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There's a New Station in the Neighbourhood : Reconsidering the Architecture of the Skytrain Station Edmison, Thomas 2020-12

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There’s a New Station in the NeighbourhoodReconsidering the Architecture of the Skytrain StationThomas EdmisonThere’s a New Station in the Neighbourhood Reconsidering the Architecture of the Skytrain StationThomas EdmisonBachelor of Fine Arts, College for Creative Studies, 2012Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture’ in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee AnnaLisa Meyboom - ChairInge Roecker - Internal Committee MemberArmen Mamourian - External Member (Carscadden StokesMcDonald Architects)Aaron Know - External Member (Perkins & Will)We accept this report as conforming to the required standard,AnnaLisa MeyboomInge RoeckerUniversity of British Columbia, Thomas Edmison 12-2020 © Copyright AbstractAs the skytrain system continues to grow in prominence the development of sta-tions seems poised to continue the approach of singular functionality with basic materiality, and little consideration of integration with site.  Many recently built stations offer little value to surrounding communities as they function to fulfill the paradigm of transit oriented development with several factors constraining their design. This qualitative minimization undermines public perceptions of mass transit and thus inhibits the many benefits the system brings to the city.  As more is invested in expanding Skytrain lines this approach will only continue to define much of Metro Vancouver’s urbanism for decades to come. Can a new approach be developed to enhance ridership and elevate the Skytrain station to and attractive public architecture?Figure 1iiTable of Contentsi Abstractv List of Figuresix Acknowledgments14 1 Introduction    1.1 The Pandemic Prelude    1.2 Thesis Statement   20 2 The Daily Commute   2.1 A Public Sacrific    2.2 Issues and Defining Principles 30 3 A System Under Pressure     3.1 Population Growth and Increasing Ridership    3.2 Development of High Density Corridors34 4 The Moscow Metro: Lessons from     Moscow as Guidance for Vancouver38 5 Precedents   5.1 Vancouver Precedents    5.2 International Precedents50 6 Site   6.1 Arbutus & Broadway    6.2 Becoming a Temporary Transportation Hub 56 7 The New Station at Arbutus & Broadway78 8 Works CitedivList of FiguresFigure 1 Abstract Collage. Source: Thomas EdmisonFigure 2 Acknowledgments Image. Source: Thomas EdmisonIntroduction Figure 3 Covid-19 Alert. Source: Chad Coombs. Vancouver April 11 2020. April 11, 2020Figure 4 Empty Downtown Street. Source: CBC News. A food delivery service member walks through downtown Vancouver on March 23, 2020. March 24, 2020https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/coronavirus-update-bc-what-you-need-to-know-march-24-1.5507672Figure 5 Christ Church Cathedral. Source: Waldero.  Christ Church Cathedral Bell Tower, Vancouver, BC. November 19, 2016https://www.flickr.com/photos/waledro/30394527113/in/photolist-p3dB1A-wGSxAU-6Du3E3-nVpRAH-nVGYsi-nVpRev-NiRTYV-P1C4Td-XNXp7r-2dgbpuv-Y4QhBb-Y4QkuW-Y929sVFigure 6 Brentwood Town Centre Station at Night. Source: Andrew McQuillan. Brentwood Town Centre Skytrain Station.  January 15, 2018https://www.flickr.com/photos/ffwoodycooks/39721321411/in/photolist-23w39Za-8LVjWQ-UEsmem-4sbsVG-23JXLhB-qDZ4Hi-tH8Vd-7eCamQ-m27ifY-2cvwW-pR-6kFjEc-3o5oVU-2hnBG91-JZswBH-osN8z9-2iHWvSj-JuT2Kq-2in9ifS-7Pf1-J-5gDixJ-3LrMAW-cvUFYb-7Pf29-7Pf2i-3LnrYx-7Pf2v-91q8jC-91mfQt-91kboN-bnSpcf-ouL2fB-2h6p3pP-pGZdNS-m26sZi-y4sTtp-5LH7tB-2Zxivo-YW5hX7-2gkvSvQ-2EY7j8-91jNPu-91msXM-91m1Tv-91kC9g-91q4Cu-91mUUD-91kViV-91pa7E-91nzZb-91oCS5Figure 7 Broadway - City Hall Rush Hour. Source: Kenneth Chan. SkyTrain dates: 8 things to do around Broadway-City Hall Station. August 4 2017https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/skytrain-dates-8-things-to-do-around-broadway-city-hall-stationFigure 8 Odenplan Station. Source: 3XN Architects. Odenplan Station. 2015https://3xn.com/project/odenplan-stationFigure 9 Expo Line Waterfront Station Platform. Source: Author’s ImageFigure 10 Kings Cross Tunnel. Source: Geoff Henson. Kings Cross. January 2, 2019https://www.flickr.com/photos/croydonclicker/46572964511/in/photolist-2dX-uBLK-2ioisyw-2iqwhY8-yrRb6L-23s9nNb-23XeC5V-2i4qRMk-GJxTxs-24hZu-pa-LaTuv5-TbcqLG-WEdjik-21mxf3t-MyAM7M-21YBig3-HDMhQo-MyAwh6-A9te-hq-o8Smkt-2g9C2rk-21rBJt7-2bocyEU-QskdKr-2h3uM9u-2hcSL4E-EzjtSc-XPbvWH-JGtpXY-2gQhXbp-KBu3W6-FHTjRZ-VVdn8P-XdEA7Q-2a5xD47-24SG-Ge2-Ntks9b-EAh9C9-K2btZC-2hDxaoG-CL2QUD-oKfhKd-qqR4JJ-HZWt9H-2itH-gWM-2hdV2XL-wq9xyb-2gZa8hN-2iyAjzC-2io6vA7-2h4xfJKFigure 11 Kálvin tér Station Platform. Source: Tamás Bujnovszky. Kálvin tér Station. 2014https://www.archdaily.com/559104/budapest-underground-line-m4-kalvin-ter-sta-tion-palatium-studio?ad_source=search&ad_medium=search_result_projectsFigure 12 Porte Marguerite de Navarre Entrance Escalators. Source: Pierre L’Ex-cellent.  Porte Marguerite de Navarre. 2017https://www.archdaily.com/874520/porte-marguerite-de-navarre-169-architec-ture?ad_source=search&ad_medium=search_result_projectsFigure 13 Extension of Expo Line to Langley. Source: Translink. Proposed route and station locations for the Fraser Highway SkyTrain extension. Dec 9, 2018https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/translink-skytrain-surrey-potential-timeline-de-cember-2018Figure 14 Potential Brentwood Town Centre Developments. Source: Shape Prop-erties. Artistic rendering of the potential developments within the wider Brentwood Town Centre area beyond The Amazing Brentwood.  May 27, 2019https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/metro-vancouver-transit-oriented-develop-ments-skytrain-2019Figure 15 Gilmore Place Rendering. Source: Onni Group. Artistic rendering of the first phase of Gilmore Place. May 27, 2019https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/metro-vancouver-transit-oriented-develop-ments-skytrain-2019Figure 16 Oakridge Centre Development. Source: Henriquez Partners Architects. View looking west at site. February 7,2019https://www.westerninvestor.com/news/british-columbia/new-imag-es-for-oakridge-centre-redevelopment-revealed-1.23626880Figure 17 Komsomolskaya Metro Station. Source: A.Savin Komsomolskaya (Circle Line) metro station in Moscow. January 19, 2018https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komsomolskaya_(Koltsevaya_line)#/media/File:Mos-Metro_KomsomolskayaKL_img2_asv2018-01.jpgFigure 18 Smolenskaya Entrance. Source: Sergei Karpukhin / Reuters The en-trance to Smolenskaya metro station in Moscow, Russia, on February 25, 2016. February 25, 2016https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/05/scenes-from-the-moscow-met-ro/528660/Figure 19 Broadway - City Hall Entrance. Source: Stephen Rees Broadway - City Hall Station. September 2, 2009https://flickr.com/photos/stephen_rees/3883179192Figure 20 Broadway - City Hall Platform. Source: Joe A. Kanzler Southbound Can-ada Line Pulling Up at Broadway-City Hall Station. June 18, 2019https://flickr.com/photos/avgeekjoe/48304742726/Figure 21 Line Up for 99. Source: CBC Vancouver commuters board the 99 B-line bus during rush hour. April 25, 2019https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/translink-ridership-boardings-2018-stats-1.5111607viigure 22 Burrad Station Entrance. Source: Joel Mabel Entrance to Burrard Street SkyTrain Station, Vancouver, BC. September 3, 2010 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burrard_station#/media/File:Vancouver_-_Burrard_Station_entrance_01.jpgFigure 23 Looking up Burrard Station Stairway. Source: Author’s ImageFigure 24 Burrard Entry Hall. Source: Author’s ImageFigure 25 View of Terraced Garden at Station Entrance. Source: Author’s ImageFigure 26 Canopy of Spring Cherry Blossoms Next to Burrard Station. Source: Jason Statler Burrard Station. https://robsonstreet.ca/2018/03/cherry-blossom-season-onrobson/Figure 27 Solntsevo Pavilion. Source: Ilya Ivanov Solntsevo Pavilion. 2018https://www.archdaily.com/903546/solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architectsFigure 28 Plazas and Parks Around Solntsevo. Source: Google Maps 2020 Figure 29 Solntsevo Platform. Source: Ilya Ivanov Solntsevo Platform. 2018https://www.archdaily.com/903546/solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architectsFigure 30 Station of Being with Orange Light. Source: Samuel Peterson Station of Being. December 2019https://www.designboom.com/architecture/rombout-frieling-lab-station-of-be-ing-sweden-12-17-2019/Figure 31  Station of Being with Blue Light. Source: Samuel Peterson Station of Being. December 2019https://www.designboom.com/architecture/rombout-frieling-lab-station-of-be-ing-sweden-12-17-2019/Figure 32 Fornebu Senter Station Pavilion Render. Source: ZHA and A_Lab Forne-bu Senter Station. December 6, 2018https://www.middleeastarchitect.com/41460-zaha-hadid-architects-sign-on-to-design-metro-project-in-oslo-with-norway-practice-alabFigure 33 Fornebuporten Station North Entrance Render. Source: ZHA and A_Lab The north entrance to Fornebuporten Station. December 6, 2018https://www.middleeastarchitect.com/41460-zaha-hadid-architects-sign-on-to-design-metro-project-in-oslo-with-norway-practice-alabFigure 34 Platform Lighting Change. Source: Zaha Hadid Architects Plat-form Lighting Change.  