UBC Graduate Research

Sand / Unseen Foster, Thomas 2021-05

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Sand / UnseenTom FosteriSand / UnseenbyThomas FosterBSc (Hons) in Architecture (RIBA Part 1), University of Bath, 2018Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommitteeThena Tak [ Chair ]Sam OstrowMarcus RothnieIsabel SandemanMatthew Soules [ GP1 Mentor ]University of British Columbia, Vancouver© May, 2021iiiii“I greet you jar of jam. You glass who once was sand upon the beach, washed back and forth and bathed in foam and seagull cries, but who are formed into a glass until you once again return to the sea”- Robin Wall KimmerervAbstract[ adjective ]1 - Existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or concrete existence[ verb ]1 - consider (something) theoretically or separately from something else2 - extract or remove (something)[ noun ]1 - a summary of the contents of a book, article, or formal speech from something else- Oxford English Dictionary viAbstractFront MatterSand is the second most consumed being in the world, after water, and the most extracted solid material globally, used throughout the construction industry in concrete, glass, asphalt, and bricks, as well as in toothpaste, sunscreen, kitchen sinks, and computer chips.Our cities are built of sand, and today this consumption of sand is driving a global sand shortage, but many of us are unaware of the role sand plays in our everyday lives. In order to reorientate our relationship with sand, and the more than human world broadly, we must endeavour to foreground the voices and stories of these unseen beings. This project is revealed through observations and research from the site that are intermingled with the imagined perspectives and stories from different grains of sand as they arrive at the site and encounter other inhabitants and guests of the area.If we asked ourselves “what can we learn from sand” - sand’s sensitivity, fluidity, cyclicality and complexity may be among the lessons.viiThis project seeks to reveal the agency and multiplicities of sand in our everyday rituals and environments - creating opportunities for intimate experiences between human and more-than-human through material, spatial, tectonic, and ecological engagements with the flows of sand in our world. Thesis StatementFront MatterviiiixFront MatterAbstract   •Thesis Statement   •List of Figures   •Acknowledgements   •Part I - Grain StoriesPrelude   •Dolomite // Coastal Meadow Datum   •Magnetite // Sand Dune Cafe   •Sea Glass // Intertidal Lookout   •Part II - ContextAbstraction   • Material History   •ExtractionGlobal   •Local   • SiteSechelt Quarry   •555 West Hastings Street   •1019 Nelson Street   •Iona Island   •PrecedentsReduce   •Reuse   •Recycle   •Reorient   •WithinCapitalism   •Nature   •Time   •Technology   •Part III - EpilogueReflections   •End MatterBibliography   •Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]   •Appendix B - [ Process ]   •Appendix C - [ Research ]   •viviixxv3959105145153161171177189199205215225231237243246248250255259263305319Table of ContentsFront MatterxxiList Of FiguresFront Matter•  Author, Grain Stories 1, 2021; p.1 -2•  Author, Grain Stories 2, 2021; p.3•  Author, Site Plan, 2021; p.5•  Author, Grain Stories 3, 2021; p.9 - 10•  Author, Dolomite - Laramide Orogeny, 2021; p.11•  Author, Dolomite - Mount Robson, 2021; p.13•  Author, Dolomite - Fraser River, 2021; p.15•  Author, Dolomite - Grain, 2021; p.17•  Author, Dolomite, 2021; p.19•  Author, Local Context - Fraser River, 2021; p.21•  Author, Local Context - Sediment Plume, 2021; p.23•  Author, Local Context - Iona Island, 2021; p.25•  Author, Local Context, 2021; p.27•  Author, Site Section - Intertidal Zone, 2021; p.29•  Author, Site Section - Intertidal Zone 2, 2021; p.31•  Author, Site Section - Beach, 2021; p.33•  Author, Site Section - Driftwood Colony, 2021; p.35•  Author, Site Section - Stabilized Dunes, 2021; p.37•  Author, Site Section, 2021; p.38 - 39•  Author, Datum - Skimmer, 2021; p.41•  Author, Datum - Blackberries and Yarrow, 2021; p.43•  Author, Datum - Gathering, 2021; p.45•  Author, Datum - Meadow Birds, 2021; p.47•  Author, Datum, 2021; p.49•  Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Pacific Flyway, 2021; p.50•  Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Axonometric, 2021; p.51•  Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Plan, 2021; p.52•  Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Seating Detail, 2021; p.53•  Author, Coastal Meadow Datum, 2021; p.55•  Author, Datum Above - Detail, 2021; p.56•  Author, Datum Above, 2021; p.57•  Author, Grain Stories 4, 2021; p.58 - 59•  Author, Magnetite - Luzon, 2021; p.61•  Author, Magnetite - Pacific Ocean, 2021; p.63•  Author, Magnetite - North Pacific Abyssal Plain, 2021; p.65•  Author, Magnetite - Deep Sea Drilling, 2021; p.67•  Author, Magnetite - Grain, 2021; p.69•  Author, Magnetite, 2021; p.71•  Author, Site Ecosystems - Intertidal, 2021; p.73•  Author, Site Ecosystems - Beach, 2021; p.75•  Author, Site Ecosystems - Driftwood, 2021; p.77•  Author, Site Ecosystems - Dunes, 2021; p.79•  Author, Site Ecosystems, 2021; p.81•  Author, Cafe - Plates, 2021; p.83•  Author, Cafe - Grasses, 2021; p.85•  Author, Cafe - Humans, 2021; p.87•  Author, Cafe - Beach, 2021; p.89•  Author, Cafe, 2021; p.91•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Coastline, 2021; p.92•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Log Booms, 2021; p.93•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Axonometric, 2021; p.94•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Location, 2021; p.95•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Detail, 2021; p.96•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Weathering, 2021; p.97•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Seating, 2021; p.98•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Plan, 2021; p.99•  Author, Sand Dune Cafe, 2021; p.101•  Author, Picnic - Play, 2021; p.102Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 57Fig. 58xii•  Author, Picnic, 2021; p.103•  Author, Grain Stories 5, 2021; p.104 - 105•  Author, Urban Sand Map - Concrete, 2021; p.107•  Author, Urban Sand Map - Glass, 2021; p.109•  Author, Urban Sand Map, 2021; p.111•  Author, Sea Glass - El Turco, 2021; p.113•  Author, Sea Glass - Santiago, 2021; p.115•  Author, Sea Glass - Colchagua, 2021; p.117•  Author, Sea Glass - Abbotsford, 2021; p.119•  Author, Sea Glass - Grain, 2021; p.121•  Author, Sea Glass, 2021; p.123•  Author, Lookout - Walls, 2021; p.125•  Author, Lookout - View, 2021; p.127•  Author, Lookout - Base, 2021; p.129•  Author, Lookout - Coast, 2021; p.131•  Author, Lookout, 2021; p.133•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Spire, 2021; p.134•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Location, 2021; p.135•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Plan, 2021; p.136•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Detail, 2021; p.137•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Sediment Release, 2021; p.138•  Author, Intertidal Lookout - Axonometric, 2021; p.139•  Author, Intertidal Lookout, 2021; p.141•  Author, Lookout Glass - Moisture, 2021; p.142•  Author, Lookout Glass, 2021; p.143•  Author, Grain Stories 6, 2021; p.143 - 145•  Author, Program Abstraction, 2020; p.150•  Author, Material Abstraction, 2020; p.151•  Author, Technology Abstraction, 2020; p.152•  Author, Material Iterations, 2020; p.153•  Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec, The Pantheon Dome, 2012, Rome, Italy, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/middle-empire/a/the-pantheon; p.154•  Author, Typical Concrete Column, 2020; p.155•  Leon Schegg, Rainbow Bridge, date unknown, The Lincoln Highway, USA, https://www.lincolnhighwayassoc.org/ca/cruises/sierra-north/ ; p.156•  Author, Typical Suburban Road Section, 2020; p.157•  Dale Dunlop, The Basilica of Saint-Denis, 2015, Saint-Denis, France, https://themaritimeexplorer.ca/2015/04/24/st-denis-paris/ ; p.158•  Author, Typical Curtain Wall Mullion, 2020; p.159•  Author, Sand, 2020; p.162•  Author, Global Context, 2021; p.163•  Author, Global Sand Cycle, 2021; p.164•  Author, Sand Formation, 2020, adapted from: Trevor Nace, The Rock Cycle: Learn The Types Of Rocks & Minerals 2016, Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/trevornace/2016/02/21/rock-cycle-kids-types-rocks-minerals/?sh=44621a3c640b; p.165•  Sim Chi Yin, Shifting Sands - Vietnam, 2017, Vietnam; https://chiyinsim.com/shifting-sands/ ; p.166•  Sim Chi Yin, Shifting Sands - Malaysia, 2017 Malaysia https://chiyinsim.com/shifting-sands/ ; p.166•  Author, Mekong River Delta, 2020; p.167•  Paul Salopek, Sone River in Bihar state, 2019, India, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/06/inside-india-sand-mining-mafia/ ; p.168•  Paul Salopek, Ganges River in Uttar Pradesh, 2019, India, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/06/inside-india-sand-mining-mafia/ ; p.168•  Author, Ganges and Sone Rivers, 2020; p.169Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 77Fig. 78Fig. 79Fig. 80Fig. 81Fig. 82Fig. 83Fig. 84Fig. 85Fig. 86Fig. 87Fig. 88Fig. 89Fig. 90Fig. 91Fig. 92Fig. 93Fig. 94Fig. 95Fig. 96Fig. 97Fig. 98Fig. 99Fig. 100Fig. 101Fig. 102Fig. 103Fig. 104List Of FiguresFront Matterxiii•  Author, Vancouver Quarries, 2020, adapted from Grant Callegari, Orca Quarry, 2017, Vancouver Island, Canada, https://www.hakaimagazine.com/features/sand-mine/ ;p.170•  Author, Locations of twelve of the largest sand and aggregate quarries in the Vancouver area, 2020; p.171•  Author, Vancouver Sand and Aggregate Quarrys, 2020; p.173•  Author, Lehigh Materials Corporate Structure, 2020; p.174•  Author, Lafarge Aggregates Corporate Structure, 2020; p.175•  Author, Sand 2, 2020; p.178•  Author, Three Sites, 2020; p.179•  Author, Sechelt Sand Distribution, 2020; p.182•  Author, Sechelt Quarry Site Plan, 2020; p.183•  Author unknown, CSL Sheila Ann being loaded with aggregate by the newly installed ship loader, Sechelt, Canada, http://www.seabulk.com/sechelt.html; p.184•  Author, Deep Sea Terminal & Shiploader Plan, 2020; p.185•  Author unknown, Aerial view of Sechelt quarry, 2013, Sechelt, Canada, https://www.thelocalweekly.ca/the-local-photo-wins/p1-sechelt-gravel-pit/ ; p.186•  Author, Processing Centre Plan, 2020; p.187•  Author, West Coast Internet Backbone, 2020; p.190•  Author, 555 West Hastings Street Site Plan, 2020; p.191•  Author, Vancouver Data Centres Plan, 2020; p.193•  Diego Delso, Exterior View of 555 West Hastings, 2017, Vancouver, Canada, https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Harbour_Centre ; p.194•  Author, Carrier Hotel 6th Floor Plan, 1-200, 2020; p.195•  Yevgeniy Sverdlik, Interior View of Racks in Cologix Van1, 2013, Vancouver, Canada, https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/news/cologix-expanding-vancouver-data-center-capacity/ ; p.196•  Author, Hot - Cold Aisle Rack Layout Plan, 2020; p.197•  Westbank, Westbank company collage, 2020, http://thebutterflyvancouver.ca/westbank/ ; p.200•  Author, 1019 Nelson Steet Site Plan, 2020; p.201•  Author, Aerial Site View, 2020; p.202•  Kenneth Chan, Construction of The Butterfly, 2019, Vancouver, Canada https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/the-butterfly-1019-nelson-street-vancouver-westbank?auto=true ; p.203•  Kenneth Chan, Construction of The Butterfly 2, 2019, Vancouver, Canada https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/the-butterfly-1019-nelson-street-vancouver-westbank?auto=true ; p.203•  Author, Sand Movement, 2021; p.206•  Author, Local Context, 2021; p.207•  Author, Dune Ecosystems, 2021; p.208•  Author, Dune Ecosystems - Blurred, 2021; p.209•  Author, Site Section, 2021; p.210 - 211•  Author, Site Plan, 2021; p.212•  Author, Site Plan - Ecosystems, 2021; p.213•  Author, Sand 3, 2020; p.216•  Author, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, 2020; p.217•  Ricardo Foto, Mjøstårnet, 2019 Brumunddal, Norway, https://www.archdaily.com/934374/mjostarnet-the-tower-of-lake-mjosa-voll-arkitekter; p.220•  Rune Abrahamsen, Corner column foot detail from 3D-model and building site, 2017 Brumunddal, Norway, https://www.moelven.com/globalassets/moelven-limtre/mjostarnet/mjostarnet---construction-of-an-81-m-tall-timber-building.pdf ; p.221•  Voll Arkitekter, Mjøstårnet Section, 2017 Brumunddal, Norway, http://bmktcn.com/index.php?option=com_content &task=view&id=9381&Itemid=184 ; p.221•  Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House, 2008, Yirrkala, Australia, https://www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/marika-alderton-house/; p.222Fig. 105Fig. 106Fig. 107Fig. 108Fig. 109Fig. 110Fig. 111Fig. 112Fig. 113Fig. 114Fig. 115Fig. 116Fig. 117Fig. 118Fig. 119Fig. 120Fig. 121Fig. 122Fig. 123Fig. 124Fig. 125Fig. 126Fig. 127Fig. 128Fig. 129Fig. 130Fig. 131Fig. 132Fig. 133Fig. 134Fig. 135Fig. 136Fig. 137Fig. 138Fig. 139Fig. 140Fig. 141Fig. 142List Of FiguresFront Matterxiv •  Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House Foundation, 2008, Yirrkala, Australia, https://www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/marika-alderton-house/; p.223•  Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House construction detail, 2008, Yirrkala, Australia, https://www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/marika-alderton-house/; p.223•  Iwan Baan, Zeitz MOCAA, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa, https://www.archdaily.com/879763/zeitz-museum-of-contemporary-art-africa-heatherwick-studio; p.226•  Heatherwick Studios, Zeitz MOCAA Section, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa, https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/buildings/building-study-heatherwick-studios-zeitz-mocaa-gallery-in-cape-town; p.227•  MVRDV, Frøsilo, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, https://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/143/fr%C3%B8silo; p.228•  MVRDV, Frøsilo Section, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, http://www.gizmoweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/010.jpg; p.229•  Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South Korea, https://www.archdaily.com/72484/hanil-visitors-center-guest-house-bcho-architects; p.232•  Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House Gabian Facade, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South Korea, https://www.archdaily.com/72484/hanil-visitors-center-guest-house-bcho-architects; p.233•  Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House Fabric Formed Facade, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South Korea, https://www.archdaily.com/72484/hanil-visitors-center-guest-house-bcho-architects; p.233•  Wang Shu, Ningbo Historic Museum, 2008, Ningbo, China, https://www.veldarchitects.co.za/top-sustainable-building-trends-and-the-role-architects-should-play/ ; p.234•  Iwan Baan, Ningbo Historic Museum Facade, 2012, Ningbo, China, https://www.domusweb.it/en/from-the-archive/2012/03/03/ningbo-history-museum.html ; p.235•  Iwan Baan, Ningbo Historic Museum Courtyard, 2012, Ningbo, China, https://www.domusweb.it/en/from-the-archive/2012/03/03/ningbo-history-museum.html ; p.235•  Marco Zanta, Cava Arcari, 2018, Zovencedo, Italy, https://divisare.com/projects/390814-david-chipperfield-architects-marco-zanta-cava-arcari ; p.238•  Author, Rough and Smooth - Cava Arcari Isometric - 1:200, 2020; p.239•  Glaucia Branco, Kandalama Hotel Lobby, 2018, Dambulla, Sri Lanka https://i.pinimg.com/originals/c1/55/2b/c1552b751b18724abc9c284564babdbe.jpg ; p.240•  Author, Rough and Smooth - Kandalama Hotel Lobby Isometric - 1:200, 2020; p.241•  Author unknown, The Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, USA, https://cimg2.ibsrv.net/cimg/www.fodors.com /2000x2000_60/186/5a95db970473b-340186.jpg; p.244•  Author unknown, Interactive Corporation Headquarters, 2009, New York City, USA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAC_(company)#/media/File:Edificio_IAC_InterActiveCorp.JPG; p.245•  amid.cero9, The East Raceme, 2011, http://www.cero9.com/project/black-cloud-palace-for-post-natural-species-rome/; p.246•  Tom dePaor, Irish Pavilion, 2000, Venice, Italy, https://www.depaor.com/projects/bacini-venice.php ; p.247•  Christoph Mülle, Therme Vals, 2010, Therm, Switzerland, https://www.fotocommunity.de/photo/therme-vals-ii-oder-schau-genau-h-christoph-mueller/22687384; p.248•  Mohsen Mostafavi and David Leatherbarrow, De Bijenkorf Department Store, 2008 Rotterdam, Netherlands, https://www.flickr.com/photos/rufusknight/3079175030 ; p.249•  Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio, Perspective and plans of TV in Picture Window Apparatus, 1991,  Long Island, New York, USA, https://www.moma.org/collection/works/440 ; p.250•  Morphosis, Nara Convention Center, 1991, Nara, Japan, https://www.morphosis.com/architecture/106/ ; p.251•  Author, Column Triptych, 2020; p.252•  Author, Column, 2020; p.253•  Author, Grain Stories 7, 2021; p.254 - 255Fig. 143Fig. 144Fig. 145Fig. 146Fig. 147Fig. 148Fig. 149Fig. 150 Fig. 151 Fig. 152Fig. 153Fig. 154Fig. 155Fig. 156Fig. 157Fig. 158Fig. 159Fig. 160Fig. 161Fig. 162Fig. 163Fig. 164Fig. 165Fig. 166Fig. 167Fig. 168Fig. 169List Of FiguresFront Matterxv•  Author, Sand 4, 2020; p.258•  Author, Sand 5, 2020; p.262•  Author, Urban Sand Map, 2021; p.264•  Author, Site Ecosystems, 2021; p.265•  Author, Porcelain Toilet, 2021; p.267•  Author, Concrete Column, 2021; p.268•  Author, Concrete Pavers, 2021; p.269•  Author, Asphalt Road, 2021; p.270•  Author, Soil, 2021; p.271•  Author, Glass, 2021; p.272•  Author, Sand, 2021; p.273•  Author, Sand and Wood, 2021; p.274•  Author, Sand, Wood, and Water, 2021; p.275•  Author, Sand, Water, and Wood, 2021; p.276•  Author, Water, Sand, and Wood, 2021; p.277•  Author, Wood and Sand, 2021; p.278•  Author, Sand, Grass, and Water, 2021; p.279•  Author, Sand, and Grass, 2021; p.280•  Author, Driftwood Colony, 2021; p.281•  Author, Leymus mollis // Dune grass, 2021; p.282•  Author, Rubble, 2021; p.283•  Author, Cytisus scoparius // Scotch Broom, 2021; p.284•  Author, Tires, 2021; p.285•  Author, Rubus armeniacus // Himalayan Blackberry, 2021; p.286•  Author, Betula // Birch, 2021; p.287•  Author, Spotted Towhee, 2021; p.288•  Author, Bald Eagle, 2021; p.289•  Author, Equisetum // Horsetail Reed, 2021; p.290•  Author, Dune Nurse Log, Lichen, and Moss, 2021; p.291•  Author, Cladonia Lichen, 2021; p.292•  Author, Balanus glandula // Acorn Barnacle, 2021; p.293•  Author, Pinus // Pine Shrub, 2021; p.294•  Author, Achillea Millefolium // Yarrow, 2021; p.295•  Author, Hermit Thrush, 2021; p.296•  Author, Marsh Wren, 2021; p.297•  Author, Carex macrocephala // Big-headed Sedge, 2021; p.298•  Author, Typha // Cattail, 2021; p.299•  Author, Snow Geese, 2021; p.300•  Author, Sandpiper, 2021; p.301•  Author, Nuttallia Obscurata // Varnish Clams, 2021; p.302•  Author, Sand Rhizome, 2021; p.303•  Author, Coastal Forest // Marsh, 2021; p.304•  Author, Cornus sericea // Red Osier Dogwood, 2021; p.305•  Author, Distichlis spicata // Seashore Saltgrass, 2021; p.306•  Author, Coastal Forest, 2021; p.307•  Author, Sand 6, 2021; p.308•  Author, Sand Cast, 2021; p.311•  Author, Sand Cast with Ochre, 2021; p.312•  Author, Sandblasted Concrete with Ochre, 2021; p.313•  Author, Sandblasted Douglas Fir Bark, 2021; p.314•  Author, Concrete Salt Growth, 2021; p.315•  Author, Glass Scratching, 2021; p.316•  Author, Sand 7, 2021; p.318•  Author, Porcelain Toilet 2, 2020; p.322•  Author, Acer Aspire 5 Slim Laptop, 2020; p.322•  Author, Crest 3D White, 2020; p.323•  Author, Apple iPhone 11 Motherboard, 2020; p.323Fig. 170Fig. 171Fig. 172Fig. 173Fig. 174Fig. 175Fig. 176Fig. 177Fig. 178Fig. 179Fig. 180Fig. 181Fig. 182Fig. 183Fig. 184Fig. 185Fig. 186Fig. 187Fig. 188Fig. 189Fig. 190Fig. 191Fig. 192Fig. 193Fig. 194Fig. 195Fig. 196Fig. 197Fig. 198Fig. 199Fig. 200Fig. 201Fig. 202Fig. 203Fig. 204Fig. 205Fig. 206Fig. 207Fig. 208Fig. 209Fig. 210Fig. 211Fig. 212Fig. 213Fig. 214Fig. 215Fig. 216Fig. 217Fig. 218Fig. 219Fig. 220Fig. 221Fig. 222Fig. 223Fig. 224Fig. 225Fig. 226List Of FiguresFront MatterxvixviiAcknowledgementsFront MatterThank you, Thena for all the exceptional guidance, dedication of time, and constant inspiration throughout this project, and others.Thank you, Sam, Izzy, and Marcus, for all the thoughtful conversations and incredible feedback and support throughout this project from afar.Thank you, Matthew for encouraging me to pursue this project in its early stages and for the continuous perceptive discussions and critiques throughout. Thank you to my family - my mother and father, and to Kathleen and Alex - for your unwavering support and encouragement throughout my entire education.Thank you, Emilia for the endless proofreading, formative discussions, and site visit companionship.Thank you to all my friends and peers I’ve met and learned from over the years. Especially to Kim, Yekta, and Lukas, who have gone through the process along side me, and to Ellen and Parker for the invaluable assistance with both the development, resolution, and formation and of the project.And of course, thank you, sand.This project wouldn’t be possible without all of you!1• Part I - Grain StoriesFig. 