UBC Graduate Research

Cause + Effect : Rendering the Invisible Sveinson, Halley 2020-12-23

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Cause + Effect: Rendering the InvisibleM.Arch Graduation Project | 2020 | Halley SveinsoniiCause + Effect iiiGP01 ReportCAUSE + EFFECT:Rendering the InvisibleHalley SveinsonBachelor of Environmental Design, University of Manitoba, 2018.Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in the Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture Program.CommitteeBlair Satterfield (Chair)Mari FujitaSara ZonouziThe University of British ColumbiaDecember 2020© Halley SveinsonLeft Intentionally BlankivCause + Effect vGP01 ReportAbstractArchitecture is inherently political and has the potential to be used as a form of agency for those affected by conflicts. The most affected populations of both environmental and human conflict are the millions of displaced people globally. These groups are hosted in other countries in varying conditions, from host families to tent shelters in refugee camps. The establishment of refugee camps are often adjacent or at a distance from major cities or along International borders. The birth of a refugee camp is based on pure necessity and creates a problematic condition for transitioning into permanent settlements. Unfortunately, many refugee camps arise in areas of internal conflict or zones of environmental risk.The advancement of design tools and technology allow Architects to investigate areas of severe conflict or are inaccessible for field studies to provide site-specific humanitarian design proposals. Host countries of refugee populations are responsible for their treatment. Considering this, the project studies the political complexities of Lebanon as a host country of Syrian refugees. Their national policies  are clear tools of geo-political control and create unsafe living conditins for this vulnerable population seeking refuge in their country. As a designer, we have the cwapacity to create linkages between different sources of information or render the invisible forces that effect built environments. The project uses this research scenerio of informal Syrian refugee camps in Lebanon, to provide an example as to how foreign designers can highlight complex issues and use our skills to create more responsive immediate design strategies. Left Intentionally BlankviCause + Effect viiGP01 ReportPrefaceThe idea of designing in extreme environments within my thesis project began during a yearlong work term in Iqaluit, Nunavut. During that time, I worked on community projects throughout the territory. This work exposed me to not only the unique design considerations of working within that specific environment; but also to the history of Canada’s colonization of the Arctic, the cause of internal conflict for generations. This experience made me wonder what community infrastructure’s role is in the political environment and its potential as an instrument of geopolitics for at-risk populations.  A driving part of the project was the site analysis research. In order to have an improved understanding of the concept of conflict design, identifying areas of significant human violence was vital in determining a site that has the potential for maximum positive change for refugee populations.As a born and raised Canadian, I felt a strong obligation to research the site area in-depth to understand further the Middle East’s history and current political condition. An author of Western culture conducted the research, and the findings of this project are naturally affected by that perspective. This thesis aims to illuminate the potential and limitations of international architects designing for foreign locations. The digital design analysis methods explored in this thesis hope to provide opportunities for thorough site research. There is a high responsibility for designers to be diligent during research to maintain a sense of humility in their limits of understanding due to their background.It is identified within Section 1.2 that a limitation to this project’s research is the inability to have witness testimony to provide additional firsthand perspectives to the conditions and experiences of Middle Eastern cities and refugee camps. For that reason, the research thus far has been at the scale of landscape design, prioritizing cartographic and digital design analysis over the human scale conditions of these camps. In the GPII portion of this project, the intention is to mediate between those two scales. viiiCause + Effect ixGP01 ReportCONTENTS Title Page Abstract Preface Contents List of Figures Terms01 Methodology 1.1. Process 1.2. Limitations02 Remote Design Analysis 2.1. Tools 2.2. Forensic Architecture03 Refugee Architecture 3.1. Refuge 3.2. Lifespan of a Refugee Camp 3.4. UNHCR Shelter Catalogue 3.3. Humanitarian Architecture 04 Precedents 4.1. Kalobeyei Settlement 4.2. Home for All 4.3. Refugee Republic 4.4. Open Reblock05 Site Analysis 5.1. Risk Assessment 5.1.1. Environmental Conflict  5.1.2. Human Conflict iivviixx12256681010121419202022242628303131 5.2. Middle East 5.2.1. North Iraq 5.2.2. North-West Pakistan 5.2.3. Lebanon06 Designing in Areas of Conflict 6.1. The Camp Condition 6.1.1. Temporary vs Permanent Settlements 6.1.2. Refugee Housing in Lebanon 6.2 Urban vs Rural vs Adjacent Camps 6.2.1. Urban 6.2.2. Rural07 Rendering the Invisible 7.1. Method 7.2. Political Context 7.3. Displaced Syrians 7.4  Dependence on Local Services 7.5. Materials 7.6. Design Strategies 7.7. Conclusion08 Bibliography32323436 40404142444447484853577189107117120xCause + Effect xiGP01 ReportFigure 1 - Sveinson, Halley. Graduate Project Part I Methodology Mind Map, 2020. Illustration.  Figure 2. Sveinson, Halley. Foreign Designer Working from Home, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Zochrot. EL Buss Camp. www.zochrot.org, https://www.zochrot.org/en/camp/1. Accessed 19 Apr. 2020.Figure 3 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lifespan of a Refugee Camp vs UNHCR Shelters, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- “Lebanon.” UNRWA. www.unrwa.org, https://www.unrwa.org/where-we-work/lebanon. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. “Pakistan Refugee Camp Once Famous for Arrivals Is Now One-Third Empty.” UNHCR. www.unhcr.org, https://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2002/11/3dcfa3144/pakistan-refugee-camp-once-famous-arrivals-one-third-empty.html. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- The UN Refugee Agency. Shelter Catalogue. UNHCR Shelter and Settlement Section, Jan. 2016, https://cms.emergency.unhcr.org/documents/11982/57181/Shelter+Design+Catalogue+January+2016/a891fdb2-4ef9-42d9-bf0f-c12002b3652e.- The UN Refugee Agency, and Altai Consulting. Study on Cross Border Population Movements Between Afghanistan and Paskitan. June 2009, https://www.unhcr.org/4ad448670.pdf.Figure 4 -  Sveinson, Halley. UNHCR Global Shelter Designs Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- The UN Refugee Agency. Shelter Catalogue. UNHCR Shelter and Settlement Section, Jan. 2016, https://cms.emergency.unhcr.org/documents/11982/57181/Shelter+Design+Catalogue+January+2016/a891fdb2-4ef9-42d9-bf0f-c12002b3652e.Figure 5 -  Sveinson, Halley. Arsal Camp Image, Winter Refugee Conditions, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Lebanon Army Order Evicts 3,000 Syrian Refugees from Camps. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1083041/middle-east. Accessed 20 Apr. 2020.Figure 6 - Sveinson, Halley. Kakuma Refugee Settlement and Kalobeyei Settlement Residential Unit Blocks, 2020.       Illustration.  Data used to Produce Illustration:- Google Earth. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.Figure 7 - Sveinson, Halley. Kakuma Refugee Settlement, 2020. Illustration.  Data used to Produce Illustration:- The UN Refugee Agency, and Republica of Kenya. Kakuma Refugee Camp. 2016.Figure 8 - Sveinson, Halley. Home for All Locations + Tōhoku Earthquake, 2020. Illustration.  Data used to Produce Illustration:- “About Home for All.” Home For All. www.home-for-all.org, http://www.home-for-all.org/about. Accessed 17   Apr. 2020. PhotoVoice Project: Participatory Investigation of the Great East Japan Disaster. ssw.umich.edu, https://ssw.umich.edu/stories/53273-photovoice-project-participatory-investigation-of-the-great-east-japan-disaster. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.Figure 9 -  Refugee Republic. Refugee Republic Map Drawing, refugeerepublic.submarinechannel.com, https://refugeerepublic.submarinechannel.com/intro_en.php. Accessed 25 Apr. 2020.Figure 10 - Sveinson, Halley. Cape Town Open Roadblock Project, 2020. IllustrationData used to Produce Illustration:- Open Reblock. http://openreblock.org/. Accessed 20 Dec. 2019.Figure 11 -  Sveinson, Halley. Historical Conflict of the Middle East Timeline, 2020. Illustration.  Data used to Produce Illustration:- 5.1 Magnitude Earthquake near Tyre, Liban-Sud, Lebanon and Beirut, Beyrouth, Lebanon : February 15, 2008 10:36.  https://earthquaketrack.com/quakes/2008-02-15-10-36-19-utc-5-1-10. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Architectures of Displacement — Refugee Studies Centre. https://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/research/architectures-of-displacement. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.BBC News | In Pictures. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/04/middle_east_the_iranian_revolution/html/9.stm. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- CrisisMappers - The Humanitarian Technology Network. https://crisismapping.ning.com/. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Emergency Architecture & Human Rights. ea-hr.org, https://ea-hr.org/. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Israel Confirms Bombing “Syria Nuclear Reactor” in 2007 | Syria News | Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/- news/2018/03/israel-confirms-bombing-syria-nuclear-reactor-2007-180321073115879.html. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Nations, United. “Strengthening Crisis Information Management.” United Nations, United Nations. www.un.org, https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/strengthening-crisis-information-management. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.- Syria Profile - Timeline - BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703995. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.Where We Work : Better Shelter. https://bettershelter.org/where-we-work/. Accessed 17 Apr. 2020.Figure 12 - North Iraq Conflict Map.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Iraq - Humanitarian Data Exchange. data.humdata.org, https://data.humdata.org/group/irq. Accessed 30 Apr. 2020.Figure 13 - North Pakistan Conflict Map.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Pakistan - Humanitarian Data Exchange. data.humdata.org, https://data.humdata.org/group/pak. Accessed 30 Apr. 2020.Figure 14 - Lebanon Conflict Map.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Lebanon - Humanitarian Data Exchange. https://data.humdata.org/group/lbn. Accessed 10 Feb. 2020.Figure 15 - Figure 12 -  Sveinson, Halley. Historical Conflict of the Middle East Timeline (Lebanon, Syria + Iraq), 2020. Illustration.  Figure 16 -  Sveinson, Halley. El-Buss Refugee Camp, 2020. Illustration.  Data used to Produce Illustration:- Zochrot. EL Buss Camp. www.zochrot.org, https://www.zochrot.org/en/camp/1. Accessed 19 Apr. 2020.Figure 17 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lebanon Housing Types, 2020. Illustration.Figure 18 -  Sveinson, Halley. Nahr Al-Bared Site Axonometric, 2020. Illustration.Figure 19 -  Sveinson, Halley. Nahr Al-Bared Site Plan | 1:100 000, 2020. Illustration.Figure 20 -  Sveinson, Halley. Arsal Regional Site Plan | 1:100 000, 2020. Illustration.Figure 21 -  Sveinson, Halley. Arsal, Adjacency to Lebanon-Syria Border, 2020. Illustration.Figure 22 -  Sveinson, Halley. Reference Image + 3D Modelling Process, 2020. Illustration.Figure 23 -  Sveinson, Halley. Project Research Scales Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 24 -  Sveinson, Halley. Thesis Concept Diagram, 2020. Illustration.List of FiguresxiiCause + Effect xiiiGP01 ReportFigure 25 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lebanon Refugee Settlement Map | 1:1 000 000, 2020. Illustration.Figure 26 -  Sveinson, Halley. Arsal Town Site Plan | 1:25 000, 2020. Illustration.Figure 27 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lebanon Wage Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 22 -  Sveinson, Halley. Site Axonometric, Land Lease Agreement + Agriculture Work, 2020. Illustration.Figure 29 -  Sveinson, Halley. UNHCR Global Supply Contracts for Aid Materials (2018), 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- The UN Refugee Agency. Purchase Orders for Amounts Greater than USD 100,000 Year 2018. 