December 5, 2018https://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-hadid-oslo-metro-sta-tions-fornebubanen-line-norway-12-05-2018/Figure 35 Site Image 1. Source: AuthorFigure 36 Site Image 2. Source: Google Maps / AuthorFigure 37 Site Image 3. Source: Google Maps / AuthorFigure 38 Site Image 4. Source: AuthorFigure 39 Street View of Site Image 1.  Source: Google MapsFigure 40 Street View of Site Image 2.  Source: Google MapsFigure 41 Site Image 5. Source: Google Maps / AuthorFigure 42 Concept Sketch 1.   Source: AuthorFigure 43 Concept Sketch 2.   Source: AuthorFigure 44 Concept Sketch 3.   Source: AuthorFigure 45 Concept Sketch 4.  Source: AuthorFigure 46 Concept Sketch 5. Source: AuthorFigure 47 Building Diagram. Source: AuthorFigure 48 Circulation Diagram. Source: AuthorFigure 49 Platform and Below Ground. Source: AuthorFigure 50 Ground Plane. Source: AuthorFigure 51 Site Diagram. Source: AuthorFigure 52 Platform Section. Source: AuthorFigure 53 Broadway and Arbutus view. Source: AuthorFigure 54 Parallel section through Broadway. Source: AuthorFigure 55 Section through main circulation. Source: AuthorFigure 56 Section through Arbutus Greenway. Source: AuthorFigure 57 Section cut across Broadway. Source: AuthorviiiAcknowledgmentsThanks to my committee for their Zoom guidance, my unbelievably amazing family / friends, and the daily commuter.Figure 2x14Introduction1.1 The Pandemic Prelude: A Glimpse of a More Peaceful Urbanism in Downtown VancouverThe fundamental principle guiding this thesis is the recognition that effective and efficient mass transit is a primary component of main-taining and increasing the quality of life within cities. The architecture and design of the stations serving metro systems such as the Skytrain can contribute to enhancing the experience of riders and are therefore essential components of considering how to support more use of public transit. Providing citizens an affordable means of public transportation not only allows for the societal benefits usually summarized by buzz-words such as efficiency, increased economic mobility and sustained growth, but perhaps primarily, good public transit aids in reducing the reliance on automobiles within cities. The automobile is generally a detriment to the dense urban environ-ment. They are noisy, polluting, take up too much space, require vast infrastructure, cause unnecessary accidents, destroy the walkability of communities, form enormous amounts of congestion, exacerbate inequality, contribute to low density sprawl and so on and so forth. The more American, but still generally North American romanticized vision of the individual taking to the vast open road in their stylish personal high-powered vehicle clashes terribly with the cumbersome realities imposed by densely populated urban environments. It is a true, but very ubiquitous argument for any one interested or involved with concepts of urban planning or notions of idealized walkable Jane Jacobs style communities.  However, the current pandemic has highlighted the auto-mobiles impact on the city from a different, but very tangible perspective and offers a sensory glimpse of a richer, more peaceful city.   15Figure 316During the coronavirus pandemic the relative absence of the automobile within the city centre has exposed the stark and expansive infrastructure needed to accommodate their “exaggerated geometric demands.”¹ With a minimal flow of traffic and rows of parking spaces emptied, the mass concrete surfaces of streets, parking lots, highways, parking structures, bridges, and ramps are left almost naked in broad daylight, exposing how much of the urban fabric they truly grasp.   With traffic significantly limited during the pandemic, perceptions of space drastically change like an unfurnished room appears larger and promises infinite arrangements.  While overlooking almost empty streets and other infrastructure void of cars ideas begin to form of how the excessively large and multiple vacant concrete spaces could be repurposed.  Wider sidewalks, green spaces, trees, public plazas, gardens, bicycle lanes, patios, cafes or even larger building footprints could occupy the empty pavement.  City blocks sur-rounded by several lanes of street could support a much richer, denser, and active civic life with the removal or reduction of vehicle infrastructure that normally inhibits human scale activities.The pandemic shutdown has significantly reduced traffic and exposed how much of the city is just concrete and pavement.Figure 417Besides the revealing of the vast physical space normally covered by a con-stant flow of traffic the noise has become just as drastically reduced.  With a minimal flow of traffic through the streets of central Vancouver, the level of noise reverberating through many parts of the concrete jungle is closer to a West Point Grey neighbourhood. Conversations can be had at a normal level, while the urban white noise normally composed of traffic is replaced by cooing pigeons, seagulls by the waterfront and church bells ringing, depending on the time of day.  If the eerie and unsettling circumstances that have led to this more peaceful city are set aside, the experience of walking amongst city blocks that are normally traffic laden is much more tranquil and relaxing.  As this unprecedented shut down has drastically changed societal dynamics, many lessons will be instilled.  Hopefully the unintentional urban tranquility it has caused will be remembered by cities normally engulfed in traffic. In this moment of mass traffic reduction, the harshness imposed on the urban environment by automobiles and their infrastructure has been exposed in a new way.  Although the automobile’s relationship with the urban environment will continue and it’s use may increase after the social-distancing era, good public transit can aid in reducing the car’s impact on the city to ultimately create more tranquil and human scaled urban environments that this pandemic has given a glimpse of. Without much traffic noise, the bells of the Christ Church Cathedral occasionally echoing throughout downtown give a joyful addition to a more tranquil soundscape in Central VancouverFigure 5181.2 Thesis StatmentEfficient, effective and well planned mass transportation systems are an absolute necessity to support a high quality of life within cities.  These sys-tems do not and should not only function to serve lower income residents who cannot afford automobiles but are a key component of proliferating greater communities around them.  Transit in conjunction with thoughtful planning reduces the need for personal automobiles resulting in denser, calmer and richer urban spaces of a human scale. The fundamental ingre-dients that constitute great cities can be more condensed together instead of dispersed, separated and diluted by vast swaths of roadways and park-ing lots that pollute the soundscape with the rush of traffic.Despite the many benefits mass transit systems are able to bring, wether they be busses, light rail or metros, they are usually more technocratic conceptualizations with engineered functionality influencing most of their design. Besides the design of the transit vehicles, this manifests promi-nently in the architecture of transit stations and logically makes sense as the primary purpose of transit is to function sufficiently and conform within budgetary constraints. But investments in qualitative considerations are usually much less regarded.  This lack of qualitative application towards transit architecture potentially undermines the public’s perceptions of mass transit as a compelling means of transportation and thus inhibits the bene-fits provided by increased usage and adoption.  Figure 619Besides designing for pure functionality, if more reasonable effort is put to-wards enhancing the experiential and aesthetic qualities of stations while further melding them into the urban fabric could this further increase their use and acceptance?  Instead of being a shear necessity and utility should they be seen more as the great public asset they are and could their design reflect or even celebrate this. Could the application of more interesting and novel design interventions elevate the experience to genuinely motivate the public to em-brace more use of transit?  The centrepiece of Vancouver’s transit system, the Skytrain, exhibits a mixture of architectural characteristics as the designs of the fifty three stations were influenced by a wide variety of factors ranging from the time they were built, to the regions of they city they were built in.  Some stations were constructed with obvious consideration to design beyond utility. Examples of this include the curved wood roof structure of Brentwood Town Centre or the terraced garden and landscaping that greet passengers entering and exiting Burrard Station in downtown.  But despite the notable highlights of Skytrain architec-ture, there are many shortcomings as many of the stations seem to have been constructed to fulfill standardized functionality with little consideration of the qualitative. They meet specified requirements. Nothing more or nothing less.Vancouver consistently ranks as one of the most livable cities in the world and the effective transportation infrastructure of the city is a key contributor to the high scores.