1 [Above] • Author, Grain Stories 1, 202123• PreludeFig. 2 [left] • Author, Grain Stories 2, 2021The first section of this report contains a collection of stories told from and foregrounding the perspective of sands. The architecture is revealed through the encounters between the grains and the other beings which inhabit the site.Grain Stories Prelude4The project is located on Iona Island, a coastal ecosystem southwest of Vancouver at the mouth of the Fraser River.The design takes the form of three interventions which respond to different microclimates across the site and engage the flows of sand in unique ways:1. A permeable datum in the coastal meadows which allows an acknowledgment of the hidden dune topography and ecology. 2. An informal café which slows and accumulates sand along the shifting shoreline 3. A lookout in the intertidal zone which returns sand to the oceanGrain Stories Prelude5Grain Stories PreludeFig. 3 [above] • Author, Site Plan, 20216This project was initially presented in video form and divided into three chapters.Different voices throughout explore the imagined perspectives of different grains of sand who may arrive at Iona Beach. The author’s voice is also present describing the larger context of the project. The video can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKc5EmV69wkThe following pages of this report follow the same narrative threads and reveal the project in a similar manner.Grain Stories Prelude7As you’re sitting on the beach, with your feet in the sand you may look down and begin to wonder how the sand in your toes arrived there. Often we think of sand as one homogeneous entity, but maybe considering different grains and their stories can help us see sand differently...Grain Stories Prelude89I • DolomiteFig. 4 [above] • Author, Grain Stories 3, 202110I remember it like it was yesterday-- the period of continental shift-- it crumpled and formed us into a huge plateau.  And so, we became the Rocky Mountains. Fig. 5 [right] • Author, Dolomite - Laramide Orogeny, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite11Grain Stories Dolomite12But over time, we grew old and moved on.  We started to erode and break loose from each other, through contact with shifting ice, winds, and rains. On one stormy spring, it was my turn.Fig. 6 [left] • Author, Dolomite - Mount Robson, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite13Grain Stories Dolomite14The falling and flowing water broke us loose, and gravity did the rest, carrying us down the mountains.  Caught in the current of the Fraser river, we quickly passed runs of salmon, until we finally joined the log booms towards the coast.  Fig. 7 [right] • Author, Dolomite - Fraser River, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite15Grain Stories Dolomite16Many of us got held up along the way, stopping along the shores of the river or behind a large boulder in the streambed, but eventually, those of us who continued arrived at the river’s mouth.Fig. 8 [right] • Author, Dolomite - Grain, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite17Grain Stories Dolomite18Grain Stories Dolomite19-Fig. 9 [above] • Author, Dolomite, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite20With the river’s current behind me, I now swayed with the waves, as I got carried along the coast to Iona beach.Fig. 10 [right] • Author, Local Context - Fraser River, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite21Grain Stories Dolomite22The shape of the two long jetties directed me towards the shore.Fig. 11 [right] • Author, Local Context - Sediment Plume, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite23Grain Stories Dolomite24It was a place of calm after my journey down the river.Fig. 12 [right] • Author, Local Context - Iona Island, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite25Grain Stories Dolomite26Grain Stories Dolomite27Fig. 13 [above] • Author, Local Context, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite28As the tides carried me to the beach, I met many clams and acorn barnacles who spent their lives here in the intertidal zone. Shore birds would forage and poke me with their beaks, searching for food, but I didn’t mind.  Fig. 14 [right] • Author, Site Section - Intertidal Zone, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite29Grain Stories Dolomite30I even passed through a mesh membrane filled with smooth clear sand on my way.  I bumped into them as I did.  I don’t think I’ve seen them before...Fig. 15 [right] • Author, Site Section - Intertidal Zone 2, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite31Grain Stories Dolomite32Over time, I was able to escape the waves.  I made my way further and further inland, first accumulating alongside smaller debris near the shore.  These were salty spaces where the tides often rose and fell.Fig. 16 [right] • Author, Site Section - Beach, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite33Grain Stories Dolomite34As I got pushed further back, I came across areas where driftwood had become lodged during stronger winter storms.Fig. 17 [right] • Author, Site Section - Driftwood Colony, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite35Grain Stories Dolomite36Eventually, I reached the upper beach. As the summer sun dried me, the wind carried me even further landward. The dunes were dynamic, and so was I.  I could never get settled.  If not moved by a winter storm or summer wind, I would be dislodged by a foot or a shovel. Fig. 18 [right] • Author, Site Section - Stabilized Dunes, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite37Grain Stories Dolomite38 I didn’t mind too much, though.Fig. 19 [above] • Author, Site Section, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite39Grain Stories Dolomite40Eventually I came across some more stabilized dunes that suspended a platform above.Fig. 20 [right] • Author, Datum - Skimmer, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite41Grain Stories Dolomite42These dunes moved less frequently than the others I’ve encountered. Over time, many other sand grains and plants came and went. Dune grasses were replaced by meadows of Yarrow and Scotch Broom, and occasionally thickets of Himalayan Blackberry and small Pine trees.Fig. 21 [right] • Author, Datum - Blackberries and Yarrow, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite43Grain Stories Dolomite44Human visitors often came and gathered on the grated platform, without disturbing all of us below. Occasionally their music would vibrate the floor and the dunes--all of us could feel the vibrations course through us. Other times though weren’t as exciting, as only a few humans would gather and sit on the grate. Fig. 22 [right] • Author, Datum - Gathering, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite45Grain Stories Dolomite46This area was also a hit for the meadow birds, who would often forage for berries and insects around it.  They seemed to have more luck under it where the plants were thriving.Fig. 23 [right] • Author, Datum - Meadow Birds, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite47Grain Stories Dolomite48After a while I became completely covered in vegetation; it seems like I’m going to be here for a while...Fig. 24 [right] • Author, Datum, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite49Grain Stories Dolomite50• Coastal Meadow DatumThe coastal meadows at Iona beach are topographically and ecologically defined by the underlying sand dunes. These areas are rich in plant diversity and provide important foraging habitats for insects and smaller birds such as Ants, Dragonflies,  Spotted Towhees, Robins, and Wrens. This intervention seeks to allow an acknowledgment of the underlying dune topography and create shelter for the resultant ecologies – both local flora and fauna and guests, such as the migratory Marsh Wrens and Western Meadowlarks traveling along the Pacific Flyway -ecologies who are often threatened by heavy foot and vehicle traffic. Fig. 25 [above] • Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Pacific Flyway, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite51The construction of a horizontal datum, suspended from and built into the meadow dunes, allows for a registration of this topography which could be easily overlooked, and reciprocally the topography itself begins to define the public space created by the datum – resulting in variations in scale, openness, and shelter across the space formed by the interaction of landscape and structure.  Fig. 26 [above] • Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Axonometric, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite52The datum is made of a permeable grated membrane with gradations of openness throughout – allowing the meadow grasses and shrubs to proliferate in the sheltered area beneath and to grow up through the floor – bringing human visitors and local inhabitants closer together. Fig. 27 [above] • Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Plan, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite53Fig. 28 [above] • Author, Coastal Meadow Datum - Seating Detail, 2021Larger openings are formed around existing plants, such as the pine tree shrubs, and these openings resultantly create informal seating areas for human guests to gather. Around the edges the material of the datum changes to a simple timber seating element to encourage human guests to pause and sit.Grain Stories Dolomite54A number of these platforms of different sizes are positioned throughout the dunes, which allows for a relational reading of the larger landscape in addition to the more local topography of each meadow dune area.Grain Stories Dolomite55Fig. 29 [above] • Author, Coastal Meadow Datum, 2021Grain Stories Dolomite56Grain Stories Dolomite57Grain Stories DolomiteFig. 30 [left] • Author, Datum Above - Detail, 2021Fig. 31 [above] • Author, Datum Above, 20215859II • MagnetiteFig. 32 [left] • Author, Grain Stories 4, 202160The last time I was on a beach, it was one of black sand. Most of us there had come from the volcanic areas further inland, our dark colour coming from the high iron and other heavy mineral content. Fig. 33 [right] • Author, Magnetite - Luzon, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite61Grain Stories Magnetite62It’s been years and years since then. One day I was swept away by the tides, carried up the coast and through the Pacific.Fig. 34 [right] • Author, Magnetite - Pacific Ocean, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite63Grain Stories Magnetite64Until my weight and the flows of the water carried me down to the deepest depths of the ocean floor. It was quiet down there, dark, peaceful. I stayed for many years, slowly being buried under more and more grains.I really thought I might stay there, undisturbed forever, but perhaps remaining static isn’t in my nature...Fig. 35 [right] • Author, Magnetite - North Pacific Abyssal Plain, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite65Grain Stories Magnetite66Humans came, looking to learn about this deep place, to carry some of us away. I was caught in one of their spinning drills, sucked up towards the light until I landed on the humans’ boat.Fig. 36 [right] • Author, Magnetite - Deep Sea Drilling, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite67Grain Stories Magnetite68We sailed towards their home port, but before we reached land I slipped from the ship, falling into the coastal waters, which eventually carried me to Iona Beach. Fig. 37 [right] • Author, Magnetite - Grain, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite69Grain Stories Magnetite70Grain Stories Magnetite71Fig. 38 [above • Author, Magnetite, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite72For a while, I moved around the intertidal area, but eventually I moved up to the dunes.Fig. 39 [right] • Author, Site Ecosystems - Intertidal, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite73Grain Stories Magnetite74It had been ages since I had been on dry land. The warm sun felt nice.Fig. 40 [right] • Author, Site Ecosystems - Beach, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite75Grain Stories Magnetite76As the wind carried me through the dunes, I came across a variety of logs.Fig. 41 [right] • Author, Site Ecosystems - Driftwood, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite77Grain Stories Magnetite78Some hard, some soft, some quite intact, others covered with mosses and lichens, or buried in us sands.Fig. 42 [right] • Author, Site Ecosystems - Dunes, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite79Grain Stories Magnetite80Grain Stories Magnetite81Fig. 43 [above] • Author, Site Ecosystems, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite82At one point along the beach I came across some other sands, in clear plate form. I was blown through them, along with some other grains who had been traveling with me. Fig. 44 [right] • Author, Cafe - Plates, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite83Grain Stories Magnetite84Many grasses and humans occupied this area near the plates; they seemed to like it there. Snow Geese would also come to visit the area and eat the grasses. There were Wildryes and Sedges everywhere; our slower movement made it easier for them to take root, especially during the stormy winters.Fig. 45 [right] • Author, Cafe - Grasses, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite85Grain Stories Magnetite86During the summer, the small humans would play in us sands amongst the grasses, while the larger ones sat on the logs and watched. Fig. 46 [right] • Author, Cafe - Humans, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite87Grain Stories Magnetite88I spent some time here with the plates but eventually continued my journey along the beach. I encountered small forests, marshes, and meadows. There was a platform in one of the meadows, another area where humans liked to gather.Fig. 47 [right] • Author, Cafe - Beach, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite89Grain Stories Magnetite90Fig. 48 [right] • Author, Cafe, 2021Eventually, the winds carried me back to the water, the tides pulling me, once again, into the depths of the ocean. Grain Stories Magnetite91Grain Stories Magnetite92• Sand Dune CafeThe Dune Ecosystems at Iona beach and elsewhere in BC are critically protected – they are constantly threatened by development, loss of material sources, foot/vehicle traffic damage, and rising sea levels. The areas of the beach near the shore where sand mobility and saltwater make plant colonization difficult are the most dynamic, but as you move back away from the waterline, the dunes and sands begin to slow and gather around larger driftwood elements and native grasses begin to take root.Fig. 49 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Coastline, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite93These driftwood elements are largely lost logs from the industrial operation of log booms who take shelter behind the north arm jetty before leaving British Columbia. Occasionally, in larger storms, a log or two will come loose and eventually will find its way to the beach. The driftwood beneath the dunes also operates similarly to nurse logs in the forest – providing organic matter to feed smaller organisms.Fig. 50 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Log booms, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite94This intervention seeks to work analogously to the driftwood elements on the site – slowing sand down as it moves along the beach, creating sheltered zones where the local dune grasses and sedges can gain a foothold in the dynamic environment, without stabilizing the sand in any permanent fashion.Fig. 51 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Axonometric, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite95The proliferation of grasses is also beneficial for migratory snow geese, who arrive seasonally in the fall and winter in the Fraser River delta, and who feed on the sedges while at the site.Fig. 52 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Location, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite96Materially, the walls which form the enclosure are stacked plates of glass, staggered to allow the beach sand to flow through them and accumulate within the walls, especially in the summer when the sands are dryer and carried more easily by the strong winds. Fig. 53 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Detail, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite97As the sands moves through the plates, they will gradually scratch and mark them, weathering the glass and roughening it over time. In addition, the sands within the walls will begin to act as a shading element – defining the lighting throughout these areas.Fig. 54 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Weathering, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite98The spaces within these sheltered areas can be used as informal picnic areas for human guests to the beach – with driftwood elements from the site arranged to create seating zones throughout. Fig. 55 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Seating, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite99The picnic area is supported by the provision of public washrooms, a water point, and showers/changing areas which encourage beach activity.Fig. 56 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe - Plan, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite100The structure provides a gradient of enclosures and conditions, sometimes with just a roof over your head, sometimes just walls, sometimes both.Grain Stories Magnetite101Fig. 57 [above] • Author, Sand Dune Cafe, 2021Grain Stories Magnetite102Grain Stories MagnetiteFig. 58 [above] • Author, Picnic - Play, 2021103Grain Stories MagnetiteFig. 59 [above] • Author, Picnic, 2021104105III • Sea GlassFig. 