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Out Of Office : advocating through design for the agency of knowledge workers Kuo, Jerry Yu Lin 2021-05

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advocating through design for the agency of knowledge workersJerry Yu Lin KuoOUT OF OFFICEiiiiiOUT OF OFFICEadvocating through design for the agency of knowledge workersbyJerry Yu Lin KuoBachelor of Interior Design with DistinctionBritish Columbia Institute of Technology2018Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of ArchitectureinThe Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture Program_____________________________________________AnnaLisa Meyboom, Chair_____________________________________________Michelle Biggar, Committee_____________________________________________Mari Fujita, Committee_____________________________________________Brent North, Committee_____________________________________________Matthew Soules, GP1 AdvisorThe University of British ColumbiaMay 2021 © Jerry Yu Lin KuoFig 1.  Out Of  Office Title Page, Identifying the Knowledge Working Individual, Image by Author, 2020vivThroughout the course of office design history, the open-plan office has been a heavily debated topic for its successes and fallouts. Some successes are for higher levels of management, cost-savings, and building performance. However, little pay attention to the personal scale of the actual knowledge workers who perform for their superiors, and the company as a whole.Poor acoustics, lack of privacy, and plenty of distractions are only some of the reasons why knowledge workers choose to be out of office. No, they are not on vacation, instead, they are out of office to focus.  Many hide in cafés, libraries, and vehicles to simply concentrate on their work. They are sick and tired of constantly hiding in headphones within an over-collaborative environment. By conforming to the unilateral open-plan layout, _ABSTRACTcompanies and management have failed to recognize that all workers perform differently and have individual preferences.What if, as silly as it may sound, knowledge workers could go to the office to concentrate on work?What if knowledge workers are able to choose the environment suitable for their specific tasks?What if meetings and working can be conducted in a biophilic environment?Out Of Office is a thesis advocating for the knowledge workers’ agency to bring life to work-life balance through the rejection of open-plan office design and scientific management.viivi_TABLE OF CONTENTS_abstract        v_list of figures       viii_acknowledgment       xi_thesis statement       xiii_introduction       1PART I  A CENTURY OLD BUG     301_problem identification      502_the problem with the existing office is the...   21 hours        21 tasks        23 layout        25 meetings       27 environment       29 connectivity       31 isolation       33PART II  TOWARDS THE FUTURE     3503_formal typologies      3704_precedent studies      5505_the future of the office would be...    73 self-paced       73 hybrid        75 comfortable       77 kaffeeklatsch       79 outdoors       81 diagonal       83 community-centric      8506_deep work and garden environments    89PART III  ADVOCATING THROUGH DESIGN   10707_the site        10908_the program       12909_the design       139_bibliography        173ixviiiFig 1. Out Of Office Title Page, Identifying the Knowledge Working Individual, Image by Author, 2020 p. iiFig 2. The Knowledge Worker, Image by Author, 2020 p. 4Fig 3. Drawing of the Larkin Administration Building office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 7Fig 4. Drawing of the Johnson Wax Headquarters office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 9Fig 5. Drawing of the burolandschaft office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 11Fig 6. Drawing of the Action Office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 13Fig 7. Drawing of the cubicle office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 15Fig 8. Drawing of the open bench office layout, Image by Author, 2021 p. 17Fig 9. Century-old bug, Image by Author, 2021 p. 19Fig 10. 8-hour day, Image by Author, 2020 p. 20Fig 11. Assembly line tasks, Image by Author, 2020 p. 22Fig 12. Distracting open plan, Image by Author, 2020 p. 24Fig 13. Small, medium, large meetings, Image by Author, 2020 p. 26Fig 14. Evolution of the hermetic environment, Image by Author, 2020 p. 28Fig 15. Vertical Connectivity, Image by Author, 2020 p. 30Fig 16. Segregated Economy, Image by Author, 2020 p. 32Fig 17. Spiral Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 38Fig 18. 799 Broadway by Perkins + Will, Image by ArchDaily, 2019 p. 38Fig 19. Icone by Foster + Partners, Image by Icone Offices, 2020 p. 38Fig 20. Pixel Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 40Fig 21. Rodovre Sky Village by MVRDV, Image by MVRDV, 2008 p. 40Fig 22. 400 West Georgia by Merrick Architecture, Image by Westbank Corp, 2018 p. 40Fig 23. Stack Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 42Fig 24. Park Royal on Pickering by WOHA, Image by Dezeen, 2013 p. 42Fig 25. The Stack by James Cheng Architects, Image by DailyHive Vancouver, 2017 p. 42Fig 26. Campus Digram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 45Fig 27. Huaxin Tiandi Office Campus by Ferrier Marchetti Studio, Image by ArchDaily, 2020 p. 45Fig 28. Jianwai Soho by Riken Yamamoto, Image by Archidose Blogspot, 2004 p. 45Fig 29. Dome Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 47Fig 30. Amazon Spheres by NBBJ, Image by ArchDaily, 2018 p. 47Fig 31. Google HQ by BIG + Heatherwick Studios, Image by ArchDaily, 2015 p. 47Fig 32. Higher Ground Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 49Fig 33. Vanke Design Community by Urbanus, Image by ArchDaily, 2019 p. 49Fig 34. Google Sunnyvale HQ by BIG, Image by Dezeen, 2018 p. 49Fig 35. Co-Work Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 51Fig 36. Marine Gateway Location by WeWork, Image by WeWork, 2020 p. 51Fig 37. Tokyo Location by WeWork, Image by WeWork, 2020 p. 51Fig 38. Pop-Up Diagram, Image by Author, 2020 p. 53Fig 39. Pop-Up Architecture Office by WE Architecture, Image by ArchDaily, 2018 p. 53Fig. 40 Pop-Up Office by Dubbledam Architecture + Design, Image by ArchDaily, 2013 p. 53Fig 41. Pasona Tokyo HQ Facade, Image by Dezeen, 2010 p. 54Fig 42. Lobby, Image by Dezeen, 2010 p. 54Fig 43. Rice Harvesting, Image by Dezeen, 2010 p. 54Fig 44. Pasona Office Farm concept, Image by Author, 2020 p. 56Fig 45. Pasona Office Ground Level Figure Ground - Landscape, Image by Author, 2020 p. 58Fig 46. Pasona Office Ground Level Figure Ground - Office, Image by Author, 2020 p. 58Fig 47. Aerial view of Second Home LA, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 2019 p. 60Fig 48. Tropical paths, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 2019 p. 60Fig 49. Inside the pod, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 2019 p. 60Fig 50. Second Home Pods concept, Image by Author, 2020 p. 62Fig 51. Second Home Ground Level Figure Ground Study, Image by Author, 2020 p. 64Fig 52. Activated Public Market - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 2014 p. 66Fig 53. View from Apartment - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 2014 p. 66Fig 54. Evening Facade - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 2014 p. 66Fig 55. Life within Markthal concept, Image by Author, 2020 p. 68Fig 56. Markthal Site Plan Study, Image by Author, 2020 p. 70Fig 57. Flexible Hours, Image by Author, 2020 p. 72Fig 58. Hybrid Future, Image by Author, 2020 p. 74Fig 59. Deep Work Rooms, Image by Author, 2020 p. 76Fig 60. Purposeful Kaffeeklatsch, Image by Author, 2020 p. 78Fig 61. Office Park, Image by Author, 2020 p. 80Fig 62. Diagonal Connectivity, Image by Author, 2020 p. 82Fig 63. Integrated Community, Image by Author, 2020 p. 84Fig 64. The Past vs. The Future of Office Work, Image by Author, 2020 p. 87Fig 65. Sketch - Working in a Garden, Image by Author, 2020 p. 88Fig 66. Sketch - Gradation of Public to Private, Image by Author, 2020 p. 88Fig 67. Company Deep Work Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 91Fig 68. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Distractions, Image by Author, 2021 p. 92Fig 69. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Unit Formation, Image by Author, 2021 p. 92_LIST OF FIGURESFig 70. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Neighborhood Block, Image by Author, 2021 p. 94Fig 71. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Coffee Library Lobby, Image by Author, 2021 p. 94Fig 72. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Stepped Garden, Image by Author, 2021 p. 96Fig 73. Company Deep Work Axonometric - Adjacent Block, Image by Author, 2021 p. 96Fig 74. Individuals Deep Work Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 99Fig 75. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Distractions, Image by Author, 2021 p. 100Fig 76. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Unit Formation, Image by Author, 2021 p. 100Fig 77. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Lower Neighbors, Image by Author, 2021 p. 102Fig 78. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Amenity Level, Image by Author, 2021 p. 102Fig 79. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Bridge and Circulation, Image by Author, 2021 p. 104Fig 80. Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Adjacent Block, Image by Author, 2021 p. 104Fig 81. Aerial view towards the north of the site, Image by Google Maps, Edited by Author, 2020 p. 108Fig 82. Broadway entrance to lower ground, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 110Fig 83. Kingsway entrance to upper ground, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 110Fig 84. Back entry showing level difference, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 110Fig 85. Shops along Main St. and Kingsway, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 111Fig 86. Shops along Broadway across Kingsgate Mall, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 111Fig 87. Mixed-use high-rise across Kingsgate Mall, Image by Google Maps, 2020 p. 111Fig 88. Site Analysis - Context, Image by Author, 2020 p. 113Fig 89. Site Analysis - Commercial and Business Sector, Image by Author, 2020 p. 115Fig 90. Site Analysis - Residential Sector, Image by Author, 2020 p. 117Fig 91. Site Analysis - Transportation, Image by Author, 2020 p. 119Fig 92. Site Analysis - Services and Amenities, Image by Author, 2020 p. 121Fig 93. Site Section cutting North-South, Image by Author, 2020 p. 122Fig 94. Site Section cutting East-West, Image by Author, 2020 p. 124Fig 95. Shadow Studies, Image by Author, 2021 p. 126Fig 96. Sun Diagram, Image by Author, 2021 p. 126Fig 97. Business Model Diagram, Image by Author, 2021 p. 128Fig 98. The Program Diagram, Image by Author, 2021 p. 130Fig 99. Shallow Work and Lobbies, Image by Author, 2021 p. 132Fig 100. The Arcade and Circulation, Image by Author, 2021 p. 134Fig 101. The Garden and Forest, Image by Author, 2021 p. 136Fig 102. Mode of Operations Axonometric Diagrams, Image by Author, 2021 p. 139Fig 103. Roof as Community, Threshold, and Greenhouse Effect, Image by Author, 2021 p. 141Fig 104. Level 0 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 142-143Fig 105. Broadway Kingsway Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 144-145Fig 106. Aerial Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 146-147Fig 107. Level 1 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 148-149Fig 108. Public Arcade Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 150-151Fig 109. Active Library Lobby, Image by Author, 2021 p. 152-153Fig 110. Level 2 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 154-155Fig 111. Individual/Freelance Deep Work Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 156-157Fig 112. Company Deep Work Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 158-159Fig 113. Level 3 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 160-161Fig 114. Individual/Freelance Garden Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 162-163Fig 115. Company Garden Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 164-165Fig 116. Level 4 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021 p. 166-167Fig 117. Bamboo Forest Meeting Trail Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 168-169Fig 118. Section Perspective, Image by Author, 2021 p. 170-171xixI would like to begin by acknowledging that the land on which I have studied and worked during the duration of my studies at The University of British Columbia is the unceded territory of the Coast Salish Peoples, including the territories of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil- Waututh Nations.Thank you to:My Graduation Project Chair, AnnaLisa Meyboom, and my committee members: Michelle Biggar, Mari Fujita, and Brent North for your expertise, constructive feedback, and guidance throughout the semester,My mom and dad for your care, generosity, endless support, and introducing me to the world of design,My family, friends, and mentors who have continuously supported me with all your encouragement, patience, and energy,_ACKNOWLEDGMENTUBC SALA faculty, staff, and great friends whom I’ve met along the way to embrace and enjoy the architecture journey side by side,and BCIT Interior Design faculty, staff, and great friends who helped solidify my design foundation and inspired me to advance my education into architecture.It has been a long journey and I will forever be grateful for each and everyone one of you. The experiences I’ve gained, big or small, have left an everlasting impact on me, and I hope some of my actions have touched some of you, too. Completing an education online due to the pandemic has not been the most ideal, or simplest of challenges, but it was because of all of you that I had the energy and courage to push through. Thank you, stay safe, stay happy.xiiThis thesis seeks to humanize the office by prioritizing the knowledge workers’ agency and value over company open-plan cost-savings through the means of an interconnected vertical village, which fosters quality face-to-face interaction and task-based work within a biophilic environment and integration of the neighborhood community._THESIS STATEMENT1In the midst of a chaotic era facing unprecedented changes to the office, the COVID-19 global pandemic gives birth to an opportunity reevaluating the current work culture and environment established over a century ago. The office structure has been shaped to prioritize management and stripping employees down to a robotic, individual work unit, void of privacy and individual freedom. Its capitalist ideologies are reflected through towers, soaring over local businesses and neighborhoods. As offices grew bigger, the worker’s space became smaller, densified, and disconnected with the outdoor life and environment. In the contemporary, digital age with advanced wireless technology and individual work personalities, these new shifts should be reflected in the office. However, the environment has stayed similar to the traditional, hermetic office spaces. In escaping the inefficient and distracting environment, workers have fled to non-office spaces in an attempt to boost productivity, _INTRODUCTIONcomfort, and privacy. With the pandemic creating vacant office spaces throughout major cities, it provides an opportunity to reevaluate the work structure, office environment, and its relationship with the modern day office employee.Simultaneously, along with office vacancies are the closures of local retail stores, restaurants, and corner stores. The relationship between the office and small businesses and its effect on local identity have become more apparent in the current changing pandemic landscape. More than 50% of small businesses have applied for government aid, with approximately 25% foreseeing bankruptcy and closure.1 With already struggling businesses attempting to satisfy both health guidelines and consumer convenience, the local restaurants and retail stores are suffering from a loss of business, especially in financial districts, as many workers prefer to work from home.21 The Canadian Press. “Fewer Businesses Closed when COVID-19 Case Counts Steadied in August.” Vancouver Courier., last modified Nov 26, accessed Dec 16, 20202 Long, Katherine, and Khashimova. 2020. “What Will Happen to Seattle’s Empty Office Towers when COVID-19 Ends?” The Seattle Times, September 6, 2020.32PART I   A CENTURY OLD BUG54The open plan office is branded to promote collaboration and flexibility, but the ugly truth is to benefit company’s cost-savings, scientific management, and shallow, distractive work. The reduction of the working individual through lack of ownership and agency, in conjunction with an hermetic environment disconnected from nature, all contribute towards the growing dissatisfaction of knowledge workers to their offices. This bias towards shallow work is not addressed in modern workplaces and is actually costing companies more money as skilled workers aren’t able to focus.Due to the pandemic shutdown, employees were asked to work from home to avoid the spread of the coronavirus. This left their second home, the office, in a ghost town-like city filled with vacant buildings.1 With the pandemic still at play, it is unknown when they would return, and if it would still look the same as before. Studies have reported an increase in work productivity and work-life balance since work from home 1 Long, Katherine, and Khashimova. 2020. “What Will Happen to Seattle’s Empty Office Towers when COVID-19 Ends?” The Seattle Times, September 6, 2020.01_PROBLEM IDENTIFICATIONbegan.2 This reveals the failure in contemporary office and work structure to accommodate for the modern day employee as it continues to employ a century-old prescription. For businesses requiring immense collaborative teamwork, the work from home policy has negatively impacted their productivity. Working from home may satisfy individual comfort, but it lacks the essential qualities for team building, collaboration, and social engagement.3 It also disconnects the worker from a neighborhood identity unifying a company’s presence and morale.The challenge for the post-pandemic office would be to satisfy the many variables for the modern day employee, but the opportunity has presented itself to consider employees first and an environment to reflect their needs.2 Gelles, David. 2020. “Are Companies More Productive in a Pandemic?” The New York Times, June 23, 2020.3 Gelles, David. 2020. “Are Companies More Productive in a Pandemic?” The New York Times, June 23, 2020.Fig 2.  The Knowledge Worker, Image by Author, 202076Issues with the open plan started as early as the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The beginnings of the open plan layout followed an assembly line format for efficiency and series of task performance, such as the Larkin Administration Building by Frank Lloyd Wright. However, poor acoustics and lack of privacy soon became some of the major issues.HOW OFFICE LAYOUTS HAVE IMPROVED… OR NOTFig 3.  Drawing of  the Larkin Administration Building office layout, Image by Author, 202198Over the years, a number of strategies to combat these distractions, such as distancing knowledge workers in the Johnson Wax Headquarters by Frank Lloyd Wright. Management overlooked production from the mezzanine above through a literal top-down hierarchy in the office space.Fig 4.  Drawing of  the Johnson Wax Headquarters office layout, Image by Author, 20211110The burolandschaft took advantage of the open plan’s vast landscape to introduce the concept of teams situated in organic clusters and divided by planters and dividers. This created informal zones without the need of rigid, heavily-controlled layouts and allowed knowledge workers to have a sense community without feeling boxed-in and with no doors or partitions in sight.  11 Saval, Nikil. 2014. Cubed: A Secret History of  the Workplace. First ed. New York: Doubleday.Fig 5.  