² The Skytrain system is a significant part of this transportation infrastructure and is relied upon by tens of thousands of citizens on a daily basis.³ In the coming years the importance of the system will only increase as more stations are built while the population grows and vast amounts of future residents live, work, and play along the several skytrain corridors.4This thesis challenges the current method of development wherein the station acts as a basic node that offers a singu-lar purpose.  The station shouldn’t act to only serve the in-terests of development and urbanism but should be instead considered an opportunity to create an enriching public ar-chitecture.  Beyond simply sheltering passengers the station should be welcomed as a public architecture that encourag-es more use of transit and enlivens the community fabric. Notes1. Condon, P. M. (2020). Five rules for tomorrow’s cities: Design in an age of urban migration, demographic change, and a disap-pearing middle class. Island Press. 1012. Mark Abadi, Katie Warren. (2019, September 4). The 10 most livable cities in the world in 2019. Business Insider.3. Tableau public. (n.d.). Free Data Visualization Software | Tableau Public. https://public.tableau.com/profile/translink#!/vizhome/2018TSPR-RailSummaries/TableofContents4. City of Vancouver. (n.d.). Cambie corridor plan. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/cambie-corridor-plan.aspx20The Daily Commute2.1 Is public transit a sacrifice for the greater good of Vancouverism?It’s another day of a week of relentless rain in mid-January. As you follow through your preprogrammed morning routines it is barely daylight as the clouds and rain shroud the city in the typical dark grey gloom of winter.  You prolong the process before leaving, knowing the inevitable unpleasant ritual you’ll be subjected to after walking out the door.  Despite your best efforts to bundle up and shield yourself from the elements the cold and dampness still gradually permeate as you walk to the station. The rain patters your umbrella and the morning traffic splashes over the soaking streets. After passing a few blocks you arrive and find the entrance is crowded as usual with streams of passengers exiting a bus and mixing with pedestrians from the surrounding streets. You begrudg-ingly pick up the pace and merge with the herd of commuters swiftly walking into the station. Figure 721You close your umbrella and give it a few quick shakes before entering while trying not to disturb the flow of people around you.  The pace becomes swifter as you and your fellow commuters rush towards the turnstiles. You can feel the crowd behind you as you pass through, swiping your card as quickly as you can.  As you march with the crowd further into the station the bleakness of the winter day outside is replaced by the stark confines of the station.  The grey skies are replaced by grey concrete and metal ceiling tiles dimly lit under fluorescent lights, many of them are burnt out. Although you’re out of the rain, the cold, moist air is still flowing through the station.  As you descend down the stairs you quickly step without grasping the cold handrail.  Despite your speed, there are others still urgently moving faster while they pass on your left.  The dreariness of the interior becomes more apparent the deeper you walk down. You flow with the stream of people as it mergers into the mass already crowded on the platform. After shifting through the crowd you find a small opening to stand and look up to see the platform schedule screen. The next train will arrive within a couple minutes.  There’s only a vast wall of unlit concrete ahead where the train will be within a few moments.  You automatically check your phone like nearly everyone else in the crowd as the number of passengers on the platform continues to swell.The train pulls in and looks as if its already at capacity.   The assembly of commuters begins to move towards the opening doors and it seems like an improbability the train will be able to absorb everyone. But you’ve done this before, despite appearances it somehow works as everyone compromises their personal space even more. Shifting and shuffling as complete strangers move within mere inches of one another.  You take one last breath of the damp underground air and step onto the train and find a sliver of free handrail to hold.As the doors close and the train accelerates you accept the cramped conditions you’re now a part of.  You begin scrolling through your phone to escape the reality around you.  The moistness is almost unbearable as you smell and breath the thick air circulating, being inhaled and exhaled by a crowd of strangers staring with glazed expressions as they swipe their phones.  The bizarre ritual of removing all personal space as an anonymous crowd is herded into a molded plastic and fluorescent space is repeated once again. Upon arriving at your station you awkwardly shift through the crowd towards the doors and escape the constraints of the mass of morn-ing commuters.  You feel a sense of relief as you speed walk towards the escalators with those hurriedly pacing around you.  The station is a relative grey blur with the exit being the most pertinent task ahead. After ascending the last set of stairs the gloomy yet assuring daylight appears ahead, and you exit through the turnstiles faster than the those you entered through.  You merge onto the sidewalk and take a breath of fresh air while opening your umbrella as the mild agoraphobia recedes.  Your walking pace slows to normal as you’re once again free from the system of daily transport.22This is perhaps an exaggerated general description of how one would experience commuting during a miserable winter day, but this is gen-erally how thousands of people in Vancouver experience the Skytrain system during the rush hour commute. They move swiftly through monotonous crowded stations and file into densely filled trains. The experience is mostly a joyless necessity in order to simply move throughout the city. Will this be the perpetual state of mass transpor-tation in Vancouver? Should it be improved to encourage more use? As the population continues to grow and use of transit increases these conditions could become more prevalent without large-scale intervention.¹ Although the Skytrain and overall Vancouver transit system offers a relatively high level of service in comparison to other North American cities there is much room for improvement, especially for a city such as Vancouver. ²   Setting aside the crowded trains as adversely influencing the expe-rience of the system, the stations and their place in the city play a substantial role in affecting how passengers experience the Skytrain.  With some exceptions, the numerous stations are functional and well maintained but relatively unexceptional in terms of architecture and design while many cities across the world have excelled in developing excellent metro architecture.  The adequate design of most stations and overall system experience perhaps indicates to passengers they must tolerate the basic utilitarianism in order to maintain the plans of “sustainable urbanism.” ³  A sacrifice for the greater good of Vancou-verism.As Vancouver rejected the freeway and has emphasized mass transit as a key to enable its lauded urbanism 4 the architecture of new sta-tions and renovations to existing stations should reflect their impor-tance to the ideals of the city.  The experience of the station should be elevated for users to reward them for using a transit system that benefits the city.  The architecture of the station should frame a transit experience that passengers and the general public want to partake in.  In order to improve the architecture and corresponding passenger experience, a broad set of principles that can apply to any station should be articulated. In other words what role can the architecture of the station play in enhancing the experience for passengers and truly represent it’s importance to the function of the city? 232.2 Issues and Defining PrinciplesSprawl Space and Fusion within the NeighbourhoodMetro stations wether below or above ground need space for human sprawl. Like other infrastructures of the city they are subjected to the ephemeral cycles of mass movement as people transfer back and forth everyday.  Because of this, large spaces of circulation within the station, and outside of it are needed to accommodate the sheer number of peo-ple who will briefly inhabit the space.  Immediately outside the station, sprawl space not only serves the passengers entering and exiting the station or transferring to other modes of transportation but provides the public with space for activities to confluence.  This space allows for meeting or simply resting and should be spatially formatted to allow for both the movement and rest of people.  The sprawl space should be welcoming to those arriving as they need a space of relief, dispersion and orientation after being confined within the crowded stations and transit vehicles. They can offer shelter and provide not only for the station but the adjacent community as well. Metro stations and their adjacent surroundings are large public expenditures and should be well devel-oped to maximize their value to as much of the public as possible, well planned space to sprawl is essential to this.Unfortunately many of the Skytrain Stations throughout the city provide little sprawl space and inhibit the perceptions and experience of both the stations and the communities in which they are melded to. With little space provided for movement, passengers and those in close proximity to the station become uncomfortably constrained.  