UBC Graduate Research

Reconciliation with the Cats Wang, Jiling 2021-05-04

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Reconciliation with the CatsLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaName: Jiling WangUBC Student number: Graduate Project Title: Recociliation with the CatsThesis Advisor: Fionn ByrneIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Land¬scape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for education¬al purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Jiling Wang_______________________________________________________2021.05.04Name                                                           Signature                                                             DateReconciliation with the CatsGP I & II Report 2021.05.04Student: Jiling WangAdvisor: Fionn ByrneSubmitted in partial fulfillment for the Master of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia.ii iiiABSTRACTThis project investigates the cat eradication program on Christmas Island, Australia, through the lens of Landscape Architecture. By focusing on the unequal power relations between people and animals, Reconciliation with the Cats extends environmental issues into social issues and asks for a radical change in human society through landscape design and intervention. It opens opportunities to redefine the relationships between human, animals, and nature, and showcases an alternative future for Christmas Island.I started this thesis with a great ambition to redefine our relationship with animals. When I first brought this project to my thesis advisor Fionn Byrne, he patiently listened to me rambling through the project proposal with the cats and asked me why changing people’s perception of animals has to go through Landscape Architecture? This question has been buzzing around in my head since then. Why landscape Architecture? What can landscape architecture do but the other disciplines cannot?Throughout the journey of this thesis project, I have been trying to establish my position for animal issues within the realm of landscape architecture, ecology, and ethics. Although many questions were left unanswered in the end, this project stitched many pieces of my thoughts and beliefs together and was my first attempt responding to many contemporary issues with the power of design. This project has taught me important lessons that I know I will be benefited from for the rest of my career.Therefore, I would like to thank my advisor Fionn Byrne for his continued support and guidance, Kees Lokman for his valuable insights and critiques, my classmates, family, and friends for their unwavering encouragement and emotional support. I couldn’t have accomplished this project without all of you!ACKNOWLEDGEMENTPART 3  DESIGN3.1 Christmas Island .................................. 25The Site  ���������������������������������������������������������������26The History ������������������������������������������������������������31The Cats on the Island ������������������������������������������ 34The Landscape and the Dominate Power  ���������� 393.2 The Design Question ........................... 39The Design Focus �������������������������������������������������40The Design Strategy �������������������������������������������� 413.3 The Design Proposal ........................... 41The Design Strategy ��������������������������������������������42The New Landscape ��������������������������������������������493.4 The Conclusion ....................................57BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60ABSTRACT ������������������������������������������������������������� iiACKNOWLEDGEMENT ��������������������������������������� iiiLIST OF FIGURES ��������������������������������������������������� vTHESIS STATEMENT ��������������������������������������������� 1INTRODUCTION  ��������������������������������������������������� 2PART 1  FRAME1.1 Literature Review .................................. 3Animals in the Anthropocene �������������������������������� 4Animal Subjectivity and Morality �������������������������� 5Animal Categorization and the Wild/Urban Divide �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6Animals in Landscape and Design �������������������������71.2 Precedent Studies ................................ 8Synanthropic Suburbia ������������������������������������������ 8Animal Wall �����������������������������������������������������������11ZOOTOPIA������������������������������������������������������������13PART 2  APPROACH2.1 Design Objectives and Principles .........15Principles  ������������������������������������������������������������� 16Design Objectives ������������������������������������������������ 16Who Gets the Attention? �������������������������������������� 172.2 The Animals and the Site .....................17Define the Feral ��������������������������������������������������� 18Feral Cats 101 ������������������������������������������������������� 18TABLE OF CONTENTSiv vLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1. ........................................................................................................................... 7Where to draw the boundary between the urban and the wild?Figure 2. ...........................................................................................................................9Human-animal interactions (Gunawan, 2015)Figure 3. ......................................................................................................................... 10Conceptual framework of Synanthropic SuburbiaFigure 4. ......................................................................................................................... 11Animal Wall By Gitta Gschwedtner  (Etherington, 2009)Figure 5. ......................................................................................................................... 13Reinvent the zoo Safari (BIG, 2014)Figure 6. ......................................................................................................................... 13The hidden buildings in the landscape� (BIG, 2014)Figure 7.  ........................................................................................................................ 14Zootopia entrance� (BIG, 2014)Figure 8. ......................................................................................................................... 16The thinking map�Figure 9.  ........................................................................................................................ 19Timeline of the evolutionary history of cats�Figure 10. ....................................................................................................................... 21The biological features of cats�Figure 11. ....................................................................................................................... 22Cats as rodent and disease controlFigure 12. ....................................................................................................................... 22    Cats as cultural and spiritual iconsFigure 13 . ....................................................................................................................... 22Cats as inspirations for paintings, literature, and animationFigure 14. ....................................................................................................................... 22    Cats as pets and internet viralFigure 15. .......................................................................................................................26 Context map of Chrsitmas Island�Figure 16. ....................................................................................................................... 27Site Plan of Christmas Island� Figure 17. ........................................................................................................................29Climate analysis of Christmas Island�vi viiFigure 37.........................................................................................................................52Section drawing of location C after 10 years of design implementation�Figure 38. ....................................................................................................................... 53“dig and pile“ with a shovel�Figure 39. ....................................................................................................................... 