Drawing of  the burolandschaft office layout, Image by Author, 20211312The Action Office, by Herman Miller’s Robert Propst, saw opportunities from the Burolandschaft to become increasingly efficient with the addition of 120 degree partial height partitions. These partitions would allow the individual to sit or stand while working and have ample room for lockable storage and shelving units. The in-between spaces would become local meeting spots for the neighborhood cluster. The partitions gave users a sense of privacy and agency in their preferential mode of operation.  11 Saval, Nikil. 2014. Cubed: A Secret History of  the Workplace. First ed. New York: Doubleday.Fig 6.  Drawing of  the Action Office layout, Image by Author, 20211514The Action Office seemed to be a promising fix to the issues of privacy and acoustics in the office, but was far too expensive for employers to execute. Other furniture companies joined in on the partition-craze and saw the dividers as a way of maximizing the number of knowledge workers in the open plan, which was appealing to the employers. Instead of understanding the logic and purpose behind the use of partitions of the Action Office, the Cubicle transformed the office into a working farm.   11 Saval, Nikil. 2014. Cubed: A Secret History of  the Workplace. First ed. New York: Doubleday.Fig 7.  Drawing of  the cubicle office layout, Image by Author, 20211716As natural daylight and ventilation became increasingly important in the hermetic offices, along with user complaints in regards to dissatisfaction of an enclosed workspace, partitions between desks were removed. This is the open-plan office we know today and it has resorted back to the problematic ways of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Fig 8.  Drawing of  the open bench office layout, Image by Author, 202119181920 2020Fig 9.  Century-old bug, Image by Author, 2021212002_THE PROBLEM WITH THE EXISTING OFFICE IS THE...In the 1920s, Henry Ford implemented the 8 hour day, 5 day weeks working structure to attract labour workers who were previously working 10-12 hour days. The typical 9-5 became the global office structure for businesses everywhere.1 The concept of working long, consecutive hours everyday is equivalent to efficient productivity is a century-old template unfit for the contemporary employee. 1 Wade, Lizzie,  “The 8-Hour Workday Is a Counterproductive Lie,” Wired (Conde Nast, November 21, 2019)HOURSFig 10.  8-hour day, Image by Author, 20202322In the 1900’s, Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management changed the course of the office culture, structure, and design, by allowing managers to analyze and supervise the work flow which was traditionally done by the worker, which resulted in a division then spatially translated in office design.1 Workstations adopted an assembly line format to execute individual tasks within an open environment while managers worked in private cellular offices overseeing the process. This top-down hierarchy established the norm in modern day office social status structure. The Taylorist office employed a bench-like, mass manufacturing-style layout designed to streamline tasks and efficiency under strict monitorization of supervisors and managers. Workers often completed a series of tasks in an assembly-line format by hand as digital technology was not fully developed.1  Abalos and Herreros. Tower and office: from modernist theory to contemporary practice.TASKSFig 11.  Assembly line tasks, Image by Author, 20202524The open plan office was made possible through the technological advancement of structure and lighting, allowing more employees to be placed in a single floor plate free of partitions. Workstations were laid out in rows, in part due to the Taylorism model, deep into the floor plates as the whole office was electrically lit.1 In contemporary offices, natural daylight and connection with the outdoor environment was recognized for its importance towards the well-being of the workers. In an attempt to introduce daylight into the modern, deep office plates, workstation partitions were lowered, and soon removed, to substitute privacy for natural lighting. Without privacy screens, the already diminished worker could only seek privacy and quietness through focus booths or headphones to concentrate on their work. Unfortunately, the main reason why most employees 1  Abalos and Herreros. Tower and office: from modernist theory to contemporary practice.escape the office to focus is due to this layout. Workers are unhappy with the lack of privacy and ownership of their increasingly small workspace, disturbed by the lack of acoustic separation, and inability to focus due to unwanted distractions. LAYOUTFig 12.  Distracting open plan, Image by Author, 20202726Although some are regarded as engaging and productive, most employees have thought of meetings as time-consuming and unproductive. As an individual dwells into a period of focus, mandatory meetings can break their thoughts and require another 30-60 minutes to trace and re-engage with their assignment. Studies have shown that smaller meeting configurations allow for better productivity and time-management. As the meeting room grows, meeting length increases while productivity drops. Jason Fried’s 2010 TEDxMidwest presentation revealed the greatest interruptions during an office worker’s stage of critical thinking are involuntary distractions, such as meetings and managers, breaking up their thought process. This is why, he argued, no one goes to the office to get work done. They rather be in a third location or moving object.1 The office did not become a place to escape to for productivity, instead, it has been the place to escape from. 1 Fried, Jason. 2010. “Why Work Doesn’t Happen at Work”. Filmed October 2010 in Chicago. TED video, 15:05.MEETINGSFig 13.  Small, medium, large meetings, Image by Author, 202029281900s1950s2000sWith the advent of electric lighting and HVAC, office buildings have increasingly become larger with deeper floor plates. Late-19th century offices which relied on natural daylight and outdoor environments have become hermetic environments independent from the outside world. HVAC systems regulated the interior temperature which allowed the office to be independent from the outdoor environment. Glass windows were once a function for daylight and air flow, but the modernist office approach detached itself from this theory to create the hermetic environment with the glass merely just as a facade.1 Knowledge workers were further segregated from the natural outside world and confined within an artificial, hermetic environment, void of all the biophilic benefits in which nature provides to reduce stress, increase happiness and well-being, which leads to better productivity.1 Abalos and Herreros. Tower and office: from modernist theory to contemporary practice.ENVIRONMENTFig 14.  Evolution of  the hermetic environment, Image by Author, 20203130Office towers are typically designed with a tube-in-tube system, consisting of an inner service core and glass facade. It is a sound design both structurally and spatially. However, most employees have found themselves stuck on a single level for the majority of their work day. Larger companies occupying multiple storeys also report a break in company unity and collaboration when their employees are dispersed on separate levels.1 Some towers offer gardens and amenity spaces, but some are private and not every employee is willing to make the trip to visit these spaces. 1 Hassard, John, Ruth Holliday, Hugh Willmott, and HathiTrust ETAS Collection. 2000. Body and Organization. London: Sage Publications. CONNECTIVITYFig 15.  Vertical Connectivity, Image by Author, 20203332Vertical office spaces typically have their office spaces above ground and disconnected with the activated ground plane. It is programmatically more private and exclusive to the workers only, but with the already disconnected connectivity, further separation from the community only emphasizes the hermetic qualities of existing office environments. As more employees choose to work from home, lunch breaks and happy hours would look different now as local restaurants and shops struggle to survive during the pandemic era.1 A large percentage of the customer base around financial areas are largely dependent on the office workers’ foot traffic and visits.2 1 Knight, Sam. “The Future of  the Office Lunch.” The New Yorker., last modified Sept 28, accessed Dec 15, 2020.2 Orton, Tyler. “Vancouver Business Closures Doubled at Outset of  Pandemic: StatsCan.” Richmond News., last modified Aug 5, accessed Dec 15, 2020.ISOLATIONFig 16.  Segregated Economy, Image by Author, 20203534PART II   TOWARDS THE FUTURE373603_FORMAL TYPOLOGIESUnderstanding how emerging workspace typologies have introduced spaces to foster community interaction.3938SPIRALHealth and wellness will be the forefront of office design in the future. In promoting active lifestyles, outdoor amenity spaces are staggered across every level of the office to ensure equa l  d is t r ibu t ion  and access for all workers to have immediate connection with nature. Amenity spaces w i l l  be  in te rconnected with circulation paths to foster active lifestyles and community building.At 799 Broadway, New York, Perkins + Will staggered office bands above one another in order to provide outdoor space for every office level to emphasize the importance of healthy off ices. This way, every worker  wi l l  have di rect access to the outdoors near  the i r  works ta t ion instead of making the effort to t ravel  to the closest outdoor amenity.Foster + Partners’ concept fo r  the  Icone o f f i ce  in Luxembourg faci l i ta tes a coworking community within a light-filled, elevated urban trai l .  These trai ls lie between the perimeter o f f i ce  quar te rs  as  the main mode of circulation. Breakout areas from the t ra i l s  se rve  as  casua l meeting spaces, like a park bench, to build interaction between different workers.Top: Fig 17.  Spiral Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 18.  799 Broadway by Perkins + Will, Image by ArchDaily, 2019Right: Fig 19.  