60 [above] • Author, Grain Stories 5, 2021106We’re in the columns, the tiles, the windows, the streets, and even in the toilets.Grain Stories Sea Glass Fig. 61 [right] • Author, Urban Sand Map - Concrete, 2021107Grain Stories Sea Glass 108Many of us have been made smooth and transparent, so I suppose that’s why you look right through us.Fig. 62 [right] • Author, Urban Sand Map - Glass, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 109Grain Stories Sea Glass 110Yes, we’re a little harder to see in the city, but sands are everywhere if you know where to look! Fig. 63 [right] • Author, Urban Sand Map, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 111Grain Stories Sea Glass 112My first home was far away down the coast, an expansive valley of rolling fields. Subduction interactions formed the mountains and they formed our valley. I lived there with my family for a long time, undisturbed in the ground. Fig. 64 [right] • Author, Sea Glass - El Turco, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 113Grain Stories Sea Glass 114I’m not one for sudden change, yet we were dug up and carried away from our valley. We were introduced to lime and heated. I had almost forgotten what it was like to be so warm, so fluid. In our liquid state, we took on new shapes. As we cooled, I felt fluid still, yet restrained, more so than I had been in the ground. And now I was clear and smooth! Fig. 65 [right] • Author, Sea Glass - Santiago, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 115Grain Stories Sea Glass 116Only a few of us stayed together as we travelled. First, we returned to our valley, to a part I had not been to before, and stayed only briefly.Fig. 66 [right] • Author, Sea Glass - Colchagua, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 117Grain Stories Sea Glass 118Then, we came up the coast and arrived here. I spent a lot of time in the city, which is how I met so much other sand, how I know where you can find us if you only look. They tend to heat us and form us over and over again, always with sand from other places.Fig. 67 [right] • Author, Sea Glass - Abbotsford, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 119Grain Stories Sea Glass 120I’ve taken more forms than I ever thought I would. I’m exhausted. Fig. 68 [right] • Author, Sea Glass - Grain, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 121Grain Stories Sea Glass Sea Glass (Soda-lime)122Grain Stories Sea Glass 123Fig. 69 [above • Author, Sea Glass, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 124In my most recent form, and with some new companions, humans brought me to this place where sand is more apparent. Fig. 70 [right] • Author, Lookout - Walls, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 125Grain Stories Sea Glass 126They climbed that spire by the water that the acorn barnacles like and left us at the top. We stayed here a while longer than usual, finally. Many other smooth sands stayed here too, all with similar stories but each unique. Fig. 71 [right] • Author, Lookout - View, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 127Grain Stories Sea Glass 128We descended through the tower until we reached the waves, which seemed higher than when we had arrived. It had been a long time since I’d touched the cool ocean, but the waves hitting the other sands roughed us up and broke us apart. Fig. 72 [right] • Author, Lookout - Base, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 129Grain Stories Sea Glass 130I became so small that I slipped through the mesh and left the tower with a wave. It took me to explore the rest of the beach. Along the coast I met other glass sands, buried and held by the dune grasses and sedges. Fig. 73 [right] • Author, Lookout - Coast, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 131Grain Stories Sea Glass 132Gradually, waves carried me away into the Strait of Georgia. It had  been merely 200 years, but after experiencing the city, that short rest had been a welcome relief. Fig. 74 [right] • Author, Lookout, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 133Grain Stories Sea Glass 134• Intertidal LookoutThe Intertidal Zone at Iona beach is an important foraging site for local shore birds and home for crustaceans such as acorn barnacles and clams. It is also a site of incredible force, with the waves and tides occupying the area cyclically. This intervention seeks to create a framework for sand to be returned to the ocean, taking advantage of the force of the tides to break down glass into sand grains, released by the waves once they are small enough. This process can take from 20-50 years. Fig. 75 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Spire, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 135The spire is located between the two jetties in the highest traffic area for sand and tides.Fig. 76 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Location, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 136The form of the mesh is articulated to position the majority of the deposited glass in the highest force zone where the water and sand most strongly impact the structure.  Guests can choose to bring their glass here and deposit it in the lookout’s mesh walls, rather than using a conventional recycling process which would recirculate the sand as glass. Fig. 77 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Plan, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 137This creates the fastest weathering and roughening of the deposited glass and also creates a sheltered area within the mesh walls. These flows of sand and water also weather the concrete core of the spire, roughening the smooth surface over time and creating another habitat for barnacles and clams to colonise. Fig. 78 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Detail, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 138The ceremony of deposition and access to the lookout are also defined by the tides – only easily accessible when the water is low. The hope its that this ritual may become a way for citizens to personally engage with the ecological flows of sand at this site, as well as the larger environmental flows of sand along the Pacific coast.Fig. 79 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Sediment Release, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 139The spire also creates a register of the changes to the ecosystem over longer time periods for guests who might return to the site throughout their lives. Fig. 80 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout - Axonometric, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 140Sand accumulation in the intertidal zone is currently causing the beach to grow, and it may one day reach the spire, separating it from the water. Conversely, as sea levels continue to rise within 100 years the spire may become unreachable by foot, overtaken by the ocean.Grain Stories Sea Glass 141Fig. 81 [above] • Author, Intertidal Lookout, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 142Grain Stories Sea Glass 143Fig. 82 [left] • Author, Lookout Glass - Moisture, 2021Fig. 83 [above] • Author, Lookout Glass, 2021Grain Stories Sea Glass 144145• Part II - ContextFig. 84 [left] • Author, Grain Stories 6, 2021146The second section of this report contains a collection of research compiled by the author throughout 2020 and 2021. This section provides a wider range of context which situates the stories of Part I within a broader discourse around issues of agency, abstraction, and commodification in relation to contemporary architecture.147• Context[ noun ]1 - The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood.2 - The parts of something written or spoken that immediately precede and follow a word or passage and clarify its meaning.- Oxford English Dictionary “The earliest events—even those bound up with the very origins of the universe, long before the evolutionary emergence of life—do not cease to have their effects on everything that is subsequent, even if they are restructured, given new impact and force, made meaningful, in their present effects.”1 - Elizabeth Grosz 1 • Elizabeth Grosz “Time Matters” in Architecture in the Anthropocene, edited by Etienne Turpin, (Michigan: Open Humanities Press, 2013), 132.148Context   Abstraction2 • Karl Marx, Capital Vol. 1, chapter 1, section 2 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1887) 28.3 • Fredric Jameson, “Culture and Finance Capital,” in Critical Inquiry 24, no. 1 (Autumn, 1997) 251.4 • Mark C. Taylor, About Religion, (The University of Chicago press, 1999) 3.On Abstract Labour“On the one hand all labour is, speaking physiologically, an expenditure of human labour power, and in its character of identical abstract human labour, it creates and forms the value of commodities. On the other hand, all labour is the expenditure of human labour power in a special form and with a definite aim, and in this, its character of concrete useful labour, it produces use values.”2- Karl MarxOn Financial Abstraction“Capital itself becomes free-floating. It separates from the concrete context of its productive geography. Money becomes in a second sense and to a second degree abstract (it always was abstract in the first and basic sense), as though somehow in the national moment money still had a content.”3- Fredric JamesonOn Cultural Abstraction“Culture, moreover, is not only abstractly symbolic but concretely enacted and embodied in nature and history.”4- Mark C. Taylor149Context  Abstraction• “Concrete”Both historically and currently, Western culture tends to use the word “concrete” to mean the opposite of the word “abstract”: “abstract” representing the intangible, artistic, and unreal as opposed to “concrete” representing the tangible, practical, and real. On a superficial level this makes a lot of sense. Concrete is hard, strong, solid, and tends to give the impression of the timelessness of a man-made mountain. However, concrete is in fact heavily abstract itself. Because of the way concrete is typically finished, fabricated, and formed today, our experience of it is that of a material almost totally removed from the “natural” world and from the sand used to make it [ if it is exposed and experienced at all, rather than encapsulated for aesthetic reasons or for fire protection ].This abstraction of sand was initially investigated in this project through three major architectural threads: those of program, material, and technology.  This historic contextualization of the abstraction of sand served as the setting-off point in understanding and addressing this issue today and moving forward.In addition to the context of the architectural abstraction of these threads, an understanding of the historical context of our current material use of sand and aggregate is required. The three dominant material iterations of sand in the built environment are 1 • Concrete, 2 • Asphalt, and 3 • Glass. The booming use of these materials in 21st century urban centres is driving the global consumption and extraction of sand and aggregate, made possible by our collective loss of connection with the material in our cities. But this extraction doesn’t happen evenly around the world. The story of the global extraction of sand is a story of marginalised countries and communities who have no current means of addressing or slowing the global construction industry as their towns, landscapes, and homes are destroyed - often forcing more and more people to move to urban centres as a means of survival, thus driving further urban development and perpetuating this vicious cycle.                  We are incredibly fortunate in British Columbia, and Canada more broadly, to have a wealth of natural resources and materials, one of which is sand and aggregate. As a result, British Columbia is a net exporter of sand and aggregate for construction to cities in Hawaii and California where local sand sources have been depleted or protected.So what is currently being done? The historic mantra of the three R’s provides three separate lenses to deal with the ecological and environmental issues with sand in the built environment: • Reduce: Projects which investigate the reduction of use of sand and aggregate in construction. • Reuse: Projects which investigate the reuse of sand and aggregate infrastructure. • Recycle: Projects which investigate the recycling of waste as an alternative to new sand and aggregate.These three approaches are invaluable today in reducing the impact of sand and aggregate mining and construction. However, these approaches also address the end stage symptoms of the issue rather than challenging the root of the problem: our cultural separation of ourselves from the more-than-human world.To begin to address this root issue, we require an additional R: reorient. We need to begin to reorient ourselves in relation to the more-than-human world, and the ecological cycles and entanglements which come come along with it. Perhaps, through a reoriented process of operation and being, from within these complex  natural and geo-political systems, we can begin to develop a more empathetic and responsible relationship with sand, and the world more broadly. Through this process and through architecturally de-abstracting the hidden role of sand in our daily lives, we can begin to develop a more intimate understanding of our interconnected and complex relationship to the Earth, and our current modes of domination over it.150Context Abstraction - Program• Shelter [ Palaeolithic ]Humanity has always had a primal affinity for the Earth, and Palaeolithic cave paintings remain as the consequence of this relationship. The purpose of this art is a mystery to us today - often found in the most inhospitable and inaccessible areas of caves. These paintings date back to the transitional period when the Neanderthal man gave way to modern humans (the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution). This revolution was defined by a diversifying of the social groups of humanity, with ornamentation and aesthetics being considered for the first time in tools and clothing, and it is often thought to have been linked to social groupings and hierarchies.These caves programmatically served as an initial shelter for these Palaeolithic societies.• Monument [ Neolithic ]The Neolithic period (10,200 BCE - 2000 BCE) is defined by a cultural shift in humanity, mainly associated with a major agricultural progression towards a reliance upon wild and domestic crops and domesticated animals. This shift in culture was mirrored by a shift in program, with monuments forming the dominant typology of structures remaining today from this period - often associated with worship and agriculture.• Factory [ Industrial ]During the industrial revolution, brought about after the rise of capitalism in the 15th and 16th centuries, a major architectural shift in program again occurred, focusing now on the design and construction of systems of production [ factories ] and production support networks [ workers housing ].• Investment [ Digital ]Today, the dominant programmatic driver for architectural development is capital investment through the abstract systems of global financial land speculation.Through this lineage, the evolution of the architectural program, from shelter to capital investment, and from use-value to exchange value, can be observed - as well as the heightening abstraction of program, with capital investment today being largely multinational and also largely occurring before the physical building is even constructed.Fig. 85 [above] • Author, Program Abstraction, 2020 5 • Altamira Cave, Santillana del Mar, Cantabria, Spain (c. 34,000   BCE) 6 • The Pyramids of Giza, Cairo, Egypt, (c. 2580–2560 BCE) 7 • Manchester’s Cotton Mills, UK, (1936) Hulton Archive/  Getty 8 • Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku, Azerbaijan, (2013)Shelter 5ProgramMonument 6 Factory 7 Investment 8151Context  Abstraction - MaterialCave 9MaterialRock 10 Brick 11 Aggregate 12• Cave [ Palaeolithic ]Palaeolithic caves, inhabited and decorated by our ancestors, are an original architecture of rock and could be viewed materially as the initial inhabitation of the unbroken Earth itself.• Rock [ Neolithic ]The shifts in culture and society of the Neolithic revolution were mirrored by a shift in construction method and material, with Neolithic structures being predominantly made of large blocks of stone, who were often transported tremendous distances, as opposed to undisturbed caves or more temporal lodgings.• Brick [ Industrial ]The first known brick dates back to 7,500 BCE in Tell Aswad,13 but the  rise of automation during the industrial revolution and the  centralization of brick production in factories lead to the extensive widespread use and standardization of bricks in construction throughout the industrializing world. After this shift, bricks became faster and cheaper to install due to the reduced skill required compared with irregular stone, and the ability to manufacture brick from soft clay, rather than quarry rock from mountains.• Aggregate [ Digital ]Concrete has been in use around the world for centuries, with evidence of its use by the ancient Mayans, Greeks, and Romans amongst others,14 but concrete has never before been as widely and dramatically used as it is globally today.Concrete is analogous to a microscopic stone wall, with its tiny grains of sand and aggregate held together by the cement “mortar.” In this modern manifestation of earth in construction, the earth as material becomes viewed (if viewed at all, and not encapsulated) as a homogeneous grey mass, totally removed and distorted from the bedrock or beach from which it came.This rise in the use of concrete since the de-industrialization of many global cities can also be seen to coincide with the rise in digital technologies, and the rise in financial speculation in the stock market.Fig. 86 [above] • Author, Material Abstraction, 2020 9 • Unbroken Granite Bedrock, Crab Lake South, Canada (2012)	 10	•	Ġgantija	Megolithic	Temple	Wall,	Gozo,	Malta,	(c.		 	 3600–2500 BCE) 11 • Flemish Bond Brick Wall 12 • Patrick Landmann, Concrete, light micrograph,                 Science Photo Library accessed October 15, 2020,  https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/506354/view/   concrete-light-micrograph13 • IFP Orient – Tell Aswad Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Wikis.ifporient.org. Retrieved 16 November 2020.14 • Vince Beiser, The World in a Grain (Riverhead Books, 2018) 31-32152Context Abstraction - TechnologyPainting 15TechnologyCarving 16 Printing 17 Electrical Signalling 18• Painting [ Palaeolithic ]During the Palaeolithic period, before we had written language, our first form of communication emerged in the form of parietal art. These paintings commonly depicted animals, both realistic or surreal and anthropomorphic. It was also common for the artist to place their hands on the cave wall and spray paint around them, creating relief images: signatures of the presence of the painters.• Carving [ Neolithic ]The Neolithic revolution coincided with the first development of written language for humans. The first writings were clay tokens used to record amounts of livestock or commodities. Over time, writing developed into other mediums such as stone carving and ink on parchment, but the time required to produce these writings and their mediums were far longer and simpler than we are used to today.• Printing [ Industrial ]Again, the rise of industry and capitalism coincided with a shift in this thread of sand - with the invention of the industrial printing press. Suddenly we could produce multiple copies of specific texts with increasing speed and accuracy, without needing to re-write or re-carve our messages, allowing for much faster circulation of ideas and communications.• Electrical Signalling [ Digital ]Today our dominant mode of communication and production is electrical signalling -  a process which happens with such speed and seamlessness as to feel essentially instantaneous. Because of this speed, the work and energy expended in the production of these messages generally happens beneath our perception.Increased speed also comes with increased complexity, with many electronic devices being manufactured out of an endless amount of intricate parts, and many of us do not know how or what these parts are made of.The primary material used in the production of computer chips today is silica sand - the most critical component in modern phones and computers, [ and in addition the screens of all our devises are also primarily made from sand ]. Again, this abstraction present in our technology and modes of communication can be examined in relation to sand and speaks to our wider relationship to the world as a whole. Sand has been transformed and minimised to the point of loss of recognizability in our daily lives.Fig. 87 [above] • Author, Technology Abstraction, 2020 15 • Altamira Cave, Santillana del Mar, Cantabria, Spain (c. 34,000  BCE) 16 • Cuneiform, Ancient Mesopotamia, (c. 3300 BCE) 17 • Newspaper Clipping, William Koenig F W and Sons,    (1889) Gould Directory Co. 18 • Typical Modern Silicon Computer Chip153• Urban SandTo fully understand the context of this subject, in addition to the context of the architectural abstraction of these threads, an understanding of our historical material use of sand and aggregate today is required. The three dominant material iterations of sand in the built environment today are:• ConcreteThe structural bones of our built environment and cities: coarse and fine aggregates mixed with water and cement.• AsphaltThe veins and arteries of our international transportation system: coarse and fine aggregates mixed with water and bitumen.• GlassOur windows into other worlds, both physical and digital:melted and moulded silica sand.The booming use of these three materials since the beginning of the 21st century in our urban centres is driving the global consumption and extraction of sand and aggregate, made possible by our collective loss of connection with these material iterations of sand in our cities. But how did our reliance upon these materials develop historically?ConcreteThe Pantheon 1960 - 75 % SandAsphaltThe Lincoln Highway  2090 % SandGlassThe Basilica of Saint-Denis 2170 % SandContext Material History Fig. 88 [above] • Author, Material Iterations, 2020 19 • Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec, The Pantheon Dome, 2012, Rome,  Italy 20 •  Leon Schegg, Rainbow Bridge, date unknown, The   Lincoln Highway, USA 21 • Dale Dunlop, The Basilica of Saint-Denis, 2015, Saint-  Denis, France154Context Material History - ConcreteFig. 