53Family participation with kids�Figure 40. ....................................................................................................................... 53The lunchbreak on site�Figure 41. .......................................................................................................................54Site inspection on soil and regrowth�Figure 42. .......................................................................................................................54Cats lost their hunting advantage in the new landscape�Figure 43. .......................................................................................................................54People  awkwardly find their way through the dense vegetation.Figure 44. ....................................................................................................................... 55The future of Christmas Island�Figure 18. ....................................................................................................................... 30Soil and water analysis Figure 19. ....................................................................................................................... 31    Timeline of the mining history on Christmas Island�Figure 20. ....................................................................................................................... 32Timeline of the Immigration Detention Center� Figure 21. ....................................................................................................................... 33Timeline of the cat eradication program on Christmas Island� Figure 22. ....................................................................................................................... 34The diet of cats by weight on Christmas Island� Figure 23. ....................................................................................................................... 35Diagrammatic section of Chrsitams Island and the behavior study of the cats and their preys�Figure 24. ....................................................................................................................... 37The impact of mining on rainforests on Christmas Island�Figure 25. ....................................................................................................................... 39The value judgement of mining profits, cats, and wildlife.Figure 26. .......................................................................................................................40 Collage of changing the physical landscape to dissolve the dominant power� Figure 26. ....................................................................................................................... 41Diagram of the design strategy�Figure 27. .......................................................................................................................42Diagram of the natural process of sun, wind, and water�Figure 28. ....................................................................................................................... 43The rules for the “dig and pile” strategy�Figure 29. .......................................................................................................................45Christmas Island and the testing site for design�Figure 30. ....................................................................................................................... 47Solar, prevailing wind and water analysis of the testing site�Figure 31. .......................................................................................................................48Axonometric drawing of testing site withGIS analysis� Figure 32. .......................................................................................................................49Detail section drawings of design implementation at location A, B, and C� Figure 33. .......................................................................................................................49Section drawing of the testing site after design implementation� Figure 34. ....................................................................................................................... 51Section drawing of location C on a rainy day�Figure 35. ....................................................................................................................... 51Section drawing of location C on a sunny day�Figure 36. .......................................................................................................................52Section drawing of location C after one year of design implementation�1 2THESIS STATEMENTWe humans tend to place ourselves in a dominant position over animals and nature. We categorize animals and make decisions according to our values ─ to use them for our benefits or disregard them when their value has depleted (Wolch et al., 2000). This human-centric value judgement of animals has caused many controversial decisions on animal issues in the Anthropocene. As risks of animal endangerment increases worldwide, ongoing ecological crises like the sixth mass extinction and global warming are pressing us to rethink our relationship with animals and the natural world. Landscapes are cultivated by humans and reflect human values. It implies our interventions and expresses what we think of ourselves (Halprin, 1988). The dominant attitude of humans over animals is also embedded in the physical landscapes of the modified nature. Therefore, to redefine the human-animal relationships, the physical landscapes that perpetuate the dominant attitude must be changed first.  This thesis will focus on the cat eradication program on Christmas Island, Australia ─ a debatable animal management strategy between animal advocates and conservationists. By investigating the relationship between people, wildlife, and cats, the study aims to dissolve the human dominance over nature and let new relationships develop through landscape architectural design. The raised questions are: How and why do we choose one animal species over another? How can landscape architectural design help to redistribute power dynamics between people and nature? What are our ethical positions and obligations to animals and the natural world? This thesis aims to answer these questions through the speculation for the future of Christmas Island.INTRODUCTION Reconciliation with the Cats is a case study of the cat eradication program on Christmas island through the disciplinary lens of landscape architecture. It explores how we promote new understandings and form new perceptions over animal others through the manipulation of the physical landscapes. This thesis questions the domination of nature by man. It challenges the human-centric value judgement of animals, and seeks to redefine the relationships between humans, animals, and nature. The thesis positions the controversial animal management strategy ─ the cat eradication program, as the focus of the study. Understanding of the animal species, their behaviors, the history, and the environmental and social association of the issue lay the foundation for the design strategy. The design objective is to investigate how the changing landscape redistributes the power dynamic between human and animals and allow new relationships to unfold. How can landscape architecture impact our perceptions of animals and nature? How can humans learn to embrace themselves as tiny participants of the universe to work with nature instead of control it? The design process of the project also sets an example of depowering the role of the human designer and allow the forces of nature to take place.This thesis is structured in three parts. Part one is preliminary research during the Graduate Project I period. It includes literature reviews and precedent studies.  