2018,    https://www.unhcr.org/5c54034d4.Figure 30 -  Sveinson, Halley. Aid Distribution in Syrian Informal Settlements, 2020. Illustration.Figure 31 -  Sveinson, Halley. Syrian Residents Without Residency Permits in Lebanon Camps, 2020. Illustration.Figure 32 -  Sveinson, Halley. Consequences of ‘Displaced Syrians’, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- “Lebanon’s Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil Slammed for Anti-Refugee Tweet.” Lebanon’s Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil Slammed for Anti-Refugee Tweet, https://www.trtworld.com/middle-east/lebanon-s-foreign-minister-gebran-bassil-slammed-for-anti-refugee-tweet-26505. Accessed 22 Dec. 2020.Figure 33 -  Sveinson, Halley. Site Axonometric, Service Connections, 2020. Illustration.Figure 34 -  Sveinson, Halley. Electric + Water Service Connection in Informal Syrian Settlements, 2020. Illustration.Figure 35 -  Sveinson, Halley. Water Use + Storage Perspective, 2020. Illustration.Figure 36 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lebanon Air Pollution Through Open Burning, 2020. Illustration.Figure 37 -  Sveinson, Halley. Lebanon Rainwater Collection Potential Map, 2020. Illustration.Data used to Produce Illustration:- Pluviometric Map of Lebanon (Plassard, 1971)Figure 38 -  Sveinson, Halley. Previous Water Vulnerability Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 39 -  Sveinson, Halley. Dependence on Local Services, Consequences of Policies Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 40 -  Sveinson, Halley. Materials that are not Permitted in Informal Settlements, 2020. Illustration.Figure 41 -  Sveinson, Halley. Disassembly of Concrete Materials, 2020. Illustration.Figure 42 -  Sveinson, Halley. Firetruck in Camp Perspective, 2020. Illustration.Figure 43 -  Sveinson, Halley. Fire Trucks Limited Access in Typical Settlements, 2020. Illustration.Figure 44 -  Sveinson, Halley. Typical Informal Settlement Wall Section, 2020. Illustration.Figure 45 -  Sveinson, Halley. Camp Block Section + Severe Weather Diagram. Illustration. Figure 46 -  Sveinson, Halley. Consequences of Temporary Materials in Camps, 2020. Illustration.Figure 47 -  Sveinson, Halley. Potential Design Strategies Section Drawing, 2020. Illustration.Figure 48 -  Sveinson, Halley. Earth Wall + Drainage Channel Material Assembly Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 49 -  Sveinson, Halley. Heated Sub-floor Example Pamphlet, 2020. Illustration. Figure 50 -  Sveinson, Halley. Tarp to Sandbag Process Diagram, 2020. Illustration.Figure 51 - Risk Assessment Map Drawing.Data used to Produce Illustration:- 5.8R in IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION. www.earthquakepredict.com, http://www.earthquakepredict.com/2019/01/a-powerful-5.html. Accessed 23 Apr. 2020.- Bilham, Roger, et al. Seismic Hazard in Karachi, Pakistan: Uncertain Past, Uncertain Future.- El Morjani, Zine El Abidine, et al. “Modelling the Spatial Distribution of Five Natural Hazards in the Context of the WHO/EMRO Atlas of Disaster Risk as a Step towards the Reduction of the Health Impact Related to Disasters.” - International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 6, no. 1, Mar. 2007, p. 8. BioMed Central, doi:10.1186/1476-072X-6-8.- Meuse, Alison Tahmizian. “World Bank Dam Will Weigh on Lebanon Quake Zone.” Asia Times, 18 Apr. 2019. asiatimes.com, https://asiatimes.com/2019/04/world-bank-dam-will-sit-in-lebanon-quake-zone/.- “Seismic Hazard. Spatial Distribution of the Intensity Level of Seismic...” ResearchGate. www.researchgate.net, https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Seismic-hazard-Spatial-distribution-of-the-intensity-level-of-seismic-hazard-for-part-of_fig3_6462583. Accessed 23 Apr. 2020.List of Figures (Continued)xivCause + Effect 1GP01 ReportHuman ConflictA disagreement between people, that can result in violence, political turmoil, or economic instability. Environmental ConflictAn environmental event that causes damage to a region, structures, or landforms. Internally Displaced PeoplePersons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border.2RefugeeSomeone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war or violence.3Informal Refugee CampRefugee settlements that were erected for emergency need through found material. These sites are often created by refugees adjacent to cities, institutional refugee camps, and borders. Institutional Refugee CampAn established UN Refugee Agency organized and secure camp to host refugees, that is organized through blocks, provide communal latrines and showers, water supply, health centres, schools, and feeding centres.4 The United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR)UNHCR is the primary humanitarian agency that supports displaced people globally. They establish refugee camps, provide schools and medical centres monitors border crossings, and provide legal aid. 4 The UN Refugee Agency. Camp Planning Standards.2 The UN Refugee Agency. Camp Planning Standards. 3 The UN Refugee Agency. “What Is a Refugee? Definition and Meaning | USA for UNHCR.”TERMS2Cause + Effect 3GP01 ReportFigure 1. Graduate Project Part I Methodology Mind Map.1.1 ProcessThis thesis looks at digital design analysis to study events of human or environmental violence (conflict) in remote or inaccessible locations. Figure 1 is an info-graphic of the project methodology for this thesis. The structure of this project is defined by three key areas of investigation, refugee housing, forensic architecture, and designing within conflict zones.The project began by using Forensic Architecture as a model for investigating sites at a distance, taking advantage of the advanced technology and the tools used commonly within architecture. Although these tools are used to create geographic material, environmental studies, and more, the process is not streamlined within the design of refugee camps. It is evident within the history of the camps in Lebanon and Pakistan that they are currently not designed to withstand the environmental or human conflict adequately.  This project prioritized site analysis. The analysis of the Middle East created the foundation for all other research, including theory, people, typologies, physical conditions, and materials. Precedent studies conducted in this research focused on three distinct project types that include digital productions, community planning, and physical interventions—identifying these project types aided in defining the different mediums of design projects that this thesis will explore further in the GPII.01 METHODOLOGY4Cause + Effect 5GP01 Report1.2 LimitationsA visible challenge to this project is the inability to access locations for direct field studies. Although this limits the ability to conduct independent research, it provides a framework for this project in sourcing information from digital publicly available sources. A more critical limitation is the lack of possibility for consultation or the ability to gain direct witness testimony from groups that the thesis aims to identify design strategies for. Because of this, the project is focusing on larger systems and regional approaches to refugee camps.Recorded documents of the conflicts described within the regions of study may not be inclusive of all events or be publicly available for the author to access. The spatial data included in this report is primarily sourced from the United Nations or other government agencies.The project is looking primarily at policies, humanitarian practices and infrastructure to find new opportunities. Part I of this project does not consider the ethnographic, cultural or religious influences of refugees within a camp. The project is considering the lifespan of refugee camps on an infrastructural level, considering that there will be occupants of one camp from many different backgrounds and countries within the camp’s lifetime. Figure 2. Foreign Designer Working from Home.6Cause + Effect 7GP01 Report2.1 ToolsWithin academia and architectural training, designers are exposed to many essential digital design tools to aid in gathering data and documentation of different sites. All of which create spatial representations of real places within the world and allow for technical design implementations with extreme precision. These tools include three-dimensional modeling, satellite imagery, point-cloud systems, geographic information systems (GIS), geo-location and image complex. Charles Hailey considers this documentation process for refugee camps, stating that, “the visualization of camp spaces works between two main nodes: the singularity of a camp’s space-event and the general understanding of a set of camp spaces.”5 Information gathered by foreign designers are from data sets used in cohesion with these tools are of singular events are depicted by publicly available media and regional information. These nodes of visualization are impactful on the public perception of these spaces.The advancement of technology has had a significant impact on the discipline of Architecture throughout history, beginning with the industrial revolution, and later, the advancement of global technology within post-war generations.6 Landscape Architecture, urban planning, and ecology have adapted these digital analysis tools into their professions to analyze systems, services, infrastructure, environmental pressures, and collect 02 REMOTE DESIGN ANALYSISevidence of environmental degradation. Architecture’s use of these tools is limited to the analysis of specific building sites or the neighbourhood it is situated within. Risk analysis within building design has expanded to consider the potential for conflict in the forms of terrorism, fire, climate change and seismic hazards in the architectural design process.7 Other algorithm-based programs are used for these studies and play an influential role within design, although they are again only considering the scale of the building.   John May argues in his article The Logic of the Managerial Surface that the heavy use of satellite imagery influencing the way we perceive mapping as reality as that is the dominating form of representation that we have access.8 The technological representations have informed our perceptions of nature and the ecology of their documentation.9 We see mapping through GIS or satellite imagery as forms of landscape. Satellite imagery is a 2-dimensional representation based on latitude and longitude, construed to create cartographic systems human use for mapping systems.10 These images are compressed and depend on the use of additional digital programs such as drone imagery, LIDAR, and point clouds systems to ‘accurately’ recreate this reality into a 3-dimensional digital representation. While these tools create detailed digital models, they are only scaled clones of a site. With that in mind, they provide a way for all designers to delve into more complex systems of analysis that has people and the environment. May reminds us that militant and colonial representations of space created our systems of mapping our world.5 Hailey, Charles. Camps: A Guide to 21st-Century Space. MIT Press, 2009, page 17. 6 Chris Perry, “Fast Company: Architecture and the Speed of Technology,” Bracket: Architecture, Environment, Digital Culture 2 (2013), 73.7 Jonathon Massey, “Risk  Design (Peer Reviewed),” Aggregate, n.d.8 John May, “The Logic of the Managerial Surface,” 2014, 117. 