89 [above] • Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec, The Pantheon Dome, 2012, Rome, Italy22 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 46.The Pantheon  1Material60 - 75 % Sand“Concrete has a way of leading to more concrete. The Hoover Dam created an enormous water supply called Lake Mead and also generated hydroelectricity. Together those resources made it possible to build cities like Las Vegas and Phoenix in the middle of the desert - cities of concrete glass and asphalt”22- Vince Beiser155Context Material History - Concrete• ConcreteConcrete is the most broadly and extensively used construction material in the world today. Concrete usage alone accounts for 8 per cent of global CO2 emissions.23 It is made by combining coarse and fine aggregates with water and cement - forming a liquid slurry which can be poured into form-work and left to solidify.We use far more sand to build concrete today than for any other purpose: around 9 billion tonnes of concrete are produced every year which is equivalent to 6.75 billion tonnes of sand and aggregate.But how did we to this point?As previously mentioned, concrete was historically used by the ancient Mayans, Greeks, and Romans.24The Romans used it most extensively, and may have discovered it initially due to their proximity to the natural occurring cement in Pozzuoli, near Naples. The Romans were the first to use concrete in the way we do today, utilising large moulds and monolithic elements.25The Pantheon’s concrete dome is perhaps one of the best known and most impressive examples of the Romans’ concrete use. Others include the foundations of the Coliseum and countless bridges and aqueducts.26After Rome collapsed and stopped using concrete, there where no more concrete structures built for the next thousand years.27Concrete next re-emerged in Britain in the 1750s, when the engineer John Smeaton happened upon it while testing binding agent mixtures for a lighthouse he was building off the coast of Plymouth.28In 1824, Joseph Aspdin [ an English bricklayer ] patented  his own formula for cement which he called “Portland Cement”.29 It was a success, and now 95% of cement manufactured in America today is Portland Cement.30Then, in 1867, a gardener [ named either Joseph or Jacques Monier ] developed a system of reinforcing concrete with metal wire in an effort to develop stronger tubs for large plants: reinforced concrete.31Fig. 90 [above] • Author, Typical Concrete Column, 202023 • Johanna Lehne and Felix Preston, Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete, (Chatham House, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2018), v. https://www.chathamhouse.org/2018/06/making-concrete-change-innovation-low-carbon-cement-and-concrete24 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 31-32.25 • Mark Miodownik, Stuff Matters, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014) 56.26 • Courland, Robert, Concrete Planet, (Amherst, NY:Prometheus Books, 2011) 1248-125227 • Ibid, 125028 • Beiser, The world in a grain, 33.29 • Courland, Concrete Planet, 275530 • Cement Statistical Compendium. US Geological Survey, https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nmic/statistical-compendium#cement31 • Miodownik, Stuff Matters, 60-61• Typical Structural Concrete Column  • 30% - 54% course aggregate [ >  3/8-inch ] • 21% - 30% fine aggregate [ <  3/8-inch ] • 14% - 21% water • 7% - 15% portland cement • 8% air Total = 60% - 75% Sand• Typical Structural Low-carbon Steel Rebar  • 98% - 99% iron • 0% - 0.6% silicon • 0% - 0.6% copper • 0% - 0.4% manganese • 0.02% - 0.25% carbon Total = 0% - o.6% Sand156Context  Material History - AsphaltThe Lincoln Highway Material90 % SandFig. 91 [above] • Leon Schegg, Rainbow Bridge, date unknown, The Lincoln Highway, USA32 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 72.“In almost every country on earth, the number of motor vehicles is increasing. There are at least 1.2 billion already on the move, and that number is projected to more than double by 2050....All those vehicles need pavement, and theyre getting it.”32- Vince Beiser157Context  Material History - Asphalt• AsphaltOur cities are made of concrete and connected by asphalt. Asphalt is used extensively today to build roofs, pipes, and paints, but the predominant use of asphalt is road paving, with estimates of 85% of all asphalt produced  being used as the binder in asphalt concrete for roads.33Asphalt is made in almost exactly the same process as concrete with one key difference: Asphalt uses bitumen as a binder instead of cement.34 The main benefit provided by bitumen over cement is cost [ in addition to increased flexibility ] - as it is both cheaper to install and maintain, as well as providing a smoother finish. The current world use of asphalt is estimated to be approximately 102 million tonnes per year = 96.9 billion tonnes of sand and aggregate.35 The need for solid roadways is anything but new however, with roads being manufactured as far back as 4000 BCE in ancient Mesopotamian - using mud bricks held together by naturally occurring bitumens.36 Modern paving emerged in 18th century England when John Metcalf developed a system of roads built of large stones covered in gravel in Yorkshire. This was improved upon by John Loudon McAdam who began running a horse drawn roller over a similar gravel layer to compact it, and then later still by other road builders who began to add hot asphalt to the gravel to keep down dust and hold together the stone, a process called “tarmacadam” after its inventor.37Asphalt began to gain popularity in France and England in the mid-1800s due to its low cost and efficiency, and by 1870 it had begun showing up in America, initially in front of the New Jersey city hall.38 Initially, these bitumens used in construction were naturally occurring from existing tar pits [ some imported ] but as demand grew another source became available. Bitumens are created as a by-product when gasoline is refined from petroleum. So as more cars were made, and more fuel was refined to run the cars, more bitumen became available to build the roads for the cars to drive on. 39In this way, a self reciprocating and symbiotic cycle developed between the asphalt industry, the automobile industry, and the oil industry in America.Fig. 92 [above] • Author, Typical Suburban Road Section, 202033 • Bitumen Applications, Nuroil Trading, 2014, https://www.nuroil.com/bitumen-applications.aspx34 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 54.35 • Bitumen Applications, Nuroil Trading, 2014, https://www.nuroil.com/bitumen-applications.aspx36 • Rickie Longfellow, “Back in Time: Building Roads,” Highway History, Federal Highway Administration, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/back0506.cfm537 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 52-53.38 •Ibid39 • Maxwell Gordon Lay, “Roads and Highways” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/technology/road• Typical Suburban Road Section  • 100 mm [ 4’ ] Asphalt [ 90% - 95% sand ] • 280 mm [ 11’ ] Concrete [ 60% - 75% sand ] • 530 mm [ 21’ ] Compacted sand and gravel • Filter fabric • Natural sub-base = Total:  86% - 92% sand  • Sectional area = 20.396 m2 = 17,540m3 [ 28,600 tonnes ] - 18,764m3 [ 30,      600 tonnes ] of sand per linear kilometre158The Basilica of Saint-Denis Material70 % SandContext  Material History - Glass“Who when he first saw the sand and ashes by a casual intenseness of heat melted into a metalline form, rugged with excrescences and clouded with impurities, would have imagined that in this shapeless lump lay concealed so many conveniences of life as would, in time, constitute a great part of the happiness of the world.... he was enabling the student to contemplate nature, and the beauty to behold herself.”40- Dr. Samuel JohnsonFig. 93 [above] • Dale Dunlop, The Basilica of Saint-Denis, 2015, Saint-Denis, France40 •  Alan Macfarlane and Gerry Martin, The Glass Bathyscaphe: How Glass Changed the World, (Profile Books, 2011) 148-146159Context  Material History - GlassFig. 94 [above] • Author, Typical Curtain Wall Mullion, 202041 • Glass Manufacturing Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Application (Construction, Transportation), By Product (Container, Flat, Fiber), By Region, And Segment Forecasts42 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 77-78.43 • Idib, 79.44 • Quentin Skrabec Jr., Michael Owens and the Glass Industry, (Gretna, LA:Pelican, 2006), 21.45 • Miodownik, Stuff Matters, 144-147.46 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 81.• GlassThe third major material iteration of sand in our cities today is glass. Glass’ translucency can sometimes render it as an overlooked material, but if you look to our major urban centres the vast majority are clad in mostly, if not only, glass. 20 million tons of glass are produced annually today, at a cost of  $163.16 billion CAD.41Windows allow us to experience the exterior from the interior. If we shorten our gaze to within our rooms, again glass is present everywhere, from mirrors in our bathroom, to the glasses we drink from, to the screen of our laptops and the phones in our pockets who we never are without. Glass thus fundamentally shapes the way we see and interact with the world today.  Glass is produced by melting silica sand in a mould [ at >1600 Co ]. Silica sand makes up roughly 70% of the volume of a typical sheet of glass. However, the sand used for glass making is a higher grade to that used for concrete. Glass requires at least 95% pure silicon dioxide - what is deemed in the industry to be “industrial sand”. It is also helpful if the grains of the sand are relatively standard in size as smaller grains will be blown away by air currents in the melting furnaces and larger grains will be harder to melt.42 We don’t know exactly how or when the process of glass making was first discovered, but glass beads have been found in modern day Iraq, Syria, and the Caucasus dating back from 4 - 5 thousand years ago. In Egypt around 1250 BCE, perfume bottles and decorative items were often made from glass.43The Romans, as with concrete, pushed glass technology forward, adding manganese oxide to the mix to produce semi-transparent glass for the first time.44Building on these techniques, artisan glass makers around Europe began to perfect the art of colouring glass, using it extensively in cathedrals in Chartres, York Minster, and elsewhere.45 The next big leap in glass technology arrived in Murano in the fifteenth century, when Angelo Barovier developed “crystallo” the world’s first truly colourless and transparent glass. This discovery allowed for the creation of high-quality lenses to make telescopes and microscopes, a discovery which formed the underpinning of the scientific revolution, opening up both the micro worlds of biology and the macro worlds of astronomy.46• Typical 16mm double-glazed curtain wall • 70% silica • 15% soda [ sodium carbonate ] • 10% limestone = Total:  70% sand • Typical 3700mm [ 12’ ] floor-to-floor curtain wall mullion layout  • 5% aluminum mullions • 95% 16mm double-glazed window = Total :  66.5% sand160161• Extraction[ noun ]1 - The action of extracting something, especially using effort or force.- Oxford English Dictionary “Conservation is getting nowhere because it is incompatible with our Abrahamic concept of land. We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.”1- Aldo Leopold1 • Aldo Leopold,  A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There (Oxford University Press, 1949) viii.162Extraction Global163Extraction GlobalFig. 95 [left] • Author, Sand 1, 2020Fig. 96 [above] • Author, Global Context, 2021164Extraction Global165Extraction Global• FormationIt’s clear our civilisation is built of sand, but where does it come from, and what exactly do we mean when we talk about sand? Sand is often thought of as a homogeneous substance, but actually sand is quite diverse.Sand is considered a non-renewable resource over a human timescale1 and is naturally formed by the weathering of rock over long periods of time. As they erode, these sediments are naturally transported by either water or wind along rivers or valleys.2 The average time for a full revolution of the sand cycle is approximately 200 million years. 100 times longer than Homo sapiens have been on earth.3 The most common rock which erodes to form sand is granite, which is made up predominantly of feldspar and quartz. Feldspar dissolves more quickly than quartz4 and as a result nearly 70% of all sand grains on earth are quartz. Quartz is a form of silicon dioxide [ SiO2 ] also commonly known as silica, and its components [ silicon and oxygen ] are the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust.5• MiningConstruction sand is predominantly quartz, but also includes other materials. Sand and gravel together make aggregate - but the only significant difference between construction sand and gravel is the size of the grains [ sand is classified as hard grains between 2 and 0.0625mm ]. Construction sand is primarily mined from riverbeds, beaches, or land quarries.6But not all quartz sand is appropriate for construction. Desert sand is too rounded by friction generated by wind to work structurally in concrete, and sand dredged from salt water bodies will degrade much more quickly than fresh water based sand due to the presence of salt.Fig. 97 [left] • Author, Global Sand Cycle, 2021Fig. 98 [above] • Author, Sand Formation, 2020, adapted from: Trevor Nace, The Rock Cycle: Learn The Types Of Rocks & Minerals 2016, Forbes2 • Maya Padmalal, “Sources of Sand and Conservation”. in Sand Mining. (Springer, Dordrecht, 2014) 155–160.3 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 6-74 • Gilman, Larry. Sand. 7 (5 ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. (2014.) 3823–3824.5 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 6-76 • Ibid, 6-8166Extraction Global167Extraction Global• South East AsiaAround the globe, sand mining is rapidly depleting and destroying existing landscapes as urban developments call for more and more concrete, glass, and asphalt. Sand mines can be found in  almost every country, operated by small regional companies and large international corporations alike. Sand mining destroys farmland, river basins, and beaches every year, often carried out illegally.In 2008 sand mining thieves in Jamaica removed 1,300 feet of sand from one of the islands largest beaches. Similar but smaller scale “sand looting” goes on in beaches in Russia, Italy, Algeria, and Morocco.7Singapore is currently the world’s largest sand importer, with a constant flow of sand needed for its continuing artificial construction of land - reclaiming space from the sea. This process has directly led to the total obliteration of at least two dozen Indonesian islands since 2005, taken away boatload by boatload. In the past forty years, Singapore has constructed an extra fifty square miles of new land. Due to this excessive consumption of sand, neighbouring countries including Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Cambodia have been restricting or banning all exports of sand to Singapore.8Sand is continuously being dredged up from rivers such as the Koh Kong in Cambodia, Mekong Delta in Vietnam, and the Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar and barged and sold to wealthy urban centres in Singapore and China. Rivers such as these are critical ecological habitats, home to fish, flora, and farmers who tend to rice fields and orchards in the dry seasons along the banks. The Mekong River helps feed over 65 million people across the six countries it traverses.9However, legal efforts to combat the dredging of the Mekong in Vietnam have been thus far unsuccessful. Even after banning exports to Singapore in 2009, construction within Vietnam in Ho Chi Minh City and resorts in Phu Quoc and Can Tho continue to require a steady flow of sand. Export statistics also tell a different story, with Singapore claiming it had purchased $766 million of sand from Vietnam from 2009 to 2017.10Hundreds of kilometres of roads and surrounding land collapse into the Mekong every year. Homes slide into the river. Generations old farms are destroyed. Children fall and drown on the unstable banks. Homeless farmers are relocated by the government to urban centres, often with no choice in the matter and left with loans to repay and no savings or possessions to help them to do so.11These relocations drive further urban developments which in turn calls for more sand to be dredged and barged to the city, destroying more river in a self-perpetuating cycle.Fig. 99 [left above] • Sim Chi Yin, Shifting Sands - Vietnam, 2017, VietnamFig. 100 [left below] • Sim Chi Yin, Shifting Sands - Malaysia, 2017 Malaysia Fig. 101 [above] • Author, Mekong River Delta, 20207 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 128 • Ibid, 139 • Khai Don, “Outrage: scars of sand mining” in The Architectural Review: October 2020 (EMAP Publishing LTD, 2020) https://www.architectural-review.com/essays/outrage/outrage-scars-of-sand-mining10 • Ibid11 • Ibid168Extraction Global169Extraction Global• Black MarketsSand mining also leaves behind dangerous landscapes in their wake. In the US and much of the Western world, mining companies are legally required to restore the landscapes they have mined to a certain extent once their operations are completed. This is not the case everywhere however.In countries where governments have less regulatory hold on the sand mining industry, mining operations leave behind large and deep open pits that fill with rainwater and garbage which can become breeding ground for diseases. In recent years, multiple stories of children falling into these pits and drowning have been reported.12These dangers lead to higher levels of regulation of the industry, but this has in turn produced a global black-market in sand.13In India [ “ground zero” of the global sand crisis ] markets for commercially useful construction sand are now so scarce that the industry is controlled by a violent “Sand Mafia”: criminal organisations who illegally mine sand from rivers and other sources and sell it, sometimes killing to safeguard their operations. Construction aggregate is currently so scarce in Bangladesh that builders often resort to using crushed bricks when making concrete. It is estimated that this black-market sand trade is worth around $2.3 billion a year.14Sand miners from this Mafia in India have murdered law enforcement officers and government officials who have tried to halt the strip-mining of India’s rivers and killed reporters who have exposed their illegal practices of excavating waterways.15 It is estimated that these conflicts have claimed the lives of hundreds of people in recent years.16Rivers such as the Ganges and the Betwa, in Uttar Pradesh, and the Sone, in Bihar are being stripped of their sand at alarming rates. All this sand extraction is causing the water tables in India to drop, a significant concern for a country where scarcity of water is currently leaving millions facing unprecedented water shortages.17Elsewhere, the illegal sand market is also wreaking havoc on communities and ecosystems. It is estimated that in Morocco as much as half of all sand used for construction is illegally sourced and extracted. In 2010, dozens of Malaysian officials were charged for accepting bribes and sexual favours in return for allowing sand to be illegally extracted and barged to Singapore. In Kenya, sand miners have reportedly been known to coax children into dropping out of school to work in the sand pits.18These issues may seem half a world away, but Canada and British Columbia are also critically connected to this sand industry and the global flows of material and capital associated with it.Fig. 102 [left above] • Paul Salopek, Sone River in Bihar state, 2019, IndiaFig. 103 [left below] • Paul Salopek, Ganges River in Uttar Pradesh, 2019, IndiaFig. 