This part identifies the animal issues in the Anthropocene and its connection to the design discipline. As a critical part of the research in the early stage, it underlines the theoretical foundation and provides a conceptual framework for the design research in part two.Part two unpacks the design objective principles. It narrows down the topic and examines the different perceptions associated with feral animals with the example of cats. This part also attempts to pin down a site for the design interventions by exploring two candidate sites. Although the design objectives and strategies identified in this part have evolved a lot through the research process in part three, it provides important guidelines and framework for the refocusing of this project in the next stage.Part three unfolds my Graduate Project II design research, design proposal, and final design interventions. It situates the project on Christmas Island in Australia with the ongoing cat eradication campaign. The focus of an actual site allows more detailed research and analysis targeting specific issues. By extending the environmental problems on Christmas Island into social problems, the project is refocused on the embedded power relations between the dominant group and the subjugated group and argues for a radical change in human society to redefine the relationship between people and animals.3 4PART 1  FRAME1�1 Literature ReviewAnimals in the Anthropocene“Each year, by the billions, animals are killed in factory farms; poisoned by toxic pollutants and waste: driven from their homes by logging, mining, agriculture, and urbanization; dissected, re-engineered, and used as spare body-parts, and kept in captivity and servitude to be discarded as soon as their utility to people had waned.”  (Wolch & Emel, 1998)Humanity has caused the animal population to decline by 60% since 1970 (WWF, 2018). Scientists predicted that the destructive human impact on the natural world would cost 5-7million years for our planet to recover (Carrington, 2018). The massive anthropogenic erosion on the ecosystem is leading to an ongoing “biological annihilation” for both animals and the human civilisation (Ceballos et al., 2017) As Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel stated 20 years ago, “human practices now threaten the animal world and the entire global environment as never before. Our futures are on the line too” (Wolch & Emel, 1998).  20 years later, the situation has not gotten any better. Recent research by Robin Freeman from the Zoological Society of London suggests, “It seems that we’ve spent 10 to 20 years talking about these declines and not really managed to do anything about it” (Freeman, 2020 as cited in Greenfield, 2020).This devastating tragedy for humans and animals  has primarily resulted from the massive anthropocentric urbanization of our planet. Historically, urbanization is based on the notion of conquest and exploitation of nature by culture. Renaissance humanist philosophy has deepened the anthropocentric views on urban’s domination over nature (Stokes & Chitrakar, 2012). Today’s urbanization is proceeding with this deep-seated anthropocentrism. The transformation of wild lands to urban lands during the process of urbanization polluted the water and the soil, destroyed the ecosystem, and altered the natural environment into barren lands for other creatures. The sole purpose of the transformed lands is for human use, which is usually centred around profits and serves the interests of humans only (Wolch, 1998). Animals either disappear from the newly urbanized land or are forced to escape to the peripheral of the city.The anthropocentrism is also reflected in the ontological separation of animals as the “others.” For many centuries in the Western world, we humans see ourselves as significantly different from animals (Wolch, 1998). As a result, we tend to place animals as the external to our existence, commonly remove them in our living sphere (Hwang, 2019). Otherness is based on the notion of “opposing Us, the Self, and Them”, which associates with “a stereotypical, reassuring fashion that serves to comfort the ‘Self’ in its feeling of superiority”(Staszak, 2008).  As a result, the perception of animals as the “others” normalizes and reinforces our continuous domination over them and “comfort” ourselves from the guiltiness of harming animals (Arcari et al., 2020).With the dramatic reduction in animal populations, an attempt to depower humans as dominant global authority took place in the late twentieth century (Stokes & Chitrakar, 2012). Coinciding with this shift from “human-centric” towards “bio-centric”, the growth of the animal rights movement has gain animals more attention and led to discussions surrounding animal subjectivity and morality.5 6Animals are believed to have moral standings and subjectivity. This belief can be dated back to the 6th century BCE. The Old Testament has seen animals as beings with lives and feelings, and therefore, their interests deserve respect (Linder, 2020). The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle also believes animals have some natural potentiality akin to human wisdom, knowledge, and sagacity. Similarly, contemporary scientists Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce in their book Wild Justice  show that certain animals display a broad array of prosocial behaviors, including fairness, empathy, and trust, that should be described as ׳moral’(McFee, 2012). Roberto Marchesini, an Italian philosopher and ethologist, has done extensive researches on animal subjectivity. In his publication Philosophical Ethology and Animal Subjectivity, he has clearly stated that “Relationships to temporality and desire indicate that subjectivity is widespread among animals.” (Marchesini & Bussolini, 2016) Further, studies have shown animals’ agency allows them to play an equal role with humans in many circumstances. By focusing on what happens when species meet, Donna Haraway’s study on the dog-walking behavior indicated that “What we do when we walk the dog is not simply reduce it to a disciplined object; rather, we engage with it, ‘bonded in significant otherness’,  and we are disciplined and interpellated by them as well as the other way round” (Haraway, 2003 as cited in Howell, 2012). The dog walking behaviour is considered as “cross-species sociality”, where the dog is acting as an agent in its own right and has the ability to perform equally as human (Howell, 2012). Jennifer Wolch also believes that animals are subjects rather than objects. They have their realities and worldviews just like humans do (Wolch, 1998).Animal Subjectivity and Morality Animal Categorization and the Wild/Urban Divide“As humans, we have placed different animals into different categories according to notions of species, usefulness, domesticity or wildness. As a result of these varying and often contested orderings, animals are assigned to particular worldly spaces wherein they are supposed to remain.” (Philo & Wilbert, 2000)We divide animals upon our criteria to serve our purposes.  According to Jennifer Wolch, the socially constructed categories have divided animals into “food”, “pet”, and “wildlife”, which serves to shield us from the emotional impact of slaughter-related sufferings (Wolch et al., 2000). This classification doesn’t do justice for animals but solely serves us.These socially constructed categories, however, have put animals into places that reinforce our condescending attitudes toward them. As a result, “food” animals belong to factory farms, “pet” animals belong to confined homes, and “wildlife” belong to the wild. Animals’ places in the city is a matter of inclusion and exclusion (Howell, 2012), and animal categorization have largely affected our acceptance or rejection of animals in the urban space. Thus, when we see coyotes trotting effortlessly across the street in the city, the most common response is to exclude them ── coyotes are seen as wild animals that are “out of place” in the city. They should belong to the “wild”.The man-made categorization in animals encourages the human bias toward animals or “speciesism”(Singer, 2015) which fails to take animals’ subjectivity into consideration and hinders the formation of new relationships with animals . Luckily, animals may resist this categorization.Some may argue that animal morality and agency only exist for certain species, and most animals are still fundamentally different from humans. Even though more researches need to be done to test animal morality across species, what we have learnt so far is more than enough to destabilize the line between “human” and “animal”. Furthermore, as Jennifer Wolch argues, “Critiques of post-Enlightenment science, greater understanding of animal thinking and capabilities, and studies of human biology and behavior emphasizing human–animal similarities have all rendered claims about human uniqueness deeply suspect” (Wolch, 1998). It is reasonable to believe that animals have morality and subjectivity. Therefore, they are not fundamentally different from humans.Hence, as humans alter landscapes to create living environments, the needs and interests of animals should also be considered. Animals deserve “genuine rights and considerations as stakeholders in urban planning and design process”. They also need to be perceived as equal counterparts with humans to co-alter the novel urban landscapes (Stokes & Chitrakar, 2012). Our urban landscapes should be designed with the obligation to incorporate animals’ subjectivity and cultivate this equitable partnership between humans and animals.Cats are prime examples in this regard.  