UBC Graduate Research

Wayang Kan, Ze Ke 2020-12

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WayangbyZe Ke KanBachelor of Arts, B.A in Anthropology University of British Columbia (UBC), 2015Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of ArchitectureinThe Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee:Thena Tak (chair)Leslie Van DuzerDaniel CarlsonThe University of British ColumbiaCanada December 2020 ©WAYANGiiWAYANGZE KE KAN This project seeks to engage an architecture of affect and desire through re-mythologizing. It comes from the belief that it is through re-mythologizing that the aesthetic event in architecture reveals itself. Wayang is an exploration of remythologizing the public realm through architecture as symbolic vessels, and by engaging a project that remythologizes, it brings attention to the affective potential in architecture.  In Dossier #1 the project discusses the ideas and concepts by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari as productive and creative forces to conceptualize architecture. It discusses desire and affect as an emergent force by which ideas, concepts, relationships enter into a heterogenesis. It is a dynamic force between a multiplicity of references. Dossier #1 also discusses the potentiality of film and montage, which places architecture within the realm of our collective imagination. Film and montage has the ability to be transversal, entangling a wide range of frames and territories. It necessitates different expectations for producing architecture.  In Dossier #2 the project begins to explore remythologizing. Beginning with the creation of 20 symbols, that gradually begin to form their own territory. Although these territories appear singular, they are interconnected, they begin to inform one another. This process of informing one another, explored through a drawing called Synchronicity. Synchronicity can be understood as a form of abstract notation by which these symbols acausally affect one another. Lastly, are stills from the short film Wayang, that was produced to explore 5 of the 20 symbols.ABSTRACTv vi FRONT MATTERABSTRACTCONTENTSLIST OF FIGURESACKNOWLEDGMENTS DOSSIER #1:2 DESIREDESIRING MACHINEMACHINIC ASSEMBLAGEMONAD/NOMAD-OLOGYREVALUATION OF ALL VALUES36 AFFECT/AFFECTIONREALPOLITIKPROPAGANDACARTOGRAPHY58 THE CITYNON PLACESMONTAGEMONTAGE/COLLAGEMISE EN ABYMEMORPHOLOGIE  DOSSIER #2:118 WAYANGRE-MYTHOLOGIZESYMBOLSSYNCHRONICITYWAYANG END MATTER456 BIBLIOGRAPHYviviiiixxiv139192331374749555965697581117119123145155457vii viiiCONTENTSLIST OF FIGURESFig. 1 British Airways. Six British Airways Concorde aircraft  stand nose to nose at Heathrow, n.d. https://www. dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6763597/Fifty-years- Concorde-supersonic-jet-1-350mph-speed-world- smaller-place.html; p.4Fig. 2 Holzer, Jenny. From Truisms (1977-79), Electronic sign  at Dupont Circle, Washington DC. 1986. https://www. forbes.com/sites/joanneshurvell/2020/04/22/limited- edition-print-by-jenny-holzer-created-for-50th- anniversary-of-earth-day-with-all-proceeds- to-arts-charity-and-whos-covid-19-solidarity-response- fund/#6a055db05fb3.; p.6Fig. 3 Tinguely, Jean. Homage to New York : a self-contructing  and self-destroying work of art. March 17, 1960. https:// www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3369.; p.10Fig. 4 Lindner, Richard. Boy with Machine, 1954. https://www. artbasel.com/catalog/artwork/19429/Richard-Lindner- Boy-with-Machine.; p.12Fig. 5 Goebbels, Heiner. Stifters Dinge, 2018. https://www. pewcenterarts.org/event/heiner-goebbels-stifters- dinge.; p.16Fig. 6 Still from The Ax Fight. Directed by Asch, Timothy,  Napoleon A. Chagnon and Documentary Educational  Resources (Firm). Watertown, MA: Documentary  Educational Resources, 2007.; p.18Fig. 7 The Monad, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.22Fig. 8 Bussotti, Sylvano, Siciliano, n.d.  https:// guardareleggere.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/131- bussotti-siciliana.jpg; p.24Fig. 9 Dutert, Fernand, Hall of the Palais des Machines. 1889.  https://www.atlasofplaces.com/architecture/galerie-des- machines/; p.26Fig. 10 Dutert, Fernand, Grand  Vestibule of the Palais des  Machines. 1889. Brown University Library Center for  Digital Scholarship.https://library.brown.edu/cds/ catalog/catalog.; p.28 php?verb=render&colid=6&id=1254162967203122.Fig. 11 Wall, Jeff, The Destroyed Room, 1978. https://gagosian. com/artists/jeff-wall/.; p.30Fig. 12 Pistoletto, Michelangelo, Seventeen Less One, 2009.  http://thisistomorrow.info/articles/michelangelo- pistoletto-seventeen-less-one.; p.34Fig. 13 Unknown, Wasp Orchird (Ophrys speculum), n.d.  http://k-punk.org/wasp-and-orchid/.; p.38Fig. 14 Hannes, F. Paulus, The flower of a mirror orchid (Ophrys  speculum) together with its pollinator, a dagger wasp  from the genus Dasyscolia, n.d. https://www.museum- joanneum.at/naturkundemuseum/ihr-besuch/ programm/events/event/1550/getaeuschte-maennchen;  p.41Fig. 15 van Agtmael, Peter, Donald Trump speaking at  a rally. Montoursville, Pennsylvania, USA, May 20, 2019,  Magnum Photos. https://www.magnumphotos.com/ newsroom/photography-trump-manipulation-politics- election-susan-meiselas-peter-agtmael/; p.45Fig. 16 Meiselas, Susan, Donald J. Trump speaks to the  RNC. Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 2016, Magnum Photos.  https://www.magnumphotos.com/newsroom/ photography-trump-manipulation-politics-election- susan-meiselas-peter-agtmael/; p.46Fig. 17 Unknown, Torches of Freedom Easter Day Parade, New  York, 1929. https://medium.com/@KIS8/penetrating-the- middle-east-and-africa-b1bb9383a621; p.50Fig. 18 Virginia Slims. Women’s Liberation, 1971, Print  advertisement. Phillip Morris International Inc. http:// tobacco.stanford.edu/tobacco_web/images/tobacco_ ads/targeting_women/womens_lib/large/lib_14.jpg;  p.52Fig. 19 Unknown, Edith Lee smokes a cigarette on the ‘Torches  for Freedom’ march, New York, 1929. https://www. historytoday.com/miscellanies/original-influencer; p.53Fig. 20 Piker, Daniel, “Three-body problem 3D”. Vimeo video,  2:10,  May 24, 2010. https://vimeo.com/11993047.; p.56Fig. 21 Rossi, Aldo, Citta Analoga, Collage, 1977. https:// relationalthought.wordpress.com/2012/01/24/330/.; p.60Fig. 22 Klee, Paul, Ein Blatt aus dem Städtebuch, 46 (N 6),  1928.http://sammlungonline.kunstmuseumbaselix x .ch/eMuseumPlus?service=ExternalInterface&modu le=collection&objectId=1205&view Type=detailView;  p.62Fig. 23 Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, Friedrichstrasse  Skyscraper Project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany, 1922. https:// www.bauhaus.de/de/programm/sammlung/211_ architektur/513; p.66Fig. 24 Griffin, David and Hans Kollhoff, City of Composite  Presence in Collage City by Colin Rowe and Fred  Koetter, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press , 1978.; p.68Fig. 25 Koolhaas, Rem, Vreisendorp, Madelon, Zenghelis,  Elia and Zoe Zenghelis, Exodus, or the voluntary  prisoners of architecture, 1972, Architectural Association  Thesis. http://socks-studio.com/2011/03/19/exodus-or- the-voluntary-prisoners-of-architecture/.; p.70Fig. 26 Marker, Chris. La jetée: Ciné-Roman. 1st ed. Brooklyn,  NY;Cambridge, Mass;: Zone Books, 1992.; p.72-73Fig. 27 Warburg, Aby, The Mnemosyne Atlas, Tafel  39 (recovered). 1924-1929. https://www.e-flux.com/ announcements/315225/aby-warburg-bilderatlas- mnemosyne-the-original/.; p.76Fig. 28 Iskra, David, Adam Curtis visuals for Massive Attack  live in San Francisco, September 9, 2019. http:// floodmagazine.com/67908/live-in-photos-massive- attack-brings-mezzanine-to-san-francisco/.; p.78Fig. 29 BuzzFeed Video, “You Won’t Believe What Obama Says  In This Video!.” YouTube video, 1:12, April17, 2018. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQ54GDm1eL0.; p.79Fig. 30 Ungers, O. M. Morphologie: City Metaphors. 2. Aufl. ed.  Köln;New York;: Walther König, 2011. cover.; p.80Fig. 31 Marker, Chris, A Grin Without a Cat, 2014. Whitechappel  Gallery. https://www.nicologallio.com/2014/06/chris- marker-whitechapel-gallery/.; p.82 Fig. 32 Lost in Translation. Directed by Sofia Coppola. San  Francisco: American Zoetrope, 2003.; p.84Fig. 33 CNN, “RUMSFELD / KNOWNS.” YouTube video, 0:26,  Shot on February 12, 2002 republished March 31, 2016.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REWeBzGuzCc.;  p.86Fig. 34 Blarneylady, “Admiring Mona Lisa by Leonardo  da Vinci, Louvre Museum Paris, France, May 22nd,  2009.” YouTube video, 2:29, May 27, 2009. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=xCTH8ht2RuA.; p.88Fig. 35 BBC Earth Unplugged, “Flying into the Eye of Hurricane  Harvey.” Youtube video, 8:00, May 4, 2019. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=AFJYjylsWss&t=197s.; p.90Fig. 36 Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the  Media. Directed by Mark Achbar, and Peter Wintonick.  New York: Zeitgeist Films, 2009.; p.92Fig. 37 Samsara. Directed by Ron Fricke. New York: Oscilloscop e Laboratories, 2011.; p.94Fig. 38 Mirror. Directed by Andrei  Tarkovsky. Moscow:  Mosfilm, 1975.; p.96Fig. 39 Requiem for a Dream. Directed by Darren Aronofsky.  New York: Thousand Words and Protozoa Pictures,  2000.; p.98Fig. 40 grrgamel, “Karlheinz Stockhausen “Helicopter String  Quartet”. Youtube video, 2:17, Oct 1, 2007. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=13D1YY_BvWU.; p.100Fig. 41 Three Colours: Blue. Directed by Krzysztof Kieslowski.  Paris: Canal+ Group, 1993.; p.102Fig. 42 Samsara. Directed by Ron Fricke. New York: Oscillosco pe Laboratories, 2011.; p.104Fig. 43 Koyaanisqatsi. Directed by Godfrey Reggio. San  Francisco: American Zoetrope, 1982.; p.106Fig. 44 2001: A Space Odyssey. Directed by Stanley Kubrick.  London: Hawk Films, 1968. p.108Fig. 45 Zabriskie Point. Directed by Michelangelo Antonioni.  Beverly Hills: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1970.; p.110Fig. 46 Misc Jockey, “Andy Warhol releasing silver balloons  (1965)”. Youtube video, 1:07, April 30, 2015. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=besJaZyPqS8.; p.112Fig. 47 Mirror. Directed by Andrei  Tarkovsky. Moscow:  Mosfilm, 1975.; p.114Fig. 48 J.E. Bulloz, Venus de Milo, Melos, c. 150 BC., Louvre,  Paris. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Venus-de- Milo#/media/1/625740/92058; p.120Fig. 49 Symbols, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.122Fig. 50 Accident, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.124Fig. 51 Beauty, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.125Fig. 52 Darkness, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.126Fig. 53 Death, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.127Fig. 54 Destruction, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.128Fig. 55 Dreams, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.129Fig. 56 Feast, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.130Fig. 57 Memory, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.131Fig. 58 Gaze, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.132Fig. 59 Labyrinth, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.133Fig. 60 Lightness, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.134Fig. 61 Metamorphosis, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.135Fig. 62 Noise, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.136Fig. 63 Revolution, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.137Fig. 64 Secrets, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.138Fig. 65 The Moon, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.139Fig. 66 The Cut, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.140Fig. 67 Time, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.141Fig. 68 Twin, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.142Fig. 69 Velocity, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.143Fig. 70 Synchronicity, Illustration by author, 2020.; p.144Fig. 71 Synchronicity detail 1, Illustration by author, 2020.;  p.146-147Fig. 72 Synchronicity detail 2, Illustration by author, 2020.;  p.148-149Fig. 73 Synchronicity detail 3, Illustration by author, 2020.;  p.150-151Fig. 74 Synchronicity detail 4, Illustration by author, 2020.;  p.152-153Fig. 75 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p.156-157Fig. 76 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo,  Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. p.158-159Fig. 77 Ibid.; p.160-161Fig. 78 Ibid.; p.162-163Fig. 79 Ibid.; p.164-165Fig. 80 Ibid.; p.166-167Fig. 81 ibid.; p.168-169Fig. 82 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p.170-171Fig. 83 Wayang (Noise Symbol), film still by author, 2020.;  p.172-173Fig. 84 Wayang (The Noise), film still by author, 2020.; p.174-175Fig. 85 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p.176-177Fig. 86 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video  file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012,  October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY.;  p.178-179Fig. 87 Ibid.; p.180-181Fig. 88 Ibid.; p.182-183Fig. 89 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p.184-185Fig. 90 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video  file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012,  October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY.;  p.186-187Fig. 91 Ibid.; p.188-189Fig. 92 Ibid.; p.190-191Fig. 93 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo  Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.;  p.192-193Fig. 94 “nam june paik - hommage a john cage,” video file,  4.13, YouTube, posted by hattn, February 20, 2010,  https://youtu.be/mSREMldyFtg; p.194-195Fig. 95 Ibid.; p.196-197Fig. 96 “Videotape Study No. 3 by Nam June Paik (1967),”  video file, 3.52, YouTube, posted by Alicia Burr,  December 14, 2015, https://youtu.be/JfNR9yXHKMc;  p.198-199Fig. 97 Ibid.; p.200-201Fig. 98 Ibid.; p.202-203Fig. 99 “Chris Marker Installation, Multiple Screens,” video file,  1.08, YouTube, posted by Pretty Mundane Videos, July  31, 2017, https://youtu.be/olUkrldEkWM; p. 204-205Fig. 100 “866A warm up - 2,” video file, 0.25, YouTube, posted by  VinylSavor, March 25, 2015, https://youtu.be/ pte1VSkUxyk; p. 206-207Fig. 101 Ibid.; p. 208-209Fig. 102 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo  Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.;  p.210-211Fig. 103 Ibid.; p.212-213Fig. 104 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Janus Films, 1983.; p. 214-215Fig. 105 “Super 8 experimental films by Simon Cooper,  Canberra 1983/85. Features Tim Ferguson.”, video file,  31.51, YouTube, posted by Simon Cooper, June 30,  2020, https://youtu.be/4NTvg23U2As; p. 216-217Fig. 106 “Coral Wonderland,”video file, 20.12, YouTube, posted  by A/V Geeks, July 20, 2014, https://youtu.be/ZGH8hOL_ rNo; p. 218-219Fig. 107 Brakhage, Stan. By Brakhage: An Anthology  (Lovesong). New  York, New York: The Criterion  Collection, 2007, DVD.; p. 220-221Fig. 108 “Super 8 experimental films by Simon Cooper,  Canberra 1983/85. Features Tim Ferguson.”, video file,  31.51, YouTube, posted by Simon Cooper, June 30,  2020, https://youtu.be/4NTvg23U2As; p. 222-223Fig. 109 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Moetsukita chizu (The Man   Without a Map). Tokyo, Japan:  Toho Ltd., 1968, Digital.;  p. 224-225Fig. 110 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo,  Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. p.226-227Fig. 111 Ibid.; p. 228-229Fig. 112 Ibid.; p. 230-231Fig. 113 Ibid.; p. 232-233Fig. 114 “Coral Wonderland,”video file, 20.12, YouTube, posted  by A/V Geeks, July 20, 2014, https://youtu.be/ZGH8hOL_ rNo; p. 234-235Fig. 115 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The  Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD.; p. 236-237Fig. 116 “Lights (Marie Menken - 1966),” video file, 6.05,  YouTube, posted by Fuchsia Swing, January 3, 2012,  https://youtu.be/fuz2F2na5BE; p. 238-239Fig. 117 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo,  Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974, DVD. p.240-241Fig. 118 Lynch, David. Eraserhead. Los Angeles, California:  American Film Institute, 1977, DVD.; p. 242-243 Fig. 119 “Cats filmed with thermal camera,” video file, 6.56,  YouTube, posted by Thermal Guys, December 11, 2016,  https://youtu.be/w6AEl1aMjUg; p. 244-245Fig. 120 “Bill Viola – The Raft, May 2004 (excerpt),” video file,  1.11, YouTube, posted by Public Delivery, August 18,  2019, https://youtu.be/4Ili9pvlxdk; p.246-247Fig. 121 “Top 5 Lava VS Water Videos,” video file, 9.59,  YouTube, posted by Top Fives, October 8, 2018, https:// youtu.be/NWVmI6EzVWE; p. 248-249Fig. 122 Angelopoulos, Theo. The Weeping Meadow. Paris,  France: Celluloid Dreams, 2004, DVD.; p. 250-251Fig. 123 Angelopoulos, Theo. Landscape in the Mist. New  York,  New York: New Yorker Films, 1988, DVD.; p. 252-253Fig. 124 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Janus Films, 1983.; p. 254-255Fig. 125 Ibid.; p. 256-257Fig. 126 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo,  Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. p.258-259Fig. 127 Tarkovsky, Andrei. The Sacrifice. Aalborg, Denmark:  Sandre Metronome, 1986. DVD. p.260-261Fig. 128 “old school slam dance (another state of mind) 80’s  punk | RDX81,” video file, 2.42, YouTube, posted by  RDX81, February 18, 2008, https://youtu.be/ GKoozg5nS-k; p. 262-263Fig. 129 Ibid.; p. 264-265Fig. 130 Ito, Takashi. Devil’s Circuit. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum  Festival, 1988, DVD.; p. 266-267Fig. 131 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The  Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD.; p. 268-269Fig. 132 Ibid.; p. 270-271Fig. 133 Schrader, Paul. Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters.  Burbank, California: Warner Bros. 1985, DVD.; p. 272- 273Fig. 134 “Robert Smithson (Tribute Spinning Man),” video file,  0.31, YouTube, posted by Diane Roberts, June 11, 2010,  https://youtu.be/5ebONFTeaOU; p. 274-275Fig. 135 Curtis, Adam. HyperNormalization. London, UK: BBC,  2016. p. 276-277Fig. 136 Ibid.; p. 278-279Fig. 137 Brakhage, Stan. Anticipation of the Night. San  Francisco, California: Canyon Cinema, 1958. p. 280-281Fig. 138 Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray. Anemic Cinema. 1926.  p. 282-283Fig. 139 Ibid.; p. 284-285Fig. 140 Ito, Takashi. Dizziness. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum  Festival, 2001, DVD.; p. 286-287Fig. 141 Deren, Maya. The Very Eye of Night. New York, N.Y. :  Mystic Fire Video, 1986, DVD.; p.288-289Fig. 142 Beaudin, Jean. Vertige. Ottawa, ON, Canada: National  Film Board of Canada, 1969, DVD.; p. 290-291Fig. 143 Reggio, Godfrey. Koyaanisqatsi. San Francisco,  Californation: American Zoetrope, 1982, DVD.; p. 292- 293Fig. 144 Ibid.; 294-295Fig. 145 Curtis, Adam. All Watched Over by Machines of Loving  Grace. London, UK: BBC, 2011. p.296-297Fig. 146 Ito, Takashi. Zone.  Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum  Festival, 1995, DVD.; p. 298-299Fig. 147 “Glimpse Of The Garden (1957),” video file, 5.05,  YouTube, posted by mysteriuminiquitatis, October 20,  2017, https://youtu.be/rgMsi2HAbmM; p. 300-301Fig. 148 Ibid.; p. 302-303Fig. 149 Ibid.; p. 304-305Fig. 150 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The  Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD.; p. 306-307Fig. 151 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California:  Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.; p.308-309Fig. 152 Ibid.; p. 310-311Fig. 153 Ibid.; p. 312-313Fig. 154 Ibid.; p. 314-315Fig. 155 Ibid.; p. 316-317Fig. 156 Ibid.; p. 318-319Fig. 157 Ibid.; p. 320-321Fig. 158 Ibid.; p. 322-323Fig. 159 Ibid.; p. 324-325Fig. 160 Ibid.; p. 326-327Fig. 161 Ibid.; p. 328-329Fig. 162 Wayang(Dreams), film still by author, 2020.; p.330-331Fig. 163 Wayang(Dreams Symbol), film still by author, 2020.;  p.332-333Fig. 164 “Old JR Train - Night Window View Etc - (Toyoda, Hino,  Tachikawa) - (111121),” video file, 8.46, YouTube, posted  by Lyle Hiroshi Saxon, November 13, 2011, https:// youtu.be/85Pyc4KVvME; p.334-335Fig. 165 Wenders, Wim. Notebook on Cities and Clothes.  London, UK: Axiom Films, 1989, DVD.; p. 336-337Fig. 166 “Japan 70s | Digital restored 1970 Footage | 1080p,”  video file, 7.14, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, July 16,  2020, https://youtu.be/BQwsxo7vqwY; p.338-339Fig. 167 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube,  posted by TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018,  https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0; p.340-341Fig. 168 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p.342-343Fig. 169 “Cineforms - Directed by Andrzej Pawlowski 1957,”  video file, 6.45, YouTube, posted by  AudioDesignArts,December 8, 2010, https://youtu.be/Z- hrpl3vQTw; p.344-345Fig. 170 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo  Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.;  p.346-347Fig. 171 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube,  posted by TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018,  https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0; p.348-349Fig. 172 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo  Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.;  p.350-351Fig. 173 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube,  posted by TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018,  https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0; p.352-353Fig. 174 Akerman, Chantal. News from Home. New York, N.Y:  The Criterion Collection, 1977.; p.354-355xi xiiLIST OF FIGURESFig.175 Ito, Takashi. The Moon. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum  Festival, 1994, DVD.; p. 356-357Fig. 176 “Overthinking. (Short Experimental Film),” video file,  4.12, YouTube, posted by Lugo, February 8, 2018, https:// youtu.be/2R_PNgfv1EQ; p.358-359Fig. 177 Ito, Takashi. Grim. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum  Festival, 1985, DVD.; p. 360-361Fig. 178 Ibid.; p. 362-363Fig. 179 Ibid.; p. 364-365Fig. 180 Reygadas, Carlos. Japón. New  York, N.Y: The Criterion  Collection, 2002, DVD.; p.366-367Fig. 181 Ibid.; p.368-369Fig. 182 Avati, Pupi. La Casa Dalle Finestre che Ridono. Rome,  Italy: A.M.A Films, 1976, DVD.; p.370-371 Fig. 183 Bartas, Šarunas. A casa. Lisbon, Portugal: Atalanta  Filmes, 1997, DVD.; p.372-373Fig. 184 Ibid.; p.374-375Fig. 185 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo  Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.;  p.376-377Fig. 186 “Adam Magyar, Stainless - Sindorim (excerpt),” video  file, 3.46, YouTube, posted by Adam Magyar, March 16,  2014, https://youtu.be/oZlBdpp7FtI; p. 378-379Fig. 187 Ibid.; p. 380-381Fig. 188 Ibid., p. 382-383Fig. 189 Fricke, Ron. Chronos. San Diego, California: Canticle  Films, 1985, DVD.; p. 384-385Fig. 190 Ibid.; p. 386-387Fig. 191 Ibid.; p. 388-389Fig. 192 Wayang(Time), film still by author, 2020.; p. 390-391Fig. 193 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Janus Films, 1983.; p. 392-393Fig. 194 “SONIC BOOMS & JETS,” video file, 3.26, YouTube,  posted by MW Hub, April 18, 2017, https://youtu.be/ jmhU7SEo4gg; p. 394-395Fig. 195 Curtis, Adam. Bitter Lake. London, UK: BBC, 2015.  p.396-397Fig. 196 Curtis, Adam. HyperNormalization. London, UK: BBC,  2016.; p. 398-399Fig. 197 “Sony FS700 Slow Motion 240fps Test - Sonic Boom,”  video file, 0.54, YouTube, posted by 312media, August  18, 2012, https://youtu.be/iz7DQWbZ5EM; p. 400-401Fig. 198 Curtis, Adam. Bitter Lake. London, UK: BBC, 2015.;  p. 402-403Fig. 199 Ibid.; p. 404-405Fig. 200 Wayang(Time Symbol), film still by author, 2020.; p.  406-407Fig. 201 Mekas, Jonas. As I Was Moving Ahead Occasionally I  Saw Brief Glimpses of Beauty. San Francisco,  California: Canyon Cinema, 2000.; p. 408-409Fig. 202 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,”  video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19,  2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0; p. 410-411Fig. 203 Ibid.; p. 412-413Fig. 204 Ibid.; p. 414-415Fig. 205 Ibid.; p. 416-417Fig. 206 Ibid.; p. 418-419Fig. 207 Kar Wai, Wong. In the Mood for Love. Paris, France:  Paradis Films, 2000.; p. 420-421Fig. 208 Mekas, Jonas. As I Was Moving Ahead Occasionally I  Saw Brief Glimpses of Beauty. San Francisco,  California: Canyon Cinema, 2000.; p. 422-423Fig. 209 “Shuttle Challenger Explosion,” video file, 8.00,  YouTube, posted by  What You Haven’t Seen, April 6,  2020, https://youtu.be/rUqPMMgfJ4Q; p. 424-425Fig. 210 Ibid.; p. 426-427Fig. 211 Ibid.; p. 428-429Fig. 212 Ibid.; p. 430-431Fig. 213 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.; p. 432-433Fig. 214 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo,  Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. p.434-435Fig. 215 Ibid.; p. 436-437Fig. 216 “Perfect lovers,” video file, 0.45, YouTube, posted by  Rachel, November 3, 2013, https://youtu.be/ JxMQq79r0vo; p. 438-439.Fig. 217 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California:  Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.; p.440-441Fig. 218 Ibid.; p. 442-443Fig. 219 Ibid.; p. 444-445Fig. 220 Ibid.; p. 446-447Fig. 221 Ibid.; p. 448-449Fig. 222 Ibid.; p. 450-451Fig. 223 Ibid.; p. 452-453I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my chair Thena Tak for your guidance, time, spirit and wisdom throughout the past three years. Without whom, this project would not have been possible. I would also like to thank my committee, Leslie Van Duzer and Daniel Carlson for their insightful comments and being apart of this project with me. Vincent Perron, thanks for all your support over the years.My time during this MArch degree would not have been the same without the all the strange and beautiful souls that I’ve come to know and call friends over the past three and a half years. To my dear friends: Vince, Hussam, Valia, Luis, Félix, Chris, Lisa, Arnold, Nick, Derek, Ellen, Tyler, and many others; Thank you.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSxiii xivxvDOSSIER#1:DESIRES12 This project seeks to engage an architecture as desire. It comes from the belief that architecture is not simply the creation of an object/artifact, nor is it making of space, but rather it is how architecture is constantly “in the making”, “in-forming” and “becoming” in the intersections of multiple universes. Existing in a relational field, rather a linear determinate path.  In this project, architecture necessitates the amendment of Vitruvian virtues of firmitas, utilitas and venustas, suspending moralistic judgment, in favor of novel differences. Investigating the potentialities of human and non-human forces that proliferate our world. DESIREDESIRE Desire only exists when assembled or machinedDesire is an emergent force by which ideas, concepts, relationships, enter into a heterogenesis, creating what Felix Guattari calls, “mutant universes of reference”.1 Therefore, an architecture of desire, would embrace a dynamism between a multiplicity of references and engage in the process of creating alternative realities. Such an understanding of architecture as desire, puts into question the role of the author architect.  The desiring architect’s imperative is to engage in a manifold of competencies, they must be able to comprehend a dynamic range of interests. Ranging from art, philosophy, science, economics, ecology, 3sociology, anthropology, etc, the architect welcomes these clashing universes. In fact, the architect necessitates these clashing universes, as it triggers new expectations for architecture. Welcoming complexity and contradiction in the creation of architecture; the architect that desires is a generalist. Desire doesn’t rely on a system of cause and effect. It is taking to account the multiplicities that engender singularities. Felix Guattari uses the analogy of the Concorde as a diagram of Rhizomatic thought. The Concorde supersonic jet, was a technological success but a commercial failure. According Guattari, it is a “constellation of values, of non-discursive references, of virtual possibility, not real and not actualized, and yet necessary to any process of actualization and realization”.2 By this he meant that, it was the convergence of cultural production, technological innovation, industrial production, political and economic forces, and collective imagination, so on and so forth that was necessary to formed the Concorde assemblage. These universes comprise of many more elements beyond the simple purpose of supersonic flight. The assemblage is a rhizomatic diagram. Shifting our thoughts to observe the multiplicities of the rhizome rather than a single relay, we acknowledge a wider field of possibility. We may mobilize potentialities that would otherwise be typically overlooked or concealed. As a result, this may trigger unforeseen opportunities that may inform novel differences. Dossier #1 is an attempt to better understand the underlying concepts, theories, and features that will be mobilized in the process of creating architecture as desire. The first section begins with an understanding of desire, the key concepts discussed by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari: The Desiring Machine, Machinic Assemblage, and Nomadology.DESIREFig. 14 56 DESIRE The second section consists of thoughts and ideas surrounding affect theory. Which is then expanded into the significance of affect in politics and propaganda. Discussing the potential of a political aesthetics that is affective. The third section consist of how we may re-imagine the city through narrative and montage. Narrative and montage as a creative act to propel stories and imaginations into our shared reality. Morphologies revisit the concepts of Oswald Mathias Ungers’ Morphologie City Metaphors as an expanding repertoire of deterritorialization and reterritorialization.The last section–The Interstices between the Past and the Future – is a proposal for Graduate Project pt.2. Dossier#1 certainly does not contain the entire breadth of knowledge that will be mobilized in this project, but it represents some of the most essential attributes that are at disposal, with the potential to be constantly reengaged. The essays do not present a methodology for creating architecture, but rather it asks us to consider the dynamic relationship and processual nature in the creation of architecture, our cities, and our world. Perhaps in the process, we may project an architecture that desires.To desire an architecture as desire is to engage a boundless notion of imaginative production. To enter the nomadic line. To move away from fixed positionalities. To enter into experimentation, excitement, creativity, to take flight, to take risks, loss, and possible annihilation.1.  Guattari, Félix. Chaosmosis: An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm. Bloom-ington: Indiana University Press, 1995. 86.2. Guattari, Félix. Schizoanalytic Cartographies. New York: Blooms-bury Academic, 2013. 51-52.Fig. 278DESIRING MACHINESDESIREEVERY MACHINE IS A MACHINE CONNECTED TO ANOTHER MACHINE In 1972 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari launched a radical critique on mainstream Freudian psychoanalysis, in their book Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, their critique of Freudian Oedipus complex which discussed the repression of unconscious sexual desires. Deleuze and Guattari sought to challenge that notion, and to recover desire as a revolutionary quality.  “To a certain degree, the traditional logic of desire is all wrong from the very outset: from the very first step that the Platonic logic of desire forces us to take, making us choose between production and acquisition. From the moment that we place desire on the side of acquisition, we make desire an idealistic (dialectical, nihilistic) conception, which causes us to look upon it as primarily a lack: a lack of an object, a lack of the real object. It is true that the other side, the “production” side, has not been entirely ignored.”1 For Deleuze and Guattari, desire is not a lack, but rather a productive force within a plane of immanent relations. This runs counter to the Freudian myth of Oedipus and the psychoanalysis as it understands desire as a repressed unconscious. Deleuze and Guattari introduced desire into the unconscious as a productive force, a life giving force. Desire that produces reality.910 DESIRE “On the very lowest level of interpretation, this means that the real object that desire lacks is related to an extrinsic natural or social production, whereas desire intrinsically produces an imaginary object that functions as a double of reality, as though there were a “dreamed-of object behind every real object,” or a mental production behind all real productions”.2“If desire produces, its product is real. If desire is productive, it can be productive only in the real world and can produce only reality. Desire is the set of passive syntheses that engineer partial objects, flows, and bodies, and that function as units of production. The real is the end product, the result of the passive syntheses of desire as autoproduction of the unconscious. Desire does not lack anything; it does not lack its object. It is, rather, the subject that is missing in desire, or desire that lacks a fixed subject; there is no fixed subject unless there is repression. Desire and its object are one and the same thing: the machine, as a machine of a machine. Desire is a machine, and the object of desire is another machine connected to it.”3Fig. 3 The desiring machine is a site of producing reality. For Deleuze and Guattari, every machine is a machine connected to another machine, reality folds into itself infinitely. Every machine is in relation to another machine to which it is connected, which they call a multiplicity. It is a libidinal force of desiring production. They reject the anthropomorphic reference of sexual-intercourse as life giving in favor of a pre-personal affective life force. Desire is simply when affects enter into a machinic heterogenesis. Affects from different universes of reference collide to produce and effect reality.1112 DESIREFig. 