104 [above] • Author, Ganges and Sone Rivers, 202012 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 1713 • Ibid14 • David Owen “The World Is Running Out of Sand” The New Yorker:May 29, 2017 (Condé Nast, 2017) https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/05/29/the-world-is-running-out-of-sand 15 • Paul Salopek , “Inside the deadly world of India’s sand mining mafia”, National Geographic: Out of Eden Walk, (National Geographic Partners, LLC, 2019) https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/06/inside-india-sand-mining-mafia/16 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 1917 • Salopek, “Inside the deadly world of India’s sand mining mafia” 18 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 19170• QuarriesWe are incredibly fortunate in British Columbia, and Canada more broadly, to have a wealth of natural resources and materials, one of which is sand and aggregate. Sand and aggregate used in construction and production in Vancouver comes from a number of quarries in south western British Columbia, both on the mainland and on Vancouver Island.There is a tendency to consider most quarries in the area as locally run companies due to their proximity to Vancouver and their local operation and employment. However, this is not the case.The largest producer of sand and aggregate is Lehigh Materials, which owns four of the largest quarries in the area, including the largest, located in Sechelt. Lehigh Materials is owned by HeidelbergCement, which is a German multinational corporation and the number one producer and seller of aggregates globally. HeidelbergCement also owns Ocean Concrete, the only industrial site left in operation on Granville island today.The second largest producer of sand and aggregate in the Vancouver area is Lafarge Aggregates, operators of the second largest aggregate quarry [ located on Ward Road in Abbotsford ] as well as a second quarry on Pitt River.Lafarge Aggregates is owned by LafargeHolcim, a Swiss multinational building materials company. Lafarge North America, [ the North American arm of  LafargeHolcim ] is the largest diversified supplier of construction materials in the United States and Canada.Extraction LocalFig. 105 [above] • Author, Vancouver Quarries, 2020, adapted from Grant Callegari, Orca Quarry, 2017, Vancouver Island, Canada, Fig. 106 [right] • Author, Locations of twelve of the largest sand and aggregate quarries in the Vancouver area, 2020171Extraction Local172I - Lehigh Materials [ Sechelt ]Sand and Gravel, 5784 Sechelt Inlet Rd, Sechelt, BC V0N 3A0• HeidelbergCement (the number 1 in aggregates production company globally1) owns Lehigh Materials• Production = 4.8 million tonnes of sand and aggregate annually• Quarry surface area ≈ 2, 900,000 m² II - Lafarge Aggregates [ Ward Road ]37403 Ward Rd, Abbotsford, BC V3G 2K6• LafargeHolcim (a Swiss multinational company) owns Lafarge Aggregates. Lafarge North America is the largest diversified supplier of construction materials in the United States and Canada• Quarry surface area ≈ 1, 300,000 m²III - Orca Sand & Gravel LPPort McNeill, BC V0N 2R0• Polaris Materials Corporation owns 88% of Orca Sand & Gravel Ltd. with the remaining 12% participating interest held by the ‘Namgis First Nation4• Permitted production =  6.6 million tons of sand and gravel per year• Remaining permitted reserves [ as of December 31, 2009 ] = 128.8 million tons• Quarry surface area ≈ 910,000 m²IV - Mainland Sand & Gravel Ltd6850 Cox Rd, Abbotsford, BC V3G 3C1• Quarry surface area ≈ 830,000 m²V - Lehigh Materials [ Coquitlam ]1739 Pipeline Rd, Coquitlam, BC V3E 3P6• Quarry surface area ≈ 810,000 m²VI - Lafarge Aggregates [ Pitt River ]16101 Rannie Rd, Pitt Meadows, BC V3Y 1Z1• Quarry surface area ≈ 585,000 m²VII - Mid-Island Aggregates Ltd683 Stebbings Rd, Shawnigan Lake, BC V0R 2W3• Quarry surface area ≈ 490,000 m²VIII - Island Aggregates Ltd965 Loftus Rd, Nanaimo, BC V9X 1R2• Quarry surface area ≈ 365,000 m²IX - Butler Concrete & Aggregate Ltd4998 Langtry Rd, Duncan, BC V9L 6R8• Quarry surface area ≈ 340,000 m²X - Lehigh Materials [ Chilliwack ]Skway Sand and Gravel, 3 Skway Rd, Chilliwack, BC V2P 6J4• Quarry surface area ≈ 315,000 m²XI - Van-Isle Aggregates1280 Spruston Rd, Nanaimo, BC V9X 1S9• Quarry surface area ≈ 270,000 m²XII - Lehigh Materials [ Pitt River ]Gilley’s Quarry, 4892 Quarry Rd, Coquitlam, BC V3E 3H5• Quarry surface area ≈ 200,000 m²Fig. 107 [right] • Author, Vancouver Sand and Aggregate Quarrys, 2020• All surface area statistics based on satellite imageryExtraction Local173IIVVIIXIIVVIIIXIIIIVIIXXIIExtraction Local174• ProductionLehigh Materials [ Sechelt ] produces roughly 5-6 million tonnes of sand and aggregate annually and are permitted to produce up to 7.5 million tonnes per year [ though the company no longer makes official production figures public ].19Lehigh Materials [ Sechelt ] employs approximately 80 workers including contractors as of 2010.20  The quarry is highly automated and mechanised, even when compared to other surrounding quarries in the South-west of BC, but still remains a major employer due to the scale of the operation.• HeidelbergCementAs previously mentioned, HedelbergCement is the parent company of Lehigh Materials. 27.71% of shares in HeidelbergCement are owned by Spohn Cement Beteiligungen GmbH, run by Ludwig Merckle.21The largest disclosed investors in HeidelbergCement following Spohn are all international financial investment management corporations.22BlackRock Inc. [ currently the world’s largest asset manager ] is the second largest shareholder in the company with 4.92% of shares as of 2019. Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc. is the third largest shareholder with 3.16%.23Lehigh MaterialsHeidelbergCementI - Lehigh [ Sechelt ]• Quarry SA ≈ 2,900,000 m²I - Spohn Cement Beteiligungen GmbH• Share Ownership ≈ 27.71%V - Lehigh [ Coquitlam ]• Quarry SA ≈ 810,000 m²II - BlackRock Inc.• Share Ownership ≈  4.92%X - Lehigh [ Chilliwack ]• Quarry SA ≈ 315,000 m²III - Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc.• Share Ownership ≈  3.16%Ludwig Merckle• CEOXII - Lehigh [ Pitt River ]• Quarry SA ≈ 200,000 m²Ocean Concrete• Granville IslandFig.108 [above] • Author, Lehigh Materials Corporate Structure, 202019 • Bruce Northcote, Provincial Overview of Exploration And Miningin British Columbia,  (British Columbia Geological Survey, 2019)20 • Bruce Northcote, 2011. Exploration And Miningin Coast Area, British Columbia, (Province of British Columbia, 2011)21 • Shareholder Structure,  ( HeidelbergCement Group, 2020), https://www.heidelbergcement.com/en/shareholder-structure22 • Ibid23 • IbidExtraction Local175• ProductionIn 2019, Lafarge Aggregates sold roughly 113.5 million tonnes of aggregate in North America.24 At the Ward Road quarry, revenue from the mining operation is expected to exceed $14.7 million over the life of the operation.25• LafargeHolcimGroupe Bruxelles Lambert [ an investment management corporation ] is the largest shareholder in LafargeHolcim, Lafarge Aggregates’ parent company, with 9.3%.268.4% of shares in LafargeHolcim are owned by Schweizerische Cement-Industrie-Aktiengesellschaft, run by Thomas Schmidheiny, the former chairman of LafargeHolcim.27Following this, the largest disclosed investors in HeidelbergCement are again all international financial investment management corporations.  BlackRock, Inc is the third largest shareholder in the company with 3.1% of shares as of 2019. Norges Bank owns 3.0% of the companies shares. Harris Associates Investment Trust owns 3.0%  and Harris Associates L.P. owns another 3.0%, which gives a 6.0% share ownership to Groupe BPCE, which runs both Harris Associates companies. 28Lafarge AggregatesLafargeHolcimII - Lafarge [ Ward Road ]• Quarry SA ≈ 1, 300,000 m²I - Groupe Bruxelles Lambert• SO ≈ 9.3%VI - Lafarge [ Pitt River ]• Quarry SA ≈ 585,000 m²II - Schweizerische Cement-Industrie-Aktiengesellschaft• SO ≈  8.4%III - BlackRock Inc.• SO ≈  3.1%V - Harris Associates Investment Trust• SO ≈  3.0%Natixis Investment Managers• SO ≈  6.0% (of LafargeHolcim)Groupe BPCEThomas Schmidheiny• Former ChairmanIV - Norges Bank• SO ≈ 3.0%VI - Harris Associates L.P.• SO ≈ 3.0%Fig. 109 [above] • Author, Lafarge Aggregates Corporate Structure, 2020. 24 • Record net income and free cash flow, (LafargeHolcim 2020) https://www.lafargeholcim.com/full-year-results-201925 • Dave Loewen, Letter of Intent from Valley Gravel Sales, (Abbotsford Council, 2018), 2. 26 • Major shareholders, ( LafargeHolcim, 2019) https://www.lafargeholcim.com/major-shareholders27 • Ibid28 • IbidExtraction Local177• Site[ noun ]1 - An area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed2 - A website[ Verb ]3 - Fix or build (something) in a particular place- Oxford English Dictionary “Sous les pavés, la plage.”1- Bernard Cousin1 •  Mai 68 : le créateur de “Sous les pavés, la plage” est mort, at La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest; 2014178179• Research ThreadsThis project initially used the three threads of abstraction outlined earlier in this report [ Material, Technology, and Program ] as a generative tool to locate sites in the Vancouver area today which are highly charged in their relationships to sand. In this way, each site of investigation reveals a different lens through which we typically view sand in the Western world today. These threads and corresponding sites are:• Material - Sechelt QuarrySechelt quarry is the largest sand and aggregate quarry in the south-west of British Columbia operating today. Sand here is viewed as a raw material to be excavated and extracted.• Technology - 555 West Hastings Street555 West Hastings Street [ the Harbour Centre ] is the location of Vancouver’s largest internet carrier hotel and also Vancouver’s largest collection of data centres under one roof. Sand here is viewed as data and information, in addition to as infrastructure.• Program - 1019 Nelson Street1019 Nelson Street is the site of the Butterfly: the largest ongoing residential development for Westbank in Vancouver at the time of writing. This site is currently a hole in the ground - a construction site, but it has already generated almost 2 billion dollars in revenue with all its units sold. Here, sand is viewed as capital to be accumulated and speculated upon.Following the investigations on these three sites, a fourth site was identified for the project, at which these various understandings of sand overlap and come into a critical dialogue with the ecological flows of sand in our world.• Iona IslandA man made island south-west of UBC and Vancouver at the mouth of the Fraser River. The site is home to dune ecosystems which are critically protected - constantly threatened by development, loss of material sources, foot/vehicle traffic damage, and rising sea levels - in addition to a host of other ecosystems and microclimates.MaterialSite OneSite TwoSite ThreeSechelt Quarry555 West Hastings Street1019 Nelson StreetTechnology ProgramFig. 110 [left] • Author, Sand 3, 2020Fig. 111 [above] • Author, Three Sites, 2020Site Three Threads180181“Geological formations exist both inside and outside buildings. They are obviously the ground on which buildings stand, but also appear in construction materials, as stones or the gravel within concrete. A denser concentration of minerals within a rock will often become the line of least resistance, along which a crack will tear it, and likewise the building, apart.”2- Eyal Weizman2 • Eyal Weizman, ‘Matters of Calculation – The Evidence of the Anthropocene’ in Architecture in the Anthropocene - Encounters Among Design, Deep Time, Science and Philosophy, edited by Etienne Turpin, (Michigan: Open Humanities Press, 2013), 67.Site One • Sechelt Quarry[ Sand as Raw Material ]The largest operating sand and aggregate quarry in the Vancouver area.182• TransportationLehigh Materials, the operator of Sechelt Quarry, is vertically integrated to transport and distribute sand and aggregate for construction, in addition to producing it. Lehigh is the largest operator of conveyor barges in Southwest BC, through their Marine Services division.3 This Marine Service division operates panamax-class freighters which have a general capacity of up to 65,000 DWT [ dead-weight tonnage ].4 15% of Sechelt’s 2008 sales were to Lehigh Hanson Materials in California, and they also regularly ship large quantities of sand and aggregate to Hawaii.5In Californian urban centres like Los Angeles and San Francisco, 3 million tons of sand and aggregate are annually imported for construction, travelling over 1000 miles from mines in Southwest BC [ mainly Sechelt and Orca]. This makes economic sense due to the rising costs of transportation of sand from US mines via truck and the depletion of nearby sources by development and construction in these urban centres.6Hawaii has similarly exhausted and restricted local supplies, with a large amount of potential construction aggregate and sand off limits to builders due to rules protecting beaches and inland sand dunes from being mined.7Fig. 112 [above] • Author, Sechelt Sand Distribution, 2020Fig. 113 [right] • Author, Sechelt Quarry Site Plan, 20203 • Lehigh Materials (Lehigh Hanson, 2019), https://www.lehighhanson.com/sites/lehigh-materials4 • Ship Sizes (Maritime Connector) http://maritime-connector.com/wiki/ship-sizes/5 • Andy Bateman, Canada’s Top 10 Aggregate Operations, (Annex Business Media ,2009), https://www.rocktoroad.com/canadas-top-10-aggregate-operations-958/6 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 2397 • Ibid, 240Site One • Sechelt Quarry DistributionHonoluluSechelt QuarryLos Angeles183184Site One • Sechelt Quarry Deep Sea Terminal & Shiploader• LocationSechelt Quarry is located directly outside the town of Sechelt along the Sunshine Coast of Southwest BC, roughly 50 km northwest of Vancouver. Sechelt itself has a population of 10,200 people spread out over 39.71 km2 [ as of 2016 ]. The original inhabitants of Sechelt are the Sechelt Nation, a British Columbian First Nations band who call themselves shishalh (or shishalh Nation). The town was originally called ch’atlich in she shashishalhem (the shishalh Nation language).8• ShiploaderLehigh Materials loads their Marine Service Division freighters at Sechelt inlet via a non-stop conveyor which runs directly from the south of the quarry to the deep-sea terminal.Onshore the conveyor runs downhill from the quarry for approximately 600 meters until it reaches the coast, and then offshore the conveyor continues to the shiploader for another 540 metres, with a belt width of 1.372 metres.9This results in a loading rate of approximately 4000 tonnes per hour.10Fig. 114 • Author unknown, CSL Sheila Ann being loaded with aggregate by the newly installed ship loader, Sechelt, CanadaFig. 115 • Author, Deep Sea Terminal & Shiploader Plan, 20208 • Ron C. Beaumont, Sechelt Dictionary. (Harbour Publishing, 2011), 380.9 • Sechelt Deep Sea Terminal and Shiploader, (Seabulking Inc.), http://www.seabulk.com/sechelt.html10 • IbidCSL Sheila Ann being loaded with aggregate by the newly installed ship loader185PlanTransportationSite One • Sechelt Quarry Deep Sea Terminal & Shiploader220m40m280m186Site One • Sechelt Quarry Processing CentreAerial view of Sechelt quarryFig. 116 [above] • Author unknown, Aerial view of Sechelt quarry, 2013, Sechelt, CanadaFig. 117 [right] • Author, Processing Centre Plan, 202011 • Health and Safety, a Practical Guide for Aggregate Operations (Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 2007)11 • Ibid• ExtractionSechelt quarry operates similarly to any other sand and aggregate quarry today in the Southwest of British Columbia. The mine is highly automated and only employs 80 workers due to its size.The first step in the creation of the quarry is clearing the land to allow access to the sand. All trees, vegetation and overburden within a two meter boundary at the edge of the quarry rim must be removed from site.Once the site is cleared excavation can begin at the top of the site, moving down the slope utilising a series of lifts and benches.Explosives in aggregate production and mining are also becoming more common in quarries in BC.11• ProcessingOnce the sand and aggregate is dug up it must be washed and sorted before being transported. This process involves grading of the sand, cleaning and washing of the materials, conveyance of the aggregates around the site, and potentially crushing of the aggregates depending on the specific mine.In addition, storage of sand and aggregate is often done throughout the various stages of the process. Depending on the size of the grains and the site, this can require tarping or covering of materials to avoid excessive erosion, before the materials are shipped away to become concrete in urban centres. 12187PlanExtractionSite One • Sechelt Quarry Processing Centre188189“Since the dawn of trading, technological innovation has always transformed markets. When what is being exchanged is stuff, new transportation networks create new markets, which require different investment strategies. As bits become more valuable than stuff, communication networks become more important than railroads, highways, seaways, and airways...the distinctive character of our age is not simply the spread of computers but the impact of connecting them.”12- Mark C. Taylor12 • Mark C. Taylor,	Confidence	Games,	(The University of Chicago Press, 2004) 147 Site Two • 555 West Hastings Street[ Sand as Data ]The largest operating data centre in the Vancouver area.190• ConsumptionHigh purity silicon dioxide particles (sand) are the essential raw material used to make computer chips, fibre-optic cables, and other tech hardware.13  Our modern digital world is built on sand, but we rarely consider or notice its role in our technology.Construction sand typically sells for a few dollars a ton, but high purity silicone used to make computer chips can cost up to $10,000 a ton, due to the high level of purity and rarity.14Within most data centres, a server’s average lifetime is only about 4.4 years before becoming replaced with an upgrade.15 This high turnover of digital infrastructure, in addition to the size of these facilities and networks which connect them, results in huge amounts of sand consumption [though still less than the amount used in concrete construction annually ].• SiteVancouver is increasingly being viewed as an ideal redundant data centre location for networks established by enterprises in Eastern Canada, Asia, and the U.S., due to the city’s position at the end point of the largest internet backbone between British Columbia and the U.S.16 As a result, Vancouver currently has 30 data centres.The largest provider of data centre services is Cologix, who runs three data centres across Vancouver, including in the Harbour centre downtown, with direct access to Vancouver’s primary carrier hotel.Fig. 118 [above] • Author, West Coast Internet Backbone, 2020Fig 119 [right] • Author, 555 West Hastings Street Site Plan, 202013 • Beiser, The World in a Grain, 102.14 • Ibid, 111.15 • Joe Jacob, Data Centers: A Latent Environmental Threat, (Duke University, 2017), https://sites.duke.edu/lit290s-1_02_s2017/2017/03/08/data-centers-a-latent-environmental-threat/16 • Colocation in Vancouver – VAN1 Data Center (Cologix, 2020) https://www.cologix.com/data-centers/vancouver/van1/HonoluluVancouverSeattleHillsborooLos AngelesMorro BayManchesterSite Two • 555 West Hastings Street West Coast Internet Backbone191192Site Two • 555 West Hastings Street Vancouver Data CentresI - Cologix [ VAN 1 ]555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 44 service providersII - Harbour Centre555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 21 service providersIII - Cologix [ VAN 2 ] 1050 West Pender, Vancouver, BC V6E 3S7• 16 service providersIV - Cyxtera [ YVR1 ] 555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 12 service providersV - eStruxture Data Centers [ VAN-2 ]555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 7 service providersVI - eStruxture Data Centres [ VAN-1 ]55 East 7th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5T 1M4• 6 service providersVII - TeraGo Networks701 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC V7Y 1G5• 5 service providersVIII - CentriLogic [ VAN ]555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 5 service providersIX - Cologix [ VAN 3 ] 2828 Natal Street, Vancouver, BC V5M 2H1• 4 service providersX - Shaw Communications [ VAN-1 ] 1471 Pemberton Ave, North Vancouver, BC V7P 2R9• 4 service providersXI - Aptum555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 4 service providersXII - TeraGo Networks  [ Vault ]900 W Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6C 1E1• 2 service providersXIII - Ntirety550 Burrard Street Suite 200, Vancouver, BC V6C 2B5• 2 service providersXIV - Tech Futures120 Glacier St #1A, Coquitlam, BC V3K 5Z6• 1 service providersXV - Radiant Communications1050 W Pender St, Vancouver, BC V6E 3S7• 1 service providersXVI - Skyway West555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 4N4• 1 service providersFig. 