9 Ibid.10 Ibid, 119.8Cause + Effect 9GP01 Report2.2 Forensic ArchitectureForensic Architecture is a realm (and firm) within the architectural discipline that was formed by Eyal Wiezman. It is a method of acquiring architectural evidence that is used for either public awareness or accountability and is in some instances is even used as material for legal cases.11 This method uses architectural tools acquired during architecture training, including 3D software, material knowledge, and spatial awareness to investigate human rights conflicts or events. Figure 2 is a timeline of the firm’s investigations of significant human violence in the Middle East, including a series of drone strikes against hospitals and mosques. Weizman identifies Forensic Architecture’s role within counterforensic, a process of civil investigation to uncover injustice and violence of state agencies.12 His writings describe military operations and the complex organization of urban tactics.13  It is inspirational that Weizman’s investigations appear to be influenced by such operations as they follow similar tactical approaches and systematic analysis to gather evidence on these same agencies. “Every material object can be read as a sensor, but buildings might be among the best sensors of societal and political change. There are several reasons: buildings are immobile, anchored in space; they are in close and constant interaction with humans; they are exposed both to the elements outside them and to artificially controlled climate within. And this is regardless of the political, social, strategic, and financial rationalities that went into their conception.”14 Understanding our built environment as sensors, one can gather information on the human and environmental impacts on materials, which form a narrative of cause and effect on a site.  Figure 2. Forensic Architecture Research Projects Timeline. Image shows selected projects in the Middle East, focused on violent events.11 Forensic Architecture, “Agency -> Forensic Architecture.”12 Eyal Weizman, Forensic Architecture : Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2017) 64.13 Eyal Weizman, Hollowland: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation (London: Verso, 2007) 185.14 Eyal Weizman, Forensic Architecture : Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2017) 52.Many architects struggle with the confines of capitalism, building regulations, and the known impact of constructing new buildings have on the environment. Considering the inherently political nature of architecture, the ability for the profession to participate and have agency in politics is limited. Few Architects have made a profession out of humanitarian design, such as Shigeru Ban and Emergency Architecture and Human Rights. Others must commit to the regulations of their local authorities having jurisdiction and may only participate in a limited amount of pro-bono work. The concept of Forensic Architecture is exciting as it is a form of research-based, politically driven architectural investigations that have a direct impact on users. It can be argued that this practice cannot be considered architecture, as the firm does not build any physical projects. It is focused more on capturing evidence and representing scenarios than proposing built solutions to these sites of conflict.10Cause + Effect 11GP01 ReportThe birth of a refugee camp is based on pure necessity and creates a problematic condition for transitioning into permanent settlements. The acceptance of refugee camps not being only temporary conditions is vital to develop more integrated settlements with the host country and its civilians. This integration can aid in the transition for refugees as they seek asylum in a new country, can contribute to the local economy, and therefore reduce financial pressures on humanitarian aid programs and the host country. The refugee “is the most exposed figure of our time since its very presence reveals the untenable link between birth and territory on which the principle of territorial citizenship at the origin of the present global political order is based, an order incapable of imagining any other form of belonging and legitimate ‘right to a place’.”15 The way citizenships are structured set up a division between displaced peoples and those who were born in the host country. Asylum seekers (refugees) are seeking the same rights and access to participate in the larger society of their new home. 15 Diana Martin, Claudio Minca, and Irit Katz, “Rethinking the Camp: On Spatial Technologies of Power and Resistance,” Progress in Human Geography, 2019, 9.16 Marc Schuilenburg, “The Refugee as Homo Sacer: A Short Introduction to Agamben’s ‘Beyond Human Rights,’” 2008, 2.17. Marc Schuilenburg, “The Refugee as Homo Sacer: A Short Introduction to Agamben’s ‘Beyond Human Rights,’” 2008, 4.18 Ibid.03 REFUGEE ARCHITECTURE3.1 RefugeRefugees are unable to escape the conflict. Forcibly displaced due to human or environmental conflict, that took away their communities and homes through different forms of violence. These people who just faced recent trauma are immigrating to new countries, hoping for refuge. Unfortunately, they often end up being an ostracized group of people during their time in the host countries.16 The isolation of refugee camps are happening for multitudes of reasons, the nature of refugee camps arising, the lack of permanent infrastructure developed in camps, the inability to contribute to the economy with refugee status, and often merely due to the geographic locations of camps. When describing this situation, many theorists resort to early concepts defined by philosopher Giorgio Agamben and his infamous comparison to his perspective on biopolitics and the idea of Homo Sacer.17  This Latin term described in Ancient Law, where anyone could kill or commit violence. It is often compared to the condition of refugees in their effort to integrate into new countries, while they have fewer rights than those born in the political state, therefore not being seen as equals.1812Cause + Effect 13GP01 Report3.2 Lifespan of a Refugee CampAlthough all camps formed as temporary solutions to populations seeking asylum in new countries, it is evident throughout history that many refugee camps become long term settlements. The lifespan of camps within the Middle East is directly related to the history of conflict within the geographic region. The severe impact of human and environmental violence on the built world makes it difficult for some refugees to return home even when such conflict ends because, for many, their homes or communities no longer exist.The time for rebuilding within home countries varies, and many choose to remain within camps. The Afghan refugee camps within Pakistan were erected in 1979 with the Soviet Invasion and establishment of the Taliban.19 Afghani people fled to Pakistan and UNHCR established over 60 refugee camps, primarily in the Figure 3. Lifespan of a Refugee Camp vs UNHCR SheltersNorth-West Frontier Province.20 In 2002 there was a mass emigration of refugees out of these institutional Afghan refugee camps, with approximately half of the refugees returning to Afghanistan.21 This severe population decrease led to school and health facility closures and abandoned shelters in large scale institutional camps such as Old Shamshatoo.22Figure 3 is a tool of comparison between the estimated lifespan of refugee camps in both Pakistan and Lebanon, to the stated lifespan of UNHCR’s shelters. Pakistan shows 6 million Afghans resided there from 1979 to 2002.23 Millions remain in those camps to the current day. Considering the change in the population, it establishes the lifespan of Pakistan refugee camps 32 years. Lebanon’s history of19 “Afghanistan Profile - Timeline,” BBC News, September 9, 2019.20 The UN Refugee Agency, “Pakistan: Refugee Camps in the North-West Frontier Province,” 2008.21 The UN Refugee Agency and Altai Consulting, “Study on Cross Border Population Movements Between Afghanistan and Pakistan,” June 2009.22 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Pakistan Refugee Camp Once Famous for Arrivals Is Now One-Third Empty.”23 The UN Refugee Agency and Altai Consulting, “Study on Cross Border Population Movements Between Afghanistan and Pakistan,” June 2009.14Cause + Effect 15GP01 Reportrefugee camps is significantly longer as many camps were initially created in 1936-1937 to host Armenian Refugees; others later built to support a higher population of Palestinian Refugees.24 Today most institutional UNHCR refugee camps are also hosting Syrian refugees. The average lifespan of refugee camps in Lebanon is 72 years. Therefore, the average lifespan of refugee camps in Pakistan and Lebanon is 52 years. This lifespan is the number of years identified for investigation throughout this thesis and forms a numerical comparison between the duration of camps and their UNHCR shelter lifespans.  The population of refugee camps depends on conflict. When refugees return to their home countries, any infrastructure or materials are left abandoned. States and agencies resist investing in permanent settlements for refugee camps, and integration settlements as there is a lack of acceptance that they may be occupied for multiple generations. We must find a median between the temporary and permanent to reflect these conditions and the dynamic nature of refugee camps within areas of conflict. 3.3 UNHCR Shelter CatalogueThe UNHCR Shelter Catalogue is a collection of UNHCR created or adopted shelters that are applied globally. The document categorizes the different structures between Global Shelter Designs, Emergency Shelters, Transitional Shelters, and Durable Shelters. Transitional and Durable shelters are designs that respond to specific events and sites, such as the T Shelter (Jordan), One Room Shelter (Pakistan) and L Shape Shelter (Iraq). 25 The catalogue breaks down the lifetime, cost of shelter, materials, size, occupancy, and recommended the climate of each shelter type. Figure 4. UNHCR Global Shelter Designs Diagram.Number of Occupants5 °-45 °C Warm Climate Design0 °-5 °C Winterization Kit Option24 “El Buss Camp,” UNRWA 25 The UN Refugee Agency, “Shelter Design Catalogue,” 2016.16Cause + Effect 17GP01 ReportFigure 5. Arsal Camp Image, Winter Refugee ConditionsThe lifespan of the Global Shelter Designs should be re-considered as purely emergency solutions. These are the polyethylene tent structures seen commonly in most images of refugee camps throughout the world that have an expected lifespan of a single year.26 All structures sit directly on grade for ease of erection and to be low impact as to maintain their temporality. Another peculiar thing about the Global Shelter Designs is the Winterization Kit and Shade Net Options Kits.27 These are optional and provided to camps if deemed necessary by the aid programs providing tent shelters. With increasing extreme weather events and environmental conflict, this approach and their designs should be re-designed.Another digital shelter catalogue was created part of the Architectures of Displacement research project conducted at the University of Oxford lead by Dr. Tom Scott-Smith.28 The Refugee Shelter Inventory is a comprehensive list of 30 shelter structures that range from concept proposal to constructed and inhabited. The shelter descriptions include the intended lifespan, cost, area, rough dimensions, and the number of occupants.29The intention is for the source to be used by designers as a design community-sourced inventory that is updated and corrected regularly.26 The UN Refugee Agency, “Shelter Design Catalogue,” 2016.27 Ibid. 28 University of Oxford. “Architectures of Displacement — Refugee Studies Centre.”29 Refugee Shelter Inventory.