4<<< Deleuze and Guattari argue that Richard Lindner’s painting “Boy with Machine” (1954) demonstrates the schizoanalytic thesis of the primacy of desire’s social investments over its familial ones: “the turgid little boy has already plugged a desiring-machine into a social machine, short-circuiting the parents.”6 “Desire does not express a molar lack within the subject; rather, the molar organization deprives desire of its objective being. Revolutionaries, artists, and seers are content to be objective, merely objective: they know that desire clasps life in its powerfully productive embrace and reproduces it in a way that is all the more intense because it has few needs.”4 By this, Deleuze and Guattari distinguish molar machines  or molar lines from that of the molecular machine of desire. The molar is something that is foundational or structural to our lives. They are well defined, often massive, and are affiliated with a governing apparatus. The molecular are micro-entities, affects, lines of ineffable sensations, which deterritorialize. The molar and molecular are not an opposing binary, but overlapping tendencies. As such, the molar and molecular can never be decoupled, “There are no desiring-machines that exist outside the social machines that they form on a large scale; and no social machines without the desiring machines that inhabit them on a small scale.”5 1314 DESIRE1.  Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. New York: Viking Press, 1977. 25.2. Ibid.3. Ibid., 26.4. Ibid., 27.5. Ibid., 340.6. Ibid., 358.7. Ibid., 28.Cities, like dreams, are made of desires and fears, even if the thread of their discourse is secret, their rules are absurd, their perspectives deceitful, and everything conceals something else.- ITALO CALVINO, INVISIBLE CITIES “The deliberate creation of lack as a function of market economy is the art of a dominant class. This involves deliberately organizing wants and needs (manque) amid an abundance of production; making all of desire teeter and fall victim to the great fear of not having one’s needs satisfied; and making the object dependent upon a real production that is supposedly exterior to desire (the demands of rationality), while at the same time the production of desire is categorized as fantasy and nothing but fantasy.”7 In this passage, Deleuze and Guattari are stating what the logic of capital incorporates, what it requires is lack, the creation of “vacuoles” for it to fill. In this sense, the movement of capital is based upon the deferring of its limits creating an endless void needing to be filled. It creates its own feedback loop. Deleuze and Guattari proposes a schizoanalysis as a potential for a revolution, not as an romanticization for schizophrenia, but observes that the schizophenic escapes the structures of Oedipus of repression and lack. Therefore, architecture is not perceived/conceived as a lack of something. To shift its production to a convergence of affects, forces, it is being in-formed.1516 DESIRING MACHINEFig. 5 Stifters Dinge is large scale performative installation by composer, director, artist Heiner Goebbels. The installation is a frenzied blend of desires, combining theatre, installation, poetry, visual media into an experimental composition. The installation/performance is composed of five suspended pianos, projects, audio recordings that together create a mesmeric discordant harmony, and took place in the P3, a huge concrete space situated in the bowels of London’s University of Westminster; commissioned by Artangel.1  The title is a reference to the writings of a 19th century german romantic writer Adalbert Stifter, and “dinge”, which apparently means “thingy”. Stifter’s words are used in the composition, along with vocal interludes by Bill Paterson, speeches of Malcolm X, recorded interview with anthropology Claude Levi-Strauss, the voice of William S Burroughs and the words of Gertrude Stein.2 All of these, thrown into a mix of industrial machanical clunkings and whirring. Part cacophony part symphony.  Goebbels’ work maximizes the affective potential through both the literal and metaphorical concept of the “every machine is a machine connected to another machine”. The odd effect of combining these distant worlds, creating a wholly different reality is something to be admired. The discordant harmony destabilizes, and yet the constellation reattunes the varying references into potentially new forms of experience. The work does not seek to answer questions, but shares those questions and ambiguities. Umberto Eco calls these works “open works”, which is the “decision to leave the arrangement of some of their constituents either to the public or by change, thus giving them not a single definitive order but a multiplicity of possible orders.”31  O’Hagan, Sean. “Mixing puzzle with pleasure” The Guardian April 20, 2008. Accessed April 20, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2008/apr/20/art.2. Ibid.3. Robey, David. Introduction to The Open Work, by Umberto Eco, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1989. ix-x.1718 DESIREMACHINIC ASSEMBLAGE The French term of Agencement used by Deleuze and Guattari is usually translated as assemblage. An assemblage is a “site at which a discursive formation intersects with material practices”.1 By this definition, an assemblage is not a static composition, but site set in motion, a processual event. According to DeLanda, the French term agencement has “greater semantic depth, as assemblage loses the implications of process and activity”.2 This understanding of machinic assemblage mobilizes an architecture that is not fetishistic about the object, it is not a collage in the simple sense of its composition, but rather as a site of relational fields, it is firstly a social machine. It is the social machine which determines the technical machine. That is to say that the technical tool is not linearly determined, or following a linear progression, but through deterritorialization and reterritorialization that the technical moves from the abstract to the real.“[An assemblage] is a multiplicity which is made up of many heterogeneous terms and which establishes liaisons, relations between them, across ages, sexes and reigns – different natures. Thus, the assemblage’s only unity is that of co-functioning: it is a symbiosis, a ‘sympathy’. It is never filiations that are important, but alliances, alloys; these are not successions, lines of descent, but contagions, epidemics, the wind.”3“An assemblage is never technological; if anything it is the opposite. Tools always presuppose a machine, and the machine is always social before being technical. There is always a social machine that selects or assigns the technical elements used. A tool remains marginal, or little used, until there exists a social machine or collective assemblage that is capable of taking into its ‘phylum’“.4Fig. 61920 DESIRE“It is the set of the affects which are transformed and circulate in an assemblage of symbiosis, defined by the co-functioning of its heterogeneous parts”.5“First, in an assemblage there are, as it were, two faces, or at least two heads. There are the states of things, states of bodies (bodies interpenetrate, mix together, transmit affects to one another); but also utterances, regimes of utterances: signs are organized in a new way, new formulations appear, a new style for new gestures (the emblems which individualize the knight, the formulas of oaths, the system of ‘declaration’, even of love, etc.) Utterances, no less that states of things, are components and cog-wheels in the assemblage”.6 “There is no assemblage without territory, without territoriality and reterritorialization that includes all sorts of artifices. But is there any assemblage without a point of deterritorialization, without a line of flight that leads it on to new creations, or else towards death?”7“The utterance is the product of an assemblage- which is always collective, which brings into play within us and outside us populations, multiplicities, territories, becomings, affects, events. The proper name does not designate a subject, but something that happens, at least between two terms which are not subjects, but agents, elements“.8The Machinic assemblage exist as an individuated but partial object (lacking a totalizable unity) according to the extent that it has affects, that it has a capacity to enter into machinic relations of deterritorialization and reterritorialization with other machinic assemblages. Deleuze speak about utterances, utterances are pure language events, without structure, unrelated to a subject, but operate within a field of potential. Similarly, James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake contain pure utterances, that if only for a second coagulate into meaning. Like Joyce these utterances has the ability to transform reality. “Finnegans Wake defines itself as Chaosmos and Microchasm and constitutes the most terrifying document of formal instability and semantic ambiguity that we possess”.9 Umberto Eco’s analysis of Finnegan’s Wake, The Aesthetics of Chaosmos examines Joyce’ immense repertoire of the universe transformed into utterances, in order to catch a glimpse of different possible realities. What is an architectural utterance then? By deterritorializing within a common architectural collective, perhaps we may find new utterances. I would consider the “truth” in Mies’ steel buildings to be an utterance of sorts. Somewhere between fact, fiction, reality, fantasy, honesty, and dishonesty, but uttered. 1. Crary, Jonathan. Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Moderni-ty in the Nineteenth Century. London;Cambridge, Mass;: MIT Press, 1990. 31. 2. De Landa, Manuel. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. annotat ed. London, England;New York, NY;: Continuum, 2006. 2.3. Deleuze, Gilles and Claire Parnet. Dialogues II. Rev. ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. 52.4. Ibid.5. Ibid., 53.6. Ibid. 7. Ibid., 54.8. Ibid., 38.9. Eco, Umberto. The Aesthetics of Chaosmos: The Middle Ages of James Joyce. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1989.61.BABABADALGHARAGHTAKAMMINARRONNKONNBRONNTONNERRONTUONNTHUNNTROVARRHOUNAWNSKAWNTOOHOOHOORDENENTHURNUK- JAMES JOYCE, FINNEGANS WAKE2122 DESIREMONAD/NOMAD-OLOGY In Le Pli (translated to The Fold) Gilles Deleuze offers an alternative interpretation of the Baroque, and mobilizes the concepts of the monad by Leibniz. Deleuze combines Leibniz’s theory of the monad, that the whole universe is contained within each being with that of Baroque architecture. Deleuze makes the claim that the process of folding (found in the ornament of Baroque architecture) constitutes the monad. This view of Deleuze/Leibniz’s concept has been interpreted by architects like Greg Lynn, which is distinguished by his use of CAD softwares to create formal folding and blob structures.1 However, this appropriation of the fold, is in my opinion, not a machinic assemblage that is firstly a social machine, it simply remains in the technical realm.  In a lecture at the AA, Andrew Benjamin, discusses the relevance of Deleuze’s interpretation, by stating that the Baroque is “characterized by the fold that goes to infinity. The monad is a multiplicity in unity. A point as an infinite countenance of lines”.2 What this means is that, within the finite there is an infinite, a site of possibilities and a play of forces. He references the Villa Muller by Adolf Loos as the Baroque. With the Villa Muller, it folds in onto itself, the facade and the interior volumes are independent from one another, but yet forms a whole.3 The interior furniture are a constellation of territories constantly reordering themselves. Benjamin states, the fold is not a literal fold, instead it’s letting the elements be individualized, they are “continuous but arise out of a discontinuity.”4 The significance of this reference to Loos, is that of the in-betweenness of things that are relational, and not a just a formal feature. The folds between facade, interior, volumes, cladding, the social, and gendered. The infinite appears in finitude. Leibniz’s monadology is theological, which assumes a world in a pre-established harmony that is programmed by God. He claims they are windowless, meaning they are individuated and Fig. 723DESIREunalterable. Deleuze eliminates the idea of a pre-established harmony, instead theorizing a dissonant force where the monad now takes off into nomadic flight. Deleuze uses this concept of nomadology to theorize a force that is imminently political, and social.In Nomadology: The War Machine, Deleuze and Guattari characterizes nomads as antithetical to the system of the State, which are sedentary and of striation. Nomads on the other hand, occupy the smooth spaces. The subtitle: The War Machine refers to the nomadic determination to occupy smooth space, but when the State stands in the way of free movement, war is the result. “The nomad space is localized and not limited. Smooth or nomad space lies between two striated spaces. But being between also means that smooth space is controlled by the two flanks, which limit it, oppose its development, and assign it as much as possible a communicational role; or on the contrary, it means that it turns against them.”5“Whereas the migrant leaves behind a milieu that has become amorphous or hostile, the nomad is one who does not depart, does not want to depart, who clings to the smooth space left by the receding forest, where the steppe or the desert advances, and who invents nomadism as a response to this challenge.”6The nomad is not marked by randomness, instead the nomad moves out of necessity. This necessity is also a tendency towards deterritorialization. This phenomena can be found even within spaces of the State, by amplifying it we increase the capacity for new lines of flight. “The nomad is not at all the same as the migrant; for the migrant goes principally from one point to another, even if the second point is uncertain, unforeseen, or not well localized. But the nomad goes from point to point only as a consequence and as a factual necessity; in principle, points for him are relays along a trajectory.”7“The nomad space is localized and not limited. Smooth or nomad space lies between two striated spaces. But being between also means that smooth space is controlled by the two flanks, which limit it, oppose its development, and assign it as much as possible a communicational role; or on the contrary, it means that it turns against them”.8In Architecture for a Free Subjectivity, Simone Brott argues for a similar nomadology in architecture. She proposes an “architectural theory of effects [that] rejects gestalt and any overarching syntactic or formal structure in favor of a nomadic distribution of point effects mobilizing dynamic events in the real world. A theory of effects is not schematic or an abstraction, but real”.9 Nomadology’s potential for architecture lies in a shift away from object fetishism, and to actively enter into discourse. Entering into discourse does not mean the loss of autonomy, quite the contrary as architecture’s autonomy lies in its capacity to enter into nomadic lines of flight away from centers of power. The nomadic line can never be entirely severed from the molar line, as such, the itinerant necessity of nomadic flight opens up new realms for reconceptualizing architecture.Fig. 81. Lynn, Greg. “Folding in Architecture (1993).” In The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992–2012, 28-47. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2013.2. AA School of Architecture. “The Appearance of Modern Archi-tecture: Deleuze on the Baroque by Andrew Benjamin” YouTube video, 1:17:17, shot on January 23, 2004 republished June 5, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgtO_54lAzY&t=125s.3. Ibid.4. Ibid.5. Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Nomadology: The War Machine.London;Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1986. 49.  6. Ibid., 45.7. Ibid., 44.8. Ibid., 49.9. Brott, Simone. Architecture for a Free Subjectivity: Deleuze and Guattari at the Horizon of the Real. Burlington, VT;Farnham, Sur-rey;: Ashgate, 2011. 44.24 25DESIRE The Palais des Machines was a megastructure built to house industrial machines as part of the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. Two remarkable buildings were erected for the Exposition, The famous Eiffel Tower, and the lesser known Palais des Machines. The was at the time the largest vaulted building, an engineering marvel that was free from internal columns, and enclosed a larger area than any previous building.1 However, for its short life span, it was an important point of convergence in a shifting subjectivity. The Exposition was deployed by the state in order to overcome several significant geopolitical and local political turmoils. It was a ploy to “put the past behind them and to prove that their country had joined the ranks of industrial nations of the world”.2 However, unbeknownst the Palais des Machines also became a stage for nomadic flights, deterritorializations and reterritorializations, that arguably has shaped contemporary subjectivity.   A closer investigation of the heavily Ornamental grand vestibule versus that of the interior hall, suggests a separation between the public realm(polis) and the private realm of industrial capitalism (oikos). In a sense, this is a deterritorialization from state power, shifting into the private realm of industrial capitalism. While simultaneously, the ornamental polychromy of the Grand Vestibule suggest a complimentary between the sacredness of a cathedral and that of industrial capitalism.3 The spectacle of machinery in the Palais des Machines in-formed a technocratic subject that was decoupled from labour, and in order to deal with the disruption, a different kind of interpretation was needed to assimilate the new technocratic subject. Frederic Jameson, describes the accustoming of dizzying technological change of “future shock” through the use of science fiction. Science fiction, “hav[ing] the social function of accustoming their readers Fig. 926 27DESIREFig. 10to rapid innovation, of preparing our consciousness and our habits for the other wise demoralizing impact of change itself.”4 The deterritorialization of the temporal dimension, with the mass inclusion of electrical lighting opened up an entirely different experience. The night was now open to experimentation, and socialization. However, capitalism ability to assimilate to such deterritorializations occur equality as fast. Economic activity was no longer bound to day light. In Dream Worlds by Rosalind Williams, she states “what is involved here is not a casual level of fantasy… but a far more thorough going substitution of subjective images for external reality. Spectators seeking a pleasurable escape from the workaday world, find a deceptive dream world which is no dream at all but a sales pitch in disguise.”5 These nomadic flights may seem contrary to lights of flight away from centers of power, but did in fact informed new realities, shifting organized states of power, and shifting temporal dimensions. These flights have within them the potential for difference; to enter into discourse, because to control is discourse is to control power. To quote Foucault, “discourse is not simply that which translates struggles or systems of domination, but is the thing for which and by which there is struggle,discourse is the power which is to be seized.”6  1. Stamper, John W. “The Galerie Des Machines of the 1889 Paris World’s Fair.” Technology and Culture 30, no. 2 (1989): 330.2. Berthier-Foglar, Susanne. “The 1889 World Exhibition in Paris: The French, the Age of Machines, and the Wild West.” Nine-teenth-Century Contexts: Politics and Public Display in Britain, America, and France 31, no. 2 (2009): 130.3. Picon, Antoine. “Universal Expositions, Utopias, and Architec-ture.” In The Companions to the history of architecture . Vol. 3, 348-364: F. Mallgrave, (2017): 352.4. Jameson, Fredric. Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. London: Verso, 2007: 286.5. Williams, Rosalind H. Dream Worlds, Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. 2036. Michel, Foucault. “The Order of Discourse”. In R. Young (Ed.), Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader. Boston, Mass: Rout-ledge & Kegan Paul. 1981. 210.28 2930 DESIREFig. 11REVALUATION OF ALL VALUES “Another way to recover, which under certain circumstances I like even better, is sounding out idols . . . There are more idols than realities in the world: that’s my “evil eye” on this world, and my “evil ear” too . . . To pose questions here with a hammer for once, and maybe to hear in reply that well-known hollow tone which tells of bloated innards—how delightful for one who has ears even behind his ears—for me the old psychologist and pied piper, in whose presence precisely what would like to stay quiet has to speak up . . .”1 In Twilight of the Idols, How to Philosophize with a Hammer, Nietzche calls for a “revaluation of all values”. A declaration of war against the idols of moralitzation and systematization. Nietzche wants us to doubt and question the concepts and structures of society, of faith, of culture, of power, and to listen to their empty hollowness when touched with a  hammer and tuning fork. To philosophize with a hammer is to desire, the hammer that Nietzche speaks about is not a hammer in the sense of a rough tool, but a doctor’s reflex hammer. He alludes to our innate natural ability to respond, a will to power, our ability to affect and be affected. 3132 DESIREALL THEORY IS GRAY, MY FRIEND. BUT FOREVER GREEN IS THE TREE OF LIFE.- JOHANN WOLFGANG von GOETHE, FAUST pt.IThese are several virtues from Twilight of the Idols will be foundational to this project:1. The rejection of “absurd rationalism” in favor of instinct, and desire.“The fanaticism with which all Greek speculation throws itself at rationality betrays a situation of emergency: they were in danger, they had to make this choice: either to be destroyed, or— to be absurdly rational...”2“The most glaring daylight, rationality at all costs, a life clear, cold, careful, aware, without instinct, in resistance to the instincts, was itself just a sickness, another sickness—and not at all a way back to “virtue,” to “health,” to happiness . . . To have to fight the instincts—that is the formula for décadence. As long as life is ascending, happiness is the same as instinct.—”32. The rejection of “real” worlds. The “apparent” world constitutes reality.“The grounds on which “this” world has been called apparent are instead grounds for its reality—another kind of reality is absolutely indemonstrable.”4“The fact that the artist prizes appearance over reality is no objection to this proposition. For “appearance” here means reality once again, but in the form of a selection, an emphasis, a correction . . . Tragic artists are not pessimists—in fact, they say yes to everything questionable and terrible itself, they are Dionysian...”53. To Spiritualize Passions and Desires “To destroy the passions and desires, merely in order to protect oneself against their stupidity and the disagreeable consequences of their stupidity, seems to us today to be itself an acute form of stupidity. We no longer admire dentists who pull out teeth so that they won’t hurt anymore . . .”6 “How could one expect the Church to wage an intelligent war against passion?—The Church fights passion by cutting it out, in every sense; its practice, its “therapy” is castration. It never asks, “How does one spiritualize, beautify, deify a desire?”— its discipline has always emphasized eradication (eradication of sensuality, pride, the ambition to rule, covetousness, vengefulness).—But ripping out the passions by the root means ripping out life by the root; the practice of the Church is an enemy to life . . .”73334 DESIRE4. Rejection of ‘the’ Morality for ‘a’ Morality “My demand on philosophers is well-known: that they place themselves beyond good and evil—that they put the illusion of moral judgment beneath them. This demand follows from an insight which was formulated for the first time by me: that there are no moral facts at all. Moral judgments have this in common with religious ones: they believe in realities that are unreal. Morality is just an interpretation of certain phenomena, or speaking more precisely, a misinterpretation... Morality is just a sign language, just a symptomatology: you already have to know what it’s all about in order to get any use out of it.”85. Eternal Recurrence“Eternal life, the eternal recurrence of life; the future promised and made sacred in the past; the triumphant yes to life beyond death and change; true life as collective survival through reproduction, through the mysteries of sexuality... In the teachings of the mysteries, pain is declared holy; the “pangs of the childbearer” make pain in general holy—all becoming and growth, everything that vouches for the future requires pain...”9Fig. 121. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. Twilight of the Idols, Or, how to Philosophize with the Hammer. Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Pub, 1997.3.2. Ibid., 16.3. Ibid., 17.4. Ibid., 21.5. Ibid., 22.6. Ibid., 25.7. Ibid., 25.8. Ibid., 38.9. Ibid., 90.3536AFFECT/AFFECTION  “Neither word denotes a personal feeling (sentiment in Deleuze and Guattari). L’affect (Spinoza’s affectus) is an ability to affect and be affected. It is a prepersonal intensity corresponding to the passage from one experiential state of the body to another and implying an augmentation or diminution in that body’s capacity to act. L’affection (Spinoza’s affectio) is each such state considered as an encounter between the affected body and a second, affecting, body (with body taken in its broadest possible sense to include “mental” or ideal bodies)”.1AFFECT/AFFECTION Spinoza defined affects as states of mind and body that are related to –but not exactly synonymous with– feelings and emotions, of which he says there are three primary kinds: laetitia (pleasure), tristitia (sorrow) and cupiditas (desire).2 What Deleuze and Guattari mobilizes from Spinoza’s philosophy of affect, is cupiditas or desire– desiring production. Desiring production is the ability to affect and be affected, to form difference, new assemblages, that are emergent ‘becommings’ of heterogeneous components. To Deleuze and Guattari “the social field is immediately invested with desire”3AFFECTIf A affects B, B experiences the effect of A’s action.3738 In A Thousand Plateaus, Deleuze and Guattari used the symbiotic relationship of an orchid and wasp to discuss their concept of ‘becommings’. Evolutionary biologist describes the relationship as the orchid imitating the wasp for the propagation of its species. The narrative is told in such a way where the orchid mimics the wasp, by appearing similar and secreting sexual pheromones. The wasp that is drawn to the orchid, picks up its pollen as it tries to mate with the flower, after which it distributes the pollen into another flower.  Deleuze and Guattari alters this narrative in saying that the orchid is becoming wasp and the wasp is becoming orchid.  “The orchid does not reproduce the traveling of the wasp; it forms a map with the wasp… What distinguishes the map from the tracing is that it is entirely oriented toward an experimentation in contact with the real. The map does not reproduce an unconscious closed in upon itself; it constructs the unconscious.”4  What Deleuze and Guattari is saying is that the encounter between the wasp and orchid creates a new reality, a new ‘becoming’. The relationship is not linear, but one where both wasp and orchid affects and is affected. In the process, deterritorialization and reterritorialization occurs in their interlinked becoming. Affect is transversal, meaning it cuts AFFECT/AFFECTIONFig. 13across usual categories bringing a sense of potential to a given situation. This understanding of affect forces us to reconsider cause and effect. With affect there’s always a vagueness surrounding the event, an uncertainty about its trajectory. This uncertainty does not mean that there aren’t parameters that are bound to it and are associated with it, but it is empowering, as within the vagueness there’s a margin of maneuverability within its operational field.   Affect is not just subjective, but is in the making of subjectivity. Simone Brott, speak about affects as it relates to subjectivity as “general or anonymous capacities that function in a very real sense prior to the personological subject”.5 This is important as understanding affect sees events as processual, re-potentializing after every determinate expression. Each expression being able to affect a given subject. These expressions are easily observable in politics, the repetitive system has continuously generated difference, new forms of expression. This does not mean that they are always agreeable, but they have managed to inform a constantly changing political subject.  Often in political discussions the question of morality comes to the foreground which quickly turns into a 391  Massumi, Brian. Foreword to A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, by Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987. xvi. 2. Nadler, Steven M. Spinoza’s Ethics: An Introduction. Cambridge, UK;New York;: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 203.3. Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capital-ism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.29. 4. Ibid., 12.5. Brott, Simone. Architecture for a Free Subjectivity: Deleuze and Guattari at the Horizon of the Real. Burlington, VT;Farnham, Sur-rey;: Ashgate, 2011. 1.6. Massumi, Brian. Politics of Affect. Cambridge: Polity, 2015. 11.7. Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time-Image. Minneapolis: Univer-sity of Minnesota, 1989. 11.AFFECT/AFFECTIONFig. 14judgment of right and wrong. It might be useful to differentiate morality and ethics. Spinoza makes a distinction between morality and ethics. “To move in an ethical direction from a Spinozan point of view, is not to attach positive or negative values to actions based on a characterization or classification of them according to a preset system of judgment. It means assessing what kind of potential they tap into and express”.6 By this logic, there’s a pragmatism to ethics, everything is constituted by relations with or to other things, contingently, where there is no intrinsic, ineluctable nature to language or to living things. Pragmatism gets rid of dualistic or dichotomous thinking, and puts it in terms of relational thinking. Pragmatism by this very nature is also suspicious of all forms of foundationalism (Platonism, metaphysics, transcendentalism and so on) and argues for the contingency of language, community and self.7 It’s about understanding how things move and how we experience it.  Spinoza’s distinction asks us to suspend judgment, to refrain from objectively classifying things in a moralizing manner. Which is not to say being critical is unimportant, but such judgment causes us to lose our ability to understand things affectively, and seeing the potential for deterritorialization and reterritorialization. The ‘critical method’ has stunted creativity, because it leads to a wanting to be correct. It is not productive, and doesn’t reveal possibilities. Being attuned to these possibilities requires being willing to be wrong, to take risks.40 4142 AFFECT/AFFECTIONJUST REMEMBER, WHAT YOU’RE SEEING AND WHAT YOU’RE READING IS NOT WHAT’S HAPPENINGvisions and dreams, but is now a visible personification of an affective media loop.  