Icone by Foster + Partners, Image by Icone Offices, 20204140By shrinking floor plates down to smaller units, it al lows for eff ic ient and flexible program allocation. The modularity of the pixels can be clustered vertically, horizontally, and diagonally, to  b r i ng  d i ve rs i t y  and porosity in comparison to traditional, monolithic skyscrapers. Fragmenting neighborhoods of space can activate a village in the sky through various scales of individual and collective units, and appropriating greenery in the in-between spaces.The Rodovre Sky Village’s modu la r  cubes  c rea te a form which al lows its mixed-use typo logy to appropriate outdoor green space for all programs. Its skinny base feels friendly and approachable for the ground level pedestrians approaching by the building PIXELas it does not give off a megastructure atmosphere.4 0 0  W e s t  G e o r g i a To w e r  u t i l i z e d  b o x e d n e i g h b o r h o o d s ,  f o u r storeys each, shifting and stacking for optimum views catered to each specific super pixel. Green walls drape along the cube’s sides as a vertical garden within the city centre. The architecture favours more on interior environments with visual cues to exterior g r e e n e r y  r a t h e r  t h a n physical access. Top: Fig 20.  Pixel Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 21.  Rodovre Sky Village by MVRDV, Image by MVRDV, 2008Right: Fig 22.  400 West Georgia by Merrick Architecture, Image by Westbank Corp, 20184342I ns tead  o f  con t inuous facades wi th  enclosed amen i t ies  and roo f top g a r d e n s ,  l a y e r i n g t h e  t o w e r  w i t h  o p e n s p a c e s  i n  b e t w e e n a l l o w s  f o r  g a t h e r i n g and connection with the o u t d o o r  e n v i r o n m e n t . Not only does this create more oppor tun i t ies for e n g a g e m e n t  b e t w e e n segregated leve ls ,  the subtraction of continuous structure creates a similar language with adjacent residential towers and their balcony space, allowing the corporate and residential towers to blur within the urban core. W O H A ’ s  g r e e n  b e l t s break the monolithic glass s t ruc tu re  to  a l l ow  the building to read as three, narrow buildings intertwined w i t h  l u s h  l a n d s c a p e . Nature must be integrated STACKon new construct ion in Singapore as part of the c i t y-s ta te ’s  by- law fo r nature preservation and environmental contribution.The Stack would become V a n c o u v e r ’ s  l a r g e s t o f f ice tower  a l locat ing private terraces between office cubes with natural and  u rban  v i ews .  The building has an activated ground level to promote community building with the public, and exclusive, workers-only terraces for local interact ion. Stack a p p r o a c h ,  a l t h o u g h allows outdoor spaces, is still largely hermetic and i ndependen t  f r om the exterior environment. Top: Fig 23.  Stack Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 24.  Park Royal on Pickering by WOHA, Image by Dezeen, 2013Right: Fig 25. The Stack by James Cheng Architects, Image by DailyHive Vancouver, 20174544CAMPUSMoving into suburban land, or development on new ground, allows companies to execute the office park concept as a town with mixed-use structure in an open landscape. To break away from enclosed office towers situated in a dense, urban core, office campuses allow a community of workers, and local residents, to enjoy the landscape. The greatest advantage of campuses is its emphasis on human-centric design by creating breathing rooms through active and resting spaces between individual buildings to facilitate various lifestyles. Huaxin Tiandi Office Campus in Shanghai uses the office campus’ vast park as a zen garden in the city centre for the public to enjoy in the midst of a rapid metropolitan. Its diagonal path connects the edges of the site to activate the local community with the office community to share the peaceful landscape. Jian Wai Soho is a mixed-use development consisting of residential, office, retail, and park space on the outskirts of the second loop in busy Beijing. Its multi-level grounds activate the local community and regional community through a series of arts, recreational, and leisure amenities. It is essentially a small city within a larger city dedicated to community building. Top: Fig 26.  Campus Digram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 27.  Huaxin Tiandi Office Campus by Ferrier Marchetti Studio, Image by ArchDaily, 2020Right: Fig 28.  Jianwai Soho by Riken Yamamoto, Image by Archidose Blogspot, 20044746DOMENorman Foster and Buckminster Fuller envisioned an office under a climate-controlled glass dome in 1971, called the Climatroffice, to revolutionize working in a light-filled, green-covered office.1 With modern-day technology, this concept has been realized due to the increase in awareness for the health and well-being of workers who have long endured the hermetic office environments.The Amazon Spheres offer employees a four-storey tropical garden meeting space and walking path, independent from the typical rainy Seattle climate, to foster a relaxed working atmosphere.2The Google Mountain View Headquarters’ campus will be unified under a glass skin, architecturally symbolizing a corporate identity connected under the same sky.1 Foster, Norman. “High Rise.” Norman Foster Foundation Archive., accessed Oct 24, 20202 Daniel Tapia, “Amazon Spheres / NBBJ,” ArchDaily (ArchDaily, July 1, 2019)Top: Fig 29.  Dome Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 30.  Amazon Spheres by NBBJ, Image by ArchDaily, 2018Right: Fig 31.  Google HQ by BIG + Heatherwick Studios, Image by ArchDaily, 20154948HIGHER GROUNDVegetated rooftops have many benefits for the energy performance and efficiency of a building and the environment, such as insulation, acoustics, rainwater retention, habitat recovery, and solar control. By having a continuous rooftop park, the biggest benefit would be office community and engagement. Interconnected roof landscapes occupy the less-used areas of a structure to create a higher ground to allow for privacy from street level activities and incorporate a different environment.Vanke Design Community’s rooftop park and stepped terraces create various individual and group spaces which can cater to any form of social engagement. Sky corridors allow for direct circulation cutting above the park, and higher ground parks provide a slow route. Like a community park, there are sports fields, playgrounds, terraced seating, and benches available, creating an atmosphere which almost forgets the existence of an office below. BIG’s proposal for Google’s Sunnyvale Headquarters plays with stepped office roofs connecting the highest level down to the ground level through geometric forms. The continuous path allows for different views at each level with coffee shops activating community interaction at intersections. The building height relates to neighbouring structures to not overpower the region, and allows the stepped roofs to act as an uphill hike in conjunction with the surrounding landscape.Top: Fig 32.  Higher Ground Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 33.  Vanke Design Community by Urbanus, Image by ArchDaily, 2019Right: Fig 34.  Google Sunnyvale HQ by BIG, Image by Dezeen, 20185150COWORKRemote work has been on a popular rise, especially during the pandemic, in allowing employees to work from any setting they prefer. Coworking studios’ flexibility allows all types of start-up companies and self-employed workers to work in shared or booked office spaces with shared amenities at any hour.WeWork has just under 800 coworking locations in 120 cities around the globe. Their offices offer trendy interiors, shared resources, amenities, and flexible work hours and environments which are especially attractive to the millennial workers. During the pandemic, with the majority of their spaces dedicated for large, open work spaces, and a smaller portion for enclosed meeting rooms all within enclosed environments, WeWork memberships have been dropping significantly. However, it can also be said that their failure is not due to their concept, but rather the spatial layout, which is similar to many contemporary offices. Top: Fig 35.  Co-Work Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 36.  Marine Gateway Location by WeWork, Image by WeWork, 2020Right: Fig 37.  Tokyo Location by WeWork, Image by WeWork, 20205352POP - UPWith the increased flexibility in lease and rental terms with building owners, and increase of vacant spaces and lots, temporary office spaces, or pop-ups, have gained more significance for start-up companies. Temporal offices for a small company could improve their professional identity to have a space of their own, away from a coworking space. With low budgets and creative minds, pop-up offices could be quite exciting.WE Architecture situated their temporary, p i xe la ted  o f f i ce  w i t h i n  OMA’s  BLOX Copenhagen office building. With maximum visibility from all sides, visitors are encouraged to observe how architects perform their work. Dubbledam’s Pop-Up Office focuses on mobility, adaptability, and flexibility of their design to offer modular workspaces ideal for individual and collaborative work. With it being easily transported, these pop-ups could also be reappropriated for festivals and relief situations.Top: Fig 38.  Pop-Up Diagram, Image by Author, 2020Left: Fig 39.  Pop-Up Architecture Office by WE Architecture, Image by ArchDaily, 2018Right: Fig 40.  