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Live Rural / Work Rural : Design for Resiliency in Hermitage, NL Case, Graham 2020-12-23

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Live Rural / Work RuralDesign for Resiliency in Hermitage, NLGraham CaseB. Sc. (Hons.), Memorial University, 2005B.F.A., Emily Carr University of Art and Design, 2010Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of ArchitectureinThe Faculty of Applied ScienceSchool of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture Program, University of British Columbia© December 2020Project Chair: Sara StevensCommittee Members: John Bass, Sophie Maguireii Figure 01: Site PerspectiveiiiAbstractRural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador are discovering new economic life through aquaculture. This burgeoning economy provides potential for growth and diversity; however, this potential is inhibited by a shortage of housing, an aging population and a lack of infrastructure for business development. This makes it unlikely that new families will move into these areas creating problems for social and economic resiliency.What we can foresee is, though these towns are thriving now, without an influx of new, younger residents, the current economic spike is likely to be short-lived. Using the community of Hermitage as a testing site, this thesis proposes an architecturally based solution to the problem of resiliency in rural Newfoundland and Labrador communities. A live/work area within the community can act as a stimulus for new growth, providing much needed housing, on-site space for micro-local economic development, and shared community space for new and existing residents.ivvTable of ContentsAbstract           iiiList of Figures           viiAcknowledgments          ixRe-Settlement: A Future for Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador  1Building in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador      11 Hermitage, NL         14 Rural Context          18 A Design for Rural Resiliency        24 Conclusion          47Precedents           49 AKA Patagonia (2019) - LARROU ARQ      51 Jintai Village Reconstruction (2014) - Rural Urban Framework   53 8 Houses in Chiba (2012 - Competition) - Bétillon / Dorval-Bory   55Bibliography           57Illustrative Credits          61viviiList of FiguresFigure 01: Site Perspective         iiFigure 02: Town plan of Hermitage        12Figure 03: Map of Newfoundland showing the six-hour drive from St. John’s to        Hermitage           15Table 01: Population change in Hermitage from 1986 to 2016    16Table 02: Comparison of Population Makeup in Hermitage between 1986 and 2016 16Table 03: Household Income vs Personal Income      17Figure 04: Spatial organization of homes in Hermitage     19Figure 05: Conceptual massing diagram       19Figure 06: Dry docked boats on the side of the road     20Figure 07: Boat trailer stored on the side of the road     20Figure 08: Storing lobster traps along the water’s edge     20Figure 09: Stacked wood ready to be chopped for fire wood    21Figure 10: Chopped firewood along the side of the road     21Figure 11: Transporting chopped firewood from the side of the road   21Figure 12: The streets of Hermitage are lined with white painted houses   22Figure 13: White homes are juxtaposed with red work sheds    22Figure 14: Most of the work sheds in Hermitage are painted red    22Figure 15: Existing Site Condition        23Figure 16: ATV Path through Site        23viii Figure 17: Existing trees near Site        23 Figure 18: Site development process       25 Figure 19: Relationship of housing to workshops arrangement process   27 Figure 20: Site Plan          28 Figure 21: Site Section         30 Figure 22: Plan of Housing A        32 Figure 23: Plan of Housing B        34 Figure 24: Section 1, Housing A        36 Figure 25: Section 2, Housing A        38 Figure 26: Section 3, Housing B        40 Figure 27: Section 4, Housing B        42 Figure 28: Residence Interior        44 Figure 29: Workspace Interior        44 Figure 30: Fire Pit at Night         44 Figure 31: Workspace Vignette 1 - Woodworking and Bike Building   45 Figure 32: Workspace Vignette 2 - Recording Studio and Rehearsal Space  45 Figure 33: Workspace Vignette 3 - Cafe       45 Figure 34: Photo: AKA Patagonia        50 Figure 35: Site Plan, AKA Patagonia       50 Figure 36: Photo: Jintai Village        52 Figure 37: Site Plan, Jintai Village        52 Figure 38: Render of Interior Courtyard, 8 Houses in Chiba    54 Figure 39: Plan and Section of 8 Houses in Chiba     54ixAcknowledgmentsThe process of developing and writing a graduation project can never be done on your own. I owe a great debt to many people that directly, or indirectly, pushed this project, and myself, forward and allowed me to create something that I am proud of.First, I would like to thank my committee chair, Sara Stevens, whose guidance, encouragement and weekly conversations kept me motivated, and reassured me I was on the right track. When I was at my least confident, my meetings with Sara would not only reinvigorate me, but instill a renewed confidence needed to push through. My committee members, John Bass and Sophie Maguire also greatly supported me through this process, providing valuable feedback on landscape planning and injecting informality and utility into my design.I need to thank my mother, Barbara Case, whose expertise on life in rural Newfoundland and Labrador allowed this project to get off the ground. Further, her belief that my ideas and proposal to inject resiliency into rural Newfoundland and Labrador have merit beyond the theoretical framework of a graduation project helped give deeper meaning to the work I did.I would like to thank the mayor of the municipality of Hermitage-Sandyville, Steve Crewe, for his willingness to talk to me about Hermitage, his sincere belief that Hermitage is a worthwhile place to  develop, and his patience to answer any and all of my questions throughout the course of this project.Finally, I would like to thank my partner, Marisa Chandler, for being ever-present, making sure I ate, and understanding the stress, whether real or perceived, I was going through over the last three and a half years. I truly could not have done any of this without her limitless support.x1Re-Settlement: A Future for Rural Communities in Newfoundland and LabradorThinking RuralThe skyline. A collection of architectural marvels, often seen in silhouette, that can describe a city without naming it. Representing a city in places such as basketball team logos1 and sitcoms2, the architecture that defines a city’s skyline often comes to define the city itself, but a skyline is also a semiotic cue to the urban in general. When we see the Seattle skyline on the logo for the Supersonics or the title card for Frasier, we may not immediately know that it is representing Seattle – though the space needle should be a hint for most – but what we can all agree on is that the team and the comedy are taking place in a city. There’s no mistaking that juxtaposition of buildings for a rural settlement, or that any hint of the countryside is a party to Dr. Crane’s radio show.An equally universal signifier doesn’t exist for the rural. The town, village and outport are lumped together with the hinterland and the countryside, simply 1. “Seattle Supersonics Logo and Uniform History.” National Basketball Association (NBA) - Chris Creamer’s Sports Logos Page - SportsLogos.Net, www.sportslogos.net/logos/list_by_team/241/Seattle_Supersonics/.2. “Frasier.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Apr. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frasier.defined as those areas which are not urban. “…we see the rural portrayed in opposition to the city, as its ‘other.’”3 While what is “urban” is generally agreed upon, what is “rural” remains clouded in a fog of war. While we may find difficulty defining what exactly we mean when we say something is rural, most of us can agree that we know it when we see it.This impractical definition hints at a truth in architecture: the rural has been ignored in favour of a city-centred approach. This has recently come into sharp focus with the UNs declaration in 2014 that more than 50% of the world’s population now lives in cities.4 Some may feel that, more than ever, architects are justified in focusing on the urban condition, solving issues of housing and how to offer generous urban spaces for the 68% of the world that will live in cities by 2050.5 However, as Fulkerson and Thomas 3. Langner, Sigrun. “(R)urban Landscapes. Navigating between the Urban and the Rural Perspective.” Ruralism: The Future of Villages and Small Towns in an Urbanizing World, edited by Vanessa Miriam Carlow, Jovis, 2016, pp. 76–89. 