As “pets”, they usually belong to someone’s home. But they are also accepted as homely animals that they will retain some of their wildness. When a pet cat escapes the home at night, intruding into the urban wild like a free-roaming beast, bringing dead mice back into the house, and contaminating the “domestic pureness” of the home space, this cat is not just a domesticated pet cat anymore. It is also wild. In this sense, cats are transgressive, breaching through the built environment and the urban wild.  They occupy a zone somewhere on the “domestic-wild spectrum”, breaking the boundary between nature and culture (Griffiths et al., 2000).Nature and culture are commonly accepted as two distinct ontological provinces in the Western view (Haila, 2000). Such dualistic opposition has separated humans and culture from non-humans and nature (Daly Bezerra de Melo & Gabriela, 2012). As a result, humans view themselves as fundamentally different creatures from other animals, continually justify their dominance and superiority over other creatures. Such dualism also erects a wall between the urban and the wild. The urban area is commonly accepted as highly ordered and managed land where nature is contained and transformed (Griffiths et al., 2000). The wild on the other hand represents the un-cultivated and order-less lands beyond what human civilization can manage to reach. When we conceive urban and wild as distinct and separate lands, we tend to turn a blind eye to what is happening to the wild, look away, and ignore the fates of animals. This separation has limited our vision to comprehend other living creatures fully, thus results in the further alienation of humanity from nature. The tension between the human and non-humans often resides in the tension between the self and other (Powell, 2009). And animals’ resistance to human control alongside the socially constructed animal classification often cause contentions over animal issues in the Anthropocene. The collapse of the dualism between animals and humans is pressing us to rethink our relationships with them.  As landscape architecture plays a significant role in forming everyday experiences and raising awareness, landscape designers and city planners are 7 8Where to draw the boundary between the urban and the wild?obligated to design our urban landscapes with full respect to animals’ subjectivity and promote a positive engagement with the animal “otherness” in modern society.Figure 1�Animals in Landscape and DesignWhile animal advocates may clash with a bio-centric environmentalist outlook on issues such as the extermination of certain species for the sake of biodiversity metrics, the general, if at times ambiguous, goal of raising awareness of a nonhuman-other can often constitute the ends for sustainability-minded animal designers.(Wolch et al., 2017)Animals’ role in landscapes can be traced back to the composition of Dutch paintings in the 15th century, when certain animals were used in the paintings to express certain characters of the painted landscapes (Büttner, 2000 as cited in Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017). For example, sheep were used to depict the pastoral arcadia landscape; deer were used to express the wild landscape. As landscapes are “walkable” paintings, animals have played a significant role in expressing the symbolic meanings and aesthetic characters of the corresponding landscapes (Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017). As a result, animals were only associated with certain landscapes and specific sceneries. Removing or introducing animals in certain landscapes will not only “destruct the balance and harmony of the landscape” but also “damage this landscape aesthetically as well as functionally” (Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017). This pictorial principle of landscape paintings has also encouraged the spatial separation between the world of humans and the world of animals (Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017).Animals have also raised plenty of contentions between landscape design and biodiversity conservation. Even though animals are used extensively in today’s landscape architecture renderings to indicate good design and harmonious man-nature relationships, animals are often not well considered until the later stage of the design process. Conventional landscape design is more aligned with human needs – to design controllable, functional, aesthetic urban spaces with tamed nature, while animal conservationists tend to aim at the wildness and promote the idea of “leaving things as they are in nature” (Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017). This discrepancy between landscape designers and conservationists regarding their attitudes to animals and nature has led to many conflicts and often a “lose-lose situation” for both parties (Wolfgang & Hauck, 2017).Today, animals are playing a more and more critical role in the realm of design. As Jennifer and her colleagues summarised in their publication Animals in Contemporary Architecture and Design, the practice of design provides “an ideal forum for bringing the question of animality and desire into studies of technics and technology” and “a means to understand animals beyond innate morphological essences assigned by humans”(Wolch et al., 2017).1�2 Precedent StudiesSynanthropic SuburbiaTarget species: Synanthropic species (animals who benefit from living near humans yet remain beyond their control)Site: The domestic realm of the house in North America suburbsProject type: Architecture Thesis ProjectDesign by: Sarah GunawanDate: 2015Thesis position: “Animals are equal citizens with the agency to contribute to the dynamic processes of production, consumption, and inhabitation of the syn-urban biome. Synanthropic architecture blurs the spatial definition between human and non-human to maximize the mutual benefits of cohabitation” (Gunawan, 2015).9 10Project Objective: This project investigates the potential for architecture in incorporating habitat support for both human and non-human species into architectural form and landscape systems.Research/Design Methodology: Explore “the interrelationship between scales of design and ecological impact”, investigate “how can multiplication of small-scale architectural interventions influence large scale territorial systems and patterns”. The project carries through “a series of telescoping design experiments with six active animal species players, engaging their habitat needs, biological behaviours, and seasonal patterns” (Gunawan, 2015).  Design interventions: 1. Building scale: Three architectural prosthetics: the reimagine of conventional building components into hybrid systems that redefine the physical interface between human and non-human species; 2. Urban block scale: multiplication of the prosthetics systems in engaging with broader biological requirements of a species and integrates the spatial development patterns to define new synanthropic suburban typologies. 3. Territorial scale:  a novel urban ecosystem in supporting both human and non-human species. Lesson learnt:1. The choice of targeting animals- Synanthropical species is smart, as the synanthropic situate between the domestic and wild, erode the boundary, and produce hybrid conditions. This choice of animals also makes a lot of sense when the project is engaging with the suburbs and the domestic territory of the house.2. The conceptual framework of this project is evident and thorough. It explicitly affirms the author’s position toward human-animal relationships and suggests new possibilities of ecological architecture design. The theoretical foundation set up a solid stage to initiate deep conversations around human/animal limits, nature/city dichotomy, urban biomes, and lead to the emergent of Synanthropic Architecture.When discussing the conceptual framework, the author also identifies several factors to engage with for the design process later on.  