“About | Refugee Shelter Inventory.”18Cause + Effect 19GP01 Report3.3 Humanitarian ArchitectureArchitecture has had a place in humanitarian work for many decades. Primarily with the designs of rebuilds, restoration, large-scale social housing projects and prototype shelter design. Current philanthropic architecture practices are limited in areas of extreme conflict. There has been a significant focus on designing shelter prototypes that do not consider the longevity of the camps they will be implemented within. Architects typically design these shelters to be a universal solution for catastrophic events, prioritizing the ease of erection, shipping, and to have the lowest cost. While this strategy allows shelter structures to be purchased and supplied at mass, they are absent of site and cultural influences. In the Good Design for A Bad World talk at the 2017 Dutch Design Week, designers stressed that we must stop designing quick shelter solution, and instead focus on the integration of refugees within host countries.30 The current practice of UNHCR’s camp design process separates the architecture (shelters) and urban design (community plans). With the advancement of global technology, spatial analysis work has created new forms of design projects. This thesis will discuss three different project types, including digital, physical, and community planning projects.30 Don’t Design yet Another Shelter’ for Refugees, Say Experts,” Dezeen.Left Intentionally Blank20Cause + Effect 21GP01 ReportKalobeyei Integrated Settlement04 PrecedentDesigner | United Nations Refugee Agency         Turkana County GovernmentMedium | Planning, PhysicalProject |  Resettlement Program, Community Planning + PolicyLocation | Kakuma, KenyaKakuma IKakuma IIKakuma IIIFigure 6. (Left) Kakuma Refugee Settlement and Kalobeyei Settlement Residential BlocksFigure 7. (Right) Kakuma Settlement Master Plan.31 The UN Refugee Agency. “Kalobeyei Settlement - UNHCR Kenya,” UNHCR.32 “Shigeru Ban Architects,” Supporting Planning In Kalobeyei Settlement, Kenya,.33 Ibid.Kalobeiyi Settlement is a community developed by UNHCR and the Turkana County Government (Kenya) in response to the overcrowding of the original Kakuma Refugee Camp. This camp expanded twice since its establishment, and by 2015 was, “hosting a population of 183,000 individuals, as compared to the capacity of 70,000 that is was designed for.”31 Kalobeiyi is a new settlement designed as a permanent community for the previous residents of Kakuma, promoting integration into the host country. Shigeru Ban designed three housing shelter prototypes for the Kalobeyei Settlement project. These prototypes are designed with the same rectangle shelter and gable roof form but vary in their construction methods. One prototype uses Ban’s iconic paper tube structure, and the other two are constructed of different regional materials to provide options for refugees in their housing.32 These were based off of different construction methods within Kenya to allow for the residents to choose from, built, and feel a connection to a familiar building typology.33This project is unique as the government accepted the refugees and designed a town considering it a permanent settlement. The planning encourages the integration of those residents into the country, more successfully providing refuge. This project shows the importance of national policy and humanitarian aid programs working in cohesion to find solutions to plan settlements that consider the longevity of the situation. 22Cause + Effect 23GP01 ReportFigure 8. Home for All Locations + Tōhoku EarthquakeHome For AllPrecedentDesigner | Home-For-All Non-profit Organization        Toyo Ito, Kazuyo Sejima, and Riken Yamamoto Medium | PhysicalProject | Community Space, Dependant on LocationLocation | Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures Japan34 “About Home-For-All,” Home For All.35 Ibid.Home for All is an initiative that was in response to the Tōhoku (Great East Japan Earthquake) and tsunami in 2011. The initiative is a regional strategy, consisting of multiple architecture projects to aid those who lost homes and livelihoods with the event, located throughout different communities along the East coast of Japan.34 A variety of Architecture firms design buildings for individual communities; the buildings’ programs are all communal spaces to create a sense of “home” for these displaced people within their communities. Building programs range from communal kitchen spaces to community sports centres, reconstruction of a shopping street, and a fisherman hut.35 This initiative uses a regional approach of community-specific architecture proposals that respond directly to each community’s needs and losses from the earthquake. As many of these communities are now living in homogenous temporary refugee housing, having a different space for residents to connect or re-establish their economy is critical. 24Cause + Effect 25GP01 ReportFigure 9. Refugee Republic Map Drawing. Refugee RepublicPrecedentDesigner | Submarine Channe;       Artists: Jan Rothuizen, Martikn Van Tol,        Jan Visser + Aart Jan Van Der LindenMedium | Digital Analysis, VideographyProject | Digital MappingLocation | Domiz Camp, Iraq36 “Refugee Republic,” Refugee Republic.37 Tate, “Psycho-geography – Art Term,” Tate.The Refugee Republic is a digital documentary and interactive website that captures the conditions and people of Domiz Camp in the Dohuk region of Iraq. The design team visited the site and collected a range of media, including public participation cartography, by locating programs and areas through discussion with residents of the camp.36 The interactive website is publicly available and allows visitors to explore what the documentary terms camp construction, camp life, camp smart, and camp money routes with stories from residents. These routes are accessed and represented through a series of sketches and photographs taken during the field studies. The viewer can scroll and ‘move’ through the camp through these images. It provides eye-level perspectives of what it would be like to enter a camp, an experience most of the public will never have on their own.  An exciting component of the documentary is the use of psycho-geography. This method is shown directly in the visual representation of the camp. Instead of standard cartography, the ‘map’ shows the organization of space to reflect behaviours, human patterns and anecdotes from residents.37 This method is a fruitful approach to mapping that more appropriately represents the human scale of these camp conditions.26Cause + Effect 27GP01 ReportOpen ReblockPrecedentDesigner | Sante Fe Institute Cities Group        Slum Dweller Federations        Sam Houston State UniversityMedium | Digital AnalysisProject | Digital MappingLocation | Cape Town, South Africa       Harare, Zimbabwe38 “Open Reblock,” Open Reblock39 “Cape Town Project,” Open ReblockFigure 10. Cape Town Open Roadblock Project.Digital transformation of the area to show the potential benefits of merely re-arranging units to allow for infrastructure and services to enter an area. This project is particularly interesting because it does not suggest changing shelter structures, only its spatial organization, to create safer roadways. The project is successful in communicating the concept of spatial re-organization because it identifies only a few critical factors that the public, urban designers, and government officials can understand. These figures include the meters of paths, the square area of parcels, the percentage of area needed for paths, and the number of isolated parcels. It uses an animation to show the change in these variables as the algorithm applied to the community plan.This project is an initiative to show a detailed map of parcels and available pathways for pedestrians for road access into individual lots. The project focuses on bringing essential services into dense communities, such as water, sanitation, garbage collection, electricity, and access for emergency vehicles, by using an algorithm to organize existing structures.38 Two locations in Africa have been analyzed within this project; Cape Town, South Africa and Harare, Zimbabwe. The project also used publicly gathered information by residents and local non-profit organizations to get accurate parcel information. In the Cape Town project, the process shows that if these parcels get re-organized as proposed, it will allow access to all parcels, where there are currently 390 isolated parcels.3928Cause + Effect 29GP01 ReportSYRIAIRAQIRANJORDANAFGHANISTANPAKISTANTURKEYLEBANON21384675LEGENDRefugee Camps | LocationViolent EventsForensic Architecture InvestigationsRefugee Camps | TimelineGlobal Humanitarian StrategiesIkea Better Shelter Units x100 UNHCR Events1945 | THE UNITED NATIONS WAS ESTABLISHED  THROUGH THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER AFTER WWII2009 | CRISIS MAPPERS (HUMANITARIAN TECHNOLOGY NETWORK) WAS ESTABLISHED1.5 MILLION AFGHAN REFUGEES RETURN TO AFGHANISTAN | 20023.1 MILLION AFGHANS FLEE TO PAKISTAN | 19791943 |TEHRAN UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE2015 | EMERGENCY ARCHITECTURE + HUMAN RIGHTS ESABLISHED2015 | UN NUCLEAR AGREEMENT WITH IRAN2017-2018 | ARCHITECTURE OF DISPLACEMENT PROJECT2018 | SHELTER INVENTORY ONLINE DATABASE2001-2014 | AFGHANISTAN WAR1975-2015 | DROIGHT OF HAMOUN LAKE2011-2020 | SYRIAN REFUGEES (UNDER 500,000)20182015-20161979 | SOVIET COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT THROUGH INVASION1979 | ISLAMIC REVOLUTION1948 THROUGH 1968 | PALESTINE REFUGEE CAMPS ESTABLISHED2011 | SYRIAN REFUGEES INCREASE POPULATIONS1963 | BAATHIST ARMY SIEZES POWER1973 |SYRIA AND EGYPT WAR OVER GOLAN HEIGHTS1996 | TALIBAN SIEZE CONTROL2011 - CURRRENT | SYRIAN CIVIL WAR2016 | AL-HAMAIDIAH HOSPITALAIRSTRIKE1988 | INTERNATIONAL PEACE DEAL2015 | ATIMA DRONE STRIKE2016 | AIRSTRIKES ON MD HOSPITAL2004-2014 | PAKISTAN DRONE STRIKE PLATFORM2012 | MIRANSHAH DRONE STRIKE2012 | MIR-ALI DRONE STRIKE2011 | DATTA KHEL DRONE STRIKE ON JIRGA2020201020001990198019701960195019401930192019101900EUROPEUSASYRIAIRAQIRANJORDANAFGHANISTANPAKISTANTURKEYLEBANON21384675LEGENDRefugee Camps | LocationViolent EventsForensic Architecture InvestigationsRefugee Camps | TimelineGlobal Humanitarian StrategiesIkea Better Shelter Units x100 UNHCR Events1945 | THE UNITED NATIONS WAS ESTABLISHED  THROUGH THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER AFTER WWII2009 | CRISIS MAPPERS (HUMANITARIAN TECHNOLOGY NETWORK) WAS ESTABLISHED1.5 MILLION AFGHAN REFUGEES RETURN TO AFGHANISTAN | 20023.1 MILLION AFGHANS FLEE TO PAKISTAN | 19791943 |TEHRAN UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE2015 | EMERGENCY ARCHITECTURE + HUMAN RIGHTS ESABLISHED2015 | UN NUCLEAR AGREEMENT WITH IRAN2017-2018 | ARCHITECTURE OF DISPLACEMENT PROJECT2018 | SHELTER INVENTORY ONLINE DATABASE2001-2014 | AFGHANISTAN WAR1975-2015 | DROIGHT OF HAMOUN LAKE2011-2020 | SYRIAN REFUGEES (UNDER 500,000)20182015-20161979 | SOVIET COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT THROUGH INVASION1979 | ISLAMIC REVOLUTION1948 THROUGH 1968 | PALESTINE REFUGEE CAMPS ESTABLISHED2011 | SYRIAN REFUGEES INCREASE POPULATIONS1963 | BAATHIST ARMY SIEZES POWER1973 |SYRIA AND EGYPT WAR OVER GOLAN HEIGHTS1996 | TALIBAN SIEZE CONTROL2011 - CURRRENT | SYRIAN CIVIL WAR2016 | AL-HAMAIDIAH HOSPITALAIRSTRIKE1988 | INTERNATIONAL PEACE DEAL2015 | ATIMA DRONE STRIKE2016 | AIRSTRIKES ON MD HOSPITAL2004-2014 | PAKISTAN DRONE STRIKE PLATFORM2012 | MIRANSHAH DRONE STRIKE2012 | MIR-ALI DRONE STRIKE2011 | DATTA KHEL DRONE STRIKE ON JIRGA2020201020001990198019701960195019401930192019101900EUROPEUSAThe United Nations Refugee Agency shows in their June 2019 Global Trends publication that 80% of refugees live in countries neighbouring their countries of origin.40 This statistic applies directly to the current Civil Wars occurring in both Afghanistan and Syria. The site selection process included researching the current global refugee crisis, specifically looking at the Middle East. Afghanistan (War 2001-current) and Syria (War 2011-current) are the primary focus, looking specifically at adjacent countries that are hosting millions of refugees.Syria | 6.7 million UNHCR refugees. This population equates to approximately 25% of the world’s refugees.41Afghanistan | 2.7 million UNHCR refugees, which equates to approximately 10% of the world’s current refugee population. 4205 SITE ANALYSISFigure 11. Historical Conflict in the Middle East Timeline.40 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Figures at a Glance,” UNHCR.41 Ibid.42 Ibid.30Cause + Effect 31GP01 Report5.1 Risk AssessmentRisks of hazards within the Middle East include environmental events as well as human violence. By acknowledging the severity of the refugee population who have emigrated out of Afghanistan and Syria, those countries provided a starting point for the site selection process. These areas feature flood plains and areas of high seismic activity compared to their geographic location and relationship with recorded refugee camps in the region. Events of conflict within the Middle East have a ripple effect on adjacent countries.Figure 11 is a timeline infographic that focuses on the two major countries with extreme conflict (2020)43, which are Syria and Afghanistan. It is an investigative drawing used to understand further the relationship between the erection refugee and the history of human violence, United Nations relief projects, refugee camp locations, and Forensic Architecture Investigations in Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon.  