural communities leads to groundwater and surface water contamination58Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Effluent is dispersed from perforated pipe through dispersal fieldSeptic systems do not filter out harmful pollutants or pharmaceutical compoundsSolids in wastewater settle to bottom of tank as sludgeHarmful pathogens drain into groundwater, polluting water sourcesWastewater flows from point of consumption into buried septic tank59Many rural and low-density communities rely on septic systems to treat their wastewater. While also widely used across Cana-da, septic systems do not filter out harmful pollutants or pathogens. Cracks in septic tanks are common as the tanks are damaged from regular freeze-thaw cycles. This combined with a lack of proper maintenance of the tanks in Indigenous communities results in signif-icant groundwater contamination75.  Figure 17.Septic TanksCase Study: North Caribou Lake First NationIneffective wastewater treatment contaminates community source water60Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Lack of liner results in groundwater contaminationLagoon prone to leaking and overflowingCommunity drinking water is threatened by sourcewater contaminationUntreated effluent from lagoon is released into freshwater source61North Caribou Lake is a fly-in First Nation community in Northwest-ern Ontario. A wastewater lagoon was completed in the commu-nity in 1997. Every year since then the lagoon has leaked, contam-inating North Caribou Lake territory and spilling into Weagamow Lake, the community’s water source. More effective, more sustain-able systems of wastewater treatment are needed in communities like North Caribou Lake First Nation to not only protect the commu-nity’s source water but also its natural habitat and the creatures that live in harmony with the community76. Figure 18.North Caribou LakePrecedentsChapter 463Water Treatment System, Lytton BC  RES’EAU6564Lytton is a First Nation several hours north of British Columbia of over 2000 members, half of which live on 56 small reserves along the Fraser and Thompson rivers77. The reserves are serviced by ten separate water systems, most of which have been under periodic advisories over the past several decades as a result of aging infrastructure or contamination from rain and spring run-off78. One of these reserves was Nickyeyeah, a community of just six houses. In 2010, the fed-eral government turned down a $1.3M quote for upgrades to the water treatment plant servicing Nickeyeah79. In a partnership between the First Nation and RES’EAU WaterNET, a clean water lab at the University of British Columbia, an alternative, innovative solution was proposed and built at less than half the original quote. The system, which fits in a shipping container, draws water from a nearby creek. It uses a variety of filtration and purification tools, including different sized filters, an ion exchanger, activated carbon, ultraviolet purifiers, and a chlorination system. It was designed to be easier to operate and followed a lengthy process of engagement to determine the community’s needs and the treatment processes required to provide clean water to the community80. This project is not architecturally significant but is an example of how water treatment infrastructure can be designed efficiently and effectively in small communities. There is potential for this type of water treatment facility to be further embedded in the community’s overall design to increase public engagement. Figure 19. (Redacted)Water Treatment System, Lytton BCFigure 20. (Redacted)Interior of Water Treatment System, Lytton BCCentre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment6766 The Center for Alternative Wastewater Treatment is a research facility at Sir Sandford Fleming College in Ontario. The facility conducts applied research in water and wastewater treat-ment science. The building and surrounding environment is designed as a testing facility for innova-tive water treatment processes. The facility includes an outdoor wastewater treatment system that relies primarily on passive systems. An underground septic tank separates solid particles from the wastewater, essentially filtering blackwater so that the natural processes can filter the water more effectively. From there, the water is pumped through a gravel pit where vegetation is planted. The gravel acts as a filter, while the roots of the plants clean the water. This process is repeated through several other sand and gravel pits, further filtering the wastewater, while the vegetation gradually purifies the water. Finally, the water is released into a polishing pond81.  The facility also includes a greenhouse, where water is treated and filtered by passing through the planters inside, effectively allowing the passive treatment of wastewater to occur in cold winter months82. Figure 21. (Redacted)Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment Constructed WetlandFigure 22. (Redacted)Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment6968Sechelt Water Resource Centre  PUBLIC Architecture The Sechelt Water Resource Centre is a wastewater treatment facility built in the middle of a residential neighbourhood in British Columbia. The facility is designed as a greenhouse that not only sustainably treats water but engages with the neighbourhood around it. Rather than con-cealing the treatment processes behind closed doors, the facility’s glass walls and roof display the treatment systems, educating the public on the lifecycle of water consumption. The centre includes a sewage treatment plant, a teaching facility, and botanical gardens. The wastewater is first fil-tered and cleaned in a primary treatment process before moving to a plant-based filtration system. It is then disinfected through UV radiation. The greenhouse grows plants, fruits and vegetables using the water, harnessing the potential of water treatment processes to further benefit the community. This new facility discharges 10 times fewer waste solids into the sea and operates at half the cost83.   The primary treatment facility, housing the mechanical systems that initially treat the water, are located at the back, hidden more out of sight, so not all systems are on display for the public. However, this project is successful in educating and engaging the public, while providing addition-al benefits to the community in a more sustainable manner84. Figure 23. (Redacted)Sechelt Water Resource CentreFigure 24. (Redacted)Interior Sechelt Water Resource CentreDesign Strategies for Sustainable Access to Clean WaterChapter 571OverviewDesign strategies for sustainable access to clean waterFrom this research emerged three schematic designs strategies, ideas of how in-depth research and architectural representation can inform more appropriate strategies for Indigenous communi-ties. They are merely schematic at this stage given the limited time constraints for proper community consultation and would be de-veloped further through the proposed framework of engagement. They range in scale from providing clean water for individual hous-es, to small, de-centralized housing clusters, to larger, more con-nected communities.  72Engagement FrameworkStage 2: IdentifyIdentify2Trucked WaterCisterns in basementsDe-Centralized SystemsKinship-based housing clustersHybrid InfrastructureTreatment systems embedded in schools73Figure 25.Overview of Design StrategiesDesign Strategy IPlacement of cisterns in constructed basements to extend lifespan and protect trucked waterThe first design strategy emerging from this research is one that should almost be disregarded for maintaining the status quo. Base-ments housing cisterns can protect these cisterns both physically and thermally from contamination from the ground outside. This would ensure that treated water arriving by truck is well protected in the cistern. This is a strategy that should truly not be considered an appropriate solution for Indigenous communities. If we are working towards providing Indigenous communities with the same rights that most Canadians take for granted, continuing a pattern of trucking water should be ruled out immediately. It is a short-term solution to water infrastructure and distribution issues that fails to provide meaningful, long-lasting results and does not benefit the social or economic development of the community. Instead, more progres-sive changes are required.  74Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Thermal barriers in basement protect cistern from freeze-thaw cyclesTreated water is delivered weekly from central treatment facilityPhysical barriers protect cistern from contaminants in groundIncreased funding for training programs ensures drivers are properly certified75Figure 26.Cistern in BasementDesign Strategy IIDe-centralized water and wastewater treatment infrastructure serving kinship-based housing clusters In more spread out and rural Indigenous communities, instead of turning to trucked water, this design strategy proposes a de-cen-tralized approach to water and wastewater treatment servicing smaller clusters of houses. This model offers an intermediate housing scale between single houses and subdivision style tract housing, where community planning and development is driven by the role of family and kinship-based structures. In this proposal, kinship-based housing clusters are built around water and wastewater treatment infrastructure servicing the cluster.76Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3De-centralized water and wastewater treatment infrastructureOperated by the communityKinship-based housing clustersPublic parks and amenities77Figure 27.Kinship-Based Cluster AxonometricDesign Strategy IIDe-centralized water and wastewater treatment infrastructure serving kinship-based housing clustersBy de-centralizing the water and wastewater treatment infrastruc-ture, piping distances are reduced, and distribution issues are par-tially addressed. Mechanical systems servicing smaller clusters of houses can be quite compact, fitting into areas the size of shipping containers, while greenhouses can be used to treat wastewater much more efficiently and sustainably. In the greenhouse, waste-water passes through open air tanks where suspended plant roots purify the water while also entirely eliminating odours. By bring-ing in natural processes, the greenhouse becomes a much more engaging environment than conventional wastewater treatment systems. It more efficiently and sustainably cleans wastewater, pro-tecting the surrounding environments and nearby water sources.  78Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Central greenhouse serves as gathering space for community membersPlants in aerobic reactor tanks feed on bacteria in wastewater, purifying the waterWater and wastewater treatment is monitored by community membersMechanical water treatment is accessible through greenhouseTreated wastewater is reused as greywater or released back into nature79Figure 28.Kinship-Based Cluster - GreenhouseDesign Strategy IIDe-centralized water and wastewater treatment infrastructure serving kinship-based housing clusters By integrating water and wastewater treatment systems within com-munity program, they become community owned and operated. The community shares the responsibility for monitoring the water quality and maintaining the treatment systems. Public program like communal kitchens where game and fish can be cleaned, and tra-ditional smokehouses, can be embedded within the treatment infra-structure to increase engagement and interaction between commu-nity members and the treatment systems. The systems become much more public aspects of the community, a sort of gathering space, and help to foster a greater understanding of the lifecycle of water and of the importance and need to protect it. 80Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Communal kitchen located adjacent to water treatment processes Smokehouse embedded within treatment infrastructure, adjacent to communal kitchen81Figure 29.Kinship-Based Cluster - Kitchen SmokehouseDesign Strategy IIDe-centralized water and wastewater treatment infrastructure serving kinship-based housing clusters Constructed wetlands act as an extension of the greenhouse. They offer a passive method of wastewater treatment and help to allevi-ate any stresses placed on the treatment systems within the green-house. They also help manage stormwater to prevent flooding and runoff to further protect water sources. Once wastewater is filtered through the greenhouse or constructed wetland, it is purified using UV rays. It can then be used as greywater by the community, reduc-ing the community’s reliance on water sources, or be released fully purified back into nature. 82Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Storm and wastewater moves through series of stepped terraces before being subjected to UV filtrationPlant roots feed on bacteria in wastewater, purifying waterStorm and wastewater is filtered through gravel and sand in stepping terracesTreated storm and wastewater is reused as greywater or released back into nature83Figure 30.Kinship-Based Cluster - Constructed WetlandDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsTo address the significant operational issues in larger or higher density communities, water and wastewater treatment infrastructure can be embedded within other public program and infrastructure present in Indigenous communities, such as community health cen-tres, schools, band offices, or municipal works offices. This would help foster a greater understanding of treatment systems and pro-cesses and share the operational responsibilities for water and wastewater treatment amongst community members. This schematic design strategy explores how treatment sytems could be embedded within schools. In many Indigenous communities, there is a need for new schools, so there is potential for schools and water treatment infrastructure to be redesigned and built as a single structure. In this proposal, water and wastewater treatment systems are embedded within educational program, but also extend out from the school, blurring the lines between the two programs.84Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Schools Municipal Works OfficeBand OfficeHealth CenterExterior landscaping for wastewater treatment and stormwater managementSustainable wastewater treatment processesTreatment systems integrated into educational programSchool85Figure 31.Hybrid Treatment Design - AxonometricDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsMechanical treatment systems embedded within schools can be used to organize space, around which can be found classrooms, science labs, computer rooms and student lounges. The treatment processes become more of an integrated learning experience, where students fully engage with the lifecycle of water and learn about the maintenance and operational requirements of the treat-ment systems. The mechanical systems are rendered transparent and become an extension of the classrooms.86Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Science lab looks onto mechanical water treatment processesMechanical filtration processes engage with faculty and students, increasing education opportunitiesPreliminary treatment infrastructure housed undergroundComputer room nestled between mechanical water treatment systems and wastewater treatment greenhouse87Figure 32.Hybrid Treatment Design - ClassroomDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsThe maintenance and operation of the water and wastewater treat-ment processes are shared by the school staff. Instead of relying on a single certified water treatment operator, responsibilities are distributed amongst maintenance workers, teachers, and principals. It is process that is community owned and operated, with shared technical experience. In the back, teachers pass on this knowledge to children, gradually nurturing local knowledge of water treatment systems.88Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Control room overlooks mechaincal systemsSchool staff share responsibility for monitoring treatment processand regularly testing water qualityPreliminary treatment infrastructure housed undergroundTreatment processes rendered visible to community members89Figure 33.Hybrid Treatment Design - BathroomsDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsLike with the kinship-based decentralized treatment systems, waste-water is primarily treated through a greenhouse. After undergoing an initial treatment process underground and passing through a sand filter, wastewater moves through open tanks. Plants suspend-ed from racks in these tanks gradually filter and purify the water. The entire process is odourless and much more sustainable, reduc-ing solid sludge production by 90% when compared to traditional treatment systems. 90Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Sand filtration removes solid particlesSchool staff monitor treatment processand regularly test water qualityPlant roots suspended from racksfeed on bacteria in wastewaterWastewater moving through aerated tanks is gradually purified, with 90% less solid sludge producedArtificial biofiber mimics root structure and encourages the development of a self-regulating ecosystem91Figure 34.Hybrid Treatment Design - GreenhouseDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsThe greenhouse becomes a much more engaging and inviting en-vironment, where children can learn about the lifecycle of water and interact with traditional and local plants. It extends out from the library, blurring the lines between water treatment and school, both forming positive learning environments for children. Passive waste-water treatment processes in the greenhouse mimic those constant-ly taking place in natural habitats and helps to foster a greater un-derstanding of the importance of protecting water.  92Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Greenhouse extends from school library, increasing education opportunities for childrenNatural filtration process eliminates all odours and more efficiently cleans wastewaterPlants feed on bacteria in wastewater, purifying the waterPreliminary treatment of wastewater occurs in anaerobic reactor Filtered wastewater is subjected to UV filtrationbefore being reused as greywater93Figure 35.Hybrid Treatment Design - LibraryDesign Strategy IIIHybrid Infrastructure: Water and wastewater treatment systems embedded in schoolsLike in the kinship-based housing clusters, constructed wetlands of-fer a passive method of wastewater treatment that brings the com-munity closer to the wastewater treatment processes. The wetlands help to manage wastewater treatment and alleviate any excess burden placed on the treatment systems within the school. They also help to manage stormwater to minimize flooding and stop con-taminated runoff from flowing into nearby water sources. Outdoor classrooms fully immerse the students in the passive wastewater treatment process and in the local flora. 94Engagement FrameworkStage 3: PlanPlan3Outdoor classroom and gathering circle extends into constructed wetlandsTreated storm and wastewater is reused as greywater or released back into natureStorm and wastewater is filtered through gravel and sand in stepping terracesStorm and wastewater moves through series of stepped terraces before being subjected to UV filtrationPlant roots feed on bacteria in wastewater, purifying water95Figure 36.Hybrid Treatment Design - Constructed WetlandConclusionThese are not final design strategies, nor are they silver bullet solutions for the water crisis. Rather, they are schematic proposals that start to imagine how design strategies might help end the clean water crisis and were driven by the research and representational work that has been carried out over the past several months. The clean water crisis in Indigenous communities is an extremely complex and overwhelm-ing issue with no clear solution. Each community experiences their own challenges around access to clean water, requiring site-specific approaches that are driven by a complete understanding of the issues and limitations present in a community and a thorough en-gagement process with community members. By leveraging research and representational tools, we can start to break down and better understand the crisis. In turn, this research and representational work can drive community specific solutions that truly work towards providing communities with safe and reliable access to clean drinking water.97Water Treatment Processes Technical Notes99Water Classifications and Uses101Overview The water that we use and consume comes from a variety of different sources, which im-pact the quality, availability, and cost of the water. Much of the water we use and consume comes from either groundwater reserves or surface water. Once consumed, it is typically treated and then subsequently released back into the natural environment. Our current global water consumption is not sustainable, with freshwater reserves not only depleting but becoming increasingly contami-nated and polluted. Recycling and reusing water is one way of reducing the amount of water that we use and of improving conditions in communities that suffer from a shortage of available water. Water that has already flowed through a system is subject to limitations on how it can be used, yet there is still merit in implementing infrastructure and processes that better manage water consump-tion and ease burdens on water treatment infrastructure. This section outlines the various types or qualities of water, as well as their respective uses in our daily lives.  Ground and Surface Water Most water systems rely on ground and surface water for their supply. Groundwater is water that is found in porous layers of soil underground, which are called aquifers. Groundwater may connect to or flow into surface water, particularly in hilly areas when the groundwater flows out of the aquifer into a river or spring. Groundwater may be found closer to the surface of the earth or deeper down and, in both cases, is replenished through precipitation that filters through the earth’s layers of soil, rock, and sand.85 However, there is growing concern at the rapid decrease in the water table, both as a result of over-exploitation and of urbanization. Due to the massive growth of cities and built environments, the Earth’s surface is gradually becoming less porous. Soils 103102and surfaces that used to allow water to percolate through the Earth’s surface and flow into the water table are being paved over86. Groundwater is typically free of contaminants or pollutants. However, shallow groundwa-ter is susceptible to contamination from industrial activity, waste dumping, land filling, or leaching from agricultural pesticides87. Additionally, groundwater in coastal areas may be brackish or sa-line. Surface water is water that flows, collects, and is found on the surface of the Earth. It in-cludes rivers and streams, ponds and lakes, as well as salty bodies like seas and oceans. Surface water may be more easily accessible than groundwater but is also more subject to pollution and contamination. Cities have historically been built around bodies of water or on the banks of rivers and, over time, the discharge of wastewater into these bodies of water and the effects of pollution have contaminated surface water sources, often to dangerous levels88. Rainwater Where groundwater and surface water are not available or dependable sources of wa-ter, rainwater harvesting is considered the best option for sourcing water. Rainwater is water that has been collected from precipitation. Although the collection and use of rainwater has been around for millennia, there is a growing understanding and appreciation of its potential value. Rainwater is a viable, supplementary source of water that is much more accessible and poses a lower risk than sourcing water from the ground or surface89. Non-potable uses of rainwater include the flushing of toilets, laundry (depending on local restrictions or standards, and landscaping irri-gation. If properly treated, rainwater can also be consumed and used for potable purposes90.Greywater Household wastewater can be divided into greywater and blackwater. Greywater is wastewater generated from bathing, washing, laundry, and sometimes kitchen use. Greywater is typically less contaminated than blackwater as it contains less organic matter, fecal matter, and solids and fats. As a result, it is far easier to filter and