120 [right] • Author, Vancouver Data Centres Plan, 202017 • Data from Vancouver, Canada, (Cloudscene, 2020) https://cloudscene.com/market/data-centers-in-canada/vancouver193Site Two • 555 West Hastings Street Vancouver Data CentresShaw CommunicationsAEBC Internet Corporation555 West Hastings StreeteStruxture Data Centres [ VAN-1 ]Cologix [ VAN 3 ]Shaw CommunicationsTeraGo NetworksShaw CommunicationsIn 2 NetEquinixNavigata Communications194Exterior View of 555 West Hastings. 6th Floor of 555 West Hastings.• The Harbour CentreThe Harbour Centre, designed by WZMH Architects and built in 1977, is currently the tallest office building in the city [ and the seventh tallest building overall at 147 meters in height ]. It is located in downtown Vancouver between Gastown and the Central Business District.18In terms of construction, the building is primarily reinforced concrete with punctured glass curtain walls along the facade.19Today the Harbour Centre contains many programs including The Vancouver Lookout, a rotating restaurant, a shopping mall, various businesses and technology firms, as well as one of Simon Fraser University‘s downtown campus’.20But, in addition to these more publicly known programs, the Harbour Centre is also home to seven of the largest sixteen data centres in Vancouver. These data centres primarily occupy the 6th floor of the building. This floor was originally designated as a plant space, and thus has no exterior fenestration, giving little indication of the program within - ironically acting as an antithesis to the lookout on the top floor. This architecturally introverted location is the infrastructural hub for Vancouver’s technological connection to the rest of the world.Fig. 121 [above] • Diego Delso, Exterior View of 555 West Hastings, 2017, VancouverFig. 122 [right] • Author, Carrier Hotel 6th Floor Plan, 1-200, 202018 • Harbour Centre (Wikiwand) https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Harbour_Centre19 • Ibid20 • IbidSite Two • 555 West Hastings Street Carrier Hotel LayoutSite Two • 555 West Hastings Street Carrier Hotel LayoutPlan • 1-2006th Floor• Total floor area = 1,150m2 • 14” anti-static raised floor & anti-static PVC floor• service elevator: 3,000 lb` `s, 2000mm x 2200mm • DX & chilled water loop cooling with steam humidification195196Site Two • 555 West Hastings Street Hot - Cold Aisle Rack LayoutInterior View of Racks in Cologix Van1. Fig. 123 [above] • Yevgeniy Sverdlik, Interior View of Racks in Cologix Van1, 2013, Vancouver, CanadaFig. 124 [right] • Author, Hot - Cold Aisle Rack Layout Plan, 202021 • VAN1 - Cologix @ The Harbour Centre VAN1 Carrier Hotel - Home to VANIX (Cologix, 2020) https://www.cologix.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Vancouver-Data-Center-VAN-1.pdf22 • Ibid23 • Ibid24 • Ingrid Burrington, The Environmental Toll of a Netflix Binge, (The Atlantic, 2015) https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/there-are-no-clean-clouds/420744/• Data CentreThe Data centre on the 6th floor is primarily filled with lanes of server cabinets and cages [ primarily 42U ] which store and process digital information. The Centre’s carrier hotel also provides connectivity to 20+ unique networks..21The server racks are arranged in a typical hot-aisle/cold-aisle layout which is the industry standard with regards to cooling and air flow operations within the data centre - cooling being the primary source of energy use.22More specifically the Harbour Centre uses a DX and chilled water loop cooling system with steam humidification to keep the servers from overheating.23“Often people think of [data centres] as almost like cathedrals of servers. Very clean computer equipment, white walls and things—the reality is, these are factories.”24- Tate Cantrell, CTO of data-center company Verne Global197Site Two • 555 West Hastings Street Hot - Cold Aisle Rack LayoutPlanStorage198199Site Three • 1019 Nelson Steet[ Sand as Capital ]The largest ongoing residential development in the Vancouver area.“The convergence, even without collusion, of private and public sector property interests in BC creates immense momentum that precludes meaningful policy responses to inequities that include excessive housing unaffordability, precarious mortgage indebtedness, and disillusioned out-migration. The default housing policy position has become minimal response and the cultivation of ignorance concerning actual trends. In this neo-liberal policy environment, community costs assume the status of acceptable collateral damage.”25- David Ley25 • David Ley,  Global China and the making of Vancouver’s residential property market. (International journal of housing policy, Vol. 17 (1), 2015) https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1080/14616718.2015.1119776 33-34.200Fig. 125 [above] • Westbank, Westbank company collage, 2020Fig 126 [right] • Author, 1019 Nelson Street Site Plan, 202026 • Ley, Global China and the making of Vancouver’s residential property market.27 • Wendell Cox and Hugh Pavletich, 16th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey 2020: Rating Middle-Income Housing Affordability, (Demographia, 2020), http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf28 • David Madden and Peter Marcuse, In defense of housing: The politics of crisis. (New York: Verso, 2016)• CapitalThe forces of financial land speculation manifest most strongly in Vancouver in the development of residential properties - primarily high-rise condos. Many of these properties are sold to offshore investors who use the investments as ways of storing/securing capital, and many go uninhabited for large parts of the year or entirely.26This practice is one of the major driving forces of rising land costs and the lack of affordable housing in Vancouver today, and it’s status among the most unaffordable cities in both Canada and the world.27A simultaneous national and global movement to deregulate housing markets has allowed easier privatization of public housing, stimulating predatory lending, and removing rent-controlled housing stock.28So who is profiting? Vancouver is home to an array of large development companies, but Westbank, head-quartered in Vancouver,  is currently Canada’s leading luxury residential and mixed use developer and both the company and it’s founder Ian Gillespie are household names throughout the city.Westbank company collage1019 Nelson Steet201202Site Three • 1019 Nelson Street Financial Physicality• WestbankThe largest ongoing project for Westbank in Vancouver is the Butterfly - currently under construction at 1019 Nelson Street. The development is scheduled for completion in 2022, and sales for available units range in price from $3,900,000 to over $4,708,000.29This is equivalent to a cost of roughly $2855 per square foot for a building which is currently un-built.30All of the available 331 apartments within the property have already been sold, and this relatively empty hole in the ground has thus already generated almost two billion dollars in revenue [ $1,727,275,000 to be precise ].31• TemporalityThis site has been chosen for investigation of the tension between the financial capital developed from the project’s pre-sales and the current lack of physical manifestation of this capital on the un-built site.In this way, the capital forces of financial speculation are driving a future extraction and consumption of sand, which is critically linked to the site and its current temporal development program.Fig. 127 [above] • Author, Aerial Site View, 2020Fig. 128 [right above] • Kenneth Chan,	Construction	of	The	Butterfly,	2019, Vancouver, CanadaFig. 129 [right below] • Kenneth Chan,	Construction	of	The	Butterfly	2,	2019, Vancouver, Canada29 • Vancouver, West End, The Butterfly (buzzbuzzhome, 2020) https://www.buzzbuzzhome.com/ca/the-butterfly30 • Ibid31 • IbidAerial Site View1019 Nelson St.203Site Three • 1019 Nelson Street Financial Physicality204205Site Four • Iona Island[ Sand as multiplicity ]A critically protected sand dune ecosystem.“Nothing is built on stone; all is built on sand, but we must build as if the sand were stone”14 - Jorge Luis Borges 1 • Jorge Luis Borges, In Praise of Darkness, (E P Dutton; 1st edition, 1975)206• MultiplicityIona Island was chosen as the fourth site of investigation for this project (and the site of the final design) for a number of reasons - but critically, it was chosen due to its critical overlap and relationships to programs and rituals of the previous threads, in addition to the ecological movements of sand and aggregate in BC.This site has already been introduced in Part I of this report, but this section will include expanded research and context regarding Iona Island and the overlap of these threads.• OverlapIona Island is located at the northern mouth of the Fraser River, where it opens into the straight of Georgia. The Fraser River carries 20 million metric tonnes of sediment into the Pacific Ocean each year, much of which is deposited in the beaches along the coast of the Fraser River Delta.The Fraser River is also used as a primary route in the transport and storage of industrial log booms – stored in the calm waters behind the North Arm jetty of Iona Island. Additionally, the largest urban wastewater processing centre serving the Vancouver area is located on the island, dealing with 200 billion litres of wastewater per year [ just under half of all wastewater produced in Vancouver ] from 600,000 residents, businesses and industries.So, there is a critical overlap on this site between the “natural” and “anthropocentric” flows of sand, waste, material, and this overlap makes it an ideal site for the project.Site Four • Iona Island Ecological FluxFig. 130 [above] • Author, Sand Movement, 2021207Fig. 131 [above] • Author, Local Context, 2021Site Four • Iona Island Ecological Flux208Beach Driftwood Dunes Meadows Coastal Forest• SuccessionAn interesting feature of the coastal sand dune ecosystems in British Columbia, and elsewhere, is the evolution these areas display over time.When walking away from the shore you journey through time, starting from the beach where sand mobility and saltwater make plant colonization difficult. As driftwood collects it begins to stabilize the sand and dunes begin to form, allowing for colonization by grasses and other flora and fauna. These driftwood elements also work similarly to nurse logs in the forest – providing organic matter to feed smaller organisms. As the dunes continue to stabilize, coastal meadows begin to form and, over time, develop into fully developed coastal forests.It’s important to note, that although this is generally the pattern of development for these ecosystems, the reality is, of course, not this linear or straight forward, with ecosystems receding and bleeding into each other with no clear boundaries.Site Four • Iona Island Ecological FluxFig. 132 [above] • Author, Dune Ecosystems, 2021209Beach Driftwood Dunes Meadows Coastal ForestFinally, you can come across some small forests where larger Birch trees have developed. You can see here a variety of birds, including the Spotted Towhee and Bald Eagle.Iona Island is also especially critical to both migratory birds, who stop to rest at the site on their journey south each season, and to salmon who use the area to acclimatise to the water (either fresh or salt) when moving either up or down the Fraser river to the ocean during spawning season. The area is in constant flux, with rising and falling tides and intermingling inhabitants and visitors.If you walk back from the water at Iona, you start in the intertidal zone - an important foraging site for shore birds. As you move higher, more small debris accumulates near the shore where the tides often rise and fall.Moving on, you come across larger areas further back where driftwood has been lodged during stronger storms. These driftwood colonies are interwoven with areas of marshes, some dominated by Seashore Saltgrass, others by Cattails and Dogwood.Continuing back, you reach more stabilized dunes, and you begin to see more inhabitation by hardier grasses such as the Dune Wildrye and Large Headed Sedge, as well as older driftwood which has been colonized by Lichens and Mosses, on to meadows of Yarrow and Scotch Broom, and shrub thickets of Himalayan Blackberry. Site Four • Iona Island Ecological FluxFig. 133 [above] • Author, Dune Ecosystems - Blurred, 2021210Site Four • Iona Island Ecological FluxFig. 134 [above] • Author, Site Section, 2021211Site Four • Iona Island Ecological Flux212Site Four • Iona Island Ecological Flux• LayoutIona Island is spatially defined by the two jetties - the North Arm jetty, which extends along the coast and shelters the log booms, and the South Arm Jetty, which extends perpendicularly to the coast into the Straight of Georgia, and which houses the waste water disposal piping which empties into the Straight.The south arm is paved and is a popular destination for cyclists, joggers, and bird and plane watchers.The North Arm is slightly less popular for pedestrians, and is the location of the majority of the sand dune ecosystems at Iona Island today.The area between the two jetties is the intertidal zone, which attracts migratory snow geese to the site, and which is currently accumulating sand, directed by the longshore drift moving north up the coast.Fig. 135 [above] • Author, Site Plan, 2021213Site Four • Iona Island Ecological Flux• EcosystemsThe above image shows the rough  layout of some of the site’s ecosystems, overlayed, at two different periods - 2007 and 2020. The hope is that this gives a rough indication of the irregularity of the site’s ecosystems and their fluctuation over time.At this scale, the plan still does not capture the particularities of each microclimate well, as there is a diverse set of different inhabitants and connects within each area. For example, although marshes are shown here as one colour across the site, there are significant differences in types of marshes throughout, some further from the water and dominated by Cattails and Dogwood, others along the beach inhabited by Seashore Saltgrass.Fig. 136 [above] • Author, Site Plan - Ecosystems, 2020214215• Precedent[ noun ]1 - An earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.- Oxford English Dictionary “only when understanding our place, we may be able to participate creatively and contribute to its history”1-  Christian Norberg-Schulz1 • Christopher Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci - Toward a Phenomenology of Architecture. (Rizzoli International Publications, INC. 1980), 202.216217• ResponseSo what is currently being done? The ever-repeated mantra of the three R’s,  which arose in the 1970’s during the environmental consciousness movement, provides three separate lenses or approaches to dealing with the ecological and environmental issues pertaining to sand in the built environment, each of which have been heavily explored today:• ReduceProjects which investigate the reduction of use of sand and aggregate in construction, in the situations in which it is most critical and commonly used.• ReuseProjects which investigate the reuse of sand and aggregate infrastructure and constructions as an alternative to demolition and reproduction.• RecycleProjects which investigate the recycling of waste and by-products as an alternative to extraction and use of new quarried sand and aggregate in construction.• ReorientThese three approaches to design are invaluable today in managing and reducing the impact of sand and aggregate mining and construction. However, these three approaches also address the end stage symptoms of the issue rather than challenging the root of the problem: the cultural separation of ourselves from the more-than-human world, and our resultant domination and degradation of the more-than-human world driven by systems of capital accumulation.To begin to address this root issue, we require an additional R: reorient. We need to begin to reorient ourselves in relation to the more-than-human world, and perhaps through the process of architecturally de-abstracting the hidden role of sand in our daily lives we can begin to better understand our interconnected and complex relationship to the Earth, and our current modes of domination over it.Reduce, Reuse, Recycle... ReorientReduceMjøstårnet 2Voll ArkitekterReuseZeitz MOCAA 3Heatherwick StudioRecycleHanil Visitors Center  & Guest House 4BCHO ArchitectsFig. 137 [left] • Author, Sand 3, 2020Fig. 138 [above] • Author, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, 2020 2 • Ricardo Foto, Mjøstårnet, 2019, Brumunddal, Norway 3 • Iwan Baan, Zeitz MOCAA, 2017, Cape Town, South   Africa 4 • Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House,   2009, Danyang-Gun, South Korea, Precedent218219• Reduce[ verb ]1 - Make smaller or less in amount, degree, or size.- Oxford English Dictionary The following projects investigate the reduction of use of sand and aggregate in construction, in the situations in which it is most critical220Mjøstårnet ReduceTimberPrecedent - Reduce  Voll Arkitekter - Mjøstårnet• Project: Mjøstårnet• Designer: Voll Arkitekter• Location: Brumunddal, Norway• Year: 2019• Client: AB Invest• Program: Residential/Multi-use• Floor Area: 11,300 m2• Description Mjøstårnet [ which translates as “the tower of lake Mjøsa” ] is currently the world’s tallest structural timber building. The building’s program consists of a hotel, apartments, offices, a restaurant, and a swimming hall in the adjacent first-floor extension.5The building is 85.4-metres tall and was built primarily using cross-laminated timber and glulam columns - utilising local resources, local suppliers, and sustainable materials from the small town of Brumunddal where it is located ( a short drive north of the Norwegian capital, Oslo.)6• RelevanceThe contemporary rise in experimentation with alternative construction materials, such as the timber used in Mjøstårnet, or other materials being explored today from mycelium, to rammed earth, to straw bales, to recycled plastic aggregates, can directly lead to a reduction in concrete use, and by extension sand and aggregate extraction. Mjøstårnet takes this task on in a typology which is heavily monopolised by concrete in our urban centres around the world: the high-rise tower. The structure is not 100% sand and aggregate free however, as the foundation still requires considerable use of concrete.If alternatives to concrete [such as engineered timber]could become structurally and economically viable on a large scale, it could mean a shift in the construction industry away from concrete towards some of these more renewable materials and technologies. Fig. 139 [above] • Ricardo Foto, Mjøstårnet, 2019, Brumunddal, NorwayFig. 140 [right above] • Rune Abrahamsen, Corner column foot detail from 3D-model and building site, 2017, Brumunddal, NorwayFig. 141 [right below] • Voll Arkitekter, Mjøstårnet Section, 2017 Brumunddal, Norway5 • Mjøstårnet (Moelven Limtre, 2020) https://www.moelven.com/mjostarnet/6 • Ibid221Precedent - Reduce  Voll Arkitekter - Mjøstårnet222Precedent - Reduce  Glenn Murcutt - Marika-Alderton HouseMarika-Alderton House ReduceSteel• Project: Marika-Alderton House• Designer: Glenn Murcutt• Location: Yirrkala, Australia• Year: 1994• Client: Banduk Marika & Mark Alderton• Program: Residential• Floor Area: 140 m2• Description This project is a response to the dramatic climate of its northern Australia site which has frequent heavy rainfall and high winds.7Due to the remote location the building was largely prefabricated and shipped to site in two shipping containers.8The layout of the house follows Aboriginal customs  of the clients, with the bedrooms organised by age and orientation to the sunrise, and the majority of the house openable to the exterior.9• RelevanceThe Marika-Alderton House is an example of an architectural approach which seeks to touch the ground lightly. By lifting the structure off the ground the need for concrete foundations is minimised. Concrete footings are still required below grade under each structural column, but all of the above grade structure is free of concrete, using predominantly steel and timber members, and the foundations can be sized to minimum structural requirements.The reduction of concrete in this project, similarly to the last project, is possible everywhere but at the moment when the building touches the ground, a location where architecture today seems to be most attached to concrete due to its heightened solidity and capacity to remain solid in the below ground conditions. Fig. 142 [above] • Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House, 2008, Yirrkala, AustraliaFig. 