Pop-Up Office by Dubbledam Architecture + Design, Image by ArchDaily, 20135554Architect: Kono DesignsLocation: Tokyo, JapanDate: 2011Floors: 9Project Type: Office RetrofitProject Size: 215,000 sf04_PRECEDENT STUDIESPasona Urban Farm is a human resource office in downtown Tokyo which married office and agriculture space within a renovated 50 year old building. The renovation included a double-skin green facade, offices, auditorium, cafeterias, a rooftop garden, and urban farming facilities integrated within the building. With over 200 species of fruits and vegetables covering 20% of the project’s area, Kono Designs created a healthy working environment for office workers to take part in dynamic agricultural practices, such as planting and harvesting, to enrich their wellbeing within an hermetic office building.1 This precedent is valuable to understand additional uses of the office space as more than just an office, and how 1 Andrews, Kate. “Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs.” Dezeen., last modified Sept 12, accessed Dec 17, 2020to better incorporate local businesses and communities within a shared, dynamic setting to boost productivity, health, and interaction. Many towers utilize green space as an additional amenity and backdrop to the office with no further purpose other than sitting beside a tree. Pasona Urban Farm integrates useful green spaces as a part of the workers’ daily routine, essentially making nature a crucial part of their work lives. This integration improved indoor air quality by 12%, comfort by 23%, and productivity by 20%.2 The quality of the office culture became increasingly rich when the cafeteria incorporates the harvested produce into the staff’s daily meals, knowing they have more purpose in the office than simply office work.2 “Pasona H.Q. Tokyo by Pasona Group, Kono Designs LLC.” Architizer., last modified Feb 11, accessed Dec 17, 2020PASONA TOKYO HQTop: Fig 41.  Pasona Tokyo HQ Facade, Image by Dezeen,       2010Middle: Fig 42.  Lobby, Image by Dezeen, 2010Bottom: Fig 43.  Rice Harvesting, Image by Dezeen, 20105756A collage illustrating the interior spatial qualities of a working farm and office in contrast to the busy Tokyo urban atmosphere beyond the glass facades.Fig 44.  Pasona Office Farm concept, Image by Author, 20205958WorkMeetingLoungeGreenFigure ground studies analyzing the proportions and adjacency of each type of space. The ground level plan, which consists of the reception and lounge areas, contain larger amounts of agricultural space in comparison to the typical office levels. Visitors are greeted by an extraordinary lounge plaza, whereas the workers are concentrated around green nodes.Left: Fig 45.  Pasona Office Ground Level Figure Ground - Landscape, Image by Author, 2020Right: Fig 46.  Pasona Office Ground Level Figure Ground - Office, Image by Author, 20206160Architect: SelgascanoLocation: Hollywood, LADate: 2019Floors: 2Project Type: Coworking OfficeProject Size: 40,430 sfHolLA is a coworking studio situated in Hollywood, LA, which heavily promotes the concept of allowing workers to coexist with other workers and the exterior environment by bringing nature to them. After retrofitting an iconic, neoclassical community house by Paul Williams and a parkade, Selgascano Architects were able to create a garden oasis with over 10,000 plants and mixed pods of individual offices, meeting rooms, and shared amenity spaces.1 In order to transform the parkade from a built-environment to a natural-environment, soil was filled up at desk height to accommodate the lush vegetation which allowed the workspace to be truly indulged within the natural landscape.During the pandemic, many coworking studios struggled to survive due to the shared working spaces, but HolLA continued to thrive with their individual garden pods with operable windows, abundance of daylight, and privacy. 1  Ott, Clara. “Second Home Hollywood Office / Selgascano.” archdaily.com., last modified November 21, accessed October 24, 2020The architects approached the garden design as a response to the unhealthy, hermetic office environments which recycles air and disconnects users from the exterior environment. They believe that “if you create something healthier, it ends up being more resilient”- a profound statement ringing true to the core of this thesis.2 This project shows that offices do not always have to be glass towers, but can be within a comfortable environment improving the well-being and health of the workers. They are given many choices to either engage their work in a private, shared, or courtyard environment. This flexibility suits different work personalities, which is often overlooked within Taylorist office layouts. Although work from home is an option for the future, office spaces continue to be crucial environments for interaction, resource sharing, and community engagement. If office spaces became more safe,  flexible and comfortable, like HolLA, perhaps employees would prefer to work in gardens.2 Miranda and A. Carolina. 2020. “What Will Offices Look Like in the Post-Pandemic Future? this Hollywood Space Offers a Preview.” Los Angeles Times, September 17,2020.SECOND HOMETop: Fig 47.  Aerial view of  Second Home LA, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 2019Left: Fig 48.  Tropical paths, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 2019Right: Fig 49.  Inside the pod, Image by Iwan Baan, Selgascano, Designboom, 20196362A collage illustrating a working pod’s direct connectivity to the lush landscape which was once a parking lot.Fig 50.  Second Home Pods concept, Image by Author, 20206564WorkLoungeGreenFigure ground studies analyzing the proportions and adjacency of each type of space. Each studio pod is heavily submersed within the tropical landscape as part of the immersing in nature concept. Although the pods are clustered close to one another, they each have their own membranes which is optimal for smaller team collaborations or individual work. Their organic layout juxtaposes the rigid boundaries set by the lot lines to create a unique identity to this industrial region.Fig 51.  Second Home Ground Level Figure Ground Study, Image by Author, 20206766Architect: MVRDVLocation: Rotterdam, NetherlandsDate: 2014Floors: 12Project Type: Market Hall + HousingProject Size: 112,000 sfThe Markthal is the first covered, open-air market in the Netherlands which includes a vast market level for fresh food and hardware under a horseshoe-shaped apartment structure.1 It serves as a new landmark for the historical region of Binnenrotte, which has an open plaza near Blaak Station, a historical church, and architecturally rich neighborhood. Originally, the developers intended to construct two apartment buildings with a market in between. However, Winy Mass, the principal in charge, felt the proposal was too boring. Therefore, he suggested flipping the concept, and created a covered public space with an architecturally unique landmark.2 The purpose of the market is to activate the area by creating a culturally rich and vibrant gathering space for the larger community with weather protection. The key takeaway of this precedent is the successful activation of a community through its architectural integration rather than segregated, individual purposes. An abundance of mixed-use apartment towers with 1 “Markthal Rotterdam / MVRDV” 08 Oct 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 17 Dec 2020.2 Fredrickson, Trent. “MVRDV-Designed Markthal Housing + Market Hall Opens in Rotterdam.” designboom | architecture & design magazine., last modified October 1, accessed Dec 17, 2020, commercial ground levels typically activate only the periphery, or major street-facing areas. This leads to minimal interaction between the residents and the public realm. During the pandemic lockdown, local small shops and businesses were hit the hardest and continue to struggle for their survival. Many of these amenities are unique to a neighborhood and help define its identity. Markthal approached community activation by architecturally inviting the larger community within the shared public lobby hall to strengthen the bond between residents, visitors, and local businesses. The site’s adjacency to Blaak Station, a highway network, historical church, library,  residential, and commercial zones creates a culturally rich and vibrant plaza for all sorts of community gathering. The tall 40m arched structure embraces the public realm and the coexistence between multiple user groups. Fresh food, hardware, groceries, shops, services, and restaurants are purposeful amenities serving not only the residents of Markthal apartments, but the larger network of residential housing nearby. Community identity is a significant contributor towards the local economy, and the continuing support and integration of local businesses within a larger network defines the characteristics of a neighborhood, and does not allow the same big name brands to dull out its vibrancy.MARKTHALTop: Fig 52.  Activated Public Market - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 2014Left: Fig 53.  View from Apartment - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 2014Right: Fig 54.  Evening Facade - Markthal, Image by MVRDV, 20146968A collage illustrating the rich, cultural community activation through the vibrancy of the architecture in merging the public and private realms.Fig 55.  Life within Markthal concept, Image by Author, 20207170This site analysis study shows the busy micro-path network within the Markthal and its connection with the main surrounding paths. As the only infrastructure embracing the community within its form, this enrichens the plaza which acts as the hearth within this district. This activation and landscape architecture attracted over one million visitors a month with an hourly average of 12,000 people on weekends.1 1 Bevan, Rob. 2015. Markthal in Rotterdam by MVRDV. Architectural Review. Fig 56.  Markthal Site Plan Study, Image by Author, 2020737205_THE FUTURE OF THE OFFICE WOULD BE...Adult employees have varying internal clocks and require adequate amounts of rest and sleep in order to be productive. In fact, only 40% of adults are early risers, 30% are night owls, and the last 30% are in between but more leaning towards night owls.1 The 9-5 work hours caters to less than 50% of the adult population but is deemed the norm, therefore resulting in the night owls as being labelled unproductive and lazy in the mornings.2 With proper sleep and rest, everyone has the potential for extreme productivity at varying times of the day, which should be accounted for in office structure. Flexible hours would benefit all workers, morning larks or night owls, instead of forcing one unilateral system. Productivity should not be measured by time, but by 1 Walker, Matthew P. 2017. Why we sleep: unlocking the power of  sleep and dreams. New York ; Scribner, 20182 Walker. Why we sleep: unlocking the power of  sleep and dreams. the high quality outputs. Shorter hours in engaging with deep, high quality work can prove to be more efficient than enduring long hours of shallow work. SELF-PACEDFig 57.  