treat, allowing it to be reused as non-pota-ble water91. Once filtered and disinfected, greywater can be reused for flushing and irrigation. Systems can be introduced at very small and localized scales that allow individual home or small communities to treat their greywater on site. Coupled with rainwater harvesting, smart water man-agement processes and infrastructure can significantly improve a household’s water consumption efficiency92. Blackwater The other component of household wastewater is blackwater, which contains wastewater generated by the toilet and sometimes the kitchen sink. As it is far more contaminated than grey-water, its potential for reusability is limited. From a house or building, blackwater typically flows to either a septic tank or to a wastewater treatment plant, depending on the location of the building. Both septic tanks and wastewater treatment plants filter out the contaminating particles and disin-fect the water before releasing it back into nature93. Figure 37.Water Types and Uses105Water Treatment Systems and ProcessesOverview There are a number of methods and processes used to treat water to get it to a point where it is safe to consume. These vary depending on the water source, the size of the community, and the infrastructure that is available in the community, as well as the guidelines or regulations on water quality requirements. Larger communities typically have more centralized water treatment systems, while smaller communities may rely on more decentralized infrastructure and systems, such as point-of-entry (POE) systems. Additionally, water treatment processes may rely on more passive systems or active systems. The following is an outline of the conventional processes of water treatment used around the world, which typically includes a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration94. Within each of these steps in the lifecycle of water, different methods of achieving the same outcomes are outlined. Water Collection Water collection involves the various processes of taking water from the source and car-rying it to the treatment plant. Water collection systems typically involve mechanical pumps that pump water either from surface water reserves (such as rivers or lakes) or from wells that collect water from the water table. The pumps help carry the water from the water source to the pipes that in turn carry the water to the treatment systems or facilities.  Water TreatmentGreywater Treatment & RecyclingWastewater Treatment21Legend123456789Water SourceScreeningCoagulation FlocculationSedimentationChlorinationFiltrationDisinfectionAcidity AdjustmentWater typesTreated waterRainwaterGreywaterBlackwater1011121314151617 StorageConsumption and UseRainwater collectionGreywater filtrationGreywater disinfectionGreywater storageGreywater use in landscaping & irrigationBlackwater treatment43567891012111516171413107106Figure 38.Water and Wastewater Treatment Lifecycle109108Screening Once water is pumped from the source, it passes through an initial screen or grate that filters out any large materials or objects found in the water. The screening process acts as the initial stage of filtering out debris from the water to minimize clogging of treatment systems.Coagulation and Flocculation The next step in the water treatment process is coagulation and flocculation, where sus-pended and dissolved solid particles are separated from the water. In coagulation, chemicals with a positive charge are added to and rapidly mixed with the water. The positive charge of the coagulant chemicals neutralizes the negative charge of particles in water. The reaction results in the process of flocculation, whereby particles in the water bind together to form larger particles95. Failure to properly mix the water with the coagulant chemicals leaves this stage incomplete, with not all particles joining into larger particles. Following the heavy-mixing stage of coagulation, the water is then gently mixed in flocculation to further increase particle sizes. The heavy particles pro-duced through coagulation and flocculation settle to the bottom during sedimentation, separating from the water above96. Sedimentation Sedimentation is the process by which the large particles of organic matter suspended in the water fall to the bottom of the tank. These particles settle on the bottom of the tank and form what is known as sludge, which is subsequently scraped from the bottom of the tank so that it can be discharged. This stage removes important particles from the water and allows the subsequent filtration process to function more effectively97. In water treatment facilities, water moves through a sedimentation tank. As it makes its way from the inlet to the outlet ends, floc particles produced during coagulation and flocculation drop to the bottom of the tank. Because horizontal tanks may have a large footprint – to ensure that all particles drop to the floor by the time the water exits the tank – multi-layered tanks with two to three tanks have been constructed to minimize the amount of space required. In multi-layered tanks, water makes several passes, moving back and forth on different levels of the sedimentation tank, dropping particles to the tank floor with each pass98.  Coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation, collectively referred to as clarification processes, can successfully remove a large amount of organic compounds and suspended par-ticles99. However, during these processes, only between 27% and 84% of viruses and between 32% and 87% of bacteria are removed. As such, these processes alone cannot produce safe drinking water100. However, they are crucial in removing many of the dissolved and organic particles in the water, meaning that less chlorine is required to disinfect the water. This is important for two reasons. The first is that less chlorine use reduces the cost of treating water. The second is that the water produced is much safer. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are a dangerous by-product of the reaction between chlorine and organic matter found in the water. When water is not prop-erly cleaned and filtered, or when the source water is of low quality, large concentrations of organic matter remain in the water, which produce dangerous levels of THMs when mixed with chlorine101. This is one of the water quality issues found in many Indigenous communities, such as Neskatanga and Grassy Narrows.  Some water treatment systems incorporate coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation as a single unit: up-flow solids contact units or sludge blanket units. These units are much more compact and require less land for the plant site location102. Chlorination Once water leaves the sedimentation tank, it passes through a first stage of disinfection. Typically, chlorine is used to disinfect the water. However, other chemical and physical processes may also be used. Depending on the effectiveness of the clarification or filtration processes, the quantity of chlorine added to the water varies103. Ineffective processes mean that more chlorine is required to treat the water. This may result in a noticeable taste of chlorine when consuming the water or may produce dangerous levels of THMs.  Filtration Following chlorination, water moves on to the filtration stage, which removes particulate matter from water by forcing water through porous media104. Most filtration systems involve multiple layers of filters: water first passes through fine material, such as sand, before moving through filters with gradually larger pores, such as gravel and charcoal. The different layers of porous material filter out contaminants, producing clear water105. 111110 There are two basic types of sand filtration: slow sand filtration and rapid sand filtration. Slow sand filtration is a biological process that uses bacteria to treat the water. Bacteria on the top layer of sand cleans the water as it passes through the filtration system by digesting the con-taminants in the water. While slow sand filtration is more effective, the layer of microbes requires cleaning every several months and they require a lot of land to operate on. As such, rapid sand filtration is more widely used106.   