4. “More than Half of World’s Population Now Living in Urban Areas, UN Survey Finds | UN News.” United Nations, United Nations, 10 July 2014, news.un.org/en/story/2014/07/472752-more-half-worlds-population-now-living-urban-areas-un-survey-finds.5. “68% Of the World Population Projected to Live in Urban Areas by 2050, Says UN | UN DESA Department of Economic 2point out in Studies in Urbanormativity, “The remaining shrinking half of the planet will be more heavily depended upon for supplying food and other resources required to support this growing urban population.”6 As a society we already recognize this. We make cute our rural areas where our food comes from – Saskatchewan is Canada’s breadbasket, where the majority of Canada’s wheat comes from; in Alberta, the meat industry is celebrated with “I Heart Alberta Beef” plastered on everything from license plates to t-shirts; in Newfoundland and Labrador, even though the moratorium on the commercial cod fishery was instituted almost 30 years ago, there’s no where in the province you can go without the ability to purchase something with a fish on it.Rem Koolhaas and OMA have recently turned their attention for the first time away from the city, to explore what the countryside has to offer. Noting that, “Only 2% of the surface of the earth is city so for that reason alone we should look at the countryside,” Koolhaas seems to recognize that while the majority of people now live in urban areas, rural areas still have great potential, and are worth investigating.7 He goes so far as to say, when talking about remote Russia, “The very effect of not being able to partake in the current evolution of the world also has its benefits and also creates an incentive for great imagination in terms of how to survive.” Vanessa Miriam Carlow, writing in Ruralism agrees with this kind of assessment, “the city-centered discourse becomes almost a self-fulfilling prophecy with cities becoming and Social Affairs.” United Nations, United Nations, www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html.6. Fulkerson, Gregory M., and Alexander R. Thomas. Studies in Urbanormativity: Rural Community in Urban Society. Lexington Books, 2014.7. Melbourne School of Design, “MTALKS - Rem Koolhaas and David Gianotten on countryside.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 3 October 2017. Web. 1 May 2020.larger and better, more interesting and beautiful, whereas villages and small towns are more or less left to their own devices.”8 But it seems Koolhaas’s own imagination for the countryside stops there. OMA’s investigation does not truly support a vibrant future for the hinterland, but sees a blank canvas onto which we can further service the city: building out, rather than up, and making space for those very urban needs that don’t fit into a city.9 While giga-factories and server farms taking up the countryside is not unlike wheat fields and animal farms, the type of architecture Koolhaas forecasts for the landscape is not a human scale, but area buildings which themselves at a global scale. Buildings that, unlike their industrial revolution counterparts, separate workers from work while computer-controlled robots take over.So even in his reflection on the countryside Koolhaas defers to his urbanocentric point-of-view: he’s not looking and asking what the countryside needs, what the people that live there need. He is instead reflecting on the large scale of the landscape and the uber-factories that can be constructed to better serve the urban world, while hiding those production centres away from the eyes of urban residents. Even more-so than the plants and factories that came before them, “Rurality is commodified at the expense of its intrinsic values.”10Urbanocentric points of view are widespread in the architecture community. Alejandro Aravena, of ELEMENTAL, announced at the opening of his TEDTalk 8. Carlow, Vanessa Miriam. “The Relevance of Thinking Rural!” Ruralism: The Future of Villages and Small Towns in an Urbanizing World, edited by Vanessa Miriam Carlow, Jovis, 2016, pp. 6–9.9. Melbourne School of Design, “MTALKS - Rem Koolhaas and David Gianotten on countryside.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 3 October 2017. Web. 1 May 2020.10. Versteegh, Pieter. “Alter Rurality: 18 Aphorisms.” Alter Rurality: Exploring Representations and “Repeasantations”, edited by Pieter Versteegh and Sophia Meeres, Arena, 2015, pp. 21–59.3in 2014, “It’s a fact that people are moving towards cities and even if it’s counterintuitive, it’s good news. Evidence shows that people are better off in cities.”11 But how are people better off in cities? According to one study published in 2017, “…neighbourhoods with high residential density, street intersections, and services were associated with lower risks of obesity.”12 The takeaway here being that cities and large towns with homes and businesses built closely together encourage more walking, and less driving, resulting in a healthier population. This is something that can be designed into a rural community. On the other hand, a study examining happiness in Canadian communities suggests that people in small towns and rural communities live happier lives.13 If living in a rural community or small town means that you will be happier, what can architects do to help develop, or redevelop, these areas to encourage people to move back and restart local economies?Carlow states, “Rural areas and their landscapes oftentimes serve as a medium of collective identity and culture for entire regions.” I contend that nowhere is this truer than in Newfoundland and Labrador. Cod has been, and continues to be, the symbol of Newfoundland and Labrador, its culture and economy. As noted above, the imagery of fish can be found on anything, and found everywhere in the province. But while the province trades on this culture and on its resources, this is not 11. TED, “Alejandro Aravena: My architectural philosophy? Bring the community into the process.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 6 November 2014. Web. 28 March 2020.12. Sarkar, Chinmoy, et al. “Association between Adiposity Outcomes and Residential Density: a Full-Data, Cross-Sectional Analysis of 419 562 UK Biobank Adult Participants.” The Lancet Planetary Health, vol. 1, no. 7, Oct. 2017, doi:10.1016/s2542-5196(17)30119-5.13. Helliwell, John F., et al. “How Happy Are Your Neighbours? Variation in Life Satisfaction among 1200 Canadian Neighbourhoods and Communities.” Plos One, vol. 14, no. 1, 23 May 2019, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210091.reflected in its support for the outports and communities from which it derives these things. Carlow admits that, “Few forward-looking strategies for developing villages and small towns exist,” but she continues, “…there are many rural regions, villages, and small towns, which can prosper from establishing a good working economy in a rural network.”14 What Newfoundland and Labrador needs is just such a strategy to support its rural roots and to develop outport communities in such a way to give people the autonomy and authority needed to thrive in a future with renewed aquaculture resources, and changing technologies which allow people to live more remotely.Newfoundland and LabradorThe history of Newfoundland and Labrador, its successes and failures, booms and busts, settlement and resettlement hinge on the northern cod fishery. From the time that John Cabot discovered North America, and up until the moratorium in 1992, the waters around Newfoundland and Labrador have been harvested for its riches of fish. While this resource sustained Newfoundland and Labrador for most of that time, changes in technology and overfishing by both Canada and foreign nations destroyed the centuries old fishery, and the way of life for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians over those 500 years.15The northern cod stocks are predicted to return to sustainable levels by 2030.16 14. Carlow, Vanessa Miriam. “The Relevance of Thinking Rural!” Ruralism: The Future of Villages and Small Towns in an Urbanizing World, edited by Vanessa Miriam Carlow, Jovis, 2016, pp. 6–9.15. UBC Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, “A brief history of Canada’s iconic Northern cod.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 1 May 2018. Web. 20 April 2020.16. Rose, George A., and Sherrylynn Rowe. “Northern Cod Comeback.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 72, no. 12, 27 Oct. 2015, pp. 1789–1798., doi:10.1139/cjfas-2015-0346.4When they have recouped to their pre-moratorium numbers, the industry cannot return to an offshore, year-round super-trawler fishery; this type of extraction led to the collapse of the cod stocks.17 First, Soviet and European boats came over and started a year-round fishery. This took place post World War II up until the early 1970s, when there was a micro-collapse of the stocks. Eventually, the Canadian government stepped in to stop the foreign fishery. However, the local fishery, inspired by the Soviets and Europeans, began its own year-round, trawler fishery. This ultimately led to the devastation of the cod stocks and the commercial moratorium that is still in place today. Before the Soviet and European initiated trawling happened the smaller, seasonal inshore fishery, that necessarily has smaller boats and thus smaller catch rates, sustained the people of Newfoundland and Labrador. A return to an exclusively inshore fishery could mean the difference between a sustainable, future-proof resource to maintain the lives of another half-millenia of fisher people, or another resource bust that has plagued Newfoundland and Labrador for the last 75 years.18This assessment is also held by fisheries economists outside of Newfoundland and Labrador. Last year a report by Oceana Canada confirmed the projected 2030 date when the cod stocks could be rebuilt.19 Though both favourable environmental conditions and low fishing pressure are needed to see this improvement, the report gives hope. Economically this could result in 26 000 17. UBC Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, “A brief history of Canada’s iconic Northern cod.