The diagram shows the static nature of the regions concerning the regional conflict that has existed since the 1900s. Although the Middle East history is rich and consistently changing, it is evident that that conflict will continue to exist similarly. Accepting that risk, designers must consider ways to create resilient structures and programming for communities within the Middle East. To do so, they must analyze the political climate and historical patterns, while also considering increasing environmental changes and identifying potentially devastating hazards.6.1.1 Environmental ConflictThe Middle East has a collection of diverse landscapes with multiple environmental pressures. Flooding, earthquakes, landslides, winter storms, and areas of dessert conditions occur throughout the region. With these pressures come the loss of land, destruction of major infrastructure, and food scarcity. With climate change affecting global temperatures, sea-level rise, and increased severe weather events, many refugee communities are at risk of being affected by these changes. This issue is especially problematic for informal tent settlements that have populated rural communities throughout the Middle East as Syrian’s have immigrated to adjacent countries, seeking asylum. Many of these sites rose from necessity and are adjacent to borders, evidently settling in the most immediate ‘safe’ location. 6.1.2 Human ConflictViolent demonstrations, excessive force against protestors, mob violence, disrupted weapons use, protest with intervention, looting/property destruction, and peaceful protests are relatively common occurrences within these regions. The conflict data for Lebanon, Iraq and Pakistan represented in Figures 14, 16, and 17 are compilations of information accessed through the Humanitarian Data Exchange public database, contributed by The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), a crisis mapping project.44 The conflict data shown in these images only include the 2019 and 2020 events.43 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Figures at a Glance,” UNHCR44 “The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project,” ACLED.32Cause + Effect 33GP01 ReportNorth IraqHuman ConflictCurrent Civil War Northern KurdistanMultiple Borders, Syria + TurkeyEnvironmental ConflictTigris River + Lake,Flooding and MudslidesEarthquakesFigure 12. Iraq Map, Conflict +  Refugee CampsProvince of InterestWater Bodies / Paths2019 / 2020 ConflictsRefugee Camps45  “Iraq Profile,” BBC News, October 3, 2018, sec. Middle East.46 “The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project,” ACLED5.2 Middle EastLebanon, Pakistan, and Iraq all host a large number of refugees, in institutional camps, informal settlements, and in urban refugee settlements.This map shows Northern regions of Iraq, with shared borders of Syria and Afghanistan. Iraq has a high population of Internally Displaced People (IDP), due to continuous conflicts, particularly with the aftermath of the Iraq War (2003-2011).45 A significant number of recorded Syrian refugee camps are in the Nineveh and Dohuk provinces, adjacent to the North Syrian border. There is dense clustering of camps around the major cities Mosul, Duhok, and Tal Afar. In 2019/2020 there have been thousands of public protests happening throughout the country, events of the Tishreen Revolution (or Iraqi intifada), protesting the post-2003 government.4634Cause + Effect 35GP01 ReportNorth PakistanHuman ConflictCurrent Civil War North WaziristanAfghanistan-Pakistan BorderEnvironmental ConflictIndus RiverFlooding and DroughtEarthquakesFigure 13. Pakistan Map, Conflict +  Refugee CampsProvince of InterestWater Bodies / Paths2019 / 2020 ConflictsRefugee Camps47 “The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project,” ACLED.48 “Pakistan: Flood Hazard Map (as of 3 October 2016) - Pakistan,” ReliefWeb.The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (North West Frontier) has had a high number of violent events since 2010.47 It is important to note that Pakistan only established a democratic government in 2008. These events included incidents of violence against civilians, hundreds of explosions / remote violence, battles, and thousands of protests. A large concentration of those incidents occurred along the Pakistan and Afghanistan border, and within the cities of Peshawar, Miranshah, and Parachinar. This region has the highest recorded explosions and remote violence in Pakistan. This area of recorded conflict hosts a large number of Afghan refugee camps. A significant flood plain runs North-South through Pakistan, along the Indus River.48 The impacted area includes the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, where a large number of refugee camps are situated. 36Cause + Effect 37GP01 Report6.2.1 LebanonHuman ConflictSyria-Lebanon Border Socio-economic CrisisHistory of Civil WarEnvironmental ConflictMountainous Region, Winter StormsCoastal Region, FloodingFigure 14. Lebanon Map, Conflict +  Refugee CampsProvince of InterestWater Bodies / Paths2019 / 2020 ConflictsRefugee CampsInformal Tent Settlements49 “Lebanon,” UNRWA.50 Inter-Agency Coordination Lebanon and UNHCR, “Lebanon: Karim Storm Situation Report.”Lebanon’s first refugee camps arose to host Armenian Refugees in the 1930s.49 They later began supporting Palestinian refugees throughout the Israeli-Lebanese conflict that exists today. These camps currently host a significant population of refugees from Syria. Syria’s institutional camps (United Nations organized) are primarily located along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, others around major cities. Many informal settlements of Syrian refugees have populated the Lebanon mountains. Increased cold-weather storms constitute a significant issue in these high-altitude settlements. This surge in aggressive weather was apparent in the severe winter conditions in February 2020 with the Karim storm that impacted a recorded 1072 individuals throughout different areas in Lebanon.50 38Cause + Effect 39GP01 ReportFigure 15. Historical Conflict of the Middle East Timeline, Lebanon, Syria, + Iraq 51 The UN Refugee Agency. Situation Syria Regional Refugee Response: Lebanon.”52 The UN Refugee Agency. “Lebanon,” UNRWA.53 Ibid. Lebanon’s history of camps shows an ebb and flow of refugees from different geographic, cultural, and ethnographic backgrounds. Currently, the highest population of refugees within Lebanon are from Syria, approximately 910,256 in January 2020.51  Lebanon “also hosts an additional 18,500 refugees from Ethiopia, Iraq, Sudan, and other countries, as well as more than 200,000 Palestinian refugees under UNRWA’s mandate.”52  The Syrian-Lebanon border crossing has been restricted since 2015 to limit the number of Syrians entering the country.53  This restriction limits the financial pressures of hosting displaced people within the country, whose high population requires infrastructure, services, and employment in an already suffering economy.  40Cause + Effect 41GP01 Report06 DESIGNING IN AREAS OF CONFLICTFigure 16. (Right) El-Buss Refugee Camp, Lebanon, Coastal + Urban Camp. 54 Charles Hailey, Camps: A Guide to 21st-Century Space (London, England: MIT Press, 2009) 20.6.1 The Camp Condition The term “camp” has been used historically as an act. It describes informal, recreational, institutional, militant villages of necessity, all intended as temporary settlements.54 Camping is seen as a recreational activity, that a camp must be animated as it exists only through human settlement.6.1.1 Temporary vs Permanent Settlements In UNHCR’s Camp Planning Standards document, they clearly state their position on forming permanent settlements as a response to refugee populations. They state that the “UNHCR discourages the establishment of formal settlements and (whenever possible) prefers alternatives to camps, provided they protect and assist people of concern effectively.”55 Most would agree that camps, in their inherent nature, are not a preferred form of settlement. Alternatives include situations where refugees rent land or housing, own or occupy informally, or hosted by other families.56 These alternatives rely on policies and volunteers to accommodate such living situations, that are not available in all countries and may be particularly challenging to find in developing nations or countries with current internal conflict.  Camps are established by UNHCR when there is no alternative or when settlements naturally occur in rural areas with a high population, often occurring in areas located adjacent to country borders or along city boundaries. UNHCR determines shelter types by their adequacy for housing people, the original building program, and the number of families in each unit or building.55 The UN Refugee Agency, “Camp Planning Standards (Planned Settlements),” n.d., https://emergency.unhcr.org.56 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Alternatives to Camps,” UNHCR, https://www.unhcr.org/alternatives-to-camps.html.42Cause + Effect 43GP01 ReportResidents of these different housing conditions have different needs. This project is focused on non-permanent structures, including those within non-residential structures. Any form of settlement is a claim of space, including refugee camps. Regardless of the types of shelters within those camps. Whether constructed independently of found materials or UNHCR supplied tents, they create material and spatial conditions, therefore, have a place within architectural discourse. Weizman describes the occupation of space within the West Bank by reinforcing that “the transformation of the environment, buildings, and infrastructure is a means of exercising control.”60 This exercise of control is explicit in the emergence of refugee camps. A space becomes animated, forming a camp, which then triggers legal requirements by aid programs to respond and formalize that space as a settlement. Once a camp is populated, aid programs can provide appropriate shelters, medical facilities, sanitation facilities, and access to food. What may have once been an unused agricultural land plot, through time, can be transformed into an institutional camp just by a population occupying that space. In their essay Contesting Limits: Architecture and Boundary Conditions in Israel / Palestine, Suzanne Harris Brandts describes how in areas of continuous conflicts, such as the West Bank of Israel / Palestine, “hills, valleys, forests, and agricultural plots are now geopolitical casualties.”61 Any sites of contest or boundary conditions are particularly at risk of becoming a casualty. The essay examines ways in which architects can use design strategies as a form of politics in these contested territories, which encourage the residents to gain economic and legal autonomy.62 These strategies investigate the potential for the legal definitions that form spatial boundaries, and their defined land use can be redefined as tools of political change. An example Brandt defines is that the management of waste is what defines Israeli seized “State Land”.63 In this project, it considers waste (temporary) as an asset for a land claim. They propose that waste be kept within the community and transforming it into an agricultural natural building block material.64 If there is no waste to manage, there is no need for oversight by the Israeli government by their created definition.  This control over space through occupation has also had an adverse effect, in which the boundaries created by formalizing a settlement area create confines for those residents. Irit Katz is an architect and academic whose research focuses on geopolitical and socio-political impacts of architecture at an urban scale.65 Katz analyzes how architecture changes with the effects of conflicts. They consider displacement and the camp condition, to be both an architectural typology and an instrument within the political environment. In Rethinking the Camp, the authors reference Raviel Netz’s theory of materials used as instruments of control related to the origin of camps as a colonial construct, including how “barbed wire has played a key role in the ‘ecology of modernity’ that has produced the conditions of possibility for the camp to emerge as an institution and an instrumental political tool.”66 In this way, the gated areas intended as protection, also act as a tool for containing refugees within their zoned land parcels. 