Rapid sand filtration is a newer process that removes suspended solids from the water. The process requires relatively little space to operate and processes water at a rapid rate. The filters require cleaning twice per day but are put back into operation immediately, minimizing down time107.   In Saddle Lake First Nation, a combination of these two methods has been developed to treat water, after conventional methods of water treatment failed to provide the community with clean water. The pilot project, Integrated Biological and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Treatment (IBROMT), uses biology to treat water by removing organics from the water108. In this process, water flows through transparent pipes, mixing with sand-like clay aggregate which provides a substrate for bacteria to live on. The bacteria purify and filter the water, which then passes through a reverse osmosis membrane, separating any remaining harmful organisms or particles from the water. This environmentally friendly process is much cheaper than rapid sand and slow sand filtra-tion systems and requires far less maintenance. Water that passes through this system also requires far less chlorine to disinfect it109.  Reverse osmosis is another process of filtration that uses a filter with microscopic pores. Pressure forces water through the filter, removing all organic molecules, viruses, turbidity, and min-erals. It is also capable of desalinating water. Water that has passed through a reverse osmosis filter is essentially pure water. Reverse osmosis has been responsible for ending several long-term drinking water advisories on first nations110. While reverse osmosis is one of the most effective pro-cesses for treating water, there are several drawbacks to the system. Reverse osmosis removes most of the minerals from the water, resulting in more acidic water111. Additionally, significant amounts of water are wasted during the treatment process: about 20 gallons of water are wasted for every gallon of filtered water. Finally, reverse osmosis machines are slow to operate and filter water, although larger scale machines are available which can treat larger amounts of water112. Disinfection and Acidity Adjustment Following filtration, water is disinfected once again as a precautionary measure. Typi-cally, this second stage employs a different method of disinfection. Aside from chlorination, one of the main methods of disinfection is the use of ultraviolet (UV) light. With this method, water passes under a UV light, which kills any remaining bacteria and microorganisms113.  After disinfection, the pH levels of the water, which measure the level of acidity of the wa-ter, are adjusted. This is the final stage in water treatment. Distribution and Storage Once water has been effectively cleaned and treated, it is ready to be used and con-sumed. Water is then either distributed for use or placed in a storage facility or container. Water storage is important as it not only ensures that communities have access to treated water should water treatment plants fail, but it also maintains high water pressures in water pipes. High pressure in pipes stops particles or bacteria from entering the stream of water through cracks or breaks in underground pipes. If there is a crack in an underground pipe, high pressure inside the pipes stops outside particles from entering the pipe and contaminating the water. Low water pressure due to a shortage of water can be a very serious issue, especially in remote communities where cracks in underground pipes can be very difficult to find.  Water can be stored above ground, in water tanks or water towers, or below ground. Water tanks in cold environments need to be properly insulated to ensure that the water inside does not freeze. Additionally, water tanks need to be properly sealed and regularly cleaned to ensure that the water within the tanks is not contaminated. Point-of-Entry System In places where centralized water treatment systems are not available or are inadequate, point-of-entry (POE) systems may be used to treat water at or near the point of consumption: rather than being treated in a central water treatment facility, POE systems involve the installation 113112of water treatment equipment on the main incoming water line in each house or building. The use of POE systems has grown over the past decade in small communities. In British Columbia, under the Drinking Water Protection Act, small communities with water systems that serve fewer than 500 people have the option to use POE systems instead of centralized systems114. POE systems are often viewed as a secondary option in cases where centralized systems are not viable, as POE systems may require greater efforts to implement. In small communities, with less than 40 homes, POE treatment is often cheaper, faster to install, and simpler to maintain and operate. Typically, maintenance can be carried out by community volunteers. However, as the community grows, centralized systems become more optimal115.   POE systems typically consist of at least two stages of cartridge filtration, a UV sterilizer and additional equipment to ensure the operation of the system. Depending on the quality of the source water, additional treatments may be required. These systems may be as small as several feet wide and tall but may grow in size if additional treatment systems are required to meet water quality standards116. Greywater Treatment and Recycling115 Recycling and reusing greywater is an important factor in reducing a household or com-munity’s consumption of and reliance on water sources. Typical greywater flow in a household is about 65% of the total wastewater flow117. Reduced consumption means that there is less of a burden placed on valuable and fragile freshwater reserves. It also means that there are less stress-es placed on water infrastructure, reducing the risk of breakdowns and increasing the lifespan of the treatment systems. Once cleaned and treated, greywater can be used for toilet flushing inside houses and for irrigation of plants and gardens outside.Collection The collection of greywater requires a double-piped drainage system throughout the house. This ensures the separation of greywater from blackwater. Filtration Once collected, greywater needs to be filtered and cleaned before it can be reused. A number of different mechanical filtration systems are available and range in size and cost depend-ing on the quantity of greywater or rainwater being treated and processed. These systems operate in similar ways to the filtration systems used to provide clean drinking water. Greywater that is to be used in irrigation still needs to be treated to remove any contaminated particles or organisms118.  117116 There are also a number of passive systems available to treat and process greywater for irrigation use. These present agricultural opportunities for communities, as well as public gardens and spaces. Constructed wetlands, living walls, and planters act as natural filters for the greywater. These passive systems filter and clean the water before it flows back into the ground to replenish the groundwater supply119. In constructed wetlands, water flows into a lined cell where plants are planted. The roots of the plants filter the contaminants out of the water, effectively cleaning the greywater120. Disinfection Water that has been filtered by mechanical systems must first be disinfected before it can be reused in a house. Chlorination and UV radiation are two of the most common methods of disinfecting water121. Storage After it has been disinfected, greywater is stored in tanks until it is ready to be used. Greywater needs to be reused quickly so that it doesn’t putrefy. Even once it has been filtered and disinfected, bacteria and organisms can develop rapidly in greywater if it is left sitting for too long. As such, greywater recycling and reuse systems need to ensure a steady cycle of greywater through the system122. Greywater storage tanks need to have vents, as well as overflow drains123. Environmental factors such as the climate also need to be considered. In colder environments, the storage tank needs to be insulated and either underground or indoors to ensure that the water does not freeze.119Rainwater Collection and TreatmentCollection and Storage As with greywater, the collection and use of rainwater helps to ease the burden placed on both water sources or reserves and water treatment infrastructure. One of the key components of rainwater harvesting is the catchment system and structure. Typically, roofs are used to catch rainwater runoff as the infrastructure is already largely in place. The material of the rainwater catch-ment system needs to be considered to ensure that the water is not contaminated. However, for non-potable uses, the choice of catchment material is less critical124.  