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 1 May 2018. Web. 20 April 2020.18. “Boom/Bust: Speculations on Architecture and Degrowth.” Lateral Office, www.lateraloffice.com/filter/Exhibition/BOOM-BUST-2019.19. “Northern Cod Fishery Could Provide 16x More Jobs and 5x More Economic Value.” Oceana Canada, 23 May 2019, oceana.ca/en/blog/northern-cod-fishery-could-provide-16x-more-jobs-and-5x-more-economic-value.jobs and $233 million in economic activity, up from about 1600 jobs and $33 million today.20 Already, people are preparing for the new fishery to open up and are expecting it to look much different than the devastating super-trawler fishery of the past.21Where will this wave of economic activity take place? A return to an inshore, seasonal fishery in Newfoundland and Labrador would mean a return to the province’s roots in aquaculture. While there has been crab and shrimp fisheries that have taken the place of the cod fishery, these are offshore industries. A smaller, inshore cod fishery would mean smaller boats. While the size and ruggedness of offshore fishing boats allow for a more centralized fishery, the inshore fishery must remain localized, for practical and safety reasons. With a potential for a future inshore cod fishery, many, now abandoned outports, may become opportunities for new habitation.For decades the government of Newfoundland and Labrador has been pressuring people in small towns and villages to resettle to larger and larger communities in an effort to consolidate resources and save money. While the proponents for resettlement argue that it’s for adequate access to healthcare, education, goods and services, etc., these efforts tend to only provide just enough (financial) incentive to encourage people to move without examining the issues facing the rural and remote communities they are affecting. While moving to a larger community certainly provides better access to hospitals and larger schools, the fractured feeling of being forced out of 20. Ibid.21. Smellie, Sarah. “What If the Cod Came Back? The Push to Reinvent Newfoundland and Labrador’s Fishery | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 4 July 2017, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/cod-comeback-feature-1.4163972.5your home – often against your wishes – takes a toll, while the resettlement process does not guarantee other necessities, such as steady work. This prolonged effort to move people away from their homes is just one of many symptoms of urbanization. There’s an assumption that because the world is becoming more and more urban, people don’t want to live in rural communities. Governments take this perspective when they don’t invest in rural infrastructure, or force people to resettle to larger communities. People in urban environments take this perspective when they advocate for resettlement of smaller communities, even though they will not be impacted by these decisions. Dr Dennis Mulcahy, education professor at Memorial University highlighted this during a CBC NL live stream when he says, “You say, ‘There’s an awful lot of talk in town about resettlement.’ Well, there’s nobody in St. John’s gonna [sic] be resettled, you know, and why are all these townies talking about as if they know something about rural Newfoundland? Well, they don’t!” Resettlement aside, people want to live in Newfoundland and Labrador, and a new generation of people are finding their way to rural communities. Whether to find affordable homes, or to start a business, millennials in Newfoundland and Labrador are moving outside of the urban St. John’s core and setting up in smaller towns.22 John Norman, the mayor of Bonavista says, in the same article, “I’ve helped move in 37 new residents just last year, and the average age was 33.” At the time, Norman was 32.23Bonavista isn’t an isolated example. The community of Centreville-Wareham-22. O’Neill-Yates, Chris. “Young, Educated Business People Swim against N.L. Tide | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 9 Oct. 2017, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/millennials-rural-newfoundland-trend-lifestyle-bonavista-trinity-1.4344151.23. Ibid.Trinity, once three separate communities which amalgamated in 1992, is also seeing people return to this rural town. While fishing isn’t once what it was, the entrepreneurial spirit in Newfoundland and Labrador is offering opportunities for people not just to move rural, but to move back to the province. Shane Noble moved back to Centreville-Wareham-Trinity, from Ontario, to run his family business. At the same time, he invited four other families to come, offering work. “I’ve got an opportunity, if you come back. Every one of them did.”24 This desire to return is strong amongst Newfoundlanders who had to leave for work. Expecting few, or no opportunities, many people leave the province for Ontario and Alberta. But when given the chance to come back with the promise of work they do, and barring that many will start businesses, “…we want to be here, so we create our own opportunities.” Alexa Perry, who moved away from Newfoundland as a child when her parents lost their jobs in the cod fishery, returned to market Newfoundland businesses, “People just don’t understand how much opportunity there is in outport.” She continues, “…if I told anyone that I was moving to Newfoundland to do marketing they’d think I was insane, and it turns out there’s plenty of opportunity here to do marketing.”25Whatever arguments can be made for re-settling abandoned communities for economic reasons, we must still contend with people’s urbanized view of the world. Even if people want to move into rural and remote communities, there are implications that could hold them back. Children are a reason many people move to smaller communities. The perceived safety of a 24. CBC News: The National, “Government encourages residents to abandon their small communities.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 16 March 2018. Web. 21 April 2020.25. CBC News: The National, “Government encourages residents to abandon their small communities.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 16 March 2018. Web. 21 April 2020.6rural town compared to a city and the cost of owning a larger home are two primary reasons. However, if a community is too remote there is a concern that access to education will be a significant barrier that discourages young families from moving into these places.26 In Newfoundland and Labrador, in addition to resettlement efforts, there has been huge efforts to close schools in small communities, and bus children to larger, nearby communities. While these closures are often protested by community members, the position of the government is that, when it comes to schools, bigger is better. Dr. Mulcahy rebukes these claims, “…there’s no ideal size for schools. Good schools come in all sizes; some are too big, some may be too small, but we have strategies and approaches to work with small schools and we always have, whether its multi-grade classrooms or distance education. There’s absolutely no reason to close a school down, if people want to keep it there, because of the size.”27And these kinds of advancements that allow schools to prosper in outport communities aren’t limited to classrooms. “The economic, technological, and political restrictions that once confined a city’s population to remain within the city walls have fallen away,” says Sigrum Langner.28 She continues, “Technological advances […] have eroded the traditional boundaries between the urban and the rural. An urban way of life is now possible more or less everywhere…” This technological expansion allows for the kind of entrepreneurial start up that we 26. Mulcahy, Dennis. Why Rural Education? 13 Nov. 1996, www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/fall96/mulcahy.htm.27. CBC NL – Newfoundland and Labrador, “Rethinking Resettlement in Rural Newfoundland.