2 Non-residential StructureFactory, workshop, farm, active construction site, garage, shop, agriculture/engine/pump room (room without plumbing), warehouse, hotel room, and school.6.1.2 Refugee Housing in Lebanon1 Residential StructureDefined as structures created intended for human residence. Includes apartments or single homes and typically a single room with minimal plumbing services.3 Non-permanent structureTent, prefab unit, collective and non-collective (6 households living with one structure).Figure 17. Lebanon Housing Types (UNHCR)60 Eyal Weizman, Forensic Architecture : Violence at the Threshold of Detectability (Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2017) 57.61 Suzanne Harris Brandts, “Contesting Limits: Architecture and Boundary Conditions in Israel / Palestine,” Bracket: Architecture, Environment, Digital Culture 2, no. Goes Soft (n.d.): 113.62 Ibid.63 Ibid.64 Ibid.65 University of Cambridge, “Dr Irit Katz — Centre for Urban Conflicts Research,” Person, accessed December 22, 2019, https://www.urbanconflicts.arct.cam.ac.uk/people/irit-katz-feigis.66 Jacobs, Karrie. “Rethinking the Refugee Camp,” Architect, January 25, 2017, https://www.architectmagazine.com/Design/rethinking-the-refugee-camp_o.44Cause + Effect 45GP01 Report6.2.1 UrbanThe condition of refugee camps changes significantly between rural and urban camps. UNHCR describes how, “in urban areas, many refugees share accommodation or live in non-functional public buildings, collective centres, slums and informal types of settlements. Conditions are often substandard, and providing shelter poses major challenges.”67  Are urban refugee camps being considered adequately by the UNHCR? These are spaces where expansion is often unfeasible, and occupation is often in abandoned structures or shelters made of found materials. The dense occupation of these urban areas, in addition to the adaptation of vertical spaces using found materials, can create unsafe areas for residents that do not adhere to the United Nations Camp Planning Standards requirements.6812Nahr al-Bared Refugee CampUrban, Coastal, Civil ConflictArsal CampRural, high altitude, border adjacent126.2 Urban vs Rural vs Adjacent CampsFigure 18. (Top) Nahr Al-BaredSite AxonometricFigure 19. (Bottom) Nahr Al-Bared Site Plan | 1:100 00067 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “Shelter,” UNHCR, https://www.unhcr.org/shelter.html.68 The UN Refugee Agency, “Camp Planning Standards (Planned Settlements),” n.d., https://emergency.unhcr.org.46Cause + Effect 47GP01 ReportThere are other formal UNHCR refugee camps that were developed in Lebanon to host Palestinian refugees. Camps of this kind exist throughout the Middle East and is visible in Nahr Al Bared Camp, seen in Figure 18. These camps are typically fortified and has UN services on site. The camp was destroyed in 2007 due to local conflict between the Lebanese Army and the militant Islamic group, Fatah al-Islam.69 The camp was occupied for weeks, destroying most of the shelters and killing hundreds. Families who survived were further displaced with the loss of their new home at the camp and continue to live in informal shelters in the area.70 This event triggered a massive rebuild design project for the camp through the UNHCR and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. The project began in 2009 and after eleven years, only 50% has been constructed.71 This site is an example of local conflict directly affecting the most vulnerable populations in Lebanon. Urban adjacent sites are able to connect to larger networks, have easier access to humanitarian aid agencies, access to food and water, and public transportation, compared to rural settlements, who have significantly less access and are more dependent on municipal services. The coastal regional that is populated with major cities and refugee settlements along the water does not see the harsh weather that affects the poor living conditions of informal settlements to the same capacity that those in the Bekaa Valley do.Figure 20. Arsal Regional Site Plan | 1:100 00069 Knudsen, Are John. “Decade of Despair: The Contested Rebuilding of the Nahr al-Bared Refugee Camp, Lebanon, 2007–2017.” Refuge, vol. 34, no. 2, Dec. 2018, pp. 135–49. DOI.org (Crossref), doi:10.7202/1055584ar.70 United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. “Nahr El-Bared Camp.” UNRWA, https://www.unrwa.org/where-we-work/lebanon/nahr-el-bared-camp.71 United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. “Nahr El-Bared Camp.” UNRWA, https://www.unrwa.org/where-we-work/lebanon/nahr-el-bared-camp.72 Suzanne Harris Brandts, “Contesting Limits: Architecture and Boundary Conditions in Israel / Palestine,” Bracket: Architecture, Environment, Digital Culture 2, no. Goes Soft (n.d.): 114.73 Ibid.6.2.2 RuralBrandt also defined “Soft colonization,”72 a term that encompasses how a group will occupy an area that is legally zoned for other uses and claim it for their own.73 This form of colonization is seen throughout the establishment of refugee camps in their natural erection geographically in agricultural areas and along city boundaries. This claim of land triggers the work of agencies such as the UNHCR to form recognized camps. Informal sites often appear adjacent to institutional sites, creating a porous boundary between the two. Often informal settlers enter the institutional camp to use facilities and access food.48Cause + Effect 49GP01 Report07 Rendering the Invisible Figure 20. (Top) Arsal, Adjacency to Lebanon-Syria Border Figure 22. (Bottom) Reference Image + 3D Modelling Process7.1 MethodArchitecture has the capacity to synthesize information from a variety of sources to understand and ideally improve the physical world. This project uses local and international reports, geographic information systems (or GIS), environmental data, and humanitarian and national policies to identify services available, physical living conditions, and potential threats of further conflict. A limitation to this project’s research is the inability to have witness testimony to provide additional firsthand perspectives, therefore designers must rely on many different local news sources and interviews to better understand these conditions.50Cause + Effect 51GP01 ReportThis project is focused on rendering the invisible forces of policies and their physical effects on the built conditions of informal Syrian refugee camps in Lebanon. To do so, the project looked a variety of scales; regional, informal camp block, to shelter. Using these scales, a compilation of data and systems were drawn to show the complexity of geo-political systems and how they are affected by international aid, material logistics, civil attitudes, and the environment. The town of Arsal is the focus site for this project. It is example of a service dependant, rural settlement site that experiences severe weather and a high population of unregistered Syrian refugees. The site is used to assess some of the most extreme conditions of displacement within Lebanon. Arsal is a town of only 30,000 Lebanese residents.74  Ninety-three camp blocks were identified using satellite imagery, that have populated the agricultural land along the outskirts of the town since the beginning of the Syrian conflict in 2011. By 2016, there was a recorded population of roughly 20,000 people living in these camps.75  These porous camp boundaries allow for residents to access the local grocery stores, religious centres, and schools when possible through international funding. A digital model of the camp site was made using satellite imagery and reference photos to determine dimensions and construction methods of typical structures within the Arsal town. The project site is based off this location but represents a typical Syrian informal refugee camp typology, rather than specific structures. This was due to the scale of the research and the limitations on geo-locating images or the ability to visit sites and confirm dimensions.Figure 23. Project Research Scales Diagram74 The UN Refugee Agency, and United Nations Development Programme. The Arsal Labour Market Assessment. https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/2001109/66806.pdf, 16.75 Inter-Agency Coordination Lebanon, and UNHCR Lebanon. Informal Settlements of Syrian Refugeees in Lebanon - Humanitarian Data Exchange. 12 Sept. 2018, https://data.humdata.org/dataset/syrian-refugeees-informal-settlements-in-lebanon.52Cause + Effect 53GP01 ReportForeign architect’s role within humanitarian designResearch + Design Methodology Design in remote or inaccesible sites of conflictNational policies of refugee host countries as tools of geo-politicsCause Effect‘No Camp Policy’1951 Refugee ConventionLack of Governance + ProtectionLand Lease AgreementsRestrictive Work PermitsTemporary Residency Permits2019 Informal Settlement PolicyTemporary vs Permanent MaterialsLaw. 92 | 2 Year Land Occupancy for Informal BuildingsMilitant EnforcementEmergency EvacuationsFurther DisplacementRaids + Policy EnforcementPolitical ConflictDetainment + DeportationWater + Food VulnerabilityLoccal ConflictVoluntary Returns to Syrian01 ‘Displaced Syrians’02 Dependance onLocal Services03 Materials7.2 Political ContextThe negative perception and civil conflict occurring between Lebanese citizens is based primarily on a strain of resources, infrastructure and employment in an already suffering economy. There is a wide-spread anti-refugee sentiment within Lebanon, seen in its citizens and government statements. Seeds of conflict towards displaced Syrians has been specifically linked to former Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil, who has been recorded stating that “they are receiving aid for every aspect of their lives they are receiving free education, shelter and healthcare. They are better covered on health than the Lebanese. They are afraid that once they leave, they will lose the assistance.”76 He has blatantly stated his opinion that Syrian’s are not in political danger and remain in Lebanon for economic gain – through their workforce, taking jobs from locals, and their dependence on financial assistance.77  His public statements include urging foreign donations to reduce their humanitarian financial support to Syrian’s in Lebanon.78 This is a clue to the position of those in government and the extent of their efforts to limit aid, hoping that if the financial assistance ends, so will the ‘burden’ of Syrians in Lebanon. All of these declarations encourage a negative attitude towards Syrians. To summarize the main public concern for the Syrian presence in Lebanon, local citizens believe that, “the flood of refugees has overwhelmed schools and the already debilitated infrastructure, increased rents and forced Lebanese to compete with cheap Syrian labor. Some are resentful of aid stipends some Syrians receive, pointing out that they don’t pay taxes and often work illegally as well.”79 This contrasts Amnesty International’s investigation of the condition for refugees who found that, “refugees in Lebanon are living in a difficult environment, ensuing from dire humanitarian conditions due to the lack of sufficient funding, coupled with unjust government policies and increased political tension.”80 Inconsistent public information and biased political statements are causing tension between local Lebanese and Syrian refugees.  