Rainwater that falls onto the catchment surface is subsequently carried to a storage tank or cistern. These cisterns are typically constructed out of concrete, plastic, or fibreglass in Canada. Much like the greywater storage tank, considerations for the climate must be made to ensure that the water does not freeze in the winter. Tanks that are buried underground to minimize freezing are typically made of pre-cast concrete125. Treatment, Distribution, and Use Rainwater is naturally of very high quality. However, rainwater may be contaminated by pollution, creating what we commonly refer to as acid rain. Once it comes into contact with dif-ferent surfaces, it may be subject to further contamination. As a result, rainwater requires treatment before it can be used126. Rainwater from the cistern or storage tank flows to the greywater filtration system where it can be treated and combined with the greywater. From there, it is either used for irrigation, or it is subject to disinfection before being pumped back into the house for reuse127. 121Blackwater Treatment Blackwater contains far more contaminants than greywater and, as such, poses a much greater risk to humans, the natural environment, and water supplies. Consequently, further treatment of blackwater is necessary to ensure that it is adequately processed before water can be released back into nature. In larger communities, blackwater is typically carried to wastewater facilities where it is filtered, cleaned and disinfected before being released128. In smaller communities, sep-tic tanks or small lagoons may be used to treat blackwater. In septic tanks, solids are separated from the liquid and settle along the bottom. Once separated, the water flows out through a drain-age field and into the ground. Inside the septic tank, bacteria starts to partially digest the remaining sludge129. Lagoons are reservoirs in the ground that store waste until it is ready to be removed. They operate similarly but on a larger scale. Around once a year, lagoons in small communities are emptied, with the solid waste being discharged nearby130.123Ecological Wastewater Treatment SystemsEmergence of Ecological Wastewater Treatment Systems Over the past several decades, there has been a push towards more sustainable methods of wastewater treatment. Nature can offer up highly effective and natural wastewater treatment filtration and purification processes for us to mimic. Organizations like Ocean Arks International and New Alchemy Institute, both founded by Canadian biologist John Todd, have pioneered the use of alternative technologies and ecological design, such as aquaculture, solar aquatic systems, and greenhouses, to create “living machines”131. Living machines are wastewater treatment systems which use plants to filter out bacteria and contaminants from wastewater. In greenhouses, plant roots feed on the bacteria in the wastewater that passes through aerobic open-air tanks. The pro-cess is highly effective, resulting in substantially less solid sludge production, eliminates all odours from the process, and is energy efficient132. Constructed wetlands act much like living machines but are embedded in the landscape outside. Wetlands help to manage stormwater, preventing flooding which can carry pollutants from the land into nearby water sources, leading to contami-nation133. These systems not only efficiently treat wastewater, they also work to heal the planet. They provide an opportunity for reciprocity with the earth, giving life to plants, preserving our natural environments, and protecting water sources for generations to come. 125124Comparison of the Cost, Scalability, and Environmental Impacts of Wastewater Treatment SystemsCost Low HighSmall ScaleLarge ScaleFew ManyScale/ Number of HouseholdsEnvironmental BenefitsCentral Sewage SystemSeptic SystemPackage Treatment PlantsLiving MachineConstructed WetlandsComparison of Cost, Scalability, and Environmental Impacts of                            Wastewater Treatment Systems Large urban areas have generally relied on central wastewater treatment facilities to filter wastewater, while rural, de-centralized communities have typically treated wastewater through septic systems. These systems are not always effective or sustainable. When compared to living machines or constructed wetlands, centralized wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks offer very few environmental benefits134. Septic systems require very little capital investment and can be easily deployed in remote, rural communities, but these benefits may no longer outweigh the inability of septic tanks to properly treat wastewater. Living machines and constructed wetlands offer more sustainable and more effective wastewater treatment methods, albeit at a higher cost135. If cost is no longer seen as a sufficient excuse to continue to under develop and protect Indigenous communities, then living machines and constructed wetlands should be considered viable waste-water treatment systems for these communities.  Figure 39.Comparison of Wastewater Systems127Endnotes1 “Tennessee Valley Authority.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, August 3, 2017. https://www.history.com/topics/great-depression/history-of-the-tva. 2 Ibid.3 “Tennessee Valley Authority.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Accessed May 3, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tennessee-Valley-Authority. 4 “Upstream.” UAPress. The University of Arizona Press, May 3, 2021. https://uapress.arizona.edu/book/upstream. 5 Darrin, Hannah. “Justice on the Land: An Interview with Beth Rose Middleton.” Yale Environment Review. Yale University, March 10, 2020. https://environment-review.yale.edu/justice-land-inter-view-beth-rose-middleton. 6 “Atlantic Canada First Nation Communities Move toward Independent Water and Wastewater Service Delivery.” American Water Works Association, February 8, 2011. https://www.awwa.org/AWWA-Articles/atlantic-canada-first-nation-communities-move-toward-independent-wa-ter-and-wastewater-service-delivery. 7 Tutton, Michael. “Atlantic First Nations Create Water Utility, to Be up and Running by 2022.” thestar.com. The Toronto Star, June 23, 2020. https://www.thestar.com/news/cana-da/2020/06/23/atlantic-first-nations-create-water-utility-to-be-up-and-running-by-2022.html. 8 Canada, Environment and Climate Change. “Government of Canada.” Canada.ca. Gouver-nement du Canada, August 13, 2018. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/water-overview/frequently-asked-questions.html. 9 Aliakbari, Elmira, and Ashley Stedman. “BLOG: Canada Is Richly Endowed with Freshwater Resources.” Fraser Institute, November 27, 2018. https://www.fraserinstitute.org/blogs/cana-da-is-richly-endowed-with-freshwater-resources.  10 McKitrick, Ross, Ashley Stedman, and Elmira Aliakbari. “Evaluating the State of Fresh Water in 129128Canada.” Fraser Institute, November 27, 2018. https://www.fraserinstitute.org/studies/evaluating-the-state-of-fresh-water-in-canada. 11 “Canada’s Freshwater Quality in a Global Context.” Canada.ca. Government of Canada, April 10, 2017. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/environmental-in-dicators/freshwater-quality-global-context.html. 12 “GDP per Capita.” Trading Economics, December 2019. https://tradingeconomics.com/coun-try-list/gdp-per-capita. 