Instead of feeling a sense of openness and relief,  it becomes a place of avoidance, only to be used when necessary.  There are some prominent examples of this such as Broadway-City Hall Station with little space provided before the single entrance which creates a place of constraint as people cannot disperse from the station easily.  This trend continues to some elevated stations as well that provide small entry plazas below the large concrete track structure. There are some places to sit but they are generally not ideal places to linger or relax and offer little to the surrounding commu-nities.  These spaces are usually contained directly under the tracks and are limited further by the major streets and intersections that the skytrain stations and lines cross over. Most of the spaces below the tracks are generally left empty with no consideration of how they may be merged into the general entrance areas. As more stations are constructed and the communities surrounding ex-isting stations continue to develop more thought and intervention could be applied to these spaces of sprawl.  They are an important piece of the overall transit experience as they are the threshold or portal linking the station to the urban landscape in which they are a part of.  24Odenplan station located within a large public plaza in Stockholm offers a vast sprawl space giving passengers a place of dispersion and pause to orient themselves while offering an excellent spot to gather and sit. Lighting Lighting is vital to architecture as it is how we view, sense and per-ceive spaces while affecting  our psychology, biology and circadian rhythms.5  Lighting in architecture has been a separate professional field as advanced skill and experience is required to inform how build-ings should be lit to enhance or exemplify their features while effecting the ambience experienced by those encountering them. Even the most simplistic or minimal of architectural form can be given a multi-plicity of characteristics depending on how light is applied. In the case of metro architecture lighting is obviously important as underground spaces are completely reliant on artificial lighting to function.  As a public space, stations either below or above ground need to be well lit to insure ease of use for passengers. Yet the lighting of stations usually reflects the basic rationality that defines much of metro station architecture as generic fluorescent lighting is used to fulfil require-ments or specifications and nothing more.  This is the case for many Skytrain stations that utilize monotonous linear light fixtures that span the lengths of the platforms, stairways, and areas of circulation.  In the underground stations there is no sense of place or time of day as the lighting remains unchanged.  Although there is nothing inherently wrong with methods in which stations are lit, it leaves much to be desired in terms of developing an appealing environment to wait in. Figure 825As lighting technology and the ability to apply lighting to architecture have become incredibly advanced these practices in combination with other interventions could be applied to future and existing stations to create intriguing spatial conditions. Light could be used much more effectively to enhance the transition of movement that occurs within stations as passengers move from entrance to platform and vice versa.  Transformative lighting would be able to augment light within the station dependent on lighting conditions outside. For instance a sense of calm could be created with warm frequencies of light welcoming commuters in from a bleak rainy winter day. Beyond the lighting fixtures, a focus on materials and their reflective qualities can work in tandem with the lights to develop a more stimulating environment. Most Skytrain stations are predominantly lit by basic fluorescent lighting fixtures such as this linear set along the Waterfront station platform of the Expo Line.Figure 926Good Architecture “More and more we are learning that the design of all our built environments matters so profoundly that safety and functionality must not be our only urgent priorities.  All kinds of design elements influence people’s experiences, not only of the environment but also of themselves.  Good design-thoughtfully composed ordering systems and patterns, sensuously active materials and textures, deliber-ately constructed sequences of spaces-create coherent places that have a pow-erfully positive effect on people. Urban spaces, landscapes, and buildings-even small and modest ones-profoundly influence human lives. They shape our cogni-tions, emotions, and actions, and even powerfully influence our well-being.  They actually help constitute our very sense of ourselves, our sense of identity.”6In the London Underground, King’s Cross pedestrian tunnel features advanced lighting to enhance the under-ground experience. The tunnel is illuminated by a series of LED panels that are able to display a vast spectrum of colours of varying levels of illuminance to create a unique sensory experience.Figure 1027Creating good architecture is the fundamental purpose of architectural practice and constitutes the reasoning behind the decisions architects make as they work to harmonize form and function into the built environ-ment.  Like any form of architecture this is applicable to metro architec-ture and should be considered to influence the well being of the passen-gers whom interact with it on a regular basis. Although it is easy to talk in broad generalities about applying the principles of good architecture to the creation of metro stations, their specific purpose and use cause a few special principles to emerge. These can be applied to any station and architecture should accordingly support them.  They define place, and structure the movement of people from one realm to another. Structure and circulation interplay to form an interesting and grandiose underground sculpture over the platform of  Kálvin tér Station in BudapestFigure 1128As stations represent the link between the corridor of travel and the community or neighbourhood they are located the architectural form should bolster this linkage. This form can be developed through a variety of means such as mimicking the characteristics of its location to not only merge within the community but act as a wayfinding landmark to passengers.  It may not even need to share characteristics with the adjacent area but be a novel and harmonious form of its own while still maintaining an easy to identify landmark aesthetic to remind passengers and the public of their location.  The form can be influenced by the local culture or history of the region in a novel way to further emphasize a sense of place and illicit a sense of arrival to it.  If the style of the station is required to be similar to others due to economies of scale creating repetitive assemblies, as is the case with many Skytrain stations, small iterations in material or form should be made to differentiate stations.  The architecture of defining place should consistently apply from the entrance to platform to support wayfinding and identification from both perspectives. Beyond defining place and acting as an identifiable linkage between lo-cation and corridor line the architecture of the station is primarily formed to structure movement from one realm to another. Either from one platform to another platform, or from a platform to the station entrance. These areas of transition provide great opportunity for spatial arrange-ment as there can be substantial differentiation between realms, such as with underground stations, this differentiation should be maximized to create stimulating and impressive spaces which compel people to move through the station. This is exemplified by the dramatic stairways and circulation corridors of stations that expose the great distances be-tween various levels and create an interplay of layers. Besides dramatic movement sequences, well developed spacial conditions can alleviate the sense of being below ground with high ceilings over platforms and circulation corridors, while the vast structural components required for stations can become a form of sculpture that should be integrated within the overall architecture of the station. Outside of defining broad generalities, the architecture should consider adaptation and reconfiguration to the adjacent ground level environ-ment as changing conditions of the buildings within close proximity may require modification of the station.  A case of this would be the removal of a pavilion to accommodate an apartment complex or the addition of a new circulation to connect with another plaza as passenger numbers increase.  Station architecture is substantial and very fixed in place but the exterior edges and outer structures should be designed for flexibility. In basic terms the architecture of the station should be just as well composed and thoughtful as any other public structure.  They are public spaces that are inhabited just as much, if not more, as any library, mu-seum, or recreational facility and their architectural form should give the general population a welcoming, accessible and special place to inhabit.29Notes1. Chan, Kenneth.  