For example, “engaging with the factors of control and perception”, engage with the “physical interfaces between human and animals”, “the ecological and sociological factors”.The essay also keeps linking back to the spatial implication of these conceptual theories, which is essential to form design thinking later.3. The series of illustrations, narratives and diagrams that look animals through different lenses is very useful in understanding the cultural and ecological aspects of the animals, which also helps with design thinking animals through different lens is instrumental in understanding the cultural and ecological aspects of the animals, which also helps with design thinking.  4. Although I wonder about the negative impact of the design speculation on the new urban biome (for example, the design implication will increase the number of house sparrows that already in abundance and further threats the native avian species), the author has explicitly indicated the design objective as “seek to shift the conceptual limits of human territory to enable animal cohabitation within the suburban biome”, which is fulflilled though the design interventions, therefore, this project is very successful.Conceptual framework of Synanthropic SuburbiaFigure 3�Human-animal interactions (Gunawan, 2015)Figure 2�The dynamic relationship between the factors of control and perception�11 12Animal WallTarget species: Bird and bat speciesSite: near a riverside walk in a residential area in Century Wharf, Cardiff BayProject type: Ecological artwork, builtDesign by: Gitta Gschwendtner (Artist)Date: 2009Project Objective: To mitigate “the environmental impact of the extensive housing development in Cardiff Bay”; to assist “wildlife in the area and encourage further habitation” (Etherington, 2009).Research/Design Methodology: Consulting with an ecologist, integrating arts, aesthetics, and practical functionsDesign interventions: 1000 nest boxes consist of four different sized animal homes integrated into a custom-made woodcrete cladding wall to match the 1,000 new apartments and houses development nearby. The wall also functions as a transition from a private area to a public area.Lesson learnt:1. Artificial habitat integrated with façade design that also functions for human use is a smart move.2. 1,000 animal houses match the 1,000 new apartments and houses for human inhabitants – a playful way to express that urban area are not just for human dwellers.3. The location of the installation-near the residential area along the riverside walk is a smart act to integrate the ecological consideration of animal habitat into a tangible display in people’s everyday experience, which helps to generate daily contact between people and animals and offers better understanding toward animals.4. Artificial animal habitat integrated with architecture provides opportunities to re-evaluate the role architecture plays in defining habitat and possibly form new positive engagements with animals.5. Projects like this show potential to address the human-animal dualism and explore the role of design in influencing perceptions of urban wildlife habitat. They also promote the consideration regarding animals as a component of urban cultural place-making (Stokes & Chitrakar, 2012).6. My critique is that these types of artificial habitat design in urban areas provides habitats for animals which might increase the population of certain species but may also promotes the conflicts betwwen humans and animals. The intervention may help with the thrive of some animal species, but I wonder how effective they are in engaging with people’s negative attitudes toward these species. How can we design for better inclusion of animals in the city, not just physically but psychologically? Animal Wall By Gitta Gschwedtner  (Etherington, 2009)Figure 4�13 14ZOOTOPIATarget species: 700 zoo animals, more than 70 species (gorillas, wolves, bears, lions, and elephants, etc.)Site: Givskud zoo, Vejle in DenmarkProject type: Architecture and Landscape Architecture Project, in progressDesign by: BIGDate: 2014Project Objective: “To create the best possible and freest possible environment for the animals’ lives and relationships with each other and visitors” (BIG, 2014). Also, to discover ideas and opportunities for future urban living.Research/Design Methodology: Tailor-made homes for animals with qualities from their original surroundings.Design interventions: Animal habitat will be designed to look like natural features, with architecture hidden within the topography.Reinvent the zoo Safari (BIG, 2014)The hidden buildings in the landscape� (BIG, 2014)Zootopia entrance� (BIG, 2014)Figure 5�Figure 6�Figure 7� Lesson learnt:1. I like the idea of design for “best possible and freest possible environment for animals”. Design strategies like hidden buildings, tailor-made homes for animals, and natural-looking enclosures are important approaches to enhance animals’ lives and increase the visual aesthetics of the zoo.2. This is a very inspiring project to reimagine our urban jungle in the future. Can we design hidden architecture buildings that won’t intrude with the “natural” landscapes and fragment the animal habitats? What is it like to live with free-roaming animals in the city? 3. My question to this project is how effective the strategies are in enhancing animals’ lives? And I think the massive paved area at the entrance is not align with design strategy.15 16PART 2  APPROACH2�1 Design Objectives and PrinciplesDesign ObjectivesPrinciples The design objective of this thesis is to challenge people’s conventional perceptions toward animals and use landscape design to cultivate new understandings over animal issues in the Anthropocene.• To focus on non-popular animal species.• To integrate animals’ subjectivity in the design process.To form new relationships with animals and enable new perceptions toward animals, we need to discard the deep-rooted anthropocentrisim and fully integrate animals’ agency and subjectivity in our landscape design process ──To break free from the conventional animal categorizations, embrace new attitudes, respect their needs, and humbly situate ourselves around them and share spaces with them.“the most successful animal designers are those that acknowledge the lives of the common and quotidian animals in our midst, and integrate animal subjectivity into contemporary practices, while also executing a novel technical outcome.” (Wolch et al., 2017)• To accept animals’ presence among us – to provide animal habitat in the city. “…reconnect with nature by purposefully breaking down this urban order, and by accepting ‘weeds’ and other natural elements that are ‘out of place’ according to hegemonic ordering principles.” (Griffiths et al., 2000)“First, through deindustrialisation and the resultant liberation of urban space that could be rewilded; second, through spontaneous, autonomous occupation of such space by non-human animals; and third, through purposive implementation of an ecological programme, often initiated through representations of nature as an agent acting to reclaim urban space.” (Owens & Wolch, 2019)• Educational design to promote new perceptions How animals are categorized reflects and reinforces our attitudes toward them� Animals’ resistance to the man-made categorization blurs the boundaries and breaks the stererotypcical perceptions associated with them�Figure 8� The thinking map�17 18Who Gets the Attention?Define the FeralTo form new relationships with animals and fully incorporate animals’ subjectivity in the landscape design of modern society, we must abandon the conventional socially constructed animal classifications and look at animals from a new perspective.In the realm of animal studies and design studies, there is a vast unevenness on what type of animals get our attention (Owens, 2016). A lot of the existing animal design projects and literature are targeting wildlife for their importance in urban sustainability and biodiversity conservation. Claire Palmer argues that many of the studies on urban sustainability tend to focus on the importance of wildlife in the city, which emphasizes “biodiversity rather than relations with individual animals”(Palmer, 2010).  