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 29 November 2017. Web. 20 April 2020.28. Langner, Sigrun. “(R)urban Landscapes. Navigating between the Urban and the Rural Perspective.” Ruralism: The Future of Villages and Small Towns in an Urbanizing World, edited by Vanessa Miriam Carlow, Jovis, 2016, pp. 76–89.are seeing in Bonavista and Centreville-Wareham-Trinity, not to mention people who opt to work from home, whether as freelancers or simply working remotely.How we envision new, or rebuild, outports along Newfoundland’s rugged coast could determine the success or failure of those communities. A new inshore fishery will breathe new life into long abandoned settlements, but it will take more than just salt box houses and dreams to make them work. A well planned, dense community will promote walking and encourage a healthier community; better connections to the world at large, through communication infrastructure, will allow for people to feel comfortable uprooting and moving to more rural locations with family, who may not be involved in a reinvigorated fishery; the opportunity to develop new businesses will diversify the local economy, and further encourage new people to settle there.A New Housing TypologyIn a future with a projected 9.8 billion people on the planet by 205029 we will have greater need for food production, and thus will need people to produce it. While the city may be the de facto residing place for 68% of the population by then, the areas of production will remain in the countryside, and along the coastlines, supporting approximately 3.2 billion people. While most of the rural towns of the future exist today, as I’ve argued above there will be the need to populate, or repopulate, new or abandoned towns, especially along the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline.In those abandoned coastal 29. “World population projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050, and 11.2 billion in 2100.” United Nations, United Nations, 21 June 2017, www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-population-prospects-2017.html.7communities, the existing houses have either become weather-beaten and dilapidated or, in many cases, have been uprooted and moved to new communities. While resettlement forced people to larger communities in the past, it didn’t force them to leave their homes behind. A common sight after a community was resettled were boats towing houses behind them, dragging them against the waves to a new community to begrudgingly call home.30 The need in rural Newfoundland and Labrador, then, is to build anew.But, even when the opportunity to relocate to a new, or renewed, small community exists, how many people will uproot their lives to build a new home from the ground up with no guarantee that others will do the same? While there are many homes for people to move to in existing, larger communities, such as Bonavista, that housing stock doesn’t exist everywhere, and certainly not in a potential new community. Re-settling these outports means the construction of new houses and other infrastructure in preparation for incoming inhabitants. However, building a whole community comes at a price. Any new houses, likely funded by governments, will have to be built at the lowest possible cost. Integrating people into those houses, so that they become homes, is another problem. Once people have moved to an outport, what will make them feel as if both the town, and the house they’ve moved into, will feel like home?In his essay, Housing as a Verb, part of the book, Freedom to Build, dweller control of the housing process, John F C Turner presents a possible solution, but it comes with its own set of issues. Turner proposes 30. Martin, Melanie. “The Resettlement Program.” The Resettlement Program, Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site, 2006, www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/politics/resettlement-program.php.that housing can be provided at a much cheaper cost if we could allow people to complete the houses themselves.31 This sites and services approach, also called incremental building,32 provides people with the half of a house that they would have trouble building themselves, plumbing, electrical, foundations, and then gives them the space to be able to expand upon the this base part of the house provided. This style of development solves both the issue of cost, and making people feel like their house is their home. Over time, the new residents would add and build on their houses into their own idea of a suitable home, on their own terms.33This type of development has not gone untested, either. In some of the most famous examples, Alejandro Aravena and his firm, Elemental, have completed several of these projects, as both urban social housing projects, and disaster relief. With limited budgets, even for Chile and Mexico where these projects have been built, Elemental has been able to supply “half a good home”34 to the new residents of their developments. And there is evidence that not only are people building into the unfinished side of their homes, but because the time, labour and expense of materials going into the unfinished half of their home is their own, the finished houses belong to them. The small investment by the governments to provide social housing has given these people real capital that they’ve invested money, time and effort into creating. They take pride and ownership over their new homes, because of the work 31. Turner, John F.C. “Housing as a Verb.” Freedom to Build Dweller Control of the Housing Process, edited by Robert Fichter and John F.C. Turner, Macmillan, 1972, pp. 148–175.32. Mars, Roman, host. “Half a House.” 99% Invisible, Radiotopia, 11 Oct. 2016. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/half-a-house/33. Ibid.34. TED, “Alejandro Aravena: My architectural philosophy? Bring the community into the process.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 6 November 2014. Web. 28 March 2020.8they put in.35Turner foresaw this type of fulfillment in ownership that comes with being an active participant in housing.36 George Gattoni, an architect and student of Turner explains, “They have the ability, and governments cannot build as well, as quickly and in a way that makes sense to these households.”37 Simply by the government letting people build their own (half) houses, it allows them to have a more significant home much quicker, something that is truly their own, and something that they can call a home. Gattoni concludes, “It sounds odd but believe me, it works!”38Can it work in Newfoundland and Labrador? Dr. Jennifer Stoloff, a researcher with the consulting firm Econometrica and an expert at evaluating government programs in the United States, believes that, at least in the United States, it would not work, “It’s […] very risky. I mean, in a safety way, not just in a financial way,” explaining more plainly, “In the States, there’d be litigation issues.”39 However, for Dr. Stoloff, these aren’t the biggest issues. The United States is a rich country, especially when compared to Chile and Mexico, where these types of projects already exist. Dr. Stoloff believes that, in the United States, for the government to provide only half a house, “would be an embarrassment. So, the United States of America can only build poor people half a house? We would be ashamed of ourselves.” Moreover, she admits, “We don’t like to spend money on poor 35. Mars, Roman, host. “Half a House.” 99% Invisible, Radiotopia, 11 Oct. 2016. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/half-a-house/36. Turner, John F.C. “Housing as a Verb.” Freedom to Build Dweller Control of the Housing Process, edited by Robert Fichter and John F.C. Turner, Macmillan, 1972, pp. 148–175.37. Mars, Roman, host. “Half a House.” 99% Invisible, Radiotopia, 11 Oct. 2016. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/half-a-house/38. Ibid.39. Ibid.people.”Are these issues that we find in Canada generally, and Newfoundland and Labrador specifically? Certainly, there’s a disparity in the infrastructure funding between urban and rural communities, even in Newfoundland. But the existing Infrastructure and Investments plan for Newfoundland and Labrador supports many infrastructure extensions and upgrades that would support building into new rural spaces. Over $100 million dollars of federal funding is allocated directly to Rural and Northern Communities, while a further $300 million can go to any Green Infrastructure. Additionally, over $13 million of provincial money is allocated for road rehabilitation in rural areas.40What about embarrassment? Shame? In this respect, Canada is a very different country than the United States. We don’t have quite the same issues providing services for people who need it. Cyrus Vakili-Zad begins his journal article from the Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law saying, “There are some fundamental differences between Canadian and American societies that impact the development of social policies, especially public housing.”41 And this shows in each countries’ response to the ability of the private sector to provide affordable housing. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation determined that the private sector was unable to adequately provide housing “at an affordable cost for every Canadian,” while the Department of Housing and Urban Development in the United States further relied upon the private sector to 40. Transportation and Works. The Way Forward: A Multi-Year Plan for Infrastructure Investments 2019 Edition. St. John’s: Transportation and Works, 2019. Web.41. Vakili-Zad, Cyrus. “Public Housing: A Summary of Major Differences Between the United States and Canada.” Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law, vol. 11, no. 2, 2002,9provide affordable housing.42Canada is, in many other ways, more socially focused than the United States. Besides our healthcare system, the country also provides fiscal equalization payments to so-called “have-not” provinces, which distributes the wealth of the Nation to provinces facing economic hardship.43 Newfoundland and Labrador, in the past 15 years, has vacillated between a “have” and a “have-not” province, based primarily on the boom and bust of the oil industry in the province. Other programs in Canada include a significant non-profit housing sector, where the government plays a large role in funding housing.44 I believe, in Newfoundland and Labrador, with the proper support, a new local typology can be derived from the theories of Turner, and the examples set by Aravena, and others. Most of what Newfoundlanders and Labradorians do is self-produced – I believe a resource-based economy depends on the kind of ingenuity and problem solving that would fill in the gaps of half a house. The people of Newfoundland and Labrador are as rugged and hearty as the land they live on. Where Dr. Stoloff believes that such housing would be, in the United States, and embarrassment, in Newfoundland and Labrador, the people would see it as an opportunity to make their mark. Especially if it set the stage for a comeback of the cod.Moving ForwardLangner poses some interesting questions in her essay: “How can we understand the current revival of interest in the rural as a space of imagination?” 42. Ibid.43. Ibid.44. Ibid.and “How can we harness this wave of imagination for social and spatial design questions?”45 My intention moving forward is to try to take these questions of Langner’s and develop a new community strategy that is uniquely for a place in Newfoundland and Labrador. As I come to grips with the challenges that face different areas of the province, I intend to home in on one area, and design specifically for that place, taking to heart the words of Dr. Mulcahy that every rural town is different, and a general solution does not exist.Aravena believes, “If there’s any power in design, that’s the power of synthesis. The more complex the problem, the more need for simplicity.”46 My hope is that I can synthesize my personal knowledge and feelings of place with my training over the last three years to develop a project that offers something new, but familiar, to outport Newfoundland and Labrador.45. Langner, Sigrun. “(R)urban Landscapes. Navigating between the Urban and the Rural Perspective.” Ruralism: The Future of Villages and Small Towns in an Urbanizing World, edited by Vanessa Miriam Carlow, Jovis, 2016, pp. 76–89.46. TED, “Alejandro Aravena: My architectural philosophy? Bring the community into the process.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 6 November 2014. Web. 28 March 2020.1011Building in Rural Newfoundland and LabradorIn the first half of this paper, I have explored the viability of building in rural Newfoundland and Labrador, simply attempting to answer the question, is it worth it to do so? Although attempting to revive an abandoned community is an unlikely scenario, we can see that investing in existing communities has great benefits for the people living there, and for the longevity of the towns themselves. As towns are economically reinvigorated by returning jobs in fisheries, a new young population is returning to start new businesses that further bring life to these small towns.However, while the economic and social outlook for some of these towns is bright, what can we, as architects, do to support those communities that will struggle to remain viable into the future? With the advent of aquaculture in rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador new economic infrastructures are an encouraging sign for the future, but an aging population, a lack of economic diversity and, in many cases, a shortage of housing prevents the influx of a young population so desperately needed.Using the town of Hermitage, on Newfoundland’s south coast, to test my thesis, I propose a live/work site within the community to provide new housing and workspaces to make room for the community to grow socially and economically. To do this, I am working in the sphere of low-density, multi-family housing with connected, open-concept workspaces that allow for myriad economic possibilities. To best fit this in to Hermitage, I have taken a hyper-contextual approach to my design decisions to incorporate these new buildings into the surrounding community.12Fish ProcessingPlantFerry WharfGeneral StoreChurchCemeteryPlaygroundGrocery StoreService BuildingHarbour AuthoritySite of NewLive/Work AreaInflow WharfMedical CentreSchoolInnGas Station /Convenience StoreDinerSalt Depot / Maintenance YardHeritageMuseumTown Hall / Fire HallCredit UnionPost Office Figure 02: Town plan of Hermitage13Fish ProcessingPlantFerry WharfGeneral StoreChurchCemeteryPlaygroundGrocery StoreService BuildingHarbour AuthoritySite of NewLive/Work AreaInflow WharfMedical CentreSchoolInnGas Station /Convenience StoreDinerSalt Depot / Maintenance YardHeritageMuseumTown Hall / Fire HallCredit UnionPost OfficeInfrastructural BuildingsResidential BuildingsAccessory BuildingsProject Site14Hermitage is a small community with a population of about 430 located on Newfoundland’s south coast, more than a six-hour drive from St. John’s, the Province’s capital. Historically a cod fishing village, in the last 10 years the aquaculture industry has brought new economic stability to Hermitage and the surrounding communities. With an active fish processing plant in Hermitage, and a nearby salmon farm, nearly 95% of the town is employed by the aquaculture company.In addition to aquaculture, Hermitage is the gateway to Newfoundland’s south coast. As the main ferry hub to the remote, yet destination worthy southern communities, Hermitage is visited by its share of tourists throughout the year, which helps maintain some of the tertiary businesses, such as a diner and a local inn.The aquaculture company is the main driver of the local economy; however, Hermitage is also supported by government-run projects. For example, with the growth of the fish plant and salmon farm, the government supported the development of a new wharf, on the east side of the harbour, directly benefiting boats associated with the salmon farm. The federal government has committed to assist Hermitage with funding to upgrade and maintain major assets within the town.All this to say, Hermitage has the potential for growth with the aquaculture industry and the support of government-funded infrastructure. However, it exhibits the inhibitors I outlined earlier: an aging population, a shortage of housing and no infrastructure for new economic development.The population, and population makeup of Hermitage, has declined steadily since 1986, primarily caused by the collapse of the cod fishery in 199247 and subsequent out-migration for work. In the last fifteen years that decline has slowed, however, the remaining population are people primarily nearing retirement. Comparing the population pyramids, the majority of the population loss are adults in their 20s and 30s, and children48. To help Hermitage become a resilient community, it is clear that a major influx of people, but 47. “Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__.48. Ibid.Hermitage, NL15St. John’sHermitage Figure 03: Map of Newfoundland showing the six-hour drive from St. John’s to Hermitage1685 - 8980 - 8475 - 7965 - 6955 - 5945 - 4935 - 3925 - 2915 - 195 - 970 - 7460 - 6450 - 5440 - 4430 - 3420 - 2410 - 140 - 485 - 8980 - 8475 - 7965 - 6955 - 5945 - 4935 - 3925 - 2915 - 195 - 970 - 7460 - 6450 - 5440 - 4430 - 3420 - 2410 - 140 - 460 6040Male Female4020 200Hermitage-SandyvillePopulation PyramidHermitage-Sandyville, 1986Hermitage-SandyvillePopulation Pyramid85 - 8980 - 8475 - 7965 - 6955 - 5945 - 4935 - 3925 - 2915 - 195 - 970 - 7460 - 6450 - 5440 - 4430 - 3420 - 2410 - 140 - 485 - 8980 - 8475 - 7965 - 6955 - 5945 - 4935 - 3925 - 2915 - 195 - 970 - 7460 - 6450 - 5440 - 4430 - 3420 - 2410 - 140 - 460 6040Male Female4020 200Hermitage-Sandyville, 201601002003004005006007008008357556906054954654309001986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016Hermitage Population Change Table 01: Population change in Hermitage from 1986 to 2016Source: “Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__. Table 02: Comparison of Population Makeup in Hermitage between 1986 and 2016Source: “Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__.17 Table 03: Household