Canada Line is a model example of a poorly-designed, under-built toy train. Daily Hive, July 24, 2019. https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/canada-line-skytrain.2. “2019 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FACT BOOK.” https://www.apta.com/wp-content/uploads/APTA_Fact-Book-2019_FINAL.pdf.3.  City of Vancouver. (n.d.). Cambie corridor plan. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/cambie-corridor-plan.aspx. pg 74. Beasley, Larry. Vancouverism. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2019. Pg 1455. Skowranek, Roman. Basics Lighting Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2017. Pg 96. GOLDHAGEN, SARAH WILLIAMS. WELCOME TO YOUR WORLD: How the Built Environment Shapes Our Lives. NEW YORK: HARPERCOLLINS, 2019. Pg 16Figure 12 The entrance into Chatelet-Les-Halles at the Porte Marguerite de Navarre makes use of a layered ceiling leading to a timber pavilion structure that develops a sense of transition and arrival into the Parisian neighbourhood above.  This also functions as a gradual shift for passengers to adjust to the differentiation of light between the dark under-ground to daylight above. 30A System Under Pressure3.1 Population Growth and Increasing RidershipThe Skytrain system and the entire public transportation network of Van-couver will be facing major challenges in the coming years and decades as more people are expected to use the system.   Immigration fuelled population growth, new station construction, increasing transit use and the construction of high density developments will contribute thousands of riders into the skytrain and overall system.  Unfortunately the skytrain system today and especially the Canada Line are beginning to have their capacity limits pushed as ridership has far exceeded expectations and outpaces the growth of population.¹The population of Metro Vancouver was approximately 2,570,000 in 2016 and is projected to increase by another million to reach approxi-mately 3,600,000 by the year 2050 or roughly a 40 percent increase.²  Using this simple math it could be assumed the system will be serving 40 percent more riders in 2050 than it did in 2016. However this as-sumes in 2050 the general population will be using transit at the same rate as it did in 2016, but the use of transit has grown at a rate higher than the general population. In 2011 the population of the greater Van-couver was 2,313,000 while in 2016 it was 2,463,000, an increase of 6.5 percent.³  Total transit boardings between those years increased from 354.7 million in 2011 to 384.3, an increase of 8.34 percent.4  Following 2016, ridership continued to grow at an even faster pace as it increased over 13 percent in just two years from 2016 to 2018.5 Based on these numbers and simple calculations the transit systems could experience a flood of increasing use far greater than overall population growth.  Although the use of transit has increased more than the population over the past several years it may increase even more, and especially use of the Skytrain, as more stations are built and high density developments begin rising next to the rail corridors throughout Metro Vancouver.31The proposed multi-billion dollar Skytrain extension from Surrey to Langley.  A development that will substantially increase the use of the Expo Line. Brentwood Town Centre station could become the centre of multiple high-rise developments making it easily accessible to thousands of potential transit users. Figure 13Figure 14323.2 Development of High Density CorridorsAs stated previously the population of Metro Vancouver is projected to increase significantly within the coming decades and much of this growth will be accommodated within transit oriented high density develop-ments.6  Many of the regions that Skytrain lines service are still  relatively composed of low to mid-density communities that are planning to begin densification and much of this will occur in clusters around existing and future Skytrain stations in the form of high-rise condominiums.  Through-out the region, there are already many of these clusters of tall residential towers adjacent to stations but they will soon be surrounded by several more as there are still significant amounts of low density parcels close to the stations that are prime for development.  Stations today that are only surrounded by blocks of small apartments and single family homes will eventually be surrounded by thousands of more residents in massive towers that will exponentially increase the number of passengers using each station.  All of the cities of the region with Skytrain Lines are experi-encing the growth of these clusters ranging from Surrey to Coquitlam.A prominent example of this within Vancouver is the development of the Cambie Corridor as the city plans to drastically increase the density of the area that is served by the Canada Line. The general density of the neighbourhoods surrounding Cambie today is still mostly low with con-struction beginning to develop directly along Cambie and near Skytrain Stations.  The plan predicts the population growth of the corridor “will more than double by 2041” as tens of thousand move into major project sites.7Gilmore Place will surround Gilmore Station with thousands of new residential units. Figure 1533The most conspicuous of these major projects is the Oakridge Centre redevelopment which is projected to be home to approximately 6000 res-idents living within 2,600 units spread through several towers overlooking a massive retail complex.8 The Oakridge Centre complex will incorporate the existing single entrance of the Oakridge - 41st Avenue Station, giving the station thousands of more potential passengers, without accounting for the developments going up across the street. As stated earlier, the Canada Line is starting to reach capacity already and will need to adapt to the tens of thousands poised to move within a few blocks of the stations along Cambie, not to mention the densifica-tion occurring along the rest of the corridor throughout Vancouver and Richmond.   The entire system faces a similar fate and this may become a serious issue within the coming decades without major technical inter-vention.  The architecture of future stations should consider the adap-tations that will be needed as these high density development clusters contribute vast numbers of new passengers to the system. Notes1. Chan, Kenneth.  Canada Line is a model example of a poorly-designed, under-built toy train. Daily Hive, July 24, 2019. https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/canada-line-skytrain.2. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/OverviewofMetroVancouversMethodsinProject-ingRegionalGrowth.pdf3. (https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=933&-Geo2=PR&Code2=59&Data=Count&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All)4. “Ridership.” TransLink. Accessed May 1, 2020. https://www.translink.ca/Plans-and-Projects/Accountability-Centre/Ridership.aspx.5. “Ridership.” TransLink. Accessed May 1, 2020. https://www.translink.ca/Plans-and-Projects/Accountability-Centre/Ridership.aspx.6. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/RGSAdoptedbyGVRDBoard.pdf7.   City of Vancouver. (n.d.). Cambie corridor plan. https://vancouver.ca/images/web/cambie-corridor/cambie-corridor-plan.pdfFigure 1634The Moscow Metro4.1 Lessons from Moscow as Guidance for VancouverAlthough the preliminary line of the Moscow Metro opened in 1935 long after other major European cities had underground railways, it became the starting point for one of the world’s most elegant and iconic forms of public architecture.1 Initially the first line was planned to be nothing more than a functional and utilitarian means of transit for the masses.  But as architects submitted proposals and the system expanded so did the grandiosity of the stations.  For the central planning commities they had become an obvious means to portray soviet ideologies as the masses would travel through them on a daily basis. The communist ideals of shared wealth were physically manifested as each station was designed to be a “palace for the people”235Komsomolskaya is a quintessential Moscow metro station as it encompasses all of the grandiose characteristics that have defined the capital’s transit system for decades.Figure 1736Elaborate mosaics, sculptures, marble tiles, grand vaulted ceilings, ornate arches, and palatial entrance pavilions have defined the Mos-cow Metro for decades and make it a source of civic pride for Moscow citizens and an elegant form of transit for the average 9 million daily passengers.3 Although the ideals, culture and society that were instru-mental in constructing the metro are gone the system remains as a per-petual artifact of the era it was constructing in. Because so much was originally invested into creating the system it has become an essential infrastructure and important piece of public architecture that is well run and maintained by the citizenry of Moscow.   The excessive elaboration of the stations was fundamentally Soviet pro-paganda. Although they appear as quaint relics to contemporary eyes the stations not only functioned as stations but were highly symbolic as they conveyed the ideals of the communist state.  