As a result, those Feral Cats 101Between the domesticated and the wild is the feral. Although this thesis tries to avoid any sorts of animal categorizations and dividing, the concept of “feral” needs to be defined to allow deep discussions regarding animal specificities and avoid confusion.According to the Oxford Dictionary of English, “Feral” as an adjective is “used to describe something (usually an animal) in a wild state, especially after escape captivity or domestication” (“Oxford Dict. English,” 2010). The feral animals in this thesis refer to those animals or the decedents of those animals who have escaped from the confined man-made spaces, regain their freedoms, and live independently from people.Feral animals are in close association with human settlements. A lot of them are ubiquitous species in the city. Feral animals are generally considered as nuisances in the city due to their exceptional populations and potential in carrying disease. They are often perceived as invasive pests posing economic and environmental harms to our living environment (The wildlife society, 2016). The removal of these species has become the primary management strategy in some places in the world (Dickman et al., 2019).Among all the feral animals in the city, the most common ones are cats.Who are they and where they came fromThe cats we are talking about today is Felis catus, who are descended from the ancient wildcat Felis silvestris lybica (Driscoll et al., 2007). While the dispersal of the cats is anthropogenic, the evolutionary history of the 2�2 The Animals and the Siteanimals who have higher conservation values receive more attention. The notion of “biodiversity” encourages us to look more at those endangered species but less at those with ubiquity and abundance. Like what we have seen in the precedent studies, many projects are focusing on providing wildlife habitats in the city for the seek of urban biodiversity (e.g., the Animal Wall) but less about individual animals and animal ethics in the urban environment. Therefore, this thesis will fill this gap by focusing on those who are not on the priority list in animal design studies but still have great importance in understanding animals’ roles in the contemporary world. The feral animals will be at the center stage of this project.cats is believed to be a process of “self-domestication”. It is widely thought that the presence of mice and rats in grain stores in Neolithic human settlements has led to the domestication of cats (Marshall, 2020). The ancestors of the cat family are thought to originate from Asia around 10.8 million years ago. With the rise and fall of the sea levels over the millennia, the ancestral cats migrate and occupy different geographical locations on earth and developed into a wide variety of isolated cat species(O’Brien & Johnson, 2007). The Near East and Egyptian population of ancestral cats are believed to have been the major contribution to today’s cats’ gene pool (Ottoni et al., 2017). The first cat-human association was triggered by the emergence of human grain stores dating back to 10,000 years ago (Dickman et al., 2019). The wild cats followed their prey species ─ the rodents and were brought close to human settlements. It is believed that those cats who were more tolerant of human presence would have been more likely to stay in proximity with human settlements. This “commensal relationship between cats and humans” lasted thousands of years before the first evident domestication of cats happened in Egypt about 3600 years ago (Ottoni et al., 2017). Cats’ sociability and tameness and their ability in rodent control made them favourable animals to humans. Researches suggest the cats began to travel with prehistory humans along the ancient trade routes, spreading across the globe and wandering into our homes. Today, cats are one of the most popular pets in the world. They presented on all continents except Antarctica (Ottoni et al., 2017).  Despite the evolutionary success of domestic cats, almost all wild cats today are facing extinction (O’Brien & Johnson, 2007).Today’s cats remained basically unchanged compared to their wild ancestors. The striped and blotched coat markings that developed in the Middle Ages were thought to be one of the few traits to tell them apart. (Ottoni et al., 2017).19 20Timeline of the evolutionary history of cats�Figure 9� 21 22Cats in human history Cats have played important roles alongside human civilization throughout history. They have had diverse relationships with humans ─ as rodent control and disease control, as cultural and spiritual icons, and as household pets(Marshall, 2020).In the past, cats have battled against rodents and the 35 deadly diseases they carry. Their importance in rodent control and public health has been well documented in many literatures. “The presence of barn cat often meant the difference between starvation and survival for many farm families through the millennia…Without these domesticated cats from Egypt, originally imported into the continent by the Greeks, European towns, villages, and farms would have been frequently overrun by mice and rats … European civilization would have been considerably poorer and sicker over the past 2,500 years.” (Engels, 1999)Cats were also critical religious symbols and cultural icons throughout human history. They were “the goddesses Artemis of the Greeks, Diana of the Romans and the Egyptian goddess Bastet” (Engels, 1999). Cats were worshipped throughout the Middle Ages in Europe until the infamous witch hunts and cat massacres in the eleventh century (Engels, 1999). Cats were associated with dark evil spirits, and as a result, millions of cats were burned and tortured to death to eradicate the devils and witches. Despite the dark times in the Middle Ages, cats won their affections back and served as valuable inspirations for intellectuals and artists. Cats were depicted in millions of books, poems, paintings, as well as architecture and interiors. Stories and myths grew around cats continually ignite their imagined magical power in different cultures (Vocelle, 2016). Cats have also been an important element in film, TV, comic, and animation works. Notable cat The biological features of cats�Cats as rodent and disease controlCats as cultural and spiritual iconsCats as inspirations for paintings, literature, and animationsCats as pets and internet viralFigure 10�Figure 11�Figure 12�Figure 13�Figure 14�Cats are exceptional hunters; the hunting success rate is up to 70% (McGregor et al., 2015). They are pure carnivores and opportunistic scavengers.characters include Tom, Garfield, Doraemon, and Hello Kitty.Today’s cats have ventured into every aspect of our life. Cats have become the most popular pets around the globe. Our fascinations with cats not only grow upon their cuteness but more for their aloofness and “weirdness”. And this is essentially due to the hundreds and thousands of cat video clips and pictures on the internet. Anecdotes and news reports suggest that there are  “two million cat videos on YouTube and “Cats” is one of the most searched keywords on the internet” (Why Cat Clips Rule the Internet - CBBC Newsround, n.d.). Researches also found out that viewing cat media online improves people’s mood, explaining the cat’s ruling of the internet (Myrick, 2015).23 24The Dual Identities of Cat and the Sites of ContentionsToday’s cats as one of the most popular pets in households worldwide, their places and roles in societies and ecosystems are contentious topics. 1. Controversial Identity: Companion vs. Killer Contention Hotspot: AustraliaExtensive ecological studies on the scales and impacts of cat predation on wildlife lead to debates between wildlife advocates and cat enthusiasts in recent years. Cats are believed to be one of the biggest threats to Australian wildlife (Australian Government, 2015). It is estimated that cats kill over 2 billion vertebrates and over 1 billion invertebrates each year in Australia. Since their introduction to Australia in 1788, they have widespread across the continent and caused the extinction of over 25 mammal species (Legge et al., 2020). Feral cats were ranked as the highest threat to Australia’s mammals by the Australian Mammal Action Plan in 2012. In 2015, An Action Plan was started to cull two million cats by 2020 (Government, n.d.). The ecological impacts of feral cats have led to a “war” between the “cat people” and “wildlife people”. Sarah Crowley, an environmental social scientist, and her team, in their publication Our Wild Companions: Domestic cats in the Anthropocene, pointed out that the growing conflict revolving cat is underscored by the dual societal roles of cats being both wild and domestic simultaneously (Crowley et al., 2020)As we have discussed earlier, cats exist on the spectrum of domestic and wild. Our attitudes towards cats often fluctuate between a dialectic of desire and disgust (Griffiths et al., 2000). Domestic cats are amazingly capable of shifting back and forth between being domestic and feral. Cats’ resistance to complete domestication underlies their