Figure 24. Thesis Concept Diagram 76 Patrick Wintour Diplomatic. “Thousands of Syrian Refugees Could Be Sent Back, Says Lebanese Minister.” The Guardian, 15 June 2019. www.theguardian.com, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jun/15/thousands-of-syrian-refugees-could-be-sent-back-says-lebanese-minister.77  Ibid.78 Syrian Refugees Detained in Deir Al-Ahmar | News , Lebanon News | THE DAILY STAR. https://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2017/Apr-21/402788-30-syrian-refugees-detained-in-deir-al-ahmar.ashx. Accessed 30 Oct. 2020.79  El Deeb, Sarah. “In Lebanon, Syrian Refugees Face New Pressure to Go Home.” AP NEWS, 20 June 2019, https://apnews.com/80 Amnesty International. Why Are Returns of Refugees from Lebanon to Syria Premature? Amnesty International Public Statement, 12 June 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/MDE1804812019ENGLISH.pdf.54Cause + Effect 55GP01 ReportFigure 25. Lebanon Refugee Settlement Map | 1: 1 000 00056Cause + Effect 57GP01 Report58Cause + Effect 59GP01 ReportLebanon’s strict ‘no camp’ policy is only enforced for Syrian refugee populations. The no camp policy is a term that describes Lebanon’s position that they will not host Syrian refugees permanently and their policies ensure that hundreds of thousands of Syrian immigrants are only able to live in informal settlements. Lebanon has not signed the 1951 United Nations Convention or 1967 Protocol for the treatment of refugees within their country, they instead depend on a Memorandum of Understanding with the United Nations.81  Syrian refugees are legally termed by the Government of Lebanon as ‘displaced’ people.82  This classification puts them in a legal grey area in terms of rights for services, security, humanitarian aid, and shelter.”83  This classification poses risks for individuals to be exploited or subject to local violence. These informal settlements are seen throughout the nation, primarily forming along the coastline and mountainous region, called the Bekka Valley. They are able to enforce this settlement type, without providing adequate refugee housing solutions because in Lebanon. Policies 1 Land Lease Agreement 2 Restrictive Work Permits 3 Temporary Residency PermitsFigure 26. Arsal Town Site Plan | 1:25 0007.3 Displaced SyriansInformal Syrian Refugee Settlements are typically formed through a process of inhabitation and claiming on a land through occupation. These informal settlements started to form since 2011 typically in agricultural fields. Lebanon’s Ministry of the Displaced Law No.322 states that immigrants may build within property that does not meet the legal requirements for construction, for a period of two years.84  With this law in place, Lebanese farmers began making land use agreements with individuals, typically Syrian males to occupy and build structures on their land. There are other settlements that arise through occupation of public or private land without permission from the landowner or municipality.81 Saliba, Issam. Refugee Law and Policy: Lebanon. Mar. 2016, https://www.loc.gov/law/help/refugee-law/lebanon.php.82 Janmyr, Maja. “UNHCR and the Syrian Refugee Response: Negotiating Status and Registration in Lebanon.” The International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 22, no. 3, 2018, p. 26.83  Ibid.84 Ministry of the Displaced, and Government of Lebanon. Law No. 322. http://www.ministryofdisplaced.gov.lb/Laws-and-Decrees/Construction-laws-and-conditions/%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%B1%D9%82%D9%85-322.60Cause + Effect 61GP01 ReportLabourWith more and more structures being built, populations increased. The average Syrian refugee family has 5 members,85 all in need of food and supplies to maintain their lives in the camp. Non-Lebanese immigrants can only obtain work permits in certain labour sectors including environment, construction, and agriculture.86  Although changes to the 2017 UNHCR deal, mean that Syrian’s working in Lebanon would no longer be able to receive aid as refugees.87  The average monthly income for a Lebanese worker is 448 US dollars, with refugee men only making 270 US dollars, and female immigrant workers making only 40% compared to Lebanese males.88  With the low income and lack of jobs available, in addition to the increased restrictions for immigrants in Lebanon to receive work permits, there is a heavy reliance on international aid.Figure 27. (Left) Lebanon Wage DiagramFigure 28. (Right) Site Axonometric, Land Lease Agreement + Agriculture Work85 Beirut Research and Innovation Center. Survey on the Livelihoods of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon. Nov. 2013, 12.86  The Daily Star. “Syrians Who Obtain Work Permits in Lebanon Risk Losing Refugee Aid.” CLDH, 6 Mar. 2017, http://www.rightsobserver.org/blog/syrians-who-obtain-work-permits-in-lebanon-risk-losing-refugee-aid.87  The UN Refugee Agency. 2019 Year-End Report | Operation: Lebanon. The United Nations, 10 July 2020, https://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/pdfsummaries/GR2019-Lebanon-eng.pdf.88  International Labour Organization. Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Face Harsh Working Conditions. 2 Apr. 2014, http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_240126/lang--en/index.htm.62Cause + Effect 63GP01 ReportAid Distribution2018 UNHCR procurement records show that most supply contacts over 100k are with international organization sand manufacturers.89  This is the case for the most common tent structure materials, including plastic tarps, bed mattresses and blankets, and other household supplies. Domestic supplies contract shows Lebanon’s supply of structural timber, fuel, and clothes.90  Once transported to Beirut, these materials are distributed to the thousands of camps throughout the country. Aid supplies coming into the camp are typical intercepted by the Shawish. The Shawish is either an elected community member or the original person who established the land use agreement. The intention is for them to identify needs, communicate with aid programs and ensure equal distribution to families within their settlement. This is often not the case, in some instances they will refuse entry / aid or distribute unfairly. This quote from an aid volunteer named Zaher describes how certain Shawish will insists on a personal cut of the materials or “you find another shawish who insists on distributing the aid himself. As a result, he discriminates between the residents of the camp. Sometimes he deprives some of them depending on his personal mood. So, I don’t deliver aid to him and sometimes the residents of the camp are deprived of aid on his account.”91  The lack of governance and planning for informal settlements has resulted in this community governance of camps through a singular decision-maker. If there was more oversight permitted, agencies could ensure equal distribution of aids, funding, and ensure these materials are not being used to exploit residents. Figure 29. UNHCR Global Supply Contracts for Aid Materials (2018)89 The UN Refugee Agency. Purchase Orders for Amounts Greater than USD 100,000 Year 2018. 2018, https://www.unhcr.org/5c54034d4.90  Ibid. 91 Kheir, Malek Abu. “The Syrian Camps Shawish: A Man of Power and the One Controlling the Conditions of Refugees.” The Peace Building In Lebanon, no. 12, June 2016, p. 1.64Cause + Effect 65GP01 Report66Cause + Effect 67GP01 ReportLegal StatusResidents are scared to speak out as many do not have temporary residency permits and are considered illegal immigrants within Lebanon. Residency permits are required to be eligible for United Nations refugee registration. Displaced people cannot access their services without registration, including relocation to another nation for permanent re-settlement. The NRC reported in 2017 that "Obtaining legal residency status is one of the biggest problems Syrian refugees face in Lebanon. Up to 80 per cent don’t have valid residency permits…. Without a residence permit there is no sense of security. They risk fines, arrest, detention, and even potential deportation orders."92 This means there is a significant population of unregistered Syrian refugees in Lebanon who no foreseeable options for relocation. With the Israel-Lebanon border restricted from civilian crossing93, they are essentially landlocked in a country who refuses to provide permanent settlement. Their only options are to wait for safe return to Syria.Figure 30. (Previous) Aid Distribution in Informal Syrian SettlementFigure 31. Syrian Residents Without Residency Permits in Lebanon Camps92 Norwegian Refugee Council. “Barriers to Legal Residency - Lebanon.” ReliefWeb, https://reliefweb.int/report/lebanon/barriers-legal-residency.93 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Crossing Points. https://mfa.gov.il/mfa/consularservices/pages/crossing_points.aspx.68Cause + Effect 69GP01 ReportLeft Intentionally BlankFigure 32. Consequences of ‘Displaced Syrian’ Policies within Lebanon70Cause + Effect 71GP01 Report72Cause + Effect 73GP01 Report Policies 1 ‘No Camp’ Policy 2 1951 Refugee Convention 3 Lack of Governance + ProtectionThe policies that encourage the dependence on local services include Lebanon’s ‘no camp’ policy, Lebanon not being tied or having signed the 1951 United nation Refugee convention agreement, and the general lack of governance and protection in these settlements.94  Many camps depend on local services, including waste disposal, water access, and sewage connection.95  Considering this, we can see that there are hundreds of camps in Lebanon that do not have basic services or connect to local infrastructure, although they have own implications on the environment. 7.4 Dependence on Local ServicesFigure 33. Site Axonometric, Service Connections94 Sanyal, Romola. “A No-Camp Policy: Interrogating Informal Settlements in Lebanon.” Geoforum, vol. 84, Aug. 2017, pp. 117–25. DOI.org (Crossref), doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.06.011.95 Inter-Agency Coordination Lebanon, and UNHCR Lebanon. Informal Settlements of Syrian Refugeees in Lebanon - Humanitarian Data Exchange. 12 Sept. 2018, https://data.humdata.org/dataset/syrian-refugeees-informal-settlements-in-lebanon.74Cause + Effect 75GP01 Report76Cause + Effect 77GP01 ReportElectricityThe ‘no camp’ policy, means that many of these structures are operating with faulty connections to services or depending on trucked in assistance. Electricity has long been in short supply. The United Nations Lebanon states that this is due to the nations supplier EDL is unable to meet growing generation demands and how “Ageing power plants in Lebanon operate below their rated capacity. This results in power outages of at least three hours per day in Beirut and up to twelve hours outside of Beirut.”96  Electrical connection is essential for residents of these camps to operate lighting, use household items, and charge their devices which connect them to humanitarian services and their families who may not be with them. The lack of support and development of proper housing, results in many residences to create illegal electrical connections posing more hazards and increasing local tensions. Water SupplyWater supply is extremely limited within Lebanon. All of the camps in Arsal require trucked in water that is filled in central water storage tanks, along the gravel roads that are wide enough for trucks can access.97  Residents fill their individual water jugs for potable water and hygiene use. The addition of both local pollution and many communities resorting to solid waste open burning their solid waste have cause the air quality in Lebanon to pose a health risk. Figure 34. (Previous) Electric + Water Service Connection in Informal Syrian SettlementsFigure 35. (Right) Water Use + Storage Perspective96 United Nations Lebanon. “Refugee Crisis Hits Lebanon’s Electricity Network.” United Nations Lebanon, https://www.un.org.lb/english/stories/the-ongoing-syrian-refugee-crisis-is-damaging-lebanons-already-poor-electricity-infrastructure.97 Inter-Agency Coordination Lebanon, and UNHCR Lebanon. Informal Settlements of Syrian Refugeees in Lebanon - Humanitarian Data Exchange. 12 Sept. 2018, https://data.humdata.org/dataset/syrian-refugeees-informal-settlements-in-lebanon.78Cause + Effect 79GP01 ReportSolid WasteWaste Management has been an issue within Lebanon for decades. The country has struggled to create and maintain emergency plans for their solid waste management and is consistently the centre of international attention. They are still managing waste following their 1997 Emergency Plan for SWM in Beirut and Mount Lebanon.98  The measures are proving to be insufficient. Currently, approximately 77% of waste is openly dumped, landfilled, or burned99 which is a significant health risk of residents. Considering alternatives to landfills is integral for reducing the burning of garbage.  