143 [right above] • Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House Foundation, 2008, Yirrkala, AustraliaFig. 144 [right below] • Glenn Murcutt, Marika-Alderton House construction detail, 2008, Yirrkala, Australia7 • Marika-Alderton House (Ozetecture, 2008) https://www.ozetecture.org/marika-alderton-house8 • Ibid9 • Ibid223Precedent - Reduce  Voll Arkitekter - Mjøstårnet224225• Reuse[ verb ]1 - Use again or more than once- Oxford English Dictionary The following projects investigate the reuse of sand and aggregate infrastructure and constructions as an alternative to demolition and reproduction226Precedent - Reuse  Heatherwick Studio - Zeitz MOCAAZeitz MOCAAReuseSubtractive• Project: Zeitz MOCAA• Designer: Heatherwick Studio• Location: Cape Town, South Africa• Year: 2017• Client: V&A Waterfront• Program: Museum• Floor Area: 9,500 m2• Description This project is located within a historic grain silo built on Cape Town’s waterfront in the 1920s, which was once the city’s tallest building - used to store and grade maize from around South Africa.10 The new museum program is organized around a central carved atrium excavated out of the building’s tubular interior [ formally based on the shape of a single grain, scaled up to span the full height of the 27-metre-high structure ]. This reorganization creates a complex network of gallery spaces around the atrium in the existing structure.11• RelevanceThe approach to this project was focused on avoiding the need to demolish and rebuild - taking on the refurbishment of the existing concrete grain silo into spaces for art display as an alternative to deconstruction.In this way, the reuse of architectural infrastructure directly leads to a tangible reduction in sand mining, even if only minor on the scale of the industry, highly significant at the scale of the project. In addition, the preservation and re-inhabitation of the grain silo structure allows this part of the history  and culture of Cape Town to be preserved and rediscovered. The approach is also careful to avoid over idealizing the existing building however, with the main intervention being a significant alteration to the found building with the carving of the central atrium. Fig. 145 [above] • Iwan Baan, Zeitz MOCAA, 2017, Cape Town, South AfricaFig. 146 [right] • Heatherwick Studios, Zeitz MOCAA Section, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa10 • Zeitz MOCAA, Cape Town, South Africa (Heatherwick Studios, 2011), http://www.heatherwick.com/project/zeitz-mocaa/11 • Amy Frearson, Thomas Heatherwick reveals Zeitz MOCAA art galleries carved out of Cape Town grain silo, (Dezeen, 2017), https://www.dezeen.com/2017/09/15/thomas-heatherwick-zeitz-mocaa-cape-town-art-museum-south-africa/227Precedent - Reuse  Voll Arkitekter - Mjøstårnet228Precedent - Reuse MVRDV - FrøsiloFrøsiloReuseAdditive• Project: Frøsilo• Designer: MVRDV• Location: Islands Brygge, Copenhagen, Denmark• Year: 2005• Client: NCC, Copenhagen, DK• Program: Residential• Floor Area: 10,700 m2• Description The Frøsilo project is a conversion of a disused grain silo  in Copenhagen’s harbour into residential accommodation.12Rather than inhabiting the interior of the silos, the new program of the housing is wrapped around the exterior of the existing structure, and it is lifted off the ground. This allows wide panoramic views of the surrounding waterfront and leaves the interior spaces of the silos as circulation atriums which provide an opportunity for preserving the existing monumental and empty character of the silos.13• RelevanceSimilar to the previous precedent project, Frøsilo takes an adaptive reuse approach to the existing concrete infrastructure as opposed to a demolition and rebuild approach. This again limits the waste concrete needing to be disposed of, and thus new sand and aggregate needed for the build.However, this project takes a much larger additive approach, with the additional construction of the cantilevering housing along the exterior facade. Again, this design seeks to maintain the original beauty of the existing concrete silo structure while also incorporating new opportunities for inhabitation and use of the disused storage infrastructure. This allows for this architectural artefact from the history of Copenhagen to be preserved and rediscovered by the inhabitants of the city, in a similar vein to the Zeitz MOCAA.Fig. 147 [above] • MVRDV, Frøsilo, 2005, Copenhagen, DenmarkFig. 148 [right] • MVRDV, Frøsilo Section, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark12 • Frøsilo, (MVRDV, 2005), https://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/143/fr%C3%B8silo13 • Ibid229Precedent - Reuse MVRDV - Frøsilo230231• Recycle[ verb ]1 - Convert (waste) into reusable material.- Oxford English Dictionary The following projects investigate the recycling of waste and by-products as an alternative to extraction and use of new quarried sand and aggregate in construction.232Precedent - Recycle  BCHO Architects - Hanil Visitors Center  & Guest HouseHanil Visitors Center & Guest HouseRecycleEducation• Project: Hanil Visitors Center  & Guest House• Designer: BCHO Architects• Location: Danyang-Gun, South Korea• Year: 2009• Client: Hanil Cement• Program: Visitor Center• Floor Area: 1,031 m2• Description This project was designed to showcase different methods and processes of recycling and re-using waste concrete materials, including casting form-work types as well as re-casting techniques, and serves as an educational centre for visitors to the site [ Hanil Cement factory, located adjacent to Mt. Sobaek National Park. ]14Throughout the project, concrete has been broken and recast in various additional materials, creating both translucent and opaque tiles, as well as recycled in gabion cages, used on the rooftop for sun shading, and as a landscape material at the road.15• RelevanceThe Hanil Visitors Center is a built case study in concrete recycling, and thus positions itself as an opportunity to reconsider the typical material flows of concrete in our cities and structures.This is critical today as many concrete structures built over the past 70 years are beginning to age and fail more and more in our cities. If these flows of waste are not addressed, and in fact made active, we will be forced to simply discard all this material and start over. It is worth noting that the project client is Hanil Cement, so while the technical questions and experimentation of how we architecturally recycle waste concrete rather than discarding it is critical, the context for the project is also partially self-sustaining from a business perspective for the cement company.Fig. 149 [above] • Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South KoreaFig. 150 [right above] • Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House Gabian Facade, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South KoreaFig.151[right below] • Yong Gwan Kim, Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House Fabric Formed Facade, 2009, Danyang-Gun, South Korea14 • Hanil Visitors Center & Guest House / BCHO Architects, (ArchDaily, 2010), https://www.archdaily.com/72484/hanil-visitors-center-guest-house-bcho-architects15 • Ibid233Precedent - Recycle  Voll Arkitekter - Mjøstårnet234Precedent - Recycle Amateur Architecture Studio - Ningbo Historic MuseumNingbo Historic Museum1RecycleCulture• Project: Ningbo Historic Museum• Designer: Amateur Architecture Studio• Location: Ningbo, China• Year: 2008• Client: Ningbo History Museum• Program: Museum• Floor Area: 28,000 m2• Description The facade of the Ningbo Historic Museum is constructed from waste debris from the ongoing deconstruction of vernacular Chinese villages from the surrounding areas of Ningbo. These buildings have been demolished to make way for new contemporary developments which often have little tie to the history and culture of the place.16Through the incorporation of this vernacular waste, the museum seeks to on one hand create an intimate connection to the history, memory, and culture of the area which is currently at risk of being lost, while also utilising this “waste” as a resource, minimising its own footprint, and the footprint of the ongoing demolitions.17• RelevanceThe use of waste material on the facade is here a significant move towards preservation of the culture of the area. In this way, the need for additional “new” materials to form or construct the facade is limited while also being an architectural reminder and preserver of the past.By operating on these two planes simultaneously, i.e . preservation and waste reduction, the museum itself becomes an antithesis to the ongoing development and demolition of the villages in the surrounding areas. These projects often proceed with little regard for their waste, displacement of locals, and loss of history. By positioning the museum as an antithesis, attention is called towards these ongoing destructive projects. The museum thus offers an alternative way forward which is more sympathetic and in tune with the locality of the area.Fig. 152 [above] • Wang Shu, Ningbo Historic Museum, 2008, Ningbo, ChinaFig. 153 [right above] • Iwan Baan, Ningbo Historic Museum Facade, 2012, Ningbo, ChinaFig. 154 [right below] • Iwan Baan, Ningbo Historic Museum Courtyard, 2012, Ningbo, China16 • Ningbo Historic Museum / Wang Shu, Amateur Architecture Studio, (ArchDaily, 2009), https://www.archdaily.com/14623/ningbo-historic-museum-wang-shu-architect17 • Ibid235Amateur Architecture Studio - Ningbo Historic MuseumPrecedent - Recycle236237• Reorient[ verb ]1 - Change the focus or direction of2 - Find one’s position again in relation to one’s surroundings- Oxford English Dictionary The following projects investigate how different uses and methods of making can begin to drive a new and less abstracted understanding of sand and aggregate’s role in the built environment and our lives - as well as our place in relation to the non-human world238• Project: Cava Arcari • Designer: David Chipperfield Architects, Viabizzuno• Location: Zovencedo, Italy• Year: 2018• Client: Laboratorio Morseletto• Program: Multi-use/Performance• Floor Area: 1,400 m2• Description This project inhabits one of the disused Vicenza stone quarries in the Berici hills surrounding Vicenza. The mines historically used a “room and pillar method”, and had operated for more than 300 years, resulting in a cavernous space supported by irregular solid stone columns.18The project reintroduced smooth Vicenza stone platforms (Cavea), ramps, stairs, and lighting elements to transform the space into a flexible multi-use performance venue.19• RelevanceThe siting of the project within the disused mine, in addition to the contrasting materiality of the smooth processed and reintroduced Vicenza stone together with the massive rough textured pillars and walls of the Vicenza stone cave, works to foreground the processes of extraction and domination inherent to the stones’ use throughout the urban context. For visitors, the smooth stones they see upon their return to Vicenza will be re-contextualized in relation to this site of extraction - a step toward the de-abstraction of the earth in the built environment. In addition, the design intervention takes a back seat in this project, providing the minimum requirements to inhabit this space and allow it to be more widely accessible. The acoustics, temperature, humidity, air circulation etc. are largely left as they would have been experienced in the mine previous to the intervention. Fig. 155 [above] • Marco Zanta, Cava Arcari, 2018, Zovencedo, ItalyFig. 156 [right] • Author, Rough and Smooth - Cava Arcari Isometric - 1:200, 2020 18 • David Chipperfield Architects · CAVA ARCARI, (Divisare, 2018), https://divisare.com/projects/390814-david-chipperfield-architects-marco-zanta-cava-arcari19 • Cava Arcari performance by Michael Nyman. (David Chipperfield Architects, 2018),  https://davidchipperfield.com/news/2018/cava-arcari-performance-by-michael-nymanCava Arcari 1SiteMaterialPrecedent - Reorient  David Chipperfield Architects - Cava Arcari239Precedent - Reorient  David Chipperfield Architects - Cava Arcari240• Project: Kandalama Hotel• Designer: Geoffrey Bawa• Location: Dambulla, Sri Lanka• Year: 1994• Client: Aitken Spence Hotel Group• Program: Hotel• Floor Area: 39,628 m2• Description This project is located in relation to two UNESCO World Heritage sites in Sri Lanka: The Sigiriya and the Dambulla Cave Temple. The client initially wanted to construct the hotel directly adjacent to the Sigiriya, but Bawa convinced them to instead build it  eleven kilometres away on a rocky outcrop, to preserve the historic site and provide a distant view of the Sigiriya in its landscape context.20Though the majority of the building is lifted off the cliff-side ground plane, the lobby, which is the sole entry point to the building, sits on the ground and integrates the natural bedrock of the cliff itself into the entrance sequence and experience of the building.21• RelevanceRather than totally separating itself from the wilderness of its site, the Kandalama hotel embraces its location, bringing the natural topography literally into the building as a spacial and atmospherically activating element in the entrance sequence of the hotel.The roughness and irregularity of the existing site’s bedrock is here contrasted against the smoothness and white paint of the man-made concrete elements and features, as well as the smoothness of the black polished floors.This act of bringing the outside in, and treating it as the character defining element of the space, positions the earth as a critical element in the project. The earth can begin to be understood by visitors as an integral part of the architecture, and the architecture as a part of the landscape and site.Fig. 157 [above] • Glaucia Branco, Kandalama Hotel Lobby, 2018, Dambulla, Sri LankaFig. 158 [right] • Author, Rough and Smooth - Kandalama Hotel Lobby Isometric - 1:200, 202020 • Ceridwen Owen, Architecture Between The Culture-Nature Dualism: A Case Study of Geoffrey Bawa’s Kandalama Hotel, (Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, 2007), 45.21 • Ibid, 52.Kandalama Hotel Lobby1SiteMaterialPrecedent - Reorient Geoffrey Bawa - Kandalama Hotel241Precedent - Reorient Geoffrey Bawa - Kandalama Hotel242243• Within1 - [ preposition ] inside (something).2 - [ adverb ] inside; indoors- Oxford English Dictionary “ To see a World in a Grain of SandAnd a Heaven in a Wild Flower,Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour.”1-  William Blake1 • William Blake, Auguries of Innocence, in  The Complete Poetry and Prose (Newly revised ed.). edited by David V. Erdman, (Anchor Books., 1988), 490.244“a new political subject might be materially constructed from within, but ideologically against, the very constraints of our civilisation - a civilisation that, in spite of its ongoing transformation, remains a civilisation of labour.”2- Pier Vittorio AureliDiscourse CapitalismThe Westin Bonaventure HotelCapitalismAbstractionFig. 159 [above] • Author unknown, The Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, USA2 • Pier Vittorio Aureli,  The Project of Autonomy, ( New York: The Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture and Princeton Architectural Press, 2008), 83.245Interactive Corporation Headquarters• From Within [ capitalism ] Understanding the commodification of sand, and by extent, the commodification of architecture and the commodification of “nature” is critical in addressing our ongoing derogatory relationship with the environment. The link between the formal and aesthetic abstraction of the built environment and the abstractions in the means of accumulation of capital via the stock market in the postmodern period has been documented and discussed by numerous writers and theorists. These discussions focus on architectural artefacts from the Westin Bonaventure hotel and its reflective glass facade3 to the works of Frank Gehry4. But few of these writings tend to delve convincingly into ways forward in addressing this issue and are mostly focused on articulation and documentation of these complex systems of abstraction - a significant and invaluable task. This lack of a specific pathway to address the issues of capitalism is not surprising, as the historic critiques made by Manfredo Tafuri of the “utopian” projects of his time, which abandon the realm of capitalism to imagine a more optimistic future, echo still today.5 In addition to this, modern capitalism seems to have a near unshakable flexibility in its capacity to absorb and reorient counter movements into itself.Some suggestion of a way forward is offered by  Pier Vittorio Aureli who suggests that the only meaningful and significant mode of operation is “from within, but ideologically against” the constraints of our current capitalist society.6 That is to say that architecture must work within capitalism to find a productive way to combat its issues, rather than focusing on utopian projects which hypothesize a world beyond capitalism, with no clear or realistic connection or path to these futures.This call for architects to operate within capitalism is mirrored by a similar critical need to operate from within “nature” in its current understanding, as discussed by Jason W. Moore.7 An understanding of capitalism-in-nature rather than capitalism and nature.Fig. 160 [above] • Author unknown, Interactive Corporation Headquarters, 2009, New York City, USA3 • Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism Durham, (NC: Duke University Press, 1992)4 • Reinhold Martin, Financial Imaginaries; Toward a Philosophy of the City, (Grey Room 14, no. 42: 60-79, 2011)5 • Manfredo Tafuri, “Toward a Critique of Architectural Ideology,” Contropiano 1 (January – April, 1969) republished in Architecture Theory Since 1968, edited by Michael Hays. (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1998)6 • Aureli,  The Project of Autonomy, 83.7 • Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the web of life : ecology and the accumulation of capital. (New York : Verso, 2015) 290-292.Discourse Capitalism246Discourse Nature“Philosophers call this state of isolation and disconnection “species loneliness”—a deep, unnamed sadness stemming from estrangement from the rest of Creation, from the loss of relationship. As our human dominance of the world has grown, we have become more isolated, more lonely when we can no longer call out to our neighbours.”- Robin Wall KimmererBlack Cloud. Palace for Post-natural Species NatureEmpathyFig. 161 [above] • amid.cero9, The East Raceme, 20118 • Robin Wall Kimmerer, Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants. (Milkweed Editions, 2013)247• From Within [ nature ] The agency of the more-than-human world is increasingly being considered and foregrounded in architectural, and general western, discourse with many writers and practitioners seeking out a less hierarchical and anthropocentric model of work, practice, and being. This is not a surprise, as our current perceived western rift with “nature” is frequently cited as one of the leading causes of our current environmental crisis.Aldo Leopold, an ecologist and forester, has historically called for a more integrated and empathetic connection with nature: what he calls a “land ethic”, drawing from his own experiences living in his farm  in Wisconsin. Leopold outlines our need to see the environment as community rather than commodity. For him, openness to this new lens of understanding comes from an intimacy developed from being within “nature”.9Another leader of the call to extend agency and empathy to the more-than-human community is Robin Wall Kimmerer. She brings together her scientific knowledge and expertise as a biologist with her cultural knowledge of indigenous customs and ways of being to discuss alternative ways of understanding and caring for the world.10In architectural discourse, this charge for empathy and agency to be extended to the non-human world is being led by  writers and practitioners such as David Gissen, Cristina Díaz Moreno, and Yuko Hasegawa.Moreno and Hasegawa of amid.cero9 orient their work around the idea of “third natures”, a term they have revitalised from the renaissance describing assemblies and ecologies in which inert materials, technologies, and beings [ both human and non-human ] are brought together in continuous friction and interaction. They position their understanding of “third natures” as an alternative lens through which the built environment can be viewed as a productive re-framing of the methods of architecture.11Gissen calls for an architectural consideration of what he terms “subnatures”: natures typically deemed primitive, filthy, fearsome or uncontrollable such as insects, exhaust, or debris.  