Income vs Personal IncomeSource: “Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__.primarily young families, are needed to inject the town with the new and future workers.However, without new housing developments in Hermitage there will be no new families moving there. Finding space for new development is difficult. Hermitage, like many other harbour towns, has limited space for expansion and is additionally hindered as it is flanked by mountains, making developable land is scarce. Similar to housing, this spatial restraint within Hermitage limits expansion of alternate industries and the development of new, micro-local economies.Housing availability is further complicated by the average household makeup. According to income data49 there are, on average, three income earners per household. The result is that, even as people age in Hermitage, housing will not become available as one would expect.49. “Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__.Personal Income$30 000$45 000$60 000$75 000$90 000$15 000Household IncomeComparison of average Personal Incometo average Household Income inHermitage, NL18The inspiration for the development of the project came from the informal relationship between groups of houses, the road, shared driveways and yards; the existing town and site conditions that indicate existing uses by the community at large; and the building forms found within the community, and throughout Newfoundland and Labrador. Considering Figure 04, demonstrating a few examples taken from within Hermitage of the spatial organization of groups of homes, we can see that, while not all the houses necessarily have a direct relationship to the road, there is an interrelationship that forms spaces that act as front, back and side yard. This arrangement and relationship of houses indicates a very different context than that of urban or suburban homes, hinting at an existing shared living arrangement amongst residents; your neighbour may be your sibling, parent or child, sharing communal gardens, with an interconnectedness between the houses, landscape, sheds and accessory buildings.In addition to these shared spaces created by homes, unprogrammed interstitial spaces around the community are also found and used as a utility landscape. The Google Street View images found on pages 21 and 22 show the various existing uses of the area along the side of the road around the harbour. Dry docked boats and trailers, seasonal storage for lobster traps and, in particular, stacked wood ready to be cut into firewood are sprinkled around the harbour, and throughout the town.Throughout Hermitage, there is an evident colour convention distinguishing the houses from the waterside sheds, as seen in the Google Street View images on page 23. Though not universal, homes in Hermitage are primarily painted white, contrasting the landscape. Meanwhile, the workspaces are generally painted red.Outside the specific context of the town, I drew from the vernacular architectural history of Newfoundland and Labrador, taking formal inspiration from the salt box and biscuit box houses found throughout the province. Characterized by asymmetrical pitched roofs, the existing form was developed to handle the climate of North Atlantic coastal living - these forms are also found throughout England and Ireland.Rural Context19 Figure 04: Spatial organization of homes in Hermitage Figure 05: Conceptual massing diagram20 Figure 06: Dry docked boats on the side of the road Figure 08: Storing lobster traps along the water’s edge Figure 07: Boat trailer stored on the side of the road21 Figure 09: Stacked wood ready to be chopped for fire wood Figure 11: Transporting chopped firewood from the side of the road Figure 10: Chopped firewood along the side of the road22 Figure 12: The streets of Hermitage are lined with white painted houses Figure 13: White homes are juxtaposed with red work sheds Figure 14: Most of the work sheds in Hermitage are painted red23 Figure 15: Existing Site Condition Figure 16: ATV Path through Site Figure 17: Existing trees near Site24Based on my evaluation of Hermitage, its population makeup and its need to expand the business possibilities there, my proposal provides a place that welcomes new families into the town, connects them with the community at large, and provides space for remote workers and entrepreneurs to help diversify the local economy. To do this, I am working in the sphere of low-density, multi-family housing with connected workspaces that are open concept allowing for myriad work possibilities. To that end, the program of the project can be distilled to three main categories: housing, workshop/Office and community gathering space.This program is similar to the reconstruction project designed by Rural Urban Framework (RUF) for Jintai Village in China. Houses that act as both residence and farmland are clustered together, creating pedestrian paths around them where work and commerce can take place. Beside them is a built community space, where residents of the village meet to congregate and eat together. RUF’s design is a post-disaster envisioning of the rural community - how does architecture act in a rural community that has been devastated by natural disaster? What can architecture bring to a rural community to allow it to help itself?My project asks a similar question, but the disaster in question is economic, not natural. I’m curious how architects in particular, but also politicians, economists and small town residents, think about rural towns as more than a place for retirement, but as lively, growing spaces of economic experimentation and growth.To fit this into Hermitage, I have taken a hyper-contextual approach to my design decisions to best incorporate these new buildings into the surrounding community. The informal elements found throughout the town were key to my understanding of Hermitage, and the type of buildings and spaces that could manifest on the site. Addressing these directly led to the development of the site plan, the use of landscape elements, and the form of the buildings.Recognizing the informal development of land throughout Hermitage, the siting of the buildings developed from a block-style arrangement, and progressing to the organic relationship in the final design (Figure 18). This arrangement also allowed the prevention  A Design for Rural Resiliency25of direct sight lines into neighbouring units. The basic principles of orientation, distance and obstructions were all employed to best provide privacy between residences. So, where adequate orientation or distance was not possible, trees became the obstruction of choice. Additionally, the slope of the site allows for windows to be offset from one group of houses to the next. As shown in the site section, the buildings have a relationship to each other, the internal landscape of the site, and views out into the harbour.The site developed from a perspective of radical modesty. While thoughts of towers, and high-density housing came to mind, the context of the town demanded something simpler, allowing more room in the landscape for unclaimed territories to emerge. The spaces in between the building groups are left open, divided by long grass, existing vegetation on the site, which I’ve also used for filtration and drainage along the roadways. The organic way this grass is cut back around the site is indicative of how much of the land is used – the buildings don’t sit on delineated plots, and so  Figure 18: Site development process26there’s no fence line, or property boundary. The space cleared is as much, or as little, as needed.Spaces near residences may be cleared for family gatherings, a place to put a picnic table and a barbecue. The land around workshops, especially next to entrances, can be cleared as work spills out of the building.The gravel road through the site, an existing path originally beaten down by ATVs (see photo on page 23), leads into the site and directly to the central community gathering space. The path also feeds directly to the public facing workspaces, allowing for commercial businesses to develop there. At the centre of the gathering space is a fire pit, inspired by the stacks of firewood found all along the sides of the roads throughout the town.The design of the homes was developed through a deconstruction and reinterpretation of the salt box and biscuit box houses found throughout Newfoundland and Labrador. As seen in Figure 05, the basic form was split into three parts and operations of shifting and rotation used to re-imagine the forms as a grouping of units, rather than a single family home. These rearrangements provided two, two-story units and one single-story unit in each grouping. Figure 19 shows the early stages of this process, which also investigated the relationship of the residences to the workshops, and the semi-private space created through that relationship. This private yard space, shared by the three families living in the homes, is accentuated by the workshops, which turn away from the yard space, and only look