On the Internet, the affective conversion loops become more diffuse and distributed - and all the more insidious. On the Internet affect does not rely on truth, it proliferates and mutates readily into new variations, by the time we’ve pinned it down, we have a viral affective scenario, and in 2016 the Trump campaign used this to their advantage. The Left in 2016 failed to mobilize a culture of a newly co-opted mass social-media. It has been too preoccupied in self-righteousness, falling back on REALPOLITIK- DONALD J. TRUMP“Affect is now much more important for understanding power, even state power narrowly defined, than concepts like ideology. Direct affect modulation takes the place of old-style ideology.”1 The election of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States deals with affective mechanism of mass media power. In 2016, the Trump campaign did not rely on ideology, or on tackling key policies, instead it was through a barrage of media messages that sensationalized a great subset of the American population. The function of the head of state now fused the role of the television personality, and social media celebrity influencer. The politician no longer requires concrete 43AFFECT/AFFECTIONdisciplinary ‘correctness’, which is simply not affective. Instead of mobilizing affective potentialities, it was defined by an identity built on opposition.   Understanding this phenomena from an epistemological or ideological lens provides only one dimension into the current political machine. Affective modulation on the public is far more significant in understanding its power. It’s no longer an ideological position, but the ability to affect the political subject. It is important to note that, we live in a post-ideology society, we’ve entered an affective dimension, and how affect is mobilized will be our main ethical concern.  “It seems to me that alternative political action does not have to fight against the idea that power has become affective, but rather has to learn to function itself on that same level – meet affective modulation with affective modulation. That requires, in some way, a performative, theatrical or aesthetic approach to politics.”2 Donald Trump certainly isn’t the first president to mobilize affect, but in the 2016 election, they mobilized hope and fear in affective ways. His campaign may not have been morally and ethically right, and in many ways exclusionary and violent, but it’s affective capacity captures the imagination of a large subset of the American population.  “Politics, approached affectively, is an art of emitting the interruptive signs, triggering the cues, that attune bodies while activating their capacities differentially. Affective politics is inductive. Bodies can be inducted into, or attuned to, certain regions of tendency, futurity and potential, they can be induced into inhabiting the same affective environment, even if there is no assurance they will act alike in that environment.”3Fig. 1544 4546 In an interview with Magnum Photos, David Levi Strauss, a cultural critic, author of Co-Illusion: Dispatches from the End of Communication, examines ‘iconopolitics’, the images and manipulation of mass media in american politics stated: “As soon as I stepped onto the floor of the Republican National Convention back in 2004, I realized that I’d walked into a machine for making images; that’s what these conventions are, and have been for a long time. They’re entirely designed to be filmed and photographed – to be ‘imaged.’”4  As pointed out by Levi Strauss, it is important to understand these images as affective machines. These images are not fixed in a sense, they are processual, and enter into a relational field from which new potentialities emerge and inform new subjectivities. The images convey more than their content; they trigger different contingencies. Affect in this scenario is driven by an aesthetic politics that is irresolute, they deterritorialize by means of the mass media and reterritorialize in new and unexpected ways. What is important here is the process of experience, that condition our understanding of the image. “The point of the concept of affect, is to think through its relational field, and the potential we might find. There is not general model of affect. The way the past carries over into the new event, which tendencies are reactivated, in what mix and with what formative interactions, all of that is completely singular to the situation, so the theory of affect has to be custom tailored to every field of event formation, and even to every event. It has to be continually reinvented.”5 An affective politics by means of aesthetics, offers different capacities for different existence, different potentialities, different forms, without immediately imposing a choice between them. Without a need to justify. This opens it up, suspending resolution allowing for changes to occur. 1.  Massumi, Brian. Politics of Affect. Cambridge: Polity, 2015. 32. 2. Ibid., 34.3. Ibid., 56-57.4. Levi- Strauss, David. “Photography, Trump, the Manipulation of Public Sentiment, and the Phantasmagoria of Politics.” Interview by Aaron Schuman. Magnus Photos, April 13, 2020. https://www.magnumphotos.com/newsroom/photography-trump-manipula-tion-politics-election-susan-meiselas-peter-agtmael/.5. Massumi, Brian. Politics of Affect. Cambridge: Polity, 2015. 151. AFFECT/AFFECTIONFig. 164748 AFFECT/AFFECTION After World War 1, the American Tobacco Company was looking to broaden their market. At the time, half of the American population was excluded from smoking as it was not publicly acceptable for women to smoke. In order to change that, The American Tobacco Company hired Edward Bernays to encourage women to start smoking.1  Edward Bernays was the nephew of Sigmund Freud, and coined the term Public Relations, because the original word “propaganda” was negatively perceived. In his own words:  “Some of the phenomena of this process are criticized—the manipulation of news, the inflation of personality, and the general ballyhoo by which politicians and commercial products and social ideas are brought to the consciousness of the masses. The instruments by which public opinion is organized and focused may be misused. But such organization and focusing are necessary to orderly life.”2THIS ISNOTHINGNEW    “As civilization has become more complex, and as the need for invisible government has been increasingly demonstrated, the technical means have been invented and developed by which opinion may be regimented.”3  While propaganda was commonly thought of as a negative way of manipulating and controlling the masses, associated with tyrannical nations and was opposite to the liberty and freedom that was associated with America, Bernays believed it was a necessary for the functioning of a society, as otherwise people would be overwhelmed with too many choices.  In order to get women to start smoking cigarettes: “Bernays staged a dramatic public display of women smoking during the Easter Day Parade in New York City. He then told the press to expect that women suffragists would light up “torches of freedom” during the parade to show they were equal to PROPAGANDA49men. Like the “You’ve come a long way, baby” ads, this campaign commodified women’s progress and desire to be considered equal to men.“4 The result was a success, and it was not until 1964 did cigarette consumption begin to decline in the United States. Cigarette advertising on radio, and television persisted until April 1st of 1970, when then President Richard Nixon signed legislation banning cigarette advertising on radio and TV.5 Cigarette ads are relentless in their ability to tap into the unconscious desires of their consumers. The ads typically were void of content, relying on affect and sensation to entice consumers.  Propaganda works by means of an affective dimension. The same mechanisms that were co-opted in the 2016 Presidential election. These mechanisms are increasingly sophisticated, and make up our complex physical and digital environments . From these case studies we see affect as more than mere presentation of facts and information, but a performative tactic that capitalizes on our unconscious desires, which ultimately leads to the manufacturing of consent. AFFECT/AFFECTIONFig. 171.  Curtis, Adam. The Century of the Self. Video. Directed by Adam Curtis. London: BBC, 2002.2.  Bernays, Edward L. Propaganda. New York: H. Liveright, 1936. 12.3. Ibid.4. Curtis, Adam. The Century of the Self. Video. Directed by Adam Curtis. London: BBC, 2002.5. CBC Radio. The unexpected way Nixon’s ban on cigarette ads changed TV forever. Canada: CBC/Radio, Jan 17, 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/undertheinfluence/the-unexpected-way-nixon-s-ban-on-ciga-rette-ads-changed-tv-forever-1.4981694.50 51Fig. 18Fig. 19HISTORY DOESN’T REPEAT ITSELF, BUT IT OFTEN RHYMES- MARK TWAIN535254 AFFECT/AFFECTION In A Thousand Plateaus, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari used the concept of deterritorialization or line of flight to describe rhizomatic thinking. The rhizome model conceptualizes events as non-hierarchical connections, unlike an arborescent (tree-like) model that is linear, the rhizome conceptualizes planar interconnections, with non-hierarchical entry and exit points, where things exists on a plane of immanence. In A Thousand Plateaus they describe the concept as such:  “Multiplicities are defined by the outside: by the abstract line, the line of flight or deterritorialization according to which they change in nature and connect with other multiplicities. The plane of MOBILIZINGAFFECTIVEPOTENTIALconsistency (grid) is the outside of all multiplicities. The line of flight marks: the reality of a finite number of dimensions that the multiplicity effectively fills; the impossibility of a supplementary dimension, unless the multiplicity is transformed by the line of flight; the possibility and necessity of flattening all of the multiplicities on a single plane of consistency or exteriority, regardless of their number of dimensions.”1 Understanding this helps us to mobilize the affective potential in the realm of architecture. By being aware of these concepts, enables us to reconsider how we approach its relational field, or even expanding that relational field. Mobilizing affect as desire, is both an ethical and CARTOGRAPHY5556 AFFECT/AFFECTIONFig. 20political act as it leads to indeterminacy, opening up the possibilities for operable potential. As we have seen, the co-opting of affect in politics through mass media communication has powerful consequences. However, as Michel Foucault has taught us, power is not deterministic, but it is embodied from within. Power in-forms us.   “In defining the effects of power as repression, one adopts a purely juridical conception of such power, one identifies power with a law which says no, power is taken above all as carrying the force of a prohibition. If power were never anything but repressive, … do you really think one would be brought to obey it? What makes power hold good, what makes it accepted, is simply the fact that it doesn’t only weigh on us as a force that says no, but that it traverses and produces things, it induces pleasure, forms knowledge, produces discourse.”2 An affect is not merely a capacity but an exercise of power: “it is the effectuation of a strange imperative that ‘throws the self into upheaval and makes it reel’.”3 It is not merely possible, but real.4  Similarities of this concept of indeterminacy can be observed in the three-body problem, which heavily influenced the development of chaos theory. Where you have completely deterministic trajectories of bodies constrained by Newtonian laws, begin to contradict that determinacy. “What makes the three body problem interesting, is compared to the two body problem where the deterministic trajectories of the two bodies are calculable and foreseeable. Where a path is predictable. However, when three bodies are together what happens is unpredictability creeps in. The paths can’t be accurately determined after a point. They can turn erratic, ending up at totally different places than you’d expect.”5 This indeterminacy principle is true of architecture. Architecture has always been a political tool, it tends to be representative of those who are in power. That does now necessarily mean that that is a permanent state. As we have seen, affect is conditioned. It’s expression can be attuned in selective ways. Every situation imposes a certain realm of possibilities that we can shape. The indeterminacy of affect opens the creative potential of architecture. Perhaps we could learn from the political image making machine to propel architectural potential into the public consciousness. The use of film and propaganda as powerful tools that exist in a relational field, or as Felix Guattari calls “mutant universes of reference”,6 which gives rise to new forms of life. 1.  Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capital-ism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.2. 2. Foucault, Michel. Power/knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977, edited by Colin Gordon. Brighton [Eng]: Harvester Press, 1980. 119.3.Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capital-ism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.240. 4. Ibid., 238.5. Zournazi, Mary. Hope: New Philosophies for Change. London: Routledge, 2003. 222.6. Guattari, Félix. Schizoanalytic Cartographies. New York: Blooms-bury Academic, 2013. 36.5758THE CITYNON PLACESTHE CITY In Architecture and Utopia, 1976 Tafuri lamented contemporary architectural ideology as having no “revolutionary aim”.1 Capitalist development has shifted architecture’s political capacity, and has suppressed any sense of ideological prefiguration. Under capitalist development architecture has “return[ed] to pure architecture, to form without Utopia; in the best cases to sublime uselessness”.2 One might argue that Tafuri’s claims are still relevant today, with the caveat that capitalist development has ditched “form without Utopia” for an architecture that serves managerial competencies, as highlighted by John May.3 In addition, humanity’s impact on the planet making the shift into the Anthropocene, certainly does not inspire utopia, despite being named after our ability to single handedly as a species change the planet. What makes this perhaps even more cynical is that Tafuri states “when the role of a discipline ceases to exist, to try to stop the course of things is only regressive Utopia, and of the worst kind”.4 Does that necessarily mean that every attempt at Utopia is regressive? Utopian schemes hold little weight, and are met with harsh skepticism for good reason. Currently, Utopian schemas take the form of bourgeois space travel/colonization, solar roof tiles and electric vehicles, to be honest Utopia right now is nostalgia for a time before the virus.5960Fig. 21THE CITY The attempts at Utopia tend to contradict itself in time. When utopias are projected, they tend to construct themselves in finitude. That is to say, the desire for specific ends and goals, without the acceptance of contingencies and different possibilities. It is modernist in its grand narratives. Reinhold Martin states that these modern Utopias, “threatens to replace what exists in its entirety...in the same sense that spectrality is also a functional property of finance capital oriented towards the management of the future”5. Tafuri quoting Negri supports that, stating that modern architecture functions to “free oneself from the fear of the future by fixing the future as the present.”6 These short term plans for Utopia fail consistently, partly due to the fact that they negate imagination outside of their own.  They are a means to an end, requiring the subordination of their inhabitants. However, architects like Aldo Rossi engage in what I consider Utopia, without falling to the faults of modernism. What separates Aldo Rossi, and his city analogy, is the engagement with an open collective imagination and will. Undeniably postmodern in conception, but without the painful irony and cynicism. In discussing Aldo Rossi’s The Architecture of the City, Simone Brott states Rossi’s architectural moments embodies the collective human will or spirit, in accordance or in opposition with the genius loci gives rise to a particular urban character. She states. “Cities in this sense collect and synthesize discordant memories, while new architectural subjectivities implanted in their midst have the ability to perform a type of reconciliation, revitalizing distressed or discordant assemblages or architectural facts held in tension by virtue of their shared identity and place”.7 Tafuri would argue that the analogous city is not a Utopia as it does not choose a specific political position.8 However, Rossi cultural and poetic vision constitute itself as a city, with a thousand plateaus of discordant memories, which informs different subjective realities, and by freeing it of any single ideological agenda, it enables the desires of a society, these virtues constitute a Utopia, an intersection of different universes. Interestingly, the term utopia actually means “nowhere”, it orignates from Greek ou “not” + topos “place”.9 Many of our myths place idealized visions either in the past, or in death. The Bible places the Garden of Eden irretrievably in the past and heaven only in death. Yet, Utopias continue to be imagined. Architects like Étienne-Louis Boullée were already envisioning Utopias in the 18th century. These utopias functioned as productive fictions, and it is with architecture that these fictions become a realizable human condition. Even Marx and Engels theorized a revitalized primitive communism. Utopias will come and go, or as Reinhold Martin suggest, they are here as ghosts (undead). In concluding Utopia’s Ghost: Architecture and Postmodernism he states “we may eventually realize that if the “post” in postmodernism means anything, it means learning to live with ghosts, including the ghosts of futures past and present, the ghosts of others alive and dead, and with them, the ghosts of our former selves. It means, in other words, learning to think the thought called Utopia once again.”10 1.  Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capital-ist Development. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1976. ix.2. Ibid.3. May, John “The Logic of the Managerial Surface,” PRAXIS 13. December, 2012.4. Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1976. ix-x.5. Martin, Reinhold. Utopia’s Ghost: Architecture and Postmodernism, again. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010. 148.6. Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1976. 135.7. Brott, Simone. Architecture for a Free Subjectivity: Deleuze and Guattari at the Horizon of the Real. Burlington, VT;Farnham, Sur-rey;: Ashgate, 2011. 160.8. Tafuri, Manfredo. Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Development. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1976. 182.9. Online Etymology Dictionary, s.v. “Utopia,” accessed April 26, 2020, https://www.etymonline.com/word/utopia.10. Martin, Reinhold. Utopia’s Ghost: Architecture and Postmodernism, again. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010. 179.6162Fig. 22THE CITY This painting by Paul Klee titled Ein Blatt aus dem Städtebuch (1928)  is an image, or an imagination of the city. It evokes a primitivism, of a past civilization, a time of early literacy or writing. Without being nostalgic for a time that never happened, Klee’s pictogram painting looks like a record of a civilization, or the city, that is tabulated rather than pictorial representation. Utopia is not found in moments, and/or perspectives but found in a relational matrix of lines. It beings me back to Deleuze’s Le Pli, the lines on a page appear finite, but within the lines there is an infinity.1 An infinite number of possibilities of morphologies.  The pictograms are arranged along  horizontal lines with the sky and sun above. These pictograms appear as repetitions, but there is difference in the repetition. Infinitely varying within that line. We could associate our buildings typologies with the pictograms, as a sophisticated composition of the cities collective desires. There is a sense of play within the lines of consistency. Difference, is not necessarily an expression of originality, as I do not believe there is originality. Instead, there is simply difference, lines of flight away from the molar line. It reminds me of Virginia Woolf’s The Waves, an undulating prose that is conjures a constant flow of imaginations continually as it unfolds. Her poetics and style comes from within a deep understanding of our shared us of the English language, but she unfolds infinitely. The pictogram by Klee is a city of constant evolution, an abstraction of an abstraction. It is a utopia.1.  Deleuze, Gilles and Jonathan Strauss. “The Fold.” Yale French Studies 80, no. 80 (1991): 227-247.6364MONTAGE In the 18th century Italian painters were experimenting with a style of painting called capriccio. Capriccio is an architectural fantasy, placing disparate buildings, ruins and other architectural elements in a fictional and fantastical composition.1 Capriccio was used as a creative tool that was appropriated in architecture to reimagine the past, that would then inform the neoclassical architecture of the period. Architects like Piranesi, did not simply “collage” existing buildings, the works were an architecturally bound fantasy. At the time, neoclassicism centered around disputes regarding Greek versus Roman archaeological correctness, and Piranesi favored the Romans for their creativity and openness when it came to composition.2 He saw history as a creative source, not something to be blindly replicated. Instead, within the classical orders Piranesi sought potential for difference. It was a language,utterances. The capriccio has many similarities to the contemporary montage. The use of THE CITYmontage began in the 19th century, and remains prevalent today. Montage is defined by a heterogeneity or plurality of the image, it can be applied as a single photomontage, or as a sequential work, as seen in film.3 The use of the montage is synonymous with modernism, and the industrial revolution. This has been famously theorized by Walter Benjamin in The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Montage according to Benjamin was able to access the optical unconscious of modern life through the organization and perception of space in the modern metropolis.4 In other words, montage was a way to understand the architectural perceptions of the city. Montage was made possible by the introduction of mechanical reproduction of photographic and print material. Sergei Eisenstein the Soviet film theorist and director studied architecture and theorized that architectural perception as a mental montage affected the viewers WHAT, IN THE END MAKES ADVERTISEMENTS SUPERIOR TO CRITICISM? NOT WHAT THE MOVING RED NEON SAYS– BUT THE FIERY POOL REFLECTING IT IN THE ASPHALT- WALTER BENJAMIN, ONE WAY STREET AND OTHER WRITINGS6566The fragmentation of montage has political implications. Firstly, the fragmentation implies the loss of a pre-existing unity. Therefore, montage does not negate existing realities, but opens it up. Creating a constellation of entry points for engagement. Meaning can be continually constructed, and requires the active engagement of the viewer. In addition, montage present itself as an “open work”  where artist leave the “leave the arrangement of some of their constituents either to the public or by chance, thus giving them not a single definitive order but a multiplicity of possible orders.”9 That brings us to our second point, Montage is polyfocal. There are images in the image. Where the montage does not privilege a single depiction, but presents it as part of a larger ensemble. And lastly, it engages the mobility of the spectator. The embodied spectator is moved along, and plays an active role in the temporal dimension of the project.THE CITYspatial cognition.5 He stated that, “In themselves, the pictures, the phases, the elements of the whole are innocent and indecipherable. The blow is struck only when the elements are juxtaposed into a sequential image.”6 For Eisenstein, these elements have to be activated in order to “shock”– as Benjamin would say– the viewer into action. To create a montage is to create an image, which is different from illustrations. Architectural drawings like sections and plans etc. are illustrations, they are reductive and serve a particular use. The attempt to illustrate is to reduce ambiguity, and typically to convey a point rather than concepts or ideas. Images are by nature ambiguous, infinitely decipherable, they may be used to convey an idea or concept. Images operative capacity comes from their complexity. This distinction is not a black and white matter, as there are many illustrations that function as images as well. Yet for the purposes of clarity for this project. This is how I have defined images and illustrations.In Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution he states, “reality has appeared to us as a perpetual becoming. It makes itself or it unmakes itself, but it is never something made”7. Bergson’s discussion on the mechanism of cinema and illusion may reveal a shifting notion of monolithic architecture in the days of montage. The spatial models of montage expressed a different space-time dimension, altering architecture itself. It realigns the static object of the built form with the dynamic flux of a fragmented montage. Similarly, Bernard Tschumi’s Event Cities conceptualizes architecture as emphasizing events that take place in spaces as opposed to the spaces themselves. He suggests this engages the political movement of bodies in the dimension of architecture. Dorita Hannah calls it a subversion of modernisms cause and effect relationship, “in favour of promiscuous collisions of programas and spaces… in the production of a new architectural reality”.8 Fig. 231.  Wikipedia. 2020. “Capriccio (art)” Last modified March 14, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capriccio_(art).2. Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, John Wilton-Ely, and Getty Publica-tions Virtual Library. Observations on the Letter of Monsieur Mariette: With Opinions on Architecture, and a Preface to a New Treatise on the Introduction and Progress of the Fine Arts in Europe in Ancient Times. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2002.3. Stierli, Martino. Montage and the Metropolis: Architecture, Moderni-ty, and the Representation of Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.4.4. Ibid., 15.5. Ibid., 8.6. Eisenstein, Sergei M., Yve-Alain Bois, and Michael Glenny. “Montage and Architecture.” Assemblage no. 10 (1989): 111-131.115.7. Bergson, Henri. Creative Evolution. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984.272.8. Hannah, Dorita, and Marc Goodwin. Event-Space: Theatre Archi-tecture and the Historical Avant-Garde. 1st ed. Florence: Routledge Ltd, 2018. 10.9. Robey, David. Introduction to The Open Work, by Umberto Eco, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1989. ix-x.67Montage vs CollageIn architecture, we’ve typically referred to the broad range of image production where it involves the combining of several different images to produce another image as collage. While what it is called is of little importance to what the image may represent, by distinguishing the two, we get a better sense of how we may utilize both their operative capacities. According to Stierli, “photomontage was conceived as both extending and opposting collage”.1 Collage found its presence in Cubism, the assembling of various disparate materials was a response to the romantic concepts of artistic invention. Montage on the THE CITYFig. 24other hand was a response to the new possibilities of mechanical reproduction. Collage comes from the french term to “a pasting,”  of from Old French coller “to glue”.2 The Dadaist were interested in montage, not as simply an aesthetic object, but images to be read, often with political intent. Stierli, also distinguished montage as utilizing dialectical juxtaposition, “while collage draw their force from the inclusion of objects outside of art, montage typically restricts itself to photographic representation, and collage is subject to tactile perception.”3 The photomontage was a product of smooth image production that celluloid MONTAGE VS COLLAGE68 69THE CITYFig. 251.  Stierli, Martino. Montage and the Metropolis: Architecture, Moderni-ty, and the Representation of Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.18.2. Online Etymology Dictionary, s.v. “Collage,” accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.etymonline.com/word/collage.3. Stierli, Martino. Montage and the Metropolis: Architecture, Moderni-ty, and the Representation of Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.18.4. Rowe, Colin and Fred Koetter. Collage City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1978. 181.offered. The dialectical juxtaposition of montage that Stierli suggests implies a contradictory relationship between the heterogeneous elements, compared to that of collage with aspires for cohesion, and is subordinated to an aesthetic object. What interests me about montage is that it affirms its own contradiction, it relies on technological reproducibility, and is primary syntactical.  Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter’s Collage City calls for the rejection of modernist grand utopian visions, instead they propose a collage city, a figure ground gestalt collaging of plans which can accommodate a different utopias. In the final paragraph, they proclaim: “Utopia as metaphor and Collage City as prescription: these opposites, involving the guarantees of both law and freedom, should surely constitute the dialectic of the future, rather than any total surrender either to scientific ‘certainties’ or the simple vagaries of the ad hoc. The disintegration of modern architecture seems to call for such a strategy; an enlightened pluralism seems to invite; and, possibly, even common sense concurs.”4 The proposal for collage cities, seems to be just an aestheticizing exercise. Yet, what if we extended this project, and attempted montage cities? What would they yield?  Rem Koolhaas, Madelon Vreisendorp, Elia Zenghelis, and Zoe Zenghelis’ thesis Exodus, or the voluntary prisoners of architecture begins to hint at what a montage city may begin to look like. Albeit not a utopia, the works suggest an urbanism based around montage. The city is understood as cinematic juxtaposing sequences. Unlike Collage City, the city is not a cohesive formal gestalt, but sequences of program. The features of each sequence is culturally or operatively determined.  If we understand the work of Rem Koolhaas as montage, then we understand montage as fragmentary. It does not assert itself as a pre-established system of meaning, but one of sequential difference of experience. What seperates the work of Koolhaas is this aspect of sequence rather than specific moments. The viewer/occupant is itinerant. Despite this project being a thesis project, many of these ideas regarding sequence and montage are translated into his other projects. Existing between the invitation of chance, and the rigorousness of control, or the simultaneous doubt of both.70 71THE CITYFig. 2672 7374MISE EN ABYME Mise en abyme refers to the technique in film theory of inserting a story within a story. The term is translated from french to literally mean “placed into the abyss” or “scenes from the abyss”.1 A mise en abyme in a montage implies a self-reflexivity, the act in itself sets up an allegory, alternatively it breaks the “fourth wall” making the viewer aware of their presence within the work. Mise en abyme entails a meta-level narrative, something beyond the literal image– a secret, or a known unknown.  An architectural representation, let alone intervention is always a mise en abyme. The act of inserting a story within the environment. The insertion and THE CITYdeletion of information has been used to shape discourse. The stylite monks who perched on top of Byzantine and medieval structures on the Acropolis, were removed from archaeological records, as not to obscure pure Classical remains, concurrently, the discovery and reintroduction of their presence has opened up discourse to a more complex understanding of history. French philosopher Georges Didi-Huberman asks that we consider the temporal gap between two images in a filmic montage, he calls these “interposition” significant for the production of meaning.2 These interpositions become spaces for architectural construction, able to bridge both the past and the present. PLACEDINTO THEABYSS7576were actually highly artificial and subject to interpretation in the process of being observed, and thus those scientific theories and assumptions generated their own reality.8 Likewise, what we create in a nebulous digital world constitutes a reality of its own. This liberates our collective imaginations and fantasies from latency into manifestations, into stories, into myths.   The Mnemosyne Atlas by Aby Warburg was started in 1924 and was left unfinished at the time of his death in 1929. Warburg set out to map the “afterlife of antiquity”, by appropriating culturally significant images of Western antiquity and reanimating them in the cosmology of a later temporal space.3 In particular he was interested in the Renaissance, where he found the “struggle between the forces of reason and unreason to be most palpable”.4 He wanted viewers to experience for themselves the difficulty within those polarities. Warburg believed that the juxtaposition of the images when placed in sequence, would generate “synoptic visions into the afterlife of antiquity.”5 The Mnemosyne Atlas is similar to what Jakub Zdebik called the Map-Image, a deleuzian concept of mapping between different informational and representational media and technologies to explore new territories. This analogy of cartographic exploration could be extended to architecture.6 By laying out a cartography of disparate architectural references and technologies to provide insight into possible after lives, and futures of the architecture of our cities.  