13 Morrison, Alasdair, Lori Bradford, and Lalita Bharadwaj. “Quantifiable Progress of the First Nations Water Management Strategy, 2001–2013: Ready for Regulation?” Canadian Water Resources Journal / Revue canadienne des ressources hydriques 40, no. 4 (2015): 352–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/07011784.2015.1080124. 14 “Safe Water for First Nations.” The Council of Canadians. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://canadians.org/fn-water. 15 Lukawiecki, Jessica. “Glass Half Empty? Year 1 Progress Toward Resolving Drinking Water Adviso-ries in Nine First Nations in Ontario.” David Suzuki Foundation. Council of Canadians, March 6, 2018. https://davidsuzuki.org/science-learning-centre-article/report-glass-half-empty-year-1-progress-toward-resolving-drinking-water-advisories-nine-first-nations-ontario/. 16 “Safe Water for First Nations.” The Council of Canadians. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://canadians.org/fn-water.17 Levasseur, Joanne, and Jacques Marcoux. “Water Advisories Chronic Reality in Many First Nations Communities | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, October 15, 2015. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/bad-water-third-world-conditions-on-first-nations-in-cana-da-1.3269500. 18 “Ending Long-Term Drinking Water Advisories.” Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Govern-ment of Canada, February 17, 2020. https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1506514143353/1533317130660. 19 Ibid.20 Ibid.21 Cheung, Christopher, and Jamin Mike. “The Water Crisis in First Nations Communities: An Election Explainer.” The Tyee, October 17, 2019. https://thetyee.ca/News/2019/10/17/First-Na-tions-Water-Crises-Explained/. 22 Palmater, Pamela. “First Nations Water Problems a Crisis of Canada’s Own Making.” Policy Options, February 6, 2019. https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/february-2019/first-na-tions-water-problems-crisis-canadas-making/. 23 Beaumont, Hilary. “What Would It Look Like to Take the First Nations Water Crisis Seriously?” The Walrus. October 18, 2019, sec. Democracy/Politics. 24 Galway, Lindsay. “Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 5 (2016): 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050505.  25 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corpo-ration, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490. 26 Edwards, Kyle. “Not a Drop to Drink.” Maclean’s, January 21, 2019. https://www.macleans.ca/not-drop-drink/. 27 Ibid.28 “Report of the Expert Panel on Safe Drinking Water for First Nations.” Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, October 2006. https://www.amnesty.ca/sites/amnesty/files/2006-11r2-445-2006e1fndrinkingwaterreport.pdf. 29 Beaumont, Hilary. “What Would It Look Like to Take the First Nations Water Crisis Seriously?” The Walrus. October 18, 2019, sec. Democracy/Politics.30 Ibid. 31 Ibid.32 Ibid.33 “Fact Sheet - The Results of the National Assessment of First Nation Water and Wastewater Systems.” Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada, August 19, 2011. https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1313777544892/1533829691264. 34 “Drinking Water Advisories.” Environment and Natural Resources. Government of Canada, July 9, 2020. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/environmental-indica-tors/drinking-water-advisories.html. 35 Russell, Andrew. “Indigenous Services Minister Says Trudeau Government Won’t End Boil-Wa-ter Advisories by March 2021.” Global News, December 4, 2020. https://globalnews.ca/news/7497223/indigenous-services-minister-says-trudeau-government-wont-end-boil-water-ad-visories-by-march-2021/. 36 Beaumont, Hilary. “What Would It Look Like to Take the First Nations Water Crisis Seriously?” The Walrus. October 18, 2019, sec. Democracy/Politics.37 Ibid.38 Russell, Andrew. “Indigenous Services Minister Says Trudeau Government Won’t End Boil-Water Advisories by March 2021.” Global News, December 4, 2020. https://globalnews.ca/news/7497223/indigenous-services-minister-says-trudeau-government-wont-end-boil-water-adviso-131130ries-by-march-2021/.39 “Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” Miramichi Leader. Postmedia Network Inc., June 2020. 40 McClearn, Matthew. “Liberals Cut Reserves’ Boil Advisories, but Water-System Problems Linger.” The Globe and Mail, January 28, 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ot-tawa-says-its-on-track-to-end-drinking-water-advisories-on-reserves/. 41 Ibid.42 Lukawiecki, Jessica. “Reconciling Promises and Reality: Clean Drinking Water for First Nations.” David Suzuki Foundation, June 2018. https://davidsuzuki.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/reconciling-promises-reality-clean-drinking-water-first-nations.pdf. 43 Dobell, David R. “Canada’s ‘Quick Fix’ of the First Nations Drinking Water Crisis Is Not Sustain-able.” School of Advanced International Studies . Johns Hopkins University, February 21, 2020. http://www.saisperspectives.com/2020-issue/2020/2/21/canadas-quick-fix-of-the-first-na-tions-drinking-water-crisis-is-not-sustainable. 44 Cheung, Christopher, and Jamin Mike. “The Water Crisis in First Nations Communities: An Elec-tion Explainer.” The Tyee, October 17, 2019. https://thetyee.ca/News/2019/10/17/First-Nations-Wa-ter-Crises-Explained/.45 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.46 Edwards, Kyle. “Not a Drop to Drink.” Maclean’s, January 21, 2019. https://www.macleans.ca/not-drop-drink/. 47 “Drinking Water Advisories.” Environment and Natural Resources. Government of Canada, July 9, 2020. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/environmental-indica-tors/drinking-water-advisories.html. 48 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.49 “Constitution Act, 1867.” Constitutional Documents. Government of Canada, November 27, 2020. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const//page-4.html. 50 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.51 “Report of the Expert Panel on Safe Drinking Water for First Nations.” Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, October 2006. https://www.amnesty.ca/sites/amnesty/files/2006-11r2-445-2006e1fndrinkingwaterreport.pdf. 52 McClearn, Matthew. “Liberals Cut Reserves’ Boil Advisories, but Water-System Problems Linger.” The Globe and Mail, January 28, 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-ot-tawa-says-its-on-track-to-end-drinking-water-advisories-on-reserves/. 53 “Safe Water for First Nations.” The Council of Canadians. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://canadians.org/fn-water.54 Galway, Lindsay. “Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 5 (2016): 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050505. 55 “Budget Sufficiency for First Nations Water and Wastewater ...” Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer. Government of Canada, December 7, 2017. https://pbo-dpb.gc.ca/web/default/files/Documents/Reports/2017/FN%20Water/FN_Water_EN.pdf. 56 Palmater, Pamela. “First Nations Water Problems a Crisis of Canada’s Own Making.” Policy Options, February 6, 2019. https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/february-2019/first-na-tions-water-problems-crisis-canadas-making/. 57 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.58 Edwards, Kyle. “Not a Drop to Drink.” Maclean’s, January 21, 2019. https://www.macleans.ca/not-drop-drink/.  59 “Grassy Narrows History.” Free Grassy Narrows. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://free-grassy.net/learn-more/grassy-narrows/history/. 60 Porter, Jody. “Children of the Poisoned River.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada. Accessed Decem-ber 14, 2020. https://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/children-of-the-poisoned-river-mercury-poisoning-grassy-narrows-first-nation/. 