Regardless of the ideals that influenced the architecture, Muscovites now arguably have the best metro system in the world if not the most beautiful. Much of architecture is a created as a means to convey societal values, idealologies, and collective narratives. Although at face value architec-ture is generally created to fulfill a functional purpose, in many cases, and to varying degrees, societal ideals are interjected or imbedded into the scale, form, materials and decoration of our structures.  Either knowingly or subconsciously, the society imbues the values of the moment into the architecture built in that moment.  In Moscow this can easily be seen in the wildly ornate stations built by a heavy handed state as a way to project idealized narratives of shared wealth.  Meanwhile in Vancouver, where mass transit is an absolute pillar of the city’s idealized livable urbanism, many of the metro stations are completely ordinary and underwhelming. This does not argue chandeliers should be installed into every Skytrain stations, however, if transit is of such importance to the city should this not manifest in the design of the stations? Could the ideals of Vancouverism be interjected into the design of the stations to eventually create a system that becomes a source of pride like the Moscow Metro? If the stations are not seen as basic components of a functional transit system but as unique and inclusive architectural forms of civic pride that support the city’s urbanism, could this foster more people to be-come skytrain passengers, thus further propogating the city’s ideals?37Notes1. Kuznet︠s︠ov Sergey, Alexander Zmeul, Erken Kagarov, Philipp Meuser, and Anna Martovitskaya. Hidden Urbanism: Architecture and Design of the Moscow Metro, 1935-2015. Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2016. pg 792.Kuznet︠s︠ov Sergey, Alexander Zmeul, Erken Kagarov, Philipp Meuser, and Anna Martovitskaya. Hidden Urbanism: Architecture and Design of the Moscow Metro, 1935-2015. Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2016. pg 803. Taylor, Alan. “Scenes From the Moscow Metro.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, May 31, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/05/scenes-from-the-moscow-metro/528660/.The ornate Smolenskaya entrance in Central Moscow provides a large plaza and elegant landmark for the publicFigure 1838Precedents 5.1 Vancouver Precedents: The Good & The BadThese precedents exemplify the best and worst features of Vancouver’s existing Skytrain stations.  Although many Skytrain stations can be sub-jected to a variety of criticism for a number of faults and shortcomings, there are some with notable characteristics that could be considered as leading examples to guide future station design or renovations. It is easy to study and remark on precedents from far away cities but it is perhaps more productive to experience first hand Vancouver’s own metro stations.  After observing the faults and strengths of several stations a greater understanding of how to enhance and improve the experience for users can be formed.Broadway - City HallBroadway - City Hall Station is a significant transfer point on the Can-ada Line as the station intersects Broadway and the 99 Bus Line.  The station had recorded nearly 4.7 million boardings during 2018 making it one of the busiest stations of the entire Skytrain system.1  Despite the importance of the station serving as a major place of transfer where thousands move through on daily basis the station and especially the immediate surroundings exemplify flawed urban architecture.  The underground portion of the station suffers from the same general issues as many other Canada Line stations.  The platform is under-built and too short to support increasing ridership growth while the architec-ture between the platform to the above ground structure is an assembly of the same generally anonymous, under-lit, and grey materials that de-fine many stations.  After ascending the stairs under the angled hanging fluorescent lights and passing the Jugo Juice, passengers emerge into the well lit entrance hall, pass through the turnstiles and walk into a ter-rible intersection of completely failed urban planning and public space design. 39Figure 19Figure 2040The limited space between the station entrance and bus loading zones leads to long lines and impedes the flow of pedestrians.  During rush hour the space in front of the entrance is a place of chaos. Despite the fact thousands transfer between the station and the crowded 99 line buses that constantly stope in front of the station, there is only a small patch of pavement between the curb and sta-tion entrance.  This leads to long lines stretching from the sidewalk back into the station that impede both pedestrians going towards the station and those just walking past.  There is no shelter for those in line for the bus which leads to crowding under the entrance canopy or simply subjecting oneself to the elements in bad weather.  The only reasonable place for people to meet or assemble is the the small ter-raced plaza behind the station as the single block of concrete adjacent to the entrance that is suitable for seating is normally occupied by panhandlers.  It appears whatever was on the southeast corner of Broadway and Cambie was simply demolished and a generic Canada Line entrance pavilion just built on top with no consideration for the surrounding site or movement of passengers and pedestrians around the station. Even considering the entrance pavilion may be temporary as the extremely valuable site is redeveloped and the Millennium Line extension even-tually connects to the Canada Line, it still seems as if much more consideration could have been taken when developing the station.       Figure 2141Burrard StationBurrard Station is one of the original Expo Line stations and is located in the downtown core of the city.  Burrard, like other downtown stations is one of the busiest of the entire system with the 4th highest number of boardings during 2018 at over 7.3 million.2  Below ground, the architec-ture of the station generally resembles the stark, confined and utilitar-ian style of many other underground stations.  The platform is dimly lit by fluorescent lights aligned with an arched ceiling of discoloured and stained metal panels, with the white and red colour scheme of the original system remaining.  Despite the typical characteristics of the underground spaces, the station’s real attributes that make it a strong precedent are the entry hall and surrounding landscape. The main entry hall is defined by a glass roof supported by an exposed metal structure.  The entire above ground structure appears to be a greenhouse that allows natural light to brightly light the entry and ticketing areas.  The surrounding trees help shade the entry atrium from some direct sunlight.  Beyond the entrance structure the terraced gardens greet arriving passengers as they exit the station.  The gar-dens form an excellent threshold between the station and surrounding streetscape as passengers are immersed into greenery and shaded by the tree canopies before mixing into the bustling sidewalks of the urban core of the city.  The gardens sunken below street level also act to shield the entry space from the noise of the surrounding city.  Burrard stands as an exemplary combination of a metro station and public green space to form a whole assembly harmoniously mixing both public programs.  Figure 2242The platform and underground spaces of Burrard are similar to many other underground skytrain stations.  They are generally utilitarian and functional with little interest put towards material or architectural expression. The constrained undergroundspaces do not gradually translate to the entrances, but instantly open up, therefore a moment is need-ed for eyes to adjust.The transparent ceilings of the station pavilion fills the entry halls with natural light and gives a glimpse of the greenery surrounding the station.  Figure 23Figure 2543The most successful feature of the Burrard Station is the terraced garden facing the entrance pavilion.  Pas-sengers emerge into a green threshold shaded by the canopies of the surrounding trees.  The sunken space minimizes noise from the surrounding streets as passengers gradually move from the station and through the small park before mixing into the streetscape.The surrounding paths are an especially charming threshold during the spring.Figure 24Figure 26445.2 International PrecedentsThese precedents represent a confluence of factors which create a successful station but also clrepresent a clear effort to enhance the passenger experience through design and architecture as a means to encourage more use of transit.  They successfully combine generous public space, intriguing architecture, and focus on lighting quality.Solntsevo Metro StationMoscow, RussiaNefa ArchitectsThis recently constructed station located in Solntsevo, a district south-west of central Moscow, carries on the tradition of unique and cap-tivating Moscow Metro architecture.³  The ground level of the station comprises a series of gable roof entrance pavilions set amongst several plazas.  The form of the minimal pavilions was inspired by the simple dachas that formally populated the area that was once an exurban edge of Moscow.  The architects dotted the pavilions with Swiss cheese style perforations to illuminate the entrances with dappled natural light.  