Today montage exists as data, Images are no longer a simulation of an existing, but exist as pure simulacra, with no origin.7 Our awareness of the manipulation of data makes us mistrust data. The recent awareness of Deepfakes have cautioned us to mistrust the one thing we could previously trust, our eyes. But yet we have no choice but to trust in some of the information, “credible information”. In spite these nefarious effects, this opens up new possibilities for map-imaging. With the digital tools we have today we can turn this into an operative endeavor. After all, the data that we receive in the form of images are relational to the architecture and the cities we construct. Gaston Bachelard coined the term phenomenotechnique, and argued that apparently “natural” phenomena as observed by scientists THE CITYFig. 271.  Online Etymology Dictionary, s.v. “Mise-en-abyme,” accessed April 27, 2020, https://www.etymonline.com/word/mis-en-abyme.2. Stierli, Martino. Montage and the Metropolis: Architecture, Moderni-ty, and the Representation of Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.8.3. Cornell University Library. “About the Mnemosyne Atlas,” Mnemosyne: Wandering through Aby Warburg’s Atlas. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, n.d. https://warburg.library.cornell.edu/about.4. Ibid.5. Ibid.6. Zdebik, Jakub. Deleuze and the Map-Image: Aesthetics, Information, Code, and Digital Art. New York: Bloomsbury, 2019.7. Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: Univer-sity of Michigan Press, 1995.1.8. Stierli, Martino. Montage and the Metropolis: Architecture, Moderni-ty, and the Representation of Space. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.80.7778Fig. 28Fig. 2979MORPHOLOGIE In 1982 Oswald Mathias Ungers published a book titled Morphologie: City Metaphors. The book is a collection of texts and images conceptualizing design through analogies and metaphors. He discusses the connection between sensing and thinking. In particular he is interested in one way of visual thinking— morphological idealism. This way of thinking “seeks out phenomena and experience which describes more than just the sum of parts, paying almost no attention to separate elements which would be affected and change through subjective vision and comprehensive images anyway. The major concern is not the reality as it is but the search for an allround idea, for a general content, a coherent thought, or an overall concept that ties everything together.”1 To pursue a morphological design it is fundamental to conceptualize “an unrelated, diverse reality through the use of images, metaphors, analogies, models, signs, symbols and allegories.”2THE CITYFig. 30 Throughout the book, Ungers aligns two images side by side, and we interpret the associated pair. Underneath each image is an English word on the left page and German on the right, describing the metaphor implied by each visual pair. These pairings suggest a way of constructing architectural knowledge as it relates to form making. What is important is that form is not an empty procedure, not formalism without, but “form-as”. Form as it relates to ideas and imaginations.The following glossary of terms begin to shape some of thoughts behind the ideas of book, with an additional set of concepts — leitmotiv, eurhythmy, sublime, beautiful, lightness, darkness, smooth and striated.  The pursuit if these additional concepts are to arouse affect while pursuing morphological design. That is not to say that morphological design themselves are not affective, but rather these concepts heighten the affective potential. 80 8182 THE CITYFig. 31Morphology - a fundamental process of conceptualising an unrelated, diverse reality through the use of images, metaphors, analogies, models, signs, symbols and allegories.3 Image - “Reality no longer has the time to take on the appearance of reality.4 Metaphor - A metaphor is an intuitive perception of similarities in dissimilars.5Analogy - The analogy establishes a similarity, or the existence of some similar principles, between two events that are otherwise completely different.6Models - Conceptual devices to structure our experience and turn them into functions or make them intentional.7Signs - Signs point to something that they represent, as words are artificial signs for ideas and thoughts.8Symbols - A religion is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing those conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.9Allegory - Allegories are, in the realm of thoughts, what ruins are in the realm of things.10Leitmotiv - an associated melodic phrase or figure that accompanies the reappearance of an idea, person, or situation.11Eurhythmy - adjustment of objective proportions to the requirements of a subjective vision.12Sublime - Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling.13Beautiful - It is not sufficient to see and to know the beauty of a work. We must feel and be affected by it.14Lightness -On the surface, an intelligible lie; underneath, the unintelligible truth.15Darkness - Mine eyes fail in darkness, mine eyes fail, Mine eyes fail in darkness, love.16Smooth- vectorial, projective, or topological17Striated- metric181.  Ungers, O. M. Morphologie: City Metaphors. 2. ed. Köln;New York: Walther König, 2011.5.2. Ibid., 6.3. Ibid.4. Baudrillard, Jean. Simulations, edited by Phil Beitchman, Paul Foss and Paul Patton. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1983. 151.5. Aristotle. “The Poetics - 22”, The Poetics: Aristotle on the Art of Poetry. translated by Ingram Bywater. Authorama, n.d.  http://www.authorama.com/the-poetics-23.html.6. Ungers, O. M. Morphologie: City Metaphors. 2. ed. Köln;New York: Walther König, 2011.5.7. Ibid., 7.8. Ibid., 8.9. Geertz, Clifford, “Religion as a cultural system”. In  The interpre-tation of cultures: selected essays. London: Fontana Press, 1993.90.10. Benjamin, Walter, Michael William Jennings, Brigid Doherty, Thomas Y. Levin, and E. F. N. Jephcott. The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media. 1st ed. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2008.180.11. Merriam Webster, s.v. “leitmotif,” accessed April 28, 2020, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/leitmotif.12. Eco, Umberto. The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Se-miotics of Texts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. 50.13. Burke, Edmund. “Of the Sublime.” Chapter. In A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: With an Introductory Discourse Concerning Taste; and Several Other Additions, Cambridge Library Collection - Philosophy. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press, 2014. 58-60.14. Voltaire, 1694-1778. A Philosophical Dictionary. England: J. and H. L. Hunt, 1824. 523.15. Kundera, Milan and Michael Henry Heim. The Unbearable Lightness of being. Deluxe ed. New York: HarperPerennial, 2009.31.16. Joyce, James. Giacomo Joyce. London: Faber and Faber, 1968.3.17. Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Nomadology: The War Ma-chine.London;Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1986. 18.18. Ibid.83Fig. 328584Fig. 338786Fig. 348988Fig. 359190Fig. 369392Fig. 379594Fig. 389796Fig. 399998Fig. 40101100Fig. 41103102Fig. 42105104Fig. 43107106Fig. 44109108Fig. 45111110Fig. 46113112Fig. 47115114116DOSSIER#2:WAYANG117118WAYANGWAYANG The project began with an interest affect and desire, and how these forces can begin to enter architecture. However, how I think we may seek to understand affect and desire is through an engagement with the mythological. Myths give voice to something that beyond what is physically there. Something that we sensate. The mythological realm is immanentized through affect and desire.   Different cultures throughout the world have different cosmologies to speak of mythology. The ancient greeks for example would describe the presence of Ares in battle, the presence of something in an event, that which exceeds the physical. In the battle, the god of war is more present than anything else, but you wont find him anywhere, at least not the typical way we understand it. You can only find him in the battle, in being in it, in the experience of the battle.  SImilarly when we speak of genius loci, we acknowledge the genie in a place. It is something that affects us in RE-MYTHOLOGIZEthe event of being in a place, that which is not reducible to its physical nature.  There is no other deity that speaks more truthfully about affect and desire than Aphrodite. She is the goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and passion. Desire, one could say. She was not begotten of the other Gods, as she was born of sea foam.1 According the Greek Mythology, it is because of Aphrodite that we can see beauty. Another aspect of Aphrodite, is that when she reveals herself, she reveals herself as always already having been there. This suggests her beauty is revealed by an event. It is through affect that triggers the aesthetic event.  The French philosopher Gilles Deleuze speaks about the event as always virtual, and not actual. Similar to the witnessing of beauty in Aphrodite, Deleuze speaks of this event as the immanent. The Immanent is that which is both virtual and actual. Virtual being that which is not reducible to all the 119120Fig. 48WAYANG1.  Cyrino, Monica Silveira and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. aphrodite. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon;New York, NY;: Routledge, 2010;2012;. doi:10.4324/9780203481622.2. Deleuze, Gilles. Bergsonism. New York: Zone Books, 1988. 96-98.3. Deleuze, Gilles, Mark Lester, Constantin V. Boundas, and Charles J. Stivale. The Logic of Sense. London;New York;: Continu-um, 2004. 100.actual elements. It escapes a network of causalities.2   In The Logic of Sense, Deleuze suggests the mythological realm when he speaks about the ‘battle’. He states: “If the battle is not an example of an event among others, but rather the Event in its essence, it is no doubt because it is actualized in diverse manners at once and because each participant may grasp it at a different level of actualization within its variable present. And the same time is true for the now classic comparisons between Stendahl, Hugo, and Tolstoy when they ‘see’ the battle and make their heroes ‘see’ it. But it is above all because the battle hovers over its own field, being neutral in relation to all of its temporal actualizations, neutral and impassive in relation to the victor and the vanquished, the coward and the brave; because of this, it is all the more terrible. Never present but always yet to come and already passed, the battle is graspable only by the will of anonymity which itself inspires.”3Deleuze speaks about the battle as having its own agency. It’s own intelligence. The battle does not care who wins and loses, but rather is an aesthetic event in and of itself.  By remythologizing, we begin to attune ourselves to these events. These events that reveal their beauty through affect. Wayang is a project in remythologizing. It begins with reimagining architecture as symbolic vessels, a gateway into the mythological realm. By engaging a project of remythologizing, it also brings attention to the affective potential in architecture. The city mythologized becomes a place engaged in a co-creation of emergent desires that affirm life.  121122 WAYANGSYMBOLSFig. 49SYMBOLS These architectural follies are symbols. They are symbols because they are not fixed signs, in the sense that they to not point to something else, they do not signify. Each symbol does not point to their corresponding title. For example, the symbol death, or dreams, or secrets do not refer to death through communicative means, or through signification, but rather through expression. It is in expression do these architectural follies become symbols, their expression opens up an imaginal dimension, and only reveals itself as a symbol in an aesthetic event. It is in the aesthetic event that we immanentize the mythological. The symbol is a gateway into the mythological realm.  Carl Jung famously criticized Freud in his definition of symbols as a “sign” or sympton of something else. For Freud, the symbol is a sign for pathologizing something. Where as for Jung the symbol differs, and should be understood as an expression for something other, an imaginal dimension. Jung states, “The 1.  Jung, C. G. HG. “On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry.” In , edited by Hull, R. F. C. Vol. 15, 65-83. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.2. Melville, Herman and desLibris - Books. Moby Dick Engage Books (eBOUND), 2020.true symbol differs essentially from this, and should be understood as an expression of an intuitive idea that cannot yet be formulated in any other or better way.”1 In Moby Dick by Herman Melville, it is not an accident that Capt. Ahab’s leg is made of white whale bone.2 His prosthetic leg is a symbol, a symbol that suggests that it costs Capt. Ahab more than a leg, as now he has one foot in our world, and another foot in the sublime world he shares with the whale. The leg is also severed, cutting Ahab from the rest of humankind. He is part whale part human. We only receive the symbol, because it is impossible to represent that imaginal world between Capt Ahab.   123ACCIDENT BEAUTYFig. 50Fig. 51125124DARKNESS DEATHFig. 52Fig. 53127126DESTRUCTION DREAMSFig. 54Fig. 55129128FEAST MEMORYFig. 56Fig. 57131130GAZE LABYRINTHFig. 58Fig. 59133132LIGHTNESS METAMORPHOSISFig. 60Fig. 61135134NOISE REVOLUTIONFig. 62Fig. 63137136SECRETS THE MOONFig. 64Fig. 65139138THE CUT TIMEFig. 66Fig. 67141140TWIN VELOCITYFig. 68Fig. 69143142WAYANGSYNCHRONICITY This drawing is titled Synchronicity. Synchronicity is an imaginal map of a city. The concept synchronicity was introduced by analytical psychologist Carl Jung, who defined it as events that are “meaningful coincidences, they occur with no causal relationship yet are meaningfully related.1   In the drawing each symbol exists within its own territory, expressive lines of flight begin to connect each symbol acausally to one another leading to potential emegences. These connections are expressive and non deterministic. Similar to the experimental scores of John Cage, Brian Eno, and Karlhein Stockhausen, the drawing serves as a form of notation for creative interpretation.  It challenges architectures notions of static stability, and throws it into a flux of movement and potentiality. The open work speaks about contingency and chance as well, but rather than being subjected to chance, it takes chance as its subject. The architecture is a meditation on that. It acknowledges the all things are contingent, however, the contingency is not without meaning. Fig. 701.  Tarnas, Richard. Cosmos and Psyche. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. 50.145144Fig. 71147146Fig. 72149148Fig. 73151150Fig. 74153152WAYANGWAYANG Wayang is a short film that explores 5 of the 20 symbols. They are Noise, Death, Secrets, Dreams, and Time. The film is born of a desire to capture architecture in the process of becoming. The architecture is surrounded by events that it affects and is affected by.  In the film, we enter the character’s stream of consciousness. We follow him as he is affected by an unknown force called the “The Noise”, which presents a continuous flow of memories, thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. We listen to his ruminations on the effects of memory and time on him and the architecture.   The film is constructed out of found video footage from a variety of movies, and online sources, mainly YouTube, overlaid with a non-linear narrative by the author. The following 298 pages are the film stills with the subtitles of the narrative. 