out into the landscape of the site. From the residents perspective, the workshops provide blank walls to protect the semi-private space from other people.A lot of thought was put into how people entered these buildings. How can you enter a home, but not get rained on? The homes all share a common inset, that provides cover from the elements while people fumble with keys to unlock their front door. This small porch space can also be used for firewood storage, to fuel the wood stove provided in each home. The orientation of the attached forms was also a consideration when imagining how people would arrive at these homes. Roof pitches were are oriented in such a way that when residents walk towards the entrance of their home, rain or snow runoff won’t drip on them, or fall creating a buildup problem outside their front door.27 Figure 19: Relationship of housing to workshops arrangement processThe first floor plan of each unit has all the program needed to allow people to move in right away, and have a space to sleep, cook, work and lounge. Upon entering each residence, the kitchen is the first room seen, reminiscent of traditional homes in Newfoundland and Labrador. In most units, the view through the home from the front door looks straight to the back door leading to the yard.The workshops take their form from the simple box forms of the existing sheds found throughout Hermitage. A simple 90° turn of one workshop helps to form the corner of the shared yard, and provides enough space in the workshops for multiple kinds of business opportunities, while also allowing enough separation for multiple different types of work to take place.28Site Section Figure 20: Site Plan29Site Section30 Figure 21: Site Section3132Section 1Section 2 Figure 22: Plan of Housing A33Section 1Section 234Section 3Section 4 Figure 23: Plan of Housing B35Section 3Section 436 Figure 24: Section 1, Housing A3738 Figure 25: Section 2, Housing A3940 Figure 26: Section 3, Housing B4142 Figure 27: Section 4, Housing B4344 Figure 28: Residence Interior Figure 29: Workspace Interior Figure 30: Fire Pit at Night45 Figure 31: Workspace Vignette 1 - Woodworking and Bike Building Figure 32: Workspace Vignette 2 - Recording Studio and Rehearsal Space Figure 33: Workspace Vignette 3 - Cafe4647As architects, we have a tendency to focus on the urban environment, the urban condition, the urban population. How do we house them, where do they work and how do they interact with the City and other people? I contend we can, and should be asking the same questions in rural communities. We must use our talents as designers, as planners, as dreamers, to benefit the population outside the metropolis. Yes, in 2050 there could be 6.5 billion people living in urban environments, but there will still be 3.5 billion living in the countryside. What’s more, and as I’ve discussed at length throughout this proposal, we will need to encourage, and provide for, new generations of people moving to small towns and communities. Like Hermitage, many of our rural areas are production centres. In Newfoundland and Labrador the majority of this production is food-based, and maintaining this supply chain is critical as the world’s population grows. I believe it is critical that architects, politicians, community planners, invested companies, and community residents themselves take actions that encourage new growth in small towns. Economic considerations are key to the positive social development of small communities, and the diversification of the economy in these areas is key to their long-term resiliency. In Newfoundland and Labrador, many of these rural communities are hundreds of years old and, in the years leading up to the cod moratorium, were vibrant and economically stable. The task now is to find ways to make them resilient for hundreds of years to come.Conclusion4849Precedents50 Figure 35: Site Plan, AKA Patagonia Figure 34: Photo: AKA Patagonia51AKA Patagonia is a small, rural hotel in Chile. Designed by Chilean architecture firm Larrou Arq, the modules (rooms) sit askew of each other, all looking out over the horizon, with views of the mountain ranges and volcanoes that line much of the coast of Chile.The design of the buildings, the six modules and the communal building, mimic the varied slopes of the mountains tops they look onto, while the orientation of the modules allow people to interact between modules while on the attached porches, but are turned and separated just enough to prevent people from staring directly into other units.The communal building at the back of the site encourages strangers to meet, talk and eat together. The enclosed courtyard between the modules and the communal building creates further opportunities for guests to meet, and get to know each other.Architect Pablo Larroulet describes the concept of the project:“The meeting of the elements hits you at first sight, the connection between water and glacier, rock and mountain, tree and earth; a contrast of materials, forms and colors, between the solid and the liquid, between the mountain gorge and the valley plain.The roots of this project lie in this concept: encounter and contrast, an architecture that emerges from the earth and becomes part of nature, rupturing forms that rise up like mountains, volcanoes and glaciers on the horizon of Puerto Natales.”5050. “AKA Patagonia.” LARROU ARQ, larrou.com/proyectos/akapatagonia.AKA Patagonia (2019) - LARROU ARQ52 Figure 36: Photo: Jintai Village Figure 37: Site Plan, Jintai Village53The Jintai Village Reconstruction is a project that demonstrates how rural communities can be revitalized, even after extreme disaster. Built to accommodate the people who lost their homes twice – once in 2008 in an earthquake, and again in 2011 by flooding – architects John Lin and Joshua Bolchover, along with landscape architect Dorothy Tang have developed a scheme that is both architecturally marvelous and socially and environmentally sustainable.51 Though the buildings are all very repetitive in their form, they offer four different types of houses. These differ in size and function.52 In addition, the houses apply new uses for existing local materials, and provide spaces for livestock, as well as green roofs. In addition to the houses, there is a community centre that includes a rooftop garden, where members can congregate to meet and eat.  The houses and the community centre are all clustered tightly together, creating interstitial spaces that feel like an inner-city neighbourhood, making the new community as walkable as an urban neighbourhood. In addition, the ground levels were planned to allow for workshops and businesses to take place. Rural Urban Framework focused in on the local culture and rhythm of life when designing this village, saying, “By relating various programs of the village to an ecological cycle, environment responsiveness is heightened, transforming the village into a model for nearby areas.”5351. Griffiths, Alyn. “Rural Urban Framework Builds Post-Disaster Housing in China.” Dezeen, 24 Oct. 2017, www.dezeen.com/2017/10/21/rural-urban-framework-builds-post-disaster-housing-china-rooftop-farms/.52. Ibid.53. Ibid.Jintai Village Reconstruction (2014) - Rural Urban Framework54 Figure 38: Render of Interior Courtyard, 8 Houses in Chiba Figure 39: Plan and Section of 8 Houses in Chiba558 Houses in Chiba was a competition submission, reinvisioning the relationship between house and landscape. The concept, originating from an analysis of the differences between the foundations and roofs of Japanese and western homes by Junichiro Tanizaki54, raises the homes above the ground plane.By lifting these spaces up off the ground, an open connection between the street and inner courtyard is made, while maintaining the privacy of the residences above.Nicolas Dorval-Bory describes this building to landscape relationship:“...we choose not to yield to the temptation of suburban individualism, one of the causes of the disappearance of social ties and greater consumer of land. Thus, it is in an elegant form of collective housing that we integrate our eight houses. In a mix of collective courtyard housing and patio house typologies, we create a large volume in the periphery of the plot that clears the central space, large garden shared by the inhabitants.”55 54. “Dorval-Bory . Bétillon.” afasiaarchzine.com, afasiaarchzine.com/2020/06/dorval-bory-roof-house-chiba/.55. “Logements Roof house,” Nicolas Dorval-Bory Architectes, www.nicolasdorvalbory.fr/project:roof-house.8 Houses in Chiba (2012 - Competition) - Bétillon / Dorval-Bory5657“68% Of the World Population Projected to Live in Urban Areas by 2050, Says UN | UN DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs.” United Nations, United Nations, www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html.“AKA Patagonia.” LARROU ARQ, larrou.com/proyectos/akapatagonia.“Apan Rural Housing Prototype / Francisco Pardo Arquitecto.” ArchDaily, ArchDaily, 9 Oct. 2019, www.archdaily.com/925997/apan-rural-housing-prototype-francisco-pardo-arquitecto.