During the night the holes create a playful lantern quality as interior lighting shines through to further their identification as local landmarks.   The dotted light motif continues into the generously sized and brightly lit interiors.Figure 2745The Solntsevo station is a well coordinated assembly of several elements that form a successful modern metro station.  The culturally inspired ar-chitecture of the pavilions and design of the underground spaces create an instantly identifiable landmark below and above ground to facilitate wayfinding within a sprawling metropolis.  The station entrance structures are surrounded by generous plazas and green spaces adjacent to a small park that allow ample area for rush hour crowds to disperse and gather while offering a public place for people to meet  and assemble.  Below ground, the sprawling platforms are surrounded by brightly lit gleaming materials that create the sense of a clean, safe and welcoming environ-ment that signifies passengers are using a modern and efficient transport system.  Generous plazas and green spaces around the station provide a place of transition. They allow ample space for large crowd sizes to fluctuate during rush hour and give the public a place to assemble and interact without impeding the flow of passengersThe large brightly lit platforms eliminate the sense of being underground and enhance the rider experience while continuing the dotted motif from the pavilions above.  Figure 28Figure 2946Station of Being Umea, Swedenrombout frieling labStation of being is a project designed to explore how a bus shelter could transform and enhance the passenger experience of waiting with the ultimate aim of increasing transit use. The studio focused on the typical method of waiting in small shelters while being partially shielded from the elements as an experience that discourages the use of transit.  In response they created a station to foster moments of relaxation and “to just be”4 during the minutes spent waiting for the bus.  A series of hanging molded plywood pods act as functional sculptural objects to lean against. The pods are able to rotate as well to protect passengers from winter winds regardless of direction.  The pods hang from the shelter’s roof structure that contains a cluster of lights which fluctuate through a variety of colours to signify what bus is approaching the station.  Although this could be considered more of a design study than an ar-chitectural creation, it still challenges typical notions of purely functional and utilitarian mass transit design. It’s underlying purpose is to enhance the experience of public transit to increase its usage.  The project is a modest shelter but the ideas and functions imbedded within the design could easily be applied to much larger and more architectural applica-tions such as a metro station. It presents a fascinating concept as pas-sengers physically interact with the station and lean instead of sit. This project proves in some sense architecture or design can help passen-gers to relax through playful distraction and give them an opportunity to zone out for the few moments they are waiting for the bus.Figure 3047Fornbuporten and Fornebu Senter stationsOslo, NorwayZaha Hadid Architects, A_LabThese stations will be constructed along the new Fornebubanen Line in Oslo and are scheduled to be opened by 2025.5  Although they do not physically exist yet there is an obvious initiation to develop a holistic and eloquent architectural experience below and above ground. This yet to be built project combines the same ingredients that make the Solntsevo station successful. There’s a melding of generous surrounding public space, intriguing architectural design and a large well lit underground space. The design of each pavilion is unique to help identify each station and merge the entrances with their surroundings. These range from the flowing Zaha forms of the entrance structure of the Fornebu Senter sta-tion to the rectilinear entrance of Fornbuporten Station. Figure 31Figure 3248This project is yet to be built and renderings are the only visual com-munication available, but the architects have shown the emphasis on lighting as a means to create a sophisticated space below ground and “enhance passengers’ well-being.”6 This project showcases the poten-tial of lighting technology to enhance the architecture of the under-ground when natural lighting is not an option in combination withgreat effort applied to the design and integration of the entrance pavilions as they contribute to the surrounding public spaces.The north entry pavilion for Fornbuporten station resembles a Norman Foster Apple Store and is surrounded by green space signifying a technologically sophisticated and sustainable form of transit.Figure 3349The platform is covered by a spacious barrel vaulted ceiling that utilizes advanced lighting technology to change the atmospheric qualities of the platform.  Similarly to Solntsevo the unique lighting system enhances the passenger experience and embodies a sense of an advanced and sophisticated transit system. Notes1. Public.tableau.com. 2020. Tableau Public. [online] Available at: <https://public.tableau.com/profile/translink#!/vizhome/2018TSPR-RailSummaries/TableofContents> 2Public.tableau.com. 2020. Tableau Public.3. ArchDaily. 2020. Gallery Of Solntsevo Metro Station / Nefa Architects - 2. [online] Available at: <https://www.archdaily.com/903546/solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architects/5bbca75bf197cc072e000033-solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architects-pho-to?next_project=no> 4. Rombout.design. 2020. Rombout Frieling Makes Station Of Being. [online] Available at: <http://www.rombout.design/sta-tion-of-being.html>5. designboom | architecture & design magazine. 2020. Zaha Hadid Architects + A_Lab To Complete Two Metro Stations In Oslo. [online] Available at: <https://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-hadid-oslo-metro-stations-fornebubanen-line-nor-way-12-05-2018/> 6. designboom | architecture & design magazine. 2020. Zaha Hadid Architects + A_Lab To Complete Two Metro Stations In OsloFigure 3450Site 6.1 Arbutus & BroadwayUpon completion of the new terminus station of the Broadway Exten-sion the intersection of Arbutus and Broadway will be drastically trans-formed along with the surrounding neighbourhoods.  The seemingly ordinary stretch of Broadway is defined by low to mid-rise apartments and office buildings with shops and businesses at street level. A steady flow of pedestrians inhabit the sidewalks as they frequent the local stores.  The adjacent neighbourhoods are similar to much of Kitsilano, composed of mostly single detached homes and low rise apartments along peaceful streets shaded under large trees.  The proposed site of the station will replace an existing single storey commercial building and vacant lot beside the Arbutus Greenway bicycle and pedestrian path.         Figure 3551Figure 36526.2 Becoming a Temporary Transportation Hub How will this area change when the new station emerges from the non-descript site in 2025?¹ As thousands of passengers flow from the station and transfer to busses continuing to UBC the character and dynamics of the area will shift drastically.  Although the future station will undoubtedly become one of the busiest in the entire city, what will happen when the millennium line is eventually extended all the way to UBC and the Arbutus station losses its status as a major transfer hub? 2  In many ways will the site transform back into its former self?  Once the station opens there will be an enormous amount of passengers transferring to UBC based on current passenger data of the 99 B-Line.  As of late 2018 the 99 line averaged almost 60,000 boardings per weekday and over 40% disembarked at UBC, approximately 25,000 people. 3  As the student population grows this number will certainly increase significantly by the time the station opens in 2025.  With tens of thousands transferring from the underground platform to the busses at street level how will the architecture facilitate this mass movement?  Can the architecture of the station contribute to the neighbourhood instead of becoming just a basic pavilion and square of concrete where long lines amass?  But the moment of being a place of mass transfer maybe short lived as the Millennium Line possibly continues to UBC by 2030. 4  Figure 3753Figure 3854Figure 39Figure 4055The spaces once needed to serve the large crowds moving through the station will become instantly redundant the day UBC becomes a ter-minus. A modest amount of passengers will still occupy the station but the areas needed to transfer thousands of passengers and bus loading zones will be unnecessary.  What will become of them? Could the archi-tecture of the station be prepared to transform into another purpose? Notes1. Broadway Subway Project. 2020. Broadway Subway Project. [online] Available at: <https://engage.gov.bc.ca/broadwaysub-way/> [Accessed 1 May 2020].2. UBC Rapid Transit. 2020. The Power Of A Robust Regional Transit Network. [online] Available at: <https://skytrain.ubc.ca> 3. Taylor, Alan. “Scenes From the Moscow Metro.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, May 31, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/05/scenes-from-the-moscow-metro/528660/.4. UBC Rapid Transit. 