Flexible Hours, Image by Author, 20207574Deep work requires a distraction-free environment for an individual to work productively in concentration by pushing their cognitive capabilities to produce high-quality deliverables. In contrast, shallow work is performing non-cognitively demanding tasks in a distracted environment.1 In the wireless and digital world, tasks can be done anywhere, anytime. Employers depend on workers for their valuable, intellectual knowledge for the company’s growth. Each individual worker bubble would require an environment suitable for focussing in on intellectual work. Working from home would be an option for the future of work, but it has its limits for social networking and collaboration. Gensler’s Summer/Fall 2020 US Workplace suggests a hybrid model, allowing an employee to spend half a 1 Newport, Cal. Deep work : rules for focused success in a distracted world. 1st ed. New York ; Boston: Grand Central Publishing, 2016.work week in office and the other half remotely, would satisfy the needs for collaborative efforts and personal space. Previously, most office spaces adopted an open layout, but survey results have indicated the need for an equal balanced amount for both private and open spaces.2 This goes to prove that a unilateral office layout system is not suitable for all workers as their tasks and personalities vary. Adopting a hybrid system within the office would also help with company unity instead of segregating collaborative and deep work even further by allowing workers to have choice and flexibility.2 Gensler Research Institute. “US Workplace Survey 2020 Summer/Fall | Gensler Research Institute | Research & Insight.” Gensler., last modified Fall, accessed Dec 16, 2020HYBRIDFig 58.  Hybrid Future, Image by Author, 20207776To facilitate high quality deep work in the post-pandemic work, in which working from home is an option, office workers should reclaim a significant amount of space to better their well-being to invest their efforts in producing quality deliverables. Assigned seating is preferable for workers who are tasked with focused tasks to allow for a sense of privacy, ownership, safety, and comfortability. Unassigned seating is largely preferable for collaborative tasks, and assigned seating is typically for senior management only.1 As we are striving towards an employee-first mindset, the reflection of seniority through architectural space should be reconceived as task-based architectural reflections. This sketch is a concept of deep work rooms, suitable for 1-2 employees, revolving around a shared, accessible 1 Gensler Research Institute. “US Workplace Survey 2020 Summer/Fall | Gensler Research Institute | Research & Insight.” Gensler., last modified Fall, accessed Dec 16, 2020courtyard. Workers will have equal access to daylight, the natural world, and privacy. This task-based layout purposefully rejects the notion of architectural hierarchy which only allows management to have access to comfortable, private offices.COMFORTABLEFig 59.  Deep Work Rooms, Image by Author, 20207978/’kafa,klaCH/nounan informal social gathering at which coffee is served.talking or gossip at an informal gathering where coffee is served.Employees have found that casual meetings in a non-office setting is more engaging, relaxing, informative, creative, and productive. Sometimes, the best ideas come from a walk in the park, or over a cup of coffee.1 In breaking the formality of the meeting room, meeting spaces should be conceived as a conglomeration of third places - a casual space dedicated for meaningful conversation. It is at these third spaces that brings 1 Hester, Jessica Leigh. 2015. “A Brief  History of  the Office Coffee Break.” Bloomberg.Com, Sept 29, 2015. forth the most productive collaboration as people are gathered within a casual, democratic atmosphere. Although social media technology, such as Skype and Zoom, are conveniently available for virtual discussions, it is dissimilar to the face to face experience. The in-person collaboration experience cannot be replicated through online platforms as Ray Oldenburg notes. He believes the third place is a concept which promotes democracy, neighborhood unity, mutual friendships, and intellectual exchanges.2 High quality, creative sparks are derived from in-person collaboration within comfortable settings. 2 360 Research, “Third Places in Culture - Ray Oldenburg Q&A,” Steelcase, June 1, 2017KAFFEEKLATSCHFig 60.  Purposeful Kaffeeklatsch, Image by Author, 20208180As individual work becomes more mobile, the office would become a large meeting and gathering space for high quality and meaningful face to face engagement. Varying scales of park space and paths represent varying sizes and modes of engagement. Deep work stations are placed in secluded areas for individual focus within the park. Intersections are important opportunities for chance collisions, in which two individuals or groups meet and spark an interesting dialogue. It allows for workers on separate floors or different companies to interact and build a stronger neighborhood. As we are moving towards a passive built environment, there are lessons to be learned from late 19th century office buildings. Although incandescent lighting was available during that time, it was not commercially used in offices on occasion due to the expense. Therefore, office buildings, such as the Marquette Building in Chicago, relied on narrow floor plates to introduce natural daylight into the workspace. Due to the limited use of electricity, workers were able to be situated near exterior windows in contact with the outdoor environment.1 1 Abalos, Iñaki, and Juan Herreros. 2003. Tower and office: from modernist theory to contemporary practice. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press.OUTDOORSFig 61.  Office Park, Image by Author, 20208382To enhance the quality of the third place and chance collisions, the future office plates should be broken down in size and interconnected through multiple landings and overlapping planes. Vertical transportation can include not only stairs and elevators, but also poles, slides, escalators, and drone lifts. Amenity and garden spaces should be dispersed on every level and cut through multiple floors for better employee interaction and access to the natural environment. With the projected future of increasing office vacancies, instead of relocating the third space in a newly developed suburban or rural landscape, this is a chance to think up and diagonal to introduce third space bubbles in the vertical campus by re-exploring the programmatic needs for the future off ice and i ts neighbors.1 1 Business Insider, “These Are the Key Commercial Real-Estate Deals and Trends to Watch,” Business Insider (Business Insider, October 16, 2020)Understanding that each company has workers from different generations, it is important to understand their pragmatic desires for amenity spaces. Baby Boomers value parking, young workers value fitness spaces, and Generation X or Millennial workers value childcare services. Linking these essentials are food-related dining services and spaces, tech support, and medical services.2 Focussing in on incorporating these purposeful amenities, instead of specifically young generation-attracting amenities, would better activate a multigenerational workforce.2 Gensler Research Institute. “US Workplace Survey 2020 Summer/Fall | Gensler Research Institute | Research & Insight.” Gensler., last modified Fall, accessed Dec 16, 2020DIAGONALFig 62.  Diagonal Connectivity, Image by Author, 20208584Many small businesses, especially the dining industry, have linked their degrading businesses to the significant drop in office workers.1 Small local businesses are also increasingly closing as new developments pave over their cultural presence. With working from home as an option, these local businesses, such as corner stores and diners, play a significant role in servicing their neighbors, especially during the pandemic. It is important to retain their cultural identities in neighborhood communities as it is essential for the region’s character. Office spaces and local businesses have established an invisible bond that became more prevalent during the lockdown. Therefore, community building at both the office and neighborhood level should be at the forefront of future office developments 1 Knight, Sam. “The Future of  the Office Lunch.” The New Yorker., last modified Sept 28, accessed Dec 15, 2020.to support and activate local business through an integrated approach. Purposeful office amenities and services could be supplied by these small businesses as a way of interconnecting and activating a shared, diagonal campus with office workers, small business owners, visitors, and the community.COMMUNITY-CENTRICFig 63.  Integrated Community, Image by Author, 20208786Fig 64.  The Past vs. The Future of  Office Work, Image by Author, 2020898806_DEEP WORK AND GARDEN ENVIRONMENTSThe office is not dead. It is still an important space for meetings and collaborating, using resources, and a sense of community. Working from home lacks a proper work-life balance and our domestic and work thresholds have been blurred.It may even be distracting when you have other work-from-homers beside you, but it has shown us the importance of the individual’s well-being and connection with the natural environment. Through this pandemic, the knowledge worker’s expectations for future offices have changed as their individual agency becomes more important and should be architecturally reflected.The increase of remote and hybrid work options opens up more square footage per employee to have private spaces for concentrative work. Offices should prioritize agency, health, and well-being over density, efficiency, and scientific management. Like all humans, every worker is different. Therefore more space should be allocated for purposeful amenities such as natural outdoor spaces, and connection with the neighborhood community through retail and services. Deep working environment, which is work performed in a private, distraction-free environment, allows individuals to focus on their tasks in a private space void of distractions. Left: Fig 65.  