potential of being much-loved companions and devastating killers at the same time (Dickman et al., 2019). The dual status of cat lead to the divide among people when comes to conservation issues caused by cats. The “cat people” see the domestic side of cats ─ as sweet companions who deserve trust and compassion; the “wildlife people” see the wildness of cats ─ as fierce hunters who cause great ecological harms (Crowley et al., 2020). However, cats as a species, as individuals, as ethic beings who have shared a longstanding symbiotic relationship with humans complicate their roles in human societies and the wider ecosystems. The debate around cats is far more complex than the question of “if cats should take the blame or not”. Instead, the recognition that cats are “not exclusively pets or pests needs to be enforced”. Like Sarah Crowley and her colleagues suggested, “What is needed to move this debate forward is greater recognition from each human ‘side’ that there is the other ‘side’ of cats to be taken into account, and a greater willingness to recognise and work within the messy, difficult, multispecies histories and legacies of human–cat relations” (Crowley et al., 2020).2. Controversial Identity: Tourist Attractor vs. Ancient Ruin SabotageContention Hotspot: Torre Argentina, Rome, ItalyCats have been patrolling the streets of Rome for thousands of years. It is believed that there are more than 4,000 cat colonies with an estimated 120,000 feral cats in Rome (The Cats of the Colosseum, n.d.). The thrive of these cats is owned to the volunteer groups of the cat caretakers — the so-called “Gattare”(Povoledo, 2012). Torre Argentina, the ruins of a temple where Brutus is thought to have murdered Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., has one of the most famous cat colonies. In 1993, the Torre Argentina Cat Sanctuary was founded. Since then, the shelter and the cats became a popular tourist draw. People come to Torre Argentina for both the ancient ruins and the cats. The shelter cares for 150-180 cats at a time and has neutered and spayed 29,000 cats over the past 20 years (Povoledo, 2012). However, Italy’s state archaeologists have accused the cat shelter of unauthorized occupancy and damaging the fragile ancient monument. The cats and the shelter are considered as “incompatible with the preservation of the monument” (Povoledo, 2012).In Ancient Rome, cats are respected for their rodent-catching abilities. They were also seen as exotic and scared animals. The association of cats to liberty and divinity made them the only animals permitted to walk freely around the temples of the Romans. Starting 1991, the Italian Parliament has enacted the no-kill policy for the free-roaming cats in the city of Rome (Natoli et al., 2019). Cats are “part of the city’s bio-cultural patrimony”(Povoledo, 2012). 25 26PART 3  DESIGN3�1 Christmas IslandThe Site Christmas Island is a hidden paradise in the Indian ocean. Developing separately from the mainland for over 60 million years, this small island has cultivated a unique landscape with fascinating animal species (BirdLife International, 2017).Today’s Christmas Island is part of Australian external territory. It has an ongoing effort to get rid of all cats from the island since 2010 (Algar et al., 2014).The island has a typical tropical climate with distinct wet seasons and dry seasons. And because of the highly porous limestone underneath the soil layer, rainwater will drain quickly to the underground cave systems. There is almost no permanent freshwater body presented across the entire Island (Department of Agriculture, n.d.).  Context map of Chrsitmas Island�Figure 15�27 28Site Plan of Christmas Island� Figure 16� Scale: 1:50000� Origional Size: 27 in  x 15 in�29 30Climate analysis of Christmas Island� Soil and water analysis Figure 17� Figure 18�31 32In 1887, the British discovered abundant phosphate deposits on the island, which led to the first settlement for phosphate mining. Throughout 1900, labour workers from China and Malaysia were brought to the island for mining operations. These Asian workers were held in brutal working conditions, labouring like slaves under the oppression of the British.This is evidenced with the so-called “coolie house” and “feeding shed”. Built separately from the British residences, they are the places for the Asian workers to rest and “get fed” --- which are only allowed during certain hours of the day. While making profits for the British, hundreds of labour workers were died due to the poor living conditions (Emery, 2016). The dominant power of the British controlled the life and death of those Asian workers. Even though this dark history of mining has long gone today, similar power relations persisted, continually manipulating the “life and death” of the “others”.This is well exampled in the infamous immigration detention center on Charismas Island today.. Since it opened in 2008, the detention center has been the site of hunger strikes, protests, and angry riots. Life in the detention center was described as “worse than jail”, as the detainees were treated like criminals, confined by the barbed wire fence, being watched for 24 hours, waiting indefinitely for their refugee claims to be processed. The detention center was once closed in 2018. Instead of being demolished upon closing, the government kept it in “contingency”, allowed its reopening in 2019 and continually serve to constrain the freedoms of those asylum seekers (Koziol, 2019).The HistoryTimeline of the mining history on Christmas Island� Timeline of the Immigration Detention Center� Figure 19� Figure 20� Image source: https://christmasislandarchives�com/ Image source: https://www�theguardian�com/33 34Cats were brought to the island by the European settlers in the late 1800s, which resulted in an abundant feral population being presented across the island.  They are believed to have caused the extinction of many wildlife species. Studies shows the top three prey species for the cats are the introduced black rats, the fruit pigeons, and the flying foxes. The latter two are both endemic to the island (Australian Government, 2002).Therefore, since 2010, the government decided to get rid of all cats from the island. The methods used for cat eradication include cage-trapping, poisoning, shooting. In 2015, a record of 469 cats has been removed within five years (Algar et al., 2014). The Cats on the IslandTimeline of the cat eradication program on Christmas Island� The diet of cats by weight on Christmas Island� Figure 21�Figure 22�Image source: https://www�nytimes�com/; https://www�environment�gov�au/; unkown sources from the internet�Data source: (Tidemann et al�, 1994)35 36Diagrammatic section of Chrsitams Island and the behavior study of the cats and their preys�Figure 23�37 38Although cats are widespread on the island, they are found concentrating near the post-mining sites. Studies have shown cats are better hunters in open habitats and simple topographies than in complex vegetated areas, as it is easier for the cats in an open and flat area to detect and catch preys. The hunting success rate is up to 70% (McGregor et al., 2015). The mining operation over the past 100 years not only destroyed the original habitats of the fruit pigeons and flying foxes, it also destroyed the soil profile and largely diminished the water holding capacity and nutrient content of the soil, making it impossible for the regrowth to return to the original rainforest (Milnes, 2020), and therefore creating perfect hunting ground for the cats.The impact of mining on rainforests on Christmas Island�Figure 24�39 403�2 The Design QuestionEven though humans are the leading problem for the ecological issues on Christmas Island, it doesn’t seem to be important comparing to the substantial mining profits. Killing the cats has become a quick and easy solution. This human-centric value judgement of animals has blind us from tackling the real issue. And because of the domination thinking of man over nature, we are continually making decisions on the life and death of the animal others.The invisible unequal power becomes visible through the physical landscapes the powers residing in. As the “coolie house” and the “feeding shed” demarcating the British and the Asian workers, the barbed wire fence and security cameras constraining the freedoms of the asylum seekers, these landscapes became the physical expression of the dominant power, perpetuating the detrimental decision-makings against the subjugated others. Unless we do something with