A large issue with Lebanon's solid waste crisis is the limited public knowledge of the environmental impact of open dumping, burning, and excessive garbage production. The sites for open burning are typically rural and sometimes directly adjacent to residential neighbourhoods. “Most of the dumps at which open burning takes place regularly are located in some of the poorest areas in the country, including the Bekaa Valley, Nabatieh, and the south.”100 Burning in these areas is likely due to the lack of solid waste processing facilities within those regions and the high costs of transporting waste to proper dump sites. The production of Co2 through this open burning process creates acid rain, for the few areas that do have significant rainfall, the acid rain eliminates the potential for safe rainwater collection without out services or filtering equipment in place. Water InsecurityLebanon’s water availability per person was already at the water poverty line. With the increase in population since 2011 renewable water available in Lebanon has decreased from 1000  to 700 cubic meters.101 With 3.7 million people are affected in water vulnerable localities, 2.6 million of those are displaced Lebanese.102 The fight for this resource continues as a point of tension.98 Khawaja, Bassam, and Human Rights Watch. “‘As If You’re Inhaling Your Death.’” Human Rights Watch, 1 Dec. 2017, https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/12/01/if-youre-inhaling-your-death/health-risks-burning-waste-lebanon.99  Ibid.100  Human Rights Watch. “Lebanon: Waste Crisis Posing Health Risks.” Human Rights Watch, 1 Dec. 2017, https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/12/01/lebanon-waste-crisis-posing-health-risks.101  Vidal, John. “Water Supplies in Syria Deteriorating Fast Due to Conflict, Experts Warn.” The Guardian, 7 Sept. 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/sep/07/water-supplies-in-syria-deteriorating-fast-due-to-conflict-experts-warn. 102 Walnycki, Anna, and Marwan Husseiki. “Five Fundamentals to Keep Lebanon’s Water Flowing.” International Institute for Environment and Development, 18 Dec. 2017, https://www.iied.org/five-fundamentals-keep-lebanon-water-flowing.80Cause + Effect 81GP01 ReportFigure 36. Lebanon Air Pollution Through Open Burning82Cause + Effect 83GP01 ReportFigure 37. Lebanon Rainwater Collection Potential Map 84Cause + Effect 85GP01 Report86Cause + Effect 87GP01 ReportThis is one of the many towns in Lebanon seeing this influx in population and increased pressure on services, food, and basic infrastructure. The NGO ANSA has stated that “Repatriations have been described as "voluntary" returns although a number of local analysts have stressed that Syrian refugees are forced to return home because of the difficult humanitarian conditions they experience in Lebanon and the absence of a legislative framework protecting them from discrimination.”103 The exodus of Syrians back to their home in 2018 was and continuous to be unsafe with areas still under major conflict. Regardless, many felt that the risk of returning home did not outweigh the conditions in Lebanon, lack of protection under their legal status, and continuous exploitations.104 Figure 38. (Previous) Lebanon Water Vulnerability DiagramFigure 39. (Right) Dependence on Local Services, Consequences of Policies Diagram103 Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. “Syrians Returned Home from Lebanon.” InfoMigrants, 17 Feb. 2020, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/22822/syrians-returned-home-from-lebanon.104  Amnesty International. Why Are Returns of Refugees from Lebanon to Syria Premature? Amnesty International Public Statement, 12 June 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/MDE1804812019ENGLISH.pdf.88Cause + Effect 89GP01 Report90Cause + Effect 91GP01 Report Policies 1 2019 Informal Settlement Policy 2 Temporary vs Permanent Materials 3 Law 92 | 2 Year Land Occupancy for Informal Buildings105 In April 2019 the Lebanese Government Supreme Defense106 Council  decided to apply current shelter requirements laws. This enforcement resulted in deadlines for Syrian refugees to dismantle any structures made of permanent material (excluding plastic and wood).107  In certain areas, the Lebanese military enforced these restrictions, and they destroyed structures if the residents missed the deadline to dismantle themselves. Approximately 2500 shelters have been removed (May-August 2019) in Arsal adjacent camps alone.108 It is unclear if that number reflects militant or self-completed shelter removal by residents. The initiative is a clear political move by the Lebanese officials, making it clear they do not want a permanent settlement of Syrian refugees. ''The order is clear: Permanent structures built without a permit must be demolished,'' Action Against Hunger explained in a statement. “According to the order, refugee shelters made of anything but timber and plastic sheeting are to be removed. The ‘cement camps’ in the Arsal region have raised concerns among Lebanese that Syrian refugees would settle there permanently.”109  The action creates a thought-provoking condition and point in government policies. Material LawPermanent Materials are defined by the Government of Lebanon as hardscapes, including concrete and metal.110  Site cast concrete is not permitted, and the limit is 1m or 5 rows of CMU in height.111 This significantly limits the ability for Syrian refugees to create residences that can protect them from severe weather and human error.Temporary Materials include wood and plastic. This is why structures in informal settlements throughout Lebanon are primarily built of light wood frame, plastic sheets, and blankets hung on the walls and floor. 105 Ministry of the Displaced - Law No. 92. http://www.ministryofdisplaced.gov.lb/Laws-and-Decrees/Construction-laws-and-conditions/%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%B1%D9%82%D9%85-92. 106  Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. “NGO Denounces Refugee Housing Demolition in Lebanon.” InfoMigrants, 8 Aug. 2019, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/18700/ngo-denounces-refugee-housing-demolition-in-lebanon.107  The UN Refugee Agency. Lebanon | Global Focus. https://reporting.unhcr.org/node/2520. 108 Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. “NGO Denounces Refugee Housing Demolition in Lebanon.” InfoMigrants, 8 Aug. 2019, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/18700/ngo-denounces-refugee-housing-demolition-in-lebanon.109 Ibid. 110  The UN Refugee Agency. Lebanon | Global Focus. https://reporting.unhcr.org/node/2520.111  Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata. “NGO Denounces Refugee Housing Demolition in Lebanon.” InfoMigrants, 8 Aug. 2019, https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/18700/ngo-denounces-refugee-housing-demolition-in-lebanon.7.5 Materials92Cause + Effect 93GP01 Report94Cause + Effect 95GP01 ReportHazardsThe average firehose spray distance is 40m.112 With the tight adjacency of structures, and limited roadways, there are often structures within a camp that falls outside of access for fire suppression. The families who reside in these structures, are displaced further and lose what little they have. Figure 40. (Previous) Materials that are not Permitted in Informal SettlementsFigure 41. (Left) Dissassembly of Concrete Materials PerspectiveFigure 42. (Right) Firetruck in Camp Perspective112 M. Greenber’s Sons. Effective Reach of Fire Streams. https://www.elkhartbrass.com/files/aa/downloads/performance/Effective%20Reach%20of%20Fire%20Streams.pdf.96Cause + Effect 97GP01 ReportFigure 43. Fire Truck’s Limited Access in Typical Settlements98Cause + Effect 99GP01 ReportLebanon’s National Fire Prevention Guideline supports that “In informal settlements, weatherproofing materials to construct the tents, including timber, plywood and plastic sheeting are high-fire loading, in addition to the abundant tires used on roofs to weigh the tents down.”113 These shelters are not insulated and put residents at risk for severe weather events and fluctuating temperatures. Many towns within this mountainous region are at high elevations. Arsal is subject to 10-30cm of snow between the months of December and March, dropping to a minimum average temperature of -2 °C.114  Structures are often built directly on the ground and can become flooded from rainfall and snowmelt. The use of diesel stoves for heat and cooking can cause fire, that rapid jump between the adjacent residences that range from a mere 1-2m in proximity.Figure 44. Typical Informal Settlement Structure Wall Section113 Inter-Agency Coordination Lebanon. Guidelines for the Fire Prevention, Preparedness, and Response (FPPR). Jan. 2018, https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/TTC5-FirePreventionPreparednessandResponseNationalGuideline.pdf.114  World Weather Online. “Arsal Monthly Climate Averages.” WorldWeatherOnline.Com, https://www.worldweatheronline.com/arsal-weather/beqaa/lb.aspx.100Cause + Effect 101GP01 ReportFigure 45. Camp Block Section + Severe Weather Diagram (Continues to Next Page)102Cause + Effect 103GP01 Report104Cause + Effect 105GP01 ReportSummaryThe enforcement of this material policy has resulted in further displacement and made it nearly impossible for people living within these informal camps to protect themselves from environmental hazards.Figure 46. Consequences of Temporary Materials in Camps106Cause + Effect 107GP01 ReportThe following design strategies are intended as an example of the design work that could come out of humanitarian architecture adopting a more rigorous analysis of the conditions, material availability, and limiting factors in the areas they are attempting to assist. 7.6 Design Strategies108Cause + Effect 109GP01 ReportFigure 47. Potential Design Strategies Section Drawing110Cause + Effect 111GP01 ReportFigure 48. Earth Wall + Drainage Channel Material Assembly Diagram1 The first strategy is an improved insulated wall system using CMU, plywood, 2”x4” lumber and earth infill. 2 The second is a drainage perimeter to respond to flooding. It uses CMU and an upside-down milk crate with gravel to create a drainage ditch.112Cause + Effect 113GP01 ReportThis pamphlet was designed as an example of a material that could be easily distributed to residents in these informal camps. The intention is to provide design options and educational materials for residents to make changes to their structures if desired. The intention is have both English and Arabic and other resources included in the pamphlet, such as the hotlines sourced from an existing UNHCR handout.115 115 The United Nations. Leaflets & Posters | Refugees Lebanon. https://www.refugees-lebanon.org/en/posters/categories. Figure 49. Heated Sub-floor Example Pamphlet3 The third design strategy is a heated subfloor system that uses the basic principles of a hypocaust or heated floor. The diesel stove is moved below grade, to reduce the risk of fire. 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One UNHCR tarp116 provides 25 sandbags that have the same dimension of common CMU found in camps (200mm depth x 400mm length x 200mm height). All strategies use materials available within the camp boundaries currently that are deemed temporary by the government of Lebanon. This way, these strategies could be implemented immediately to improve conditions without monetary assistance or additional materials provided by aid organizations.116 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Reinforced Plastic Tarpaulin. 2009.Figure 50.  Tarp to Sandbag Process Diagram116Cause + Effect 117GP01 ReportThese national policies strategically encourage dangerous conditions that are unlivable within Informal Refugee Settlements for displaced Syrians. Regardless of humanitarian aid conducted by UNHCR, international non-profit organizations, and local NGOS, the policies in place are limiting or removing their ability to assist those who are most vulnerable. Whether or not the policies in Lebanon are intentionally designed as tools of control, it is evident through this research that they are creating unlivable conditions for Syrian’s within a country they hoped to find refuge.These conditions are not isolated to Lebanon and similar situations are likely to continue to exist and occur elsewhere in the world. There are currently 20.6 million refugees globally117 and millions of other living within sites of conflict. Designers have the skill set and ability to synthesize data to create designs that work within limitations of policy, environment, and human conditions. The aim, like all humanitarian acts, is to improve the quality of lives for vulnerable populations.  7.7 Conclusion117 Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. “Figures at a Glance.” UNHCR, https://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html.118Cause + Effect 119GP01 ReportFigure 50. 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