2020. The Power Of A Robust Regional Transit Network.Figure 4156The New Station at Arbutus & BroadwayProject Proposal: A Public CanopyAs the construction of the station brings densification and more population within the community the need for public services will inevitably increase.  The concept proposes integration of public space and facilities with the station. Due to the constraints of the site the majority of the ground plan is needed for passengers to transition thus the community program is lifted above the transfer plaza to form a canopy accommodating and sheltering passengers transferring between multiple modes of transportation. A continuous circulation accommodates the smooth movement from the station platform to the various levels of the canopy above. The lifted canopy becomes a point of observation to view the movement below while ensuring the passengers are comfortably sheltered from the Vancouver rainy day.         57Figure 4258Figure 43Figure 4459Preliminary sketches explored the concept of movement between the be-low ground to a public canopy above. The circulation sequence was divid-ed into three phases. The transfer from the platform to transfer plaza. The transfer plaza, and circulation through the canopy. The circulation wraps around the canopy until reaching the rooftop park. Beyond the canopy a housing structure was added to further increase the value of the site.Figure 45Figure 4660Concept Approach: Multiplicity of FunctionPublic Space: The Ground Level After immediately leaving the confines of the subway a generous space is offered to act as a place of relief,dispersal, transition, meet-ing and orientation. This will be a place of extensive motion as people transfer between the Skytrain, busses, and Arbutus Greenway. There is access to the main street entrance of the residence with other circulation cores leading to the canopy and doubling as structural support.  Public Amenities: The CanopyAs density increases along skytrain corridors more public amenities will need to be created for the growing population.  Public ameni-ties such as libraries, recreation facilities or even flexible spaces for hosting a multiplicity of activities can be directly incorporated with the station.  A direct link with the station facilitates accesibilaty to the broader community and city they serve.  A fitness centre with multi purpose spaces was chosen as many public recreation facilites in the area cannot accomodate a larger population.  A micro park forms the roof of the canopy. Student Housing This addresses the need for afordalble housing and integrates the UBC community more within the city while offering a direct transit link to the university. The large student population is a significant factor contributing to the high cost of rent within the city.  More student specific housing relieves the pressure the university community plac-es on the housing market. 61Figure 4762CirculationThe circulation of the station shown in red displays the structure of movement throughout the station, canopy, and residence. The Arbutus Greenway in-tersects the site as the canopy shelters passengers transferring from the greenway to the Skytrain.  The buses are shown in grey.  Two circulation cores lead to the canopy with a third for the residence. The circulation on the edge of the canopy gives the opportunity to view the surrounding neighbourhood and activity within the canopy.         63Figure 4864Circulation PlansPlatform and Below GroundPassengers leave the train and take stairs leading to a central mezzanine and move through turnstiles leading to the main circulation, bicycle parking, and an entrance to the student residence building.  Elevator cores offer direct circulation to the canopy.Ground PlaneThe main circulation leads from below ground to the transfer plaza. This place of motion is where passengers move be-tween buses and the Skytrain.  The stairway across the plaza leads to the canopy while the Arbutus Greenway divides the plaza from the the residence entrance.  Seating spaces surround the west and south sides of the corner of the site to allow space to pause.  Figure 4965Figure 5066 Figure 5167The canopy and residence will become a new centre of density within the area signifying the site as a transit hub between the Skytrain, Bus, and Arbutus Greenway.  Adjacent sites will become developed into mid-rise residential projects as Broadway densifies along the new Skytrain corridor. The public micro park on the canopy will provide views to down-town and  North Shore.68Figure 52 The platform is defined by a series of angled columns of the same style as those supporting the canopy to further integrate the relation between the below and above ground.  Two sets of stairs lead to a mezzanine that leads to the turnstiles and stairway to the transfer plaza.  The bicycle parking overlooks the platform.6970Figure 53 View from Broadway and Arbutus.  The canopy is covered with a mesh facade that supports the growth of vines and other creepers to shade the building and camouflage the structure amongst the leafy surrounding neighbourhood. 7172Figure 54 Parallel section through Broadway 7374Figure 55 Section through main circulation leading to the rooftop micro park.  The circulation provides viewpoints to the site, and surrounding neighbourhood.  The activity of the site and building are revealed while taking the main circulation.75Figure 56 Section through Arbutus Greenway. The canopy shelters movement between the greenway and residence entrance while providing points of observation between the those elevated in the canopy those on the greenway..76Figure 57 Section cut across Broadway.  This section reveals how the circulation leads from the platform below Broadway through the canopy and to the rooftop.  The majority of the canopy is a public fitness centre that includes a lap pool and open spaces for fitness equipment. An opening in the floor allows for views between the transfer plaza and fitness centre above to form a connection linking the activities of the site.7778Works Cited1 Mark Abadi, Katie Warren. (2019, September 4). The 10 most livable cities in the world in 2019. Business Insider. https://www.busi-nessinsider.com/most-livable-cities-in-the-world-2018-8?2. 2 Tableau public. (n.d.). Free Data Visualization Software | Tableau Public. https://public.tableau.com/profile/translink#!/vizhome/2018TSPR-RailSummaries/TableofContents3. 3 City of Vancouver. (n.d.). Cambie corridor plan. https://vancou-ver.ca/home-property-development/cambie-corridor-plan.aspx4. Broadway Subway Project. 2020. Broadway Subway Project. [on-line] Available at: <https://engage.gov.bc.ca/broadwaysubway/> 5. ArchDaily. 2020. Gallery Of Solntsevo Metro Station / Nefa Architects - 2. [online] Available at: <https://www.archdaily.com/903546/solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architects/5bbca75b-f197cc072e000033-solntsevo-metro-station-nefa-architects-pho-to?next_project=no> 6. Rombout.design. 2020. Rombout Frieling Makes Station Of Being. [online] Available at: <http://www.rombout.design/station-of-being.html> 7. UBC Rapid Transit. 2020. The Power Of A Robust Regional Transit Network. [online] Available at: <https://skytrain.ubc.ca> 8. designboom | architecture & design magazine. 2020. Zaha Hadid Architects + A_Lab To Complete Two Metro Stations In Oslo. [online] Available at: <https://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-had-id-oslo-metro-stations-fornebubanen-line-norway-12-05-2018/>9. Kuznet︠s︠ov, S., Zmeul, A., Kagarov, E., Meuser, P. and Martovits-kaya, A., n.d. Hidden Urbanism.10. Taylor, Alan. “Scenes From the Moscow Metro.” The Atlantic. At-lantic Media Company, May 31, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2017/05/scenes-from-the-moscow-metro/528660/.11. Vujosevic, Tijana. “Soviet Modernity and the Aesthetics of Gleam: The Moscow Metro in Collective Histories of Construction.” Journal of Design History 26, no. 3 (2013): 270-84. Accessed May 1, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/43831507.       7912.  Chan, Kenneth.  Canada Line is a model example of a poorly-de-signed, under-built toy train. Daily Hive, July 24, 2019. https://daily-hive.com/vancouver/canada-line-skytrain.13.  http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/OverviewofMetroVancouversMethodsinProject-ingRegionalGrowth.pdf14. (https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=933&-Geo2=PR&Code2=59&Data=Count&SearchType=Begins&Search-PR=01&B1=All)15.. “Ridership.” TransLink. Accessed May 1, 2020. https://www.translink.ca/Plans-and-Projects/Accountability-Centre/Ridership.aspx.16. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/Plan-ningPublications/RGSAdoptedbyGVRDBoard.pdf17. “2019 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FACT BOOK.” https://www.apta.com/wp-content/uploads/APTA_Fact-Book-2019_FINAL.pdf.18. Beasley, Larry. Vancouverism. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2019. 19. Skowranek, Roman. Basics Lighting Design. Basel: Birkhauser, 2017. 20. GOLDHAGEN, SARAH WILLIAMS. WELCOME TO YOUR WORLD: How the Built Environment Shapes Our Lives. NEW YORK: HARPERCOLLINS, 2019. 21. Condon, P. M. (2020). Five rules for tomorrow’s cities: Design in an age of urban migration, demographic change, and a disappearing middle class. Island Press.       

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