Through an understanding of how no nature is inherently a “subnature”, and how they only arise due to societal perceptions, Gissen calls for a re-framing of our relationship with these marginalised natures.12Gissen, Moreno, and Hasegawa’s goal in this re-framing is to account more holistically for the more-than-human and challenge architecture’s existing anthropocentric traditions.Sand is one moment of clear bridging between these two  often separately viewed worlds which we have an urgent need to operate within [capitalism and nature]. Sand in its current understanding as a commodity, or as what Moore calls a “cheap nature”, is an extracted material which inherently makes possible the aesthetic abstractions of the built environment, from reflective glass to  the seemingly liquid rock of Ghery’s concrete.13In this context, the irony of our need to be within nature is that even in our current urban centres we are always surrounded by nature - we just don’t see it.Sand is an inherently intimate part of the world, as we are. What would a future [and an architecture] look like in which sand was given agency, respected, empathised with, and designed for? Fig 162 [above] • Tom dePaor, Irish Pavilion, 2000, Venice, Italy9 • Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, viii.10 • Kimmerer, Braiding Sweetgrass11 • Cristina Diaz Moreno and Efren Garcia Grinda, Third Natures: A Micropedia (Architectural Association, 2014), 124.12 • David Gissen,  Subnature: Architecture’s Other    Environments, (Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 22.13 • Moore, Capitalism in the web of life, 290-292.Discourse NatureIrish Pavilion248Discourse Time“My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings;Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!Nothing beside remains. Round the decayOf that colossal Wreck, boundless and bareThe lone and level sands stretch far away.”14 - Percy Bysshe ShelleyTherme ValsTimeWeatheringFig. 163 [above] • Christoph Mülle, Therme Vals, 2010, Therm, Switzerland14 • Percy Bysshe Shelley, Shelley’s Poetry and Prose (New York: Norton, 1977)249Discourse Time• From Within [ time ] The use of concrete in buildings today has been sold to the majority of us as the creation of artificial stone - and with it comes the idea of timelessness and longevity that accompanies mountains, valleys, and other works of geology. This longevity is actually a material misconception however, as the life span of concrete in a typical building [ if exposed ] is only around 70 years before it begins to spawl and decay.15 Sand itself has long been associated with ideals of temporality and impermanence, in addition to a certain more ephemeral and cyclical timelessness. Architects could learn from this balance between the short-term temporal and the long-term permanence in a less definitive capacity.The need to incorporate and consider ideas of impermanence in architecture have been discussed through multiple lenses throughout western architectural discourse. Mostafavi & Leatherbarrow discuss the technical problems of maintenance and decay and the philosophical and ethical implications of weathering,16 whereas others use more scientific lenses regarding carbon footprints, energy simulation, and building life-cycle assessments, such as those being increasingly often completed and codified in low energy design projects and legislature.Ideas of the value of imperfection and incompletion are also prevalent in eastern discourse. The Japanese principle of Wabi-sabi is one example of this, in which the repair of artefacts is celebrated, as layers of history, use, and time are highlighted.17 A similar architectural example of this is the Shinto Shrine. Some of these shrines are de-constructed and re-constructed every 20 years as part of a local celebration. In this process, the act of building and unbuilding becomes a celebration of preservation in addition to an opportunity for knowledge transfer and teaching of traditional methods of construction.18How can architects learn from sand’s relationship and experience of time to inform and reshape the way we design and think about  the built environment?Fig. 164 [above] • Mohsen Mostafavi and David Leatherbarrow, De Bijenkorf Department Store, 2008, Rotterdam, Netherlands15 • Guy Keulemans, The problem with reinforced concrete, (Academic Journalism Society, 2016),https://theconversation.com/the-problem-with-reinforced-concrete-5607816 • Mohsen Mostafavi and David Leatherbarrow, On Weathering - The Life of Buildings in  Time, (The MIT Press, 1993)17 • Leonard Koren, Wabi-Sabi for Artists, Designers, Poets & Philosophers (Imperfect Publishing, 2008)18 • Rachel Nuwer, This Japanese Shrine Has Been Torn Down And Rebuilt Every 20 Years for the Past Millennium, (Smithsonian Magazine, 2013) https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/this-japanese-shrine-has-been-torn-down-and-rebuilt-every-20-years-for-the-past-millennium-575558/ De Bijenkorf Department Store250Discourse Technology“Although seemingly neutral, mapping enables repressed representations to become visible.”19 - James CornerSlow House TechnologyMergingFig. 165 [above] • Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio, Perspective and plans of TV in Picture Window Apparatus, 1991, Long Island, New York, USA19 • James Corner, The agency of mapping in Denis Cosgrove. Mappings, (Reaktion Books LTD. 1999), 216.251• From Within [ technology ] Essential to questions of time and architecture are more process oriented questions about both methods of design and physical construction. In order to really address the issues with the way we design and live in relation to the world, we must also address the way we work and represent the world.As James Corner discusses, drawings and mappings have agency because of their analogous character and abstraction. Although we typically think of drawings as passive, mappings are in fact active agents of cultural intervention, playing a pivotal role in the representation of power relations and spatial hierarchies.  Through critiquing accepted “standards” [ the Cartesian grid, standardized scale, orthographic projection, etc. ] we can begin to develop more targeted and full understandings of elements’ relationships to one another, and to the world more broadly. Ideas are dis-embedded from a simply geometric understanding of a piece of land to that of a much larger milieu.20Furthermore as Allais and May investigate, the effects of the ongoing shift from analog orthographic to digital post-orthographic modes of production and representation in the architecture discourse have significant implications with regards to thought and imagination. In particular, the speed of our working mediums allows for differing levels and types of thought to form.21 With our current global and instantaneous methods of communication, and the rise of new BIM and CAD softwares, less and less time  [ and thus, thought ] is being spent on a particular set of tasks in architectural practice and education.New “high-tech” methods of work, such as those discussed by Michael Silver and Diana Balmori [ 3D scanning technology, (MRI) imaging, and Satellite Positioning Systems ], allow for different and invaluable new types of thought to begin to come into the architectural discourse and modes of production.3 However, older, more laborious methods of work such as physical modelling and hand drafting bring their own advantages to the table, and should be viewed as equally valuable and critical to the design process.22It is also worth noting here that the majority of our digital technology is built fundamentally on top of computer chips made from sand, in the form of high purity silicon dioxide.What does it mean to model a concrete column in Revit, a quick task where “concrete” means a hatch in plan and a library of embedded data about construction costs which can be instantly changed at the click of a button, compared with drawing a concrete column by hand where every mistake means that an erasure must also mark the page? What does this mean compared with drawing a concrete column from the perspective of a grain of sand from within the concrete?Fig. 166 [above] • Morphosis, Nara Convention Center, 1991, Nara, Japan20 • Corner, The agency of mapping, 216-218.21 • Newish Media: A Conversation with Lucia Allais and John May, (President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2017) https://www.gsd.harvard.edu/event/catherine-ingraham-newish-media/22 • Mike Silver, and Diana Balmori. Mapping in the age   of digital media : the Yale Symposium. (Wiley, 2003)Discourse TechnologyNara Convention Center252Discourse TechnologyFig. 167 [above] • Author, Column Triptych, 2020253Discourse TechnologyFig. 168 [above] • Author, Column, 2020254255• Part III - EpilogueFig. 169 [above] • Author, Grain Stories 7, 2021256257ReflectionsEpilogueAs with most things, the more I have learned from sand the more I have found there is to learn, if we try to listen.Looking back, I don’t remember exactly how this project began, maybe with a book, maybe with a walk, maybe with a conversation.In fact, the more I think about it, the less certain I am of when it began.All this is perhaps to say, that although this project has been formally submitted, its origins and conclusion are not so definite to me. Much like sand, and water, and the Spotted Towhee, I have come to see the project as another part of a complex, chaotic, and cyclical web of entanglements which makes  up our shared world.This uncertainty feels partially appropriate, considering all the things I don’t know. But, I think I have come to feel at least relatively at ease with all life’s uncertainties. I think it is also fair to say that I will never view sand, in all its permeations, the same way again.258259BibliographyEnd Matter• Aureli, Pier Vittorio. The Project of Autonomy:  Politics and Architecture within and against   Capitalism, New York: The Temple Hoyne Buell   Center for the Study of American Architecture   and Princeton Architectural Press, 2008• Bateman, Andy. Canada’s Top 10 Aggregate Operations,  Annex Business Media, 2009, https:// www.rocktoroad.com/canadas-top-10-   aggregate-operations-958/• Beaumont, Ron C. Sechelt Dictionary, Harbour  Publishing, 2011• Beiser, Vince. 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Wiley,   2003• Skrabec Jr, Quentin, Michael Owens and the Glass   Industry, Gretna, LA:Pelican, 2006• Tafuri, Manfredo. “Toward a Critique of Architectural   Ideology,” Contropiano 1 (January – April,  1969) republished in Architecture Theory    Since 1968, ed. Michael Hays. Cambridge,    Mass.: The MIT Press, 1998• Thomas, Katie Lloyd, Amhoff, Tilo and Beech, Nick  et al. Industries of Architecture Routledge, 2016• Turpin, E tienne. et al. Architecture in the  Anthropocene: Encounters Among Design, Deep   Time, Science and Philosophy. Open Humanities   Press, 2014• VAN1 - Cologix @ The Harbour Centre VAN1 Carrier  Hotel - Home to VANIX, Cologix, 2020, https:// www.cologix.com/wp-content/    uploads/2018/12/Vancouver-Data-Center-   VAN-1.pdf• Vancouver, Canada, (Cloudscene, 2020) https:// cloudscene.com/market/data-centers-in-   canada/vancouver• Vancouver, West End, The Butterfly, buzzbuzzhome,  2020, https://www.buzzbuzzhome.com/ca/the-  butterfly• Zeitz MOCAA, Cape Town, South Africa, Heatherwick   Studios, 2011, http://www.heatherwick.com/  project/zeitz-mocaa/BibliographyEnd Matter262 262263• Appendix A[ Field Encounters ]Fig. 171 [left] • Author, Sand 5, 2020264Fig. 172 [above] • Author, Urban Sand Map, 2021Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]End Matter265Fig. 173 [above] • Author, Site Ecosystems, 2021Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]End Matter266This  appendix is a record of encounters with other beings, in the order they occurred, over the course of this project. These encounters take place across two sites:1. The apartment and surrounding urban realm of the author.2. The project site - Iona Island.This appendix is by no means intended as an exhaustive list of inhabitants at either site, it is meant more as a series of meetings and contemplations. Each encounter is also not meant to be considered in isolation, more so viewed as a collection of moments in a larger web of entanglements.End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]267Fig. 174 [above] • Author, Porcelain Toilet, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]268Fig. 175 [above] • Author, Concrete Column, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]269Fig. 176 [above] • Author, Concrete Pavers, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]270Fig. 177 [above] • Author, Asphalt Road, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]271Fig. 178 [above] • Author, Soil, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]272Fig. 179 [above] • Author, Glass, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]273Fig. 180 [above] • Author, Sand, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]274Fig. 181 [above] • Author, Sand and Wood, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]275Fig. 182 [above] • Author, Sand, Wood, and Water, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]276Fig. 183 [above] • Author, Sand, Water, and Wood, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]277Fig. 184 [above] • Author, Water, Sand, and Wood, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]278Fig. 185 [above] • Author, Wood and Sand, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]279Fig. 186 [above] • Author, Sand, Grass, and Water, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]280Fig. 187 [above] • Author, Sand and Grass, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]281Fig. 188 [above] • Author, Driftwood Colony, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]282Fig. 189 [above] • Author, Leymus mollis // Dune grass, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]283Fig. 190 [above] • Author, Rubble, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]284Fig. 191 [above] • Author, Cytisus scoparius // Scotch Broom, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]285Fig. 192 [above] • Author, Tires, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]286Fig. 193 [above] • Author, Rubus armeniacus // Himalayan Blackberry, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]287Fig. 194 [above] • Author, Betula // Birch, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]288Fig. 195 [above] • Author, Spotted Towhee, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]289Fig. 196 [above] • Author, Bald Eagle, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]290Fig. 197 [above] • Author, Equisetum // Horsetail Reed, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]291Fig. 198 [above] • Author, Dune Nurse Log, Lichen, and Moss, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]292Fig. 199 [above] • Author, Cladonia Lichen, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]293Fig. 200 [above] • Author, Balanus glandula // Acorn Barnacle, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]294Fig. 201 [above] • Author, Pinus // Pine Shrub, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]295Fig. 202 [above] • Author, Achillea Millefolium // Yarrow, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]296Fig. 203 [above] • Author, Hermit Thrush, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]297Fig. 204 [above] • Author, Marsh Wren, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]298Fig. 205 [above] • Author, Carex macrocephala // Big-headed Sedge, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]299Fig. 206 [above] • Author, Typha // Cattail, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]300Fig. 207 [above] • Author, Snow Geese, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]301Fig. 208 [above] • Author, Sandpiper, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]302Fig. 209 [above] • Author, Nuttallia Obscurata // Varnish Clams, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]303Fig. 210 [above] • Author, Sand Rhizome, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]304Fig. 211 [above] • Author, Coastal Forest // Marsh, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]305Fig. 212 [above] • Author, Cornus sericea // Red Osier Dogwood, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]306Fig. 213 [above] • Author, Distichlis spicata // Seashore Saltgrass, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]307Fig. 214 [above] • Author, Coastal Forest, 2021End Matter Appendix A - [ Field Encounters ]308309• Appendix B[ Process ]Fig. 215 [left] • Author, Sand 6, 2020310This  appendix is a record of the early design process of this GP project. The process sought to focus attention first on sand’s scale and to build an intimate and empathetic relationship with sand through direct interaction - working with sand and learning from sand.This work is again organised chronologically, in the order the work was completed.This process highlighted the sensitivity of sand in its interface with other materials and the way sand picks up on subtle differences in hardness, roughness, or wetness.Through this sensitivity there is also a revealing of the time and past of materials which emerges. Sand’s cyclical and sedimentary nature also becomes apparent when sand acts both positively and negatively, as cast, formwork, and as excavator.End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]311Fig. 216 [above] • Author, Sand Cast, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]312Fig. 217 [above] • Author, Sand Cast with Ochre, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]313Fig. 218 [above] • Author, Sandblasted Concrete with Ochre, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]314Fig. 219 [above] • Author, Sandblasted Douglas Fir Bark, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]315Fig. 220 [above] • Author, Concrete Salt Growth, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]316Fig. 221 [above] • Author, Glass Scratching, 2021End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]317End Matter Appendix B - [ Process ]318319• Appendix C[ Research ]Fig. 222 [left] • Author, Sand 7, 2020320This  appendix contains additional research compiled throughout the project which did not make it directly into Part I or II.End Matter Appendix C - [ Research ]321End Matter Appendix C - [ Research ]322End Matter• Porcelain Toilet [ 37% - 41% sand] = 16.65kg - 18.45kg of sand per 45kg toilet [ CA$500 ] •  Kaolinite [ a layered silicate mineral  - Al2Si2O5(OH)4 = 21.76 % Silicon ] is the primary raw material in the composition of porcelain• 50% Kaolinite + 20% - 25% Silica + 25% - 30% Feldspar [ 21% Silicon ]• Acer Aspire 5 Slim Laptop [ 3% sand] = 8.2g of sand per laptop [ CA$468.99 ] • Acer Aspire 5 Slim Laptop is the current top selling laptop on Amazon.com• Typical 15” laptop total weight = 2250g• 50% Steel and Aluminum = 1125g• 26% ABS-PC [ high-impact engineering thermoplastic] = 585g• 12% Copper and metal compounds [ cobalt, Tin, Neodymium etc. ] = 270g• 9 % Epoxy = 202.5g• 2.93% LCD Glass = 6.6g [ 70% sand ]• 0.07% Silicon [ 100% sand ] 1.6gFig. 223 [above left] • Author, Porcelain Toilet, 2020Fig. 224 [above right] • Author, Acer Aspire 5 Slim Laptop, 2020Appendix C - [ Research ]323End Matter• Crest 3D White [ 10% - 30% sand] = 10ml [ 14.37g ] - 30ml [ 43.11g ] of sand per 100ml tube  [ CA$5.27 ] • Crest 3D White is the leading U.S. toothpaste brand with sales of 263.9 million U.S. dollars in 2019• Ingredients: sodium fluoride, glycerin, hydrated silica, sodium hexametaphosphate, water, PEG-6, flavor, trisodium phosphate, sodium lauryl sulfate, carrageenan, cocamidopropyl betaine, sodium saccharin, sucralose, xanthan gum, titanium dioxide, mica• Apple iPhone 11 Motherboard [ 99.9% sand] = 37.3 million sold in 2019 [ Top selling phone of the year ] [ CA$1,049.00 ]  •  99.9% high-purity silicon dioxide• 0.01% copperFig. 225 [above left] • Author, Crest 3D White, 2020Fig. 226 [above right] • Author, Apple iPhone 11 Motherboard, 2020Appendix C - [ Research ]

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