61 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.62 Beaumont, Hilary. “What Would It Look Like to Take the First Nations Water Crisis Seriously?” The Walrus. October 18, 2019, sec. Democracy/Politics.63 MacIntosh C. Public health protection and drinking water quality on First Nation reserves: Con-sidering the new federal regulatory proposal. Health Law Rev. 2009;18:5–11.64 Dobell, David R. “Canada’s ‘Quick Fix’ of the First Nations Drinking Water Crisis Is Not Sustain-able.” School of Advanced International Studies . Johns Hopkins University, February 21, 2020. http://www.saisperspectives.com/2020-issue/2020/2/21/canadas-quick-fix-of-the-first-nations-drinking-wa-ter-crisis-is-not-sustainable.65 Marshall, Rachael, Michele Desjardine, Jana Levison, Kim Anderson, and Edward McBean. “Moving towards Effective First Nations’ Source Water Protection: Barriers, Opportunities, and a Framework.” Water 12, no. 11 (2020): 2957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112957. 13313266 Baijius, Warrick, and Robert J. Patrick. “‘We Don’t Drink the Water Here’: The Reproduc-tion of Undrinkable Water for First Nations in Canada.” Water 11, no. 5 (2019): 1079. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051079.67 “Why so Few People on Six Nations Reserve Have Clean Running Water, Unlike Their Neigh-bours.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, April 20, 2018.68 “Ending Long-Term Drinking Water Advisories.” Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Gov-ernment of Canada, February 17, 2020. https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1506514143353/1533317130660.69 Thompson, Emma E, Yvonne L Post, and Edward A McBean. “A Decade of Drinking Water Ad-visories: Historical Evidence of Frequency, Duration and Causes.” Canadian Water Resources Journal 42, no. 4 (2017): 378–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/07011784.2017.1387609.70 Ibid.71 Stefanovich, Olivia. “After Evacuating Twice over Tainted Water, Neskantaga Residents Plan Their Return Home.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, December 17, 2020.72 Thompson, Emma E, Yvonne L Post, and Edward A McBean. “A Decade of Drinking Water Ad-visories: Historical Evidence of Frequency, Duration and Causes.” Canadian Water Resources Journal 42, no. 4 (2017): 378–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/07011784.2017.1387609.73 Ibid.74 Baijius, Warrick, and Robert J. Patrick. “‘We Don’t Drink the Water Here’: The Reproduc-tion of Undrinkable Water for First Nations in Canada.” Water 11, no. 5 (2019): 1079. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051079.75 Hynds, Paul Dylan, M. Kate Thomas, and Katarina Dorothy Pintar. “Contamination of Ground-water Systems in the US and Canada by Enteric Pathogens, 1990–2013: A Review and Pooled-Analysis.” PLoS ONE 9, no. 5 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093301.76 Galloway, Gloria. “North Caribou Lake First Nation Asks Ottawa for Help as Sewage Spill Threatens Water Supply.” The Globe and Mail. April 1, 2019.77 “Finding a Solution to Canada’s Indigenous Water Crisis.” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, August 26, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44961490.78 Fontaine, Tim. “B.C. First Nation Latest to Take Control of Water Problems | CBC News.” CBC-news. CBC, March 22, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/lytton-first-nation-wa-ter-system-fixing-1.4036018. 79 Ibid.80 RES’EAU-WaterNET. Rep. The Res’Eau Community Circle. Vancouver, BC, 2017. 81 “Centre for Advancement of Water and Wastewater Technologies (CAWT).” Research Facilities Navigator. Canada Foundation for Innovation. Accessed December 21, 2020. https://navigator.innovation.ca/en/facility/sir-sandford-fleming-college/centre-advancement-water-and-waste-water-technologies-cawt. 82 Ibid.83 Sagredo, Rayen. “Sechelt Water Resource Centre / PUBLIC.” ArchDaily. ArchDaily, June 17, 2018. https://www.archdaily.com/896286/sechelt-water-resource-centre-public. 84 Ibid.85 Haq, Syed A. “Introduction.” Essay. In Harvesting Rainwater From Buildings, 1–21. Springer, 2017. 86 Ibid.87 Ibid. 88 Ibid. 89 Ibid.90 Ibid. 91 Gross, Amit, Adi Maimon, Yuval Alfiya, and Eran Friedler. “Chapter 1: Greywater Characteristics.” Essay. In Greywater Reuse, 1–46. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015. 92 Ibid. 93 Ibid. 94 Hancock, Nicole. “Conventional Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration.” Safe Drinking Wa-ter Foundation. Safe Drinking Water Foundation, January 10, 2017. https://www.safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/conventional-water-treatment. 95 Ibid. 96 Ibid.97 “Sedimentation Processes.” IWA Publications. The International Water Association. Accessed De-cember 21, 2020. https://www.iwapublishing.com/news/sedimentation-processes. 98 Ibid.99 Ibid. 100 Hancock, Nicole. “Conventional Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration.” Safe Drinking Wa-ter Foundation. Safe Drinking Water Foundation, January 10, 2017. https://www.safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/conventional-water-treatment. 101 Ibid. 102 Ibid. 103 “Water Treatment Solutions.” Lenntech Water treatment & purification. Accessed December 21, 2020. https://www.lenntech.com/processes/disinfection/what-is-water-disinfection.htm. 104 Hancock, Nicole. “Conventional Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration.” Safe Drinking Water Foundation. Safe Drinking Water Foundation, January 10, 2017. https://www.safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/conventional-water-treatment.105 Ibid. 106 Ibid.107 Ibid. 108 Petersen, Kim. “Watered Down Excuse.” The Dominion, May 1, 2007. http://www.dominionpa-per.ca/articles/1187. 109 Ibid. 110 Hancock, Nicole. “Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis.” Safe Drinking Water Foundation. Safe Drinking Water Foundation, December 4, 2016. https://www.safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/ultrafiltrationnanoandro. 111 “Reverse Osmosis Water Benefits & Disadvantages.” Water & Wastes Digest, May 18, 2012. https://www.wwdmag.com/membranes-reverse-osmosis/pros-and-cons-reverse-osmosis-wa-ter-filtration-systems. 112 Ibid. 113 National Research Council (US) Safe Drinking Water Committee. “The Disinfection of Drinking Water.” Drinking Water and Health: Volume 2. U.S. National Library of Medicine, January 1, 1980. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234590/. 114 Robertson, Grant. “Point-of-Entry Water Treatment.” Online Help Centre for BC Small Water Systems. Accessed December 21, 2020. https://smallwatersystemsbc.ca/point-entry-water-treat-ment. 115 Ibid.116 Ibid.117 Ghaitidak, Dilip M., and Kunwar D. Yadav. “Characteristics and Treatment of Greywater—a Re-view.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20, no. 5 (2013): 2795–2809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1533-0. 118 Committee on the Beneficial Use of Graywater and Stormwater: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits. “Chapter 6: State of Design Practice for Stormwater and Greywater.” Essay. In Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: an Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits. National Academies Press, 2016. 119 Wurochekke, A. A., R. M. S. Mohamed, A. A. Al-Gheethi, Hauwa Atiku, H. M. Amir, and H. M. Matias-Peralta. “Household Greywater Treatment Methods Using Natural Materials and Their Hy-brid System.” Journal of Water and Health 14, no. 6 (2016): 914–28. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2016.054. 120 Hancock, Nicole. “Wastewater Treatment.” Safe Drinking Water Foundation. Safe Drinking Water Foundation, December 2, 2016. https://www.safewater.org/fact-sheets-1/2017/1/23/waste-water-treatment. 121 “Greywater Harvesting Systems Designed and Built by Water Harvesting Solutions in USA & Can-ada.” Wahaso Water Harvesting Solutions. Accessed December 21, 2020. https://wahaso.com/our-services/greywater-gray-water-harvesting-systems/. 122 Committee on the Beneficial Use of Graywater and Stormwater: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits. “Chapter 6: State of Design Practice for Stormwater and Greywater.” Essay. In Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: an Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits. National Academies Press, 2016. 123 Ibid. 124 Despins, Christopher. Guidelines for Residential Rainwater Harvesting Systems Handbook. Ottawa: CMHC, 2012. 125 Ibid. 126 Ibid. 127 Ibid. 128 Hancock, Nicole. “Wastewater Treatment.” Safe Drinking Water Foundation. 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