“Boom/Bust: Speculations on Architecture and Degrowth.” Lateral Office, lateraloffice.com/filter/Exhibition/BOOM-BUST-2019.Bunce, Michael. Rural Settlement in an Urban World. St. Martins Pr., 1982.Carlow, Vanessa Miriam, editor. 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Lexington Books, 2014.Griffiths, Alyn. “Rural Urban Framework Builds Post-Disaster Housing in China.” Dezeen, 24 Oct. 2017, www.dezeen.com/2017/10/21/rural-urban-framework-builds-post-disaster-housing-china-rooftop-farms/.Helliwell, John F., et al. “How Happy Are Your Neighbours? Variation in Life Satisfaction among 1200 Canadian Neighbourhoods and Communities.” Plos One, vol. 14, no. 1, 23 May 2019, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210091.“Hermitage-Sandyville Profile.” Hermitage-Sandyville Profile - Community Accounts, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, nl.communityaccounts.ca/profiles.asp?_=vb7En4WVgaauzXJnXg__.“Logements Roof house,” Nicolas Dorval-Bory Architectes, www.nicolasdorvalbory.fr/project:roof-house.Mars, Roman, host. “Half a House.” 99% Invisible, Radiotopia, 11 Oct. 2016. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/half-a-house/McKenzie-Sutter, Holly. “Study Shows Economic Benefits of Patient Approach to Northern Cod Recovery.” Atlantic, CTV News, 24 May 2019, atlantic.ctvnews.ca/study-shows-economic-benefits-of-patient-approach-to-northern-cod-recovery-1.4436544.Melbourne School of Design, “MTALKS - Rem Koolhaas and David Gianotten on countryside.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 3 October 2017. Web. 1 May 2020.“Monterrey Housing / ELEMENTAL.” ArchDaily, ArchDaily, 9 Mar. 2010, www.archdaily.com/52202/monterrey-housing-elemental.“More than Half of World’s Population Now Living in Urban Areas, UN Survey Finds | UN News.” United Nations, United Nations, 10 July 2014, news.un.org/en/story/2014/07/472752-more-half-worlds-population-now-living-urban-areas-un-survey-finds.59Mulcahy, Dennis. Why Rural Education? 13 Nov. 1996, www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/fall96/mulcahy.htm.“Northern Cod Fishery Could Provide 16x More Jobs and 5x More Economic Value.” Oceana Canada, 23 May 2019, oceana.ca/en/blog/northern-cod-fishery-could-provide-16x-more-jobs-and-5x-more-economic-value.O’Neill-Yates, Chris. “Young, Educated Business People Swim against N.L. Tide | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 9 Oct. 2017, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/millennials-rural-newfoundland-trend-lifestyle-bonavista-trinity-1.4344151.Rose, George A., and Sherrylynn Rowe. “Northern Cod Comeback.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 72, no. 12, 27 Oct. 2015, pp. 1789–1798., doi:10.1139/cjfas-2015-0346.Sarkar, Chinmoy, et al. “Association between Adiposity Outcomes and Residential Density: a Full-Data, Cross-Sectional Analysis of 419 562 UK Biobank Adult Participants.” The Lancet Planetary Health, vol. 1, no. 7, Oct. 2017, doi:10.1016/s2542-5196(17)30119-5.“Seattle Supersonics Logo and Uniform History.” National Basketball Association (NBA) - Chris Creamer’s Sports Logos Page - SportsLogos.Net, www.sportslogos.net/logos/list_by_team/241/Seattle_Supersonics/.“Self-Produced Rural Housing / JC Arquitectura + Kiltro Polaris Arquitectura.” ArchDaily, ArchDaily, 4 Dec. 2019, www.archdaily.com/929486/self-produced-rural-housing-jc-arquitectura-plus-kiltro-polaris-arquitectura.Smellie, Sarah. “What If the Cod Came Back? The Push to Reinvent Newfoundland and Labrador’s Fishery | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 4 July 2017, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/cod-comeback-feature-1.4163972.  TED, “Alejandro Aravena: My architectural philosophy? Bring the community into the process.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 6 November 2014. Web. 28 March 2020.60Transportation and Works. The Way Forward: A Multi-Year Plan for Infrastructure Investments 2019 Edition. St. John’s: Transportation and Works, 2019. Web.Turner, John F.C. “Housing as a Verb.” Freedom to Build Dweller Control of the Housing Process, edited by Robert Fichter and John F.C. Turner, Macmillan, 1972, pp. 148–175.UBC Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, “A brief history of Canada’s iconic Northern cod.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 1 May 2018. Web. 20 April 2020.Vakili-Zad, Cyrus. “Public Housing: A Summary of Major Differences Between the United States and Canada.” Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law, vol. 11, no. 2, 2002, pp. 111–115.Versteegh, Pieter. “Alter Rurality: 18 Aphorisms.” Alter Rurality: Exploring Representations and “Repeasantations”, edited by Pieter Versteegh and Sophia Meeres, Arena, 2015, pp. 21–59. “World population projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050, and 11.2 billion in 2100.” United Nations, United Nations, 21 June 2017, www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-population-prospects-2017.html. 61Illustrative CreditsFigure 01: Case, Graham. “Site Perspective.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 02: Case, Graham. “Town plan of Hermitage.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 03: Case, Graham. “Map of Newfoundland showing the six-hour drive from St. John’s to Hermitage.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 04: Case, Graham. “Spatial organization of homes in Hermitage.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 05: Case, Graham. “Conceptual massing diagram.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 06: “Dry docked boats on the side of the road.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 07: “Boat trailer stored on the side of the road.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 08: “Storing lobster traps along the water’s edge.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 09: “Stacked wood ready to be chopped for fire wood.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 10: “Chopped firewood along the side of the road .” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 11: “Transporting chopped firewood from the side of the   road.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.62Figure 12: “The streets of Hermitage are lined with white painted houses .” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 13: “White homes are juxtaposed with red work sheds.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 14: “Most of the work sheds in Hermitage are painted red .” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 15: “Existing site condition.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 16: “ATV Path through Site.” Google Maps, 2020, maps.google.com.Figure 17: “Existing trees near Site.” Google Street View, 2013, maps.google.com.Figure 18: Case, Graham. “Site development process.” Unpublished photo, 2020.Figure 19: Case, Graham. “Relationship of housing to workshops arrangement process.” Unpublished photo, 2020.Figure 20: Case, Graham. “Site Plan.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 21: Case, Graham. “Site Section.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 22: Case, Graham. “Plan of Housing A.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 23: Case, Graham. “Plan of Housing B.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 24: Case, Graham. “Section 1, Housing A.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 25: Case, Graham. “Section 2, Housing A.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 26: Case, Graham. “Section 3, Housing B.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 27: Case, Graham. “Section 4, Housing B.” Unpublished image, 2020.63Figure 28: Case, Graham. “Residence Interior.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 29: Case, Graham. “Workspace Interior.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 30: Case, Graham. “Fire Pit at Night.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 31: Case, Graham. “Workspace Vignette 1 - Woodworking and Bike Building.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 32: Case, Graham. “Workspace Vignette 2 - Recording Studio and Rehearsal Space.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 33: Case, Graham. “Workspace Vignette 3 - Cafe.” Unpublished image, 2020.Figure 34: Del Villar, Fernanda. AKA Patagonia. Larrou Arq, https://larrou.com/proyectos/akapatagonia.Figure 35: Case, Graham. “Site Plan, AKA Patagonia.” Unpublished sketch, 2020.Figure 36: Rural Urban Framework. Jintai Village. Rural Urban Framework, http://rufwork.org/index.php?/project/jintai-village/.Figure 37: Rural Urban Framework. Master Plan, Jintai Village. Rural Urban Framework, https://www.archdaily.com/882714/jintai-village-reconstruction-rural-urban-framework.Figure 38: Betillon, Raphael and Nicolas Dorval-Bory. Render of Interior Courtyard, 8 Houses in Chiba. https://www.designboom.com/architecture/betillon-dorval-bory-8-houses-in-chiba/.Figure 39: Case, Graham. “Plan and Section of 8 Houses in Chiba.” Unpublished sketch, 2020.

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