Sketch - Working in a Garden, Image by Author, 2020Right: Fig 66.  Sketch - Gradation of  Public to Private, Image by Author, 20209190In this example of a company-style deep work room, it includes individual storage and a deep work surface, and the desk is glazed on 3 sides to maximize the peripheral view. The formations show all desks face towards an open garden or the exterior and are adjacent to team breakout meeting spaces and open-air circulation.COMPANY MODEL1. desk surface2. peripheral glazing3. storageformationmeeting landscaped circulationFig 67.  Company Deep Work Plan, Image by Author, 20219392+ ceiling+ screens for solar control+ individual storageremove o f f ice /co-work distractions+ privacy walls and windows+ deep work surface+ neighborhood clusterLeft: Fig 68.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Distractions, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 69.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Unit Formation, Image by Author, 20219594+ lower level and coffee    library lobby+ neighborhood blockLeft: Fig 70.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Neighborhood Block, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 71.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Coffee Library Lobby, Image by Author, 20219796+ adjacent office blocklink to axonometric animation by author:https://vimeo.com/540510650+ communal stepped garden    meeting/collaborating    space and bamboo forest    private meeting roomsLeft: Fig 72.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Stepped Garden, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 73.  Company Deep Work Axonometric - Adjacent Block, Image by Author, 202199981. desk surface2. peripheral glazing3. storageformationmeeting landscaped circulationHere is a module for individual workers, or freelancers who can occupy a shared station at separate times. It has a private storage locker that keeps personal belongings for each user when it’s their time of usage.INDIVIDUAL / FREELANCE MODELFig 74.  Individuals Deep Work Plan, Image by Author, 2021101100remove work f rom home distractions+ green roof+ screens for solar control+ lockable storage+ privacy walls and windows+ deep work surface+ neighborhood clusterLeft: Fig 75.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Distractions, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 76.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Unit Formation, Image by Author, 2021103102+ ground amenity level+ lower level neighborsLeft: Fig 77.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Lower Neighbors, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 78.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Amenity Level, Image by Author, 2021105104+ adjacent office blocklink to axonometric animation by author:https://vimeo.com/539049069+ circulation and garden     bridgeLeft: Fig 79.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Bridge and Circulation, Image by Author, 2021Right: Fig 80.  Individuals Deep Work Axonometric - Adjacent Block, Image by Author, 2021107106PART III   ADVOCATING THROUGH DESIGN10910807_THE SITEKingsgate Mall is a local shopping mall constructed in the 1970s within the heart of the Mount Pleasant Neighborhood by the Kingsway and Broadway intersection in Vancouver. In recent years, Mount Pleasant, or “Mount Pixel”, has become a tech and start-up hub with a light industrial, commercial, and residential neighborhood, attracting young workers with affordable rent, away from the downtown financial core. As the area grows, Kingsgate Mall has been in the talks for redevelopment as its prime location would be nearby a future skytrain station. Instead of replacing this site with unaffordable housing and big name stores, it is an opportunity to introduce a cowork park which supports and revitalizes the local businesses and keeps the neighborhood and community unique.KINGSGATE MALLFig 81.  Aerial view towards the north of  the site, Image by Google Maps, Edited            by Author, 2020111110Fig 82.  Broadway entrance to lower ground,Image by Google Maps, 2020Fig 85.  Shops along Main St. and Kingsway,Image by Google Maps, 2020Fig 83.  Kingsway entrance to upper ground,Image by Google Maps, 2020Fig 86.  Shops along Broadway across Kingsgate Mall, Image by Google Maps, 2020Fig 84.  Back entry showing level difference,Image by Google Maps, 2020Fig 87.  Mixed-use high-rise across Kingsgate Mall,Image by Google Maps, 202011311250mSiteCommercialResidentialGreen SpaceFuture Skytrain LineThis site acts as a node between the commercial and residential sectors of Mount Pleasant. It is accessible by both residents and workers around the area and the traffic will be greater once the future skytrain line is complete. Currently, the majority of the green space resides only within the residential zones, making it inconvenient for workers to access a public park. CONTEXT PLANFig 88.  Site Analysis - Context, Image by Author, 202011511450mSiteMixed-UseCommercialLight Industrial1. Hootsuite2. WeWork3. The Cranium4. Pavilion5. Envision Coworking6. The Gallery by Pavilion7. Open HQ8. SpacesThe commercial sectors are made up of light industrial, commercial, and mixed-use zoning. Along the main Kingsway/Main Street and Broadway intersections contain retail stores, services, and shops. The bulk of the light industrial zoning contains offices for the tech and creative industries, coworking spaces, and small manufacturing shops.COMMERCIALFig 89.  Site Analysis - Commercial and Business Sector, Image by Author, 202011711650mSiteMixed-UseApartmentTwo FamilySingle FamilyThe residential zoning consists predominantly of rental apartments and single homes making up the Mount Pleasant neighborhood. Near the main arteries are mixed-use buildings with commercial programs on the ground level and residential on top. With work from home on the rise, most employees are operating out of their apartments.RESIDENTIALFig 90.  Site Analysis - Residential Sector, Image by Author, 202011911850mSiteFuture Skytrain LineBusBike ShareEV ChargerGas StationCurrently, this area has busy bus routes along Broadway, Main Street, and Kingsway. Once the Broadway Corridor Skytrain Line completes, there will be heavier foot traffic and daily commuters. Bike share programs are located in secluded areas and there is only one electric vehicle charging spot within this vicinity. Although public transit would be more convenient in the near future, there are still many residents who drive in this area and are being served by one gas station. Perhaps in the future, more EV charging stations and bike share programs would be placed at open and convenient locations if the city decides to green the Broadway corridor. This could make the site an important location for these transportation programs. TRANSPORTATIONFig 91.  Site Analysis - Transportation, Image by Author, 202012112050mFood + Beverage1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10. 11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29.30.31.32.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10. 11.1.2.3.4.5.1.2.3.4.1.2.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.1.2.3.4.GroceriesShopping + Retail Service - BeautyService - Finance + BankService - Post Office + PrintFitness PharmacyArts + RecreationBrassneck BreweryCartems DonutsComo TaperiaRumpus RoomNirvanaGene CoffeeBudgies BurritosThe WallflowerSide HustleFable DinerChutney VillaCaffe BarneyIgnite PizzeriaKafka’sTocadorThe Cascade RoomBurdock & CoLucy’s Eastside DinerMali ThaiSing SingDock LunchFreshiiThierryStarbucksPur & SimplePizza PizzaHime SushiThe Black LodgeAJ’s Brooklyn PizzaSushiyamaThai SonCarp Sushi + BowlRide On Bike ShopArbutus FloristAntisocial Skateboard Shop8th & MainPulp Fiction BooksF as in Frank Vintage ClothingThe Corner StoreMintage MallFirst Canadian Used BooksBrownie’s FloristKingsgate MallBuy-Low FoodsBC Liquor StoreNester’s MarketHome On The Range OrganicsSave-On FoodsJT Circuit TrainingMovement CenterGBHustleShoppers Drug MartMount Pleasant PharmacyExpress RUT Bar +Field Trip Hair CoBangs SalonLocket Hair SalonSimone Hair StudioYCL SalonStone Fox Hair Inc.Barber & CoPomp & Proper SalonMt Pleasant Community CentreRath Art SuppliesCSA SpaceWestern FrontMitchell Balogh Fine Art GalleryArts Umbrella Q7James Black GalleryArtistrun Studio & GalleryStrata FundsCambridge Life SolutionsKrystal & Kira Investments LtdVCG Financialeasyfinancial ServicesRBC Royal Bank ATMTD Canada Trust ATMCanada PostVanprintLaser GraphicsUPSFig 92.  Site Analysis - Services and Amenities, Image by Author, 2020123122This north-south site section shows the one-level grade change currently present on site. The Broadway entry is the main entrance towards the shopping mall, and the East 10th entrance is for car parking and access to Buy-Low grocery store. The residential housing towards the north are typically two to three-storey buildings. Towards the south are taller commercial buildings.10mFig 93.  Site Section cutting North-South, Image by Author, 2020125124This east-west site section shows the vast hardscape in which the existing mall is sitting. To the east is a three-storey commercial building, and to the west is a 21-storey mixed use commercial and residential tower. This low skyline may change significantly once the new skytrain line is completed, which would turn this low-rise neighborhood into 20-storey towers. Depending on the building height of the proposal, this site would be a crucial component for the rooftop view from nearby residential towers, which would be an important component in the design phase.10mFig 94.  