155154Fig. 75 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.157156Fig. 76 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)159158Fig. 77 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)161160Fig. 78 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)163162Fig. 79 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)165164Fig. 80 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)167166Fig. 81 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author)169168Fig. 82 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.171170Fig. 83 Wayang (Noise Symbol), film still by author, 2020.173172Fig. 84 Wayang (The Noise), film still by author, 2020.175174Fig. 85 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.177176Fig. 86 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY.179178Fig. 87 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY. (Subtitles by author)181180Fig. 88 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY. (Subtitles by author)183182Fig. 89 Wayang, film still by author, 2020.185184Fig. 90 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY. (Subtitles by author)187186Fig. 91 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY. (Subtitles by author)189188Fig. 92 “Nam June Paik - Videofilm Concert (1965),” video file, 38.46, YouTube, posted by starflyer2012, October 7, 2012, https://youtu.be/VEAUjFLSqXY. (Subtitles by author)191190Fig. 93 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.193192Fig. 94 “nam june paik - hommage a john cage,” video file, 4.13, YouTube, posted by hattn, February 20, 2010, https://youtu.be/mSREMldyFtg195194Fig. 95 “nam june paik - hommage a john cage,” video file, 4.13, YouTube, posted by hattn, February 20, 2010, https://youtu.be/mSREMldyFtg197196Fig. 96 “Videotape Study No. 3 by Nam June Paik (1967),” video file, 3.52, YouTube, posted by Alicia Burr, December 14, 2015, https://youtu.be/JfNR9yXHKMc (Subtitles by author)199198Fig. 97201200Fig. 98 “Videotape Study No. 3 by Nam June Paik (1967),” video file, 3.52, YouTube, posted by Alicia Burr, December 14, 2015, https://youtu.be/JfNR9yXHKMc (Subtitles by author)203202Fig. 99 “Chris Marker Installation, Multiple Screens,” video file, 1.08, YouTube, posted by Pretty Mundane Videos, July 31, 2017, https://youtu.be/olUkrldEkWM (Subtitles by author)205204Fig. 100 “866A warm up - 2,” video file, 0.25, YouTube, posted by VinylSavor, March 25, 2015, https://youtu.be/pte1VSkUxyk (Subtitles by author)207206Fig. 101 “866A warm up - 2,” video file, 0.25, YouTube, posted by VinylSavor, March 25, 2015, https://youtu.be/pte1VSkUxyk (Subtitles by author)209208Fig. 102 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.211210Fig. 103 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002.213212Fig. 104 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Janus Films, 1983. (Title by author)215214Fig. 105 “Super 8 experimental films by Simon Cooper, Canberra 1983/85. Features Tim Ferguson.”, video file, 31.51, YouTube, posted by Simon Cooper, June 30, 2020, https://youtu.be/4NTvg23U2As (Subtitles by author)217216Fig. 106 “Coral Wonderland,”video file, 20.12, YouTube, posted  by A/V Geeks, July 20, 2014, https://youtu.be/ZGH8hOL_rNo (Subtitles by author)219218Fig. 107 Brakhage, Stan. By Brakhage: An Anthology (Lovesong). New  York, New York: The Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD.221220Fig. 108 “Super 8 experimental films by Simon Cooper, Canberra 1983/85. Features Tim Ferguson.”, video file, 31.51, YouTube, posted by Simon Cooper, June 30, 2020, https://youtu.be/4NTvg23U2As223222Fig. 109 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Moetsukita chizu (The Man Without a Map). Tokyo, Japan:  Toho Ltd., 1968, Digital. (Subtitles by author)225224Fig. 110 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. (Subtitles by author)227226Fig. 111 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. (Subtitles by author)229228Fig. 112 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. (Subtitles by author)231230Fig. 113 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. (Subtitles by author)233232Fig. 114 “Coral Wonderland,”video file, 20.12, YouTube, posted by A/V Geeks, July 20, 2014, https://youtu.be/ZGH8hOL_rNo (Subtitles by author)235234Fig. 115 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD.237236Fig. 116 “Lights (Marie Menken - 1966),” video file, 6.05, YouTube, posted by Fuchsia Swing, January 3, 2012, https://youtu.be/fuz2F2na5BE (Subtitles by author)239238Fig. 117 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974, DVD. (Subtitles by author)241240Fig. 118 Lynch, David. Eraserhead. Los Angeles, California: American Film Institute, 1977, DVD. (Subtitles by author)243242Fig. 119 “Cats filmed with thermal camera,” video file, 6.56, YouTube, posted by Thermal Guys, December 11, 2016, https://youtu.be/w6AEl1aMjUg (Subtitles by author)245244Fig. 120 “Bill Viola – The Raft, May 2004 (excerpt),” video file, 1.11, YouTube, posted by Public Delivery, August 18, 2019, https://youtu.be/4Ili9pvlxdk (Subtitles by author)247246Fig. 121 “Top 5 Lava VS Water Videos,” video file, 9.59, YouTube, posted by Top Fives, October 8, 2018, https://youtu.be/NWVmI6EzVWE (Subtitles by author)249248Fig. 122 Angelopoulos, Theo. The Weeping Meadow. Paris, France: Celluloid Dreams, 2004, DVD. (Subtitles by author)251250Fig. 123 Angelopoulos, Theo. Landscape in the Mist. New  York, New York: New Yorker Films, 1988, DVD. (Subtitles by author)253252Fig. 124 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Janus Films, 1983. (Subtitles by author)255254Fig. 125 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Janus Films, 1983. (Subtitles by author)257256Fig. 126 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. DVD. (Subtitles by author)259258Fig. 127 Tarkovsky, Andrei. The Sacrifice. Aalborg, Denmark: Sandre Metronome, 1986. DVD. (Subtitles by author)261260Fig. 128 “old school slam dance (another state of mind) 80’s punk | RDX81,” video file, 2.42, YouTube, posted by RDX81, February 18, 2008, https://youtu.be/GKoozg5nS-k 263262Fig. 129 “old school slam dance (another state of mind) 80’s punk | RDX81,” video file, 2.42, YouTube, posted by RDX81, February 18, 2008, https://youtu.be/GKoozg5nS-k (Subtitles by author)265264Fig. 130 Ito, Takashi. Devil’s Circuit. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1988, DVD. (Subtitles by author)267266Fig. 131 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD. (Subtitles by author)269268Fig. 132 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD. 271270Fig. 133 Schrader, Paul. Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters. Burbank, California: Warner Bros. 1985, DVD. (Subtitles by author)273272Fig. 134 “Robert Smithson (Tribute Spinning Man),” video file, 0.31, YouTube, posted by Diane Roberts, June 11, 2010, https://youtu.be/5ebONFTeaOU (Subtitles by author)275274Fig. 135 Curtis, Adam. HyperNormalization. London, UK: BBC, 2016. (Subtitles by author)277276Fig. 136 Curtis, Adam. HyperNormalization. London, UK: BBC, 2016. (Subtitles by author)279278Fig. 137 Brakhage, Stan. Anticipation of the Night. San Francisco, California: Canyon Cinema, 1958. (Subtitles by author)281280Fig. 138 Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray. Anemic Cinema. 1926. (Subtitles by author)283282Fig. 139 Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray. Anemic Cinema. 1926. (Subtitles by author)285284Fig. 140 Ito, Takashi. Dizziness. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 2001, DVD. (Subtitles by author)287286Fig. 141 Deren, Maya. The Very Eye of Night. New York, N.Y. : Mystic Fire Video, 1986, DVD.289288Fig. 142 Beaudin, Jean. Vertige. Ottawa, ON, Canada: National Film Board of Canada, 1969, DVD.291290Fig. 143 Reggio, Godfrey. Koyaanisqatsi. San Francisco, Californation: American Zoetrope, 1982, DVD. (Subtitles by author)293292Fig. 144 Reggio, Godfrey. Koyaanisqatsi. San Francisco, Californation: American Zoetrope, 1982, DVD.295294Fig. 145 Curtis, Adam. All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace. London, UK: BBC, 2011. (Subtitles by author)297296Fig. 146 Ito, Takashi. Zone.  Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1995, DVD. (Subtitles by author)299298Fig. 147 “Glimpse Of The Garden (1957),” video file, 5.05, YouTube, posted by mysteriuminiquitatis, October 20, 2017, https://youtu.be/rgMsi2HAbmM301300Fig. 148 “Glimpse Of The Garden (1957),” video file, 5.05, YouTube, posted by mysteriuminiquitatis, October 20, 2017, https://youtu.be/rgMsi2HAbmM (Subtitles by author)303302Fig. 149 “Glimpse Of The Garden (1957),” video file, 5.05, YouTube, posted by mysteriuminiquitatis, October 20, 2017, https://youtu.be/rgMsi2HAbmM (Subtitles by author)305304Fig. 150 Teshigahara, Hiroshi. Ikebana. New York, New York: The Criterion Collection, 2007, DVD. (Subtitles by author)307306Fig. 151 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  (Subtitles by author)309308Fig. 152 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  (Subtitles by author) 311310Fig. 153 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  (Subtitles by author) 313312Fig. 154 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  315314Fig. 155 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  317316Fig. 156 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  319318Fig. 157 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  321320Fig. 158 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  323322Fig. 159 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  325324Fig. 160 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  327326Fig. 161 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD.  329328Fig. 162 Wayang(Dreams), film still by author, 2020. 331330Fig. 163 Wayang(Dreams Symbol), film still by author, 2020. 333332Fig. 164 “Old JR Train - Night Window View Etc - (Toyoda, Hino, Tachikawa) - (111121),” video file, 8.46, YouTube, posted by Lyle Hiroshi Saxon, November 13, 2011, https://youtu.be/85Pyc4KVvME 335334Fig. 165 Wenders, Wim. Notebook on Cities and Clothes. London, UK: Axiom Films, 1989, DVD. (Subtitles by author)337336Fig. 166 “Japan 70s | Digital restored 1970 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 7.14, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, July 16, 2020, https://youtu.be/BQwsxo7vqwY (Subtitles by author) 339338Fig. 167 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube, posted by  TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018, https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0 341340Fig. 168 Wayang, film still by author, 2020. 343342Fig. 169 “Cineforms - Directed by Andrzej Pawlowski 1957,” video file, 6.45, YouTube, posted by AudioDesignArts,December 8, 2010, https://youtu.be/Z-hrpl3vQTw (Subtitles by author)345344Fig. 170 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002. 347346Fig. 171 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube, posted by TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018, https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0  349348Fig. 172 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002. 351350Fig. 173 “Night Train Ride in Japan,” video file, 11.11, YouTube, posted by TheJapanChannelDcom, July 28, 2018, https://youtu.be/wOe6gvgi8m0 (Subtitles by author)353352Fig. 174 Akerman, Chantal. News from Home. New York, N.Y: The Criterion Collection, 1977. 355354Fig. 175 Ito, Takashi. The Moon. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1994, DVD. (Subtitles by author)357356Fig. 176 “Overthinking. (Short Experimental Film),” video file, 4.12, YouTube, posted by Lugo, February 8, 2018, https://youtu.be/2R_PNgfv1EQ 359358Fig. 177 Ito, Takashi. Grim. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1985, DVD. (Subtitles by author)361360Fig. 178 Ito, Takashi. Grim. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1985, DVD. 363362Fig. 179 Ito, Takashi. Grim. Tokyo, Japan: Image Forum Festival, 1985, DVD. 365364Fig. 180 Reygadas, Carlos. Japón. New  York, N.Y: The Criterion Collection, 2002, DVD. (Subtitles by author) 367366Fig. 181 Reygadas, Carlos. Japón. New  York, N.Y: The Criterion Collection, 2002, DVD. (Subtitles by author) 369368Fig. 182 Avati, Pupi. La Casa Dalle Finestre che Ridono. Rome, Italy: A.M.A Films, 1976, DVD. 371370Fig. 183 Bartas, Šarunas. A casa. Lisbon, Portugal: Atalanta Filmes, 1997, DVD. (Subtitles by author)373372Fig. 184 Bartas, Šarunas. A casa. Lisbon, Portugal: Atalanta Filmes, 1997, DVD. 375374Fig. 185 Kristian Petri, Jan Röed, and Johan Söderberg. Tokyo Noise. Kungsängen, Sweden: Charon Film AB, 2002. 377376Fig. 186 “Adam Magyar, Stainless - Sindorim (excerpt),” video file, 3.46, YouTube, posted by Adam Magyar, March 16, 2014, https://youtu.be/oZlBdpp7FtI (Subtitles by author)379378Fig. 187 “Adam Magyar, Stainless - Sindorim (excerpt),” video file, 3.46, YouTube, posted by Adam Magyar, March 16, 2014, https://youtu.be/oZlBdpp7FtI (Subtitles by author) 381380Fig. 188 “Adam Magyar, Stainless - Sindorim (excerpt),” video file, 3.46, YouTube, posted by Adam Magyar, March 16, 2014, https://youtu.be/oZlBdpp7FtI (Subtitles by author) 383382Fig. 189 Fricke, Ron. Chronos. San Diego, California: Canticle Films, 1985, DVD. (Subtitles by author)385384Fig. 190 Fricke, Ron. Chronos. San Diego, California: Canticle Films, 1985, DVD. 387386Fig. 191 Fricke, Ron. Chronos. San Diego, California: Canticle Films, 1985, DVD. 389388Fig. 192 Wayang(Time), film still by author, 2020. 391390Fig. 193 Marker, Chris. Sans Soleil. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Janus Films, 1983. 393392Fig. 194 “SONIC BOOMS & JETS,” video file, 3.26, YouTube, posted by MW Hub, April 18, 2017, https://youtu.be/jmhU7SEo4gg (Subtitles by author)395394Fig. 195 Curtis, Adam. Bitter Lake. London, UK: BBC, 2015. (Subtitles by author)397396Fig. 196 Curtis, Adam. HyperNormalization. London, UK: BBC, 2016. 399398Fig. 197 “Sony FS700 Slow Motion 240fps Test - Sonic Boom,” video file, 0.54, YouTube, posted by 312media, August 18, 2012, https://youtu.be/iz7DQWbZ5EM (Subtitles by author)401400Fig. 198 Curtis, Adam. Bitter Lake. London, UK: BBC, 2015. (Subtitles by author)403402Fig. 199 Curtis, Adam. Bitter Lake. London, UK: BBC, 2015. 405404Fig. 200 Wayang(Time Symbol), film still by author, 2020. 407406Fig. 201 Mekas, Jonas. As I Was Moving Ahead Occasionally I Saw Brief Glimpses of Beauty. San Francisco, California: Canyon Cinema, 2000. (Subtitles by author) 409408Fig. 202 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19, 2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0 (Subtitles by author)411410Fig. 203 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19, 2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0 (Subtitles by author) 413412Fig. 204 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19, 2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0 415414Fig. 205 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19, 2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0 417416Fig. 206 “Japan 80s HD | Digital restored 1980 Footage | 1080p,” video file, 4.02, YouTube, posted by TRNGL, August 19, 2020, https://youtu.be/C_qi8XVP8W0 419418Fig. 207 Kar Wai, Wong. In the Mood for Love. Paris, France: Paradis Films, 2000. 421420Fig. 208 Mekas, Jonas. As I Was Moving Ahead Occasionally I Saw Brief Glimpses of Beauty. San Francisco, California: Canyon Cinema, 2000. (Subtitles by author)423422Fig. 209 “Shuttle Challenger Explosion,” video file, 8.00, YouTube, posted by  What You Haven’t Seen, April 6, 2020, https://youtu.be/rUqPMMgfJ4Q (Subtitles by author)425424Fig. 210 “Shuttle Challenger Explosion,” video file, 8.00, YouTube, posted by  What You Haven’t Seen, April 6, 2020, https://youtu.be/rUqPMMgfJ4Q (Subtitles by author) 427426Fig. 211 “Shuttle Challenger Explosion,” video file, 8.00, YouTube, posted by  What You Haven’t Seen, April 6, 2020, https://youtu.be/rUqPMMgfJ4Q (Subtitles by author) 429428Fig. 212 “Shuttle Challenger Explosion,” video file, 8.00, YouTube, posted by  What You Haven’t Seen, April 6, 2020, https://youtu.be/rUqPMMgfJ4Q 431430Fig. 213 Wayang, film still by author, 2020. 433432Fig. 214 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author) 435434Fig. 215 Terayama, Shuji. Pastoral: To Die in the Country. Tokyo, Japan: Art Theatre Guild, 1974. Digital. (Subtitles by author) 437436Fig. 216 “Perfect lovers,” video file, 0.45, YouTube, posted by Rachel, November 3, 2013, https://youtu.be/JxMQq79r0vo (Subtitles by author) 439438Fig. 217 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD. (Subtitles by author) 441440Fig. 218 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD. (Subtitles by author) 443442Fig. 219 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD. 445444Fig. 220 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD. 447446Fig. 221 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. Culver City, California: Media Home Entertainment, 1982, DVD. 449448Fig. 222 Tsukerman, lava. Liquid Sky. 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