that landscape, we will find ourselves stuck in the same situation with the unequal relationship between the two sides, and constantly facing the dilemma of choosing between the cats and the wildlife.The Landscape and the Dominate Power The Design FocusThe design proposal of this project will focus on transforming the landscapes of the post-mining area on Christmas Island, use landscape architectural design to redistribute the power relationship between people and animals, and restore the ecological balance between the cats and wildlife.The value judgement of mining profits, cats, and wildlife� Collage of changing the physical landscape to dissolve the dominant power� Figure 25� Figure 26�41 423�3 The Design ProposalThe design interventions will aim to create micro-topography and increase vegetation complexity. Instead of imposing immediate change directly on the site, the design enhances what was given and encourages the power of nature to take place.On the post-mining site, the destroyed soil profile has lost the water holding capacity and nutrient content. Therefore, during the dry seasons, water becomes a critical factor for the survival of the new growth, whic leads to my design intervention of a “dig” and “pile” strategy to work the soil and to create a variance of soil depth that allows water to flow and pool on site. And with the natural process of the sun, the wind, and rain, a variety of plants will eventually emerge.The Design Strategy The Design StrategyIn order maximumly capture the sunlight, wind and allow water to collect in the soil pit, according to the solar and wind analysis, the soil should be piled on the northwest side of the digs so water will be more likely to accumulate. During the actual implementation, the size, shape and density of the “dig and pile” vary according to site specifics.These rules are guidelines to locate the digs and piles across the sites strategicallyGIS analysis and site survey examine the soil conditions and the existing topography from top-down and bottom-up, respectively. The implementation is mapped out in the diagram.Diagram of the design strategy�Diagram of the natural process of sun, wind, and water�Figure 26�Figure 27�43 44The rules for the “dig and pile” strategy�Figure 28�45 46Christmas Island and the testing site for design�Figure 29�47 48Solar, prevailing wind and water analysis of the testing site�Figure 30� Axonometric drawing of testing site withGIS analysis� Scale: 1:1000� Original Size: 24 in� x 36 inFigure 31�49 50The New LandscapeSection drawing of the testing site after design implementation� Detail section drawings of design implementation at location A, B, and C� Scale: 1: 500� Original size: 25 in x 7 in�Scale: 1: 100� Original size: 14�5 in x 8�5 in�Figure 33�Figure 32�A B C51 52Section drawing of location C on a sunny day�Section drawing of location C after one year of design implementation�Section drawing of location C after 10 years of design implementation�Section drawing of location C on a rainy day�Figure 35�Figure 36�Figure 37�Figure 34�Scale: 1: 100� Original size: 14�5 in x 8�5 in�Scale: 1: 100� Original size: 14�5 in x 8�5 in�Scale: 1: 100� Original size: 14�5 in x 8�5 in�Scale: 1: 100� Original size: 14�5 in x 8�5 in�53 54“dig and pile“ with a shovel�Family participation with kids�The lunchbreak on site�Site inspection on soil and regrowth�Cats lost their hunting advantage in the new landscape�People  awkwardly find their way through the dense vegetation�Figure 38�Figure 39�Figure 40�Figure 41�Figure 42�Figure 43�55 56The future of Christmas Island� The “dig and pile“ has become a ritual event on Christmas Island in 2100� The new rainforest has established and people are no longer the dominant power in this new landscape�Figure 44�57 58This project challenges the cat eradication program on Christmas Island through landscape architectural design research. The question I want to raise is: What are our attitudes toward animals and the natural world? The cat eradication campaign is a decision we made according to our value judgement of animals, where we value one species over another. Even though killing the cats is to save the wildlife, it is very wrong and does not solve the real issue. The real issue is the people and their dominant attitude to the natural world. As the leading cause of many environmental issues, we have destroyed the forests, polluted the ocean, and caused the extinction of many animal species.  If we don’t seek radical changes in ourselves and continue to place ourselves in the dominant position over animals and nature, we will be stuck in the same situation facing the dilemma of choosing between the “cats” and the “wildlife”.To change the people, the landscape that perpetuates the dominant attitudes needs to be changed first. Therefore, the design proposal of this project settled on transforming the landscapes of the post-mining sites. Design decisions were made according to the sun, the wind, the water, and the soil. The execution of the intervention is also critical component of the design, which was proceeded with the simplest tool, the longest time, and requires the participation of everybody on Christmas Island.Christmas Island represents many issues the world is facing today. Even though landscape architecture doesn’t necessarily solve all these issues, it can change the physical landscapes that perpetuates the problem and sets opportunities for changes to happen. Hopefully, this project has justified this point.  Many valuable questions were raised during the presentations for this project. I would like to address some of them here.1. About the catsI got asked a lot about the cats in this project. Although at the beginning the focus on cats was arbitrary, through my research, I found that there are no better candidates than the cats to achieve what I want to achieve with this project. I believe the existence of “invasive” animals complicates our understandings of nature and culture in a significant way. And the cat is one of the most known and contentious “invasive “species. During my GP1 research, a lot of studies have pointed out the ecological and social roles of cats and the complex, polarized attitudes associated with them, which allows me to look at one animal species from different angles and prob into the human-centric, value judgement of animals. During my GP2 study, the cat is no longer the focus of the project, but it has raised many other issues that are essentially related to each other, leading this project to the direction of responding to a larger question in terms of man’s domination over nature.2. About the detention centerThe detention center has been a debatable element in this project. Involving prominent social issues like human justice and equality, the detention center seems to overshadow the animal issues in this project. However, there are lots of similarities behind these issues: they both involve the same physical objects as the cage;  they both demonstrate the disrespectful, inhumane behaviors from a dominant group to a subjugated group; the reopening of the detention center makes me wonder about the physical landscape in persisting the unequal power relationships. All of these can relate to Murray Bookchin’s domination theory of man to man and man to nature (Bookchin, 1982).3. About the shovel and the “dig and pile” strategy3�4 The ConclusionThere are questions on why relying on just a shovel to change the landscape. And my answer to that is the design proposal is all about depowering humans in front of nature. The emphasis with my proposal is that we need to work with nature instead of control it. Even though with the technology we have today, we can restore the post-mining landscape fast and efficiently, nature doesn’t accelerate. All natura processes won’t speed up or slow down for us. Healing the land takes time. Work with nature takes time. Another argument I want to imply is that efficiency shouldn’t always be what we pursuit.  The phosphate deposits on Christmas Island took thousands of years to develop. And we exploit the resources with mining within only 100 years. It is exactly the pursuit of profits and efficiency that drives many environmental problems we are facing today. Therefore, the design intervention I am proposing is going to execute with the simplest tool and take the longest time.59 60BibliographyAlgar, D�, Hamilton, N�, & Pink, C� (2014)� Progress in eradicating cats (Felis catus) on Christmas Island to conserve biodiversity. 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