Site Section cutting East-West, Image by Author, 2020127126June 21September 21December 216 pm3 pm12 pm9 amOpportunities:Stepped buildings from south to north receive lots of daylight onto horizontal planes. Shading onto public streets and paths are minimized due to stepped back northern front. Public arcade is well lit, allowing diverse programming to be achieved. Expansive daylight capture creates opportunties for landscaping.Constraints:Western obstruction casts long shadows as the sun sets which blankets half the site during typical off-work hours. Southern obstructions cast long shadows along the site’s southern front with the low winter sun. Future redevelopment of this neighborhood may expect obstructions up to 20-storeys high.SOLAR & SHADING STUDY Left: Fig 95.  Shadow Studies, Image by Author, 2021 Right: Fig 96.  Sun Diagram, Image by Author, 202112912808_THE PROGRAMThis proposal would be suitable for small to medium-sized Companies and Individuals from the tech, creativity, and innovation industries. It is operated under the ownership of small to medium-sized companies and individual freelancing models as one shared office community.IndividualsFreelancersSmall to Medium-sizedCompaniesFig 97.  Business Model Diagram, Image by Author, 2021131130Public ArcadePrivatePublicCommodity/ServiceOfficeLandscape Parking + LoadingAll offices will have spaces for deep work and shallow work. Retail and Resource spaces, which are purposeful amenities, act as essential nodes for meetings and collaborations. They cater to both the general public and knowledge workers and use their platform to blend the different user groups to form a unique neighborhood. Their environments offer variety in their meeting settings and different types of collaboration.The intent of this proposal is to house a variety of working and public communities within a biophilic env i ronment  to  bu i ld  qua l i t y  i n te rac t ion  and neighborhood identity. Fig 98.  The Program Diagram, Image by Author, 2021133132Shallow Work is non-cognitively demanding, logistical-style tasks, often performed while distracted. In contrast to deep work, these are tasks which can be performed in open settings that can accommodate casual work, meetings, and collaborating. The concept for the companies’ ground floor lobbies suggests a duo purpose, by pairing the lobby, which is essentially a waiting space and directory, with a library or cafe setting that creates an ambiance suitable for their employees to perform shallow work. SHALLOW WORK & LOBBIESFig 99.  Shallow Work and Lobbies, Image by Author, 2021135134The concept for the arcade is to allow the public and workers to use a variety of natural and interior settings for daily errands, meetings, collaborating, and shallow work. Allowing their settings to determine the ambiance and environment. The white colour represents circulation into and around the office park.THE ARCADE & CIRCULATIONFig 100.  The Arcade and Circulation, Image by Author, 2021137136Garden settings offer a casual environment for workers to perform shallow work, collaborate, and conduct meetings. Forest settings offer a generally more quiet and secluded environment suitable for formal presentations and meetings alongside casual activities. These various settings aim towards creating opportunities for spontaneous encounters and serendipitous interactions.THE GARDEN & FORESTFig 101.  The Garden and Forest, Image by Author, 20211391381. Retail ground level and parking2. Level 1 arcade with amenities and coffee library    lobbies3. Individual offices by the south4. Company offices by the north5. Landscape6. Community roofThe massing is laid out in bands running north south, and stepped back to capture daylight and reduce shadows onto Broadway.A glass skin is introduced to complete the vision of an indoor-outdoor work environment, and to make all the retail and resource spaces usable to the public year round.MODE OF OPERATION1. 4.2. 5.3. 6.Fig 102.  Mode of  Operations Axonometric Diagrams, Image by Author, 202109_THE DESIGN141140A roof is important in protecting users from harsh climates,  and it also resembles a community. There will be no door or threshold into the office park to architecturally communicate openness and invite the public within. As an unconditioned space with fresh air coming through, the roof also creates a greenhouse effect which allows regenerative heat to maintain the building’s temperature and ventilate hot air with the stack effect through operable louvres. Inspirations for the roof concept derived from an early concept by Norman Foster and Buckminster Fuller’s Climatroffice, which is a climate-controlled office park, the Amazon Sphere by NBBJ Architects, which houses a tropical forest, and OMA’s seattle public library, which drapes a glass skin over specific programming.Fig 103.  Roof  as Community, Threshold, and Greenhouse Effect, Image by Author, 2021143142arcade entryretail storefrontsunderground parkingbike storage lockerbamboo gardenloading bay1123456 Fig 104.  Level 0 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 202123465145144This perspective shows the corner of Broadway and Kingsway with steps leading up to the public arcade. This corner activates the community and is an ideal destination point for meet ups and lunch breaks.Fig 105.  Broadway Kingsway Perspective, Image by Author, 2021147146This aerial view shows the relationship of the project with the site. The ground floor retail level faces Broadway, and the two main entrances into the arcade are on the corner of West 10th and Prince Edward Street, and Broadway and Kingsway. The company offices are located along Broadway, and the individual offices are located along West 10th, with the public arcade between them. Fig 106.  Aerial Perspective, Image by Author, 2021149148arcadelobbybistroarcade retail, cafe, courtsstorefront amenitiesgrocery store12345611122 22 2263333334545454545454545454545Fig 107.  Level 1 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021151150Here is the public arcade with the company retail lobbies on the left and smaller retail and library stores on the right with a garden meeting space on top. This arcade seeks to capture the life of the neighborhood inside the office park. It can also be a great setting for a year-round farmer’s market and street mural fests.Fig 108.  Public Arcade Perspective, Image by Author, 2021153152This is an active library lobby which allows employees to collaborate and meet in a library setting which controls the ambiance and noise level. In this case, the bookshelves are lower to introduce a light-filled and lively atmosphere to encourage discussions. Other libraries may have a cozier setting through higher shelving and upholstered seating to communicate intimacy and privacy. Fig 109.  Active Library Lobby, Image by Author, 2021155154Fig 110.  Level 2 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021deep workgarden meetingwater harvesting pondgrocery store / pharmacy12341111114222222222223 2 2 2 2 2 21 1 1 1 1157156All deep work spaces are facing outwards and have windows on three sides of the desk to have an expansive view cone capturing the natural environment. Here is the view for individual and freelance workersFig 111.  Individual/Freelance Deep Work Perspective, Image by Author, 2021159158Here is the view for company users who surround the central stepped gardens.Fig 112.  Company Deep Work Perspective, Image by Author, 2021161160Fig 113.  Level 3 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021deep workgarden meetingwater harvesting pondpresentation theatre1234121212121212431 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 12 2 2 2 2 22 2 2 2 2163162The garden is a space where shallow work, collaboration, and meetings amongst knowledge workers happen. There are different table settings allowing for different configurations and group sizes. This is the village meeting garden for individuals and freelancers.Fig 114.  Individual/Freelance Garden Perspective, Image by Author, 2021165164This is the company meeting garden in a prairie theme with the tall grass.Fig 115.  Company Garden Perspective, Image by Author, 2021167166Fig 116.  Level 4 Floor Plan, Image by Author, 2021deep workbamboo forestprivate meeting roomswater harvesting pond123411 111142 2233333169168The Bamboo Forest’s meeting rooms are embraced by ferns and leaves. There is a trail for walking meetings and self-serve coffee bars for knowledge workers to meet or work.Fig 117.  Bamboo Forest Meeting Trail Perspective, Image by Author, 2021171170This is a section perspective cutting north south and facing west. It shows the company gardens stepped southwards to receive ample daylight with the deep work spaces surrounding it. The level changes show a direct access into the public arcade from West 10th side, and ground level users accessing the retail store along broadway. Voids are created on the public plaza to connect with the parkade level below to further communicate the concept of connection with nature. Various programs and seating arrangements cater to many styles and environments for working, collaborating, and meetings. These all contribute towards activating a rich and healthy environment for knowledge workers and the public to coexist in a synergized setting to promote individual agency, and community.Fig 118.  Section Perspective, Image by Author, 2021173172_BIBLIOGRAPHYAbalos, Inaki, Juan Herreros, and Joan Ockman. 2003. Tower and Office: From Modernist Theory to Contemporary Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Andrews, Kate. “Pasona Urban Farm by Kono Designs.” Dezeen., last modified Sept 12, accessed Dec 17, 2020, https://www.dezeen.com/2013/09/12/pasona-urban-farm-by-kono-designs/.Ayoko, Oluremi B. and Neal M. Ashkanasy. 2019. Organizational Behaviour and the Physical Environment, edited by Oluremi B. Ayoko, Neal M. Ashkanasy. 1st ed. Milton: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315167237. 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