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Adult Education at Downtown Community Court : Ideas for Program Planners Bennett, Nina 2020-06-15

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         ADULT EDUCATION AT DOWNTOWN COMMUNITY COURT:        Ideas for program planners  Nina Bennett nbennett@mail.ubc.ca June 15, 2020       1  Nina Bennett June 15, 2020   Adult Education at Downtown Community Court: Ideas for program planners Introduction          In the piece, “Reframing the Conversation: Respecting Basic Adult Education” author Lynn Horvat (2014) draws attention to the complexity of Adult Education and how it has been misunderstood. In particular, Horvat suggests that adult education is not  simply a “one size fits all model” (2014, page 1) and should not be evaluated as if it is. Rather, adult education is a multifaceted system that needs to be thoughtfully and purposefully implemented. Horvat (2014) also argues that adult education is vital to community development and involves a right that must be safeguarded.  Adult education is also complex in nature due to the variety of  types of programs and the diversity of learners; in addition, learners are often adults who are on the fringes of society. The job of adult education planners is therefore challenging. Adult Education program planners are responsible for creating programs for a variety of learners and must keep in mind a multitude of different challenges, while considering community goals and professional pressures, all while trying to create engaging and enriching adult education programming.  To further explore this topic, the following paper is divided into three sections. The first section will explore some of the principles of adult learning. Drawing on the work of a variety of adult education scholars, this section will explore principles of adult 2  education that could support the planning and implementation of an adult education program. The second section will address the complexity of adult education informed by Indigenous perspectives and how to best implement it can be justly implemented within Canadian adult education programming. This section will also highlight how some of the adult education principles are highlighted within Indigenous ways of knowing. The third section of this report will look to take a closer look at three different examples of community programs that have taken some of the key principles that were highlighted in section one and have used them to create innovative, engaging programs that focus on adult education.  By drawing on examples of community organizations that adopt these recreational programs, this section will highlight how these adult education principles can support programming and curriculum outcomes. The recreational programming examples that will be discussed look to support community members who are marginalized. Within this section, I will also draw upon my own experiences as a youth worker, a youth program creator and my experience in asset community development and community engaged learning. Section 1: ‘Reflecting on our practice as adult educators’  This section addresses the following questions: ● How can educators become more reflective about their own practice? ● How can educators recognize their own values and assumptions and begin to thoughtfully engage with how this may guide their practice? What are the strengths and weaknesses in the pedagogical approaches that educators embrace? ● What principles of adult education would be useful as a programmer?   3  Acknowledging the aims of Downtown Community Court As mentioned in the introduction, I begin by considering the aims of Downtown Community Court (DCC) and then explore the principles of adult education that support the creation of program planning for a variety of learners.  This section explores the importance of the programmer understanding their privilege, their own teaching perspective, understanding their learners, and committing to creating a positive learning environment. This section also discusses why a programmer's own values and assumptions are important to how they create programming.  Throughout this section I refer frequently to the work of Pratt and Vella to frame my discussion of various principles that would support such program design. Pratt and Vella focus on different aspects of adult education; Pratt presents different teaching perspectives while Vella outlines 12 principles of effective adult education. Together, their frameworks are key to understanding our own predilections as educators and how to create an effective adult learning environment.  Both Pratt and Vella emphasize the importance of deciding what the aims are for a particular program and how to create a safe and engaging environment.   The aims of DCC are to take a problem-solving approach to addressing offenders' circumstances. The court aims to look at the individuals in a holistic way, not simply judging them on their criminal behavior. The DCC looks at the underlying causes of their criminal behavior; including but not limited to alcoholism, drug addiction, mental illness, homelessness, and poverty. The court aims to create new relationships between individuals and the community, working to foster relationships with the justice system, 4  social services, health services, non-profit organizations, and community organizations (Government of British Columbia, 2020).    DCC is also sensitive to the racial discrimination and oppression that individuals within their programs face. Researchers find: “Social and familial disruption and the role these connections played in healing were prominent themes throughout the hearings. Many of those before the Court experienced disruption of family and social networks and intergenerational trauma. For example, Indian Residential Schools were referenced as a contributing factor in four hearings - in one case the client had attended residential school, while three clients had parents who attended such schools. In presenting the client’s background in each instance, the defence linked these schools, which removed Indigenous children from their families and communities, punished cultural expression and the speaking of Indigenous languages, to intergenerational trauma.” (Garcia et al., 2019, page 9)  Recognizing our privilege as program planners and educators Privilege can play an unsuspected yet influential role in the way that one teaches or designs a program. When I use the word ‘privilege throughout this report,’ I’m referring to socio-economic status, education, family support, etc. Tonette Rocco and G. Wayne West (1997) argue that this is the key starting point in adult education, because without first acknowledging and beginning to unpack one’s privilege, teachers and programmers cannot begin to create meaningful programming for all students. In their piece, the authors describe privilege as “any unearned asset or benefit received by virtue of being born with a particular characteristic or into a particular class. Privilege permeates our total being often becoming a part of our implicit knowledge making it a strenuous exercise” (Rocco & West, 1997, page 173). Working to deconstruct and understand this privilege is especially important as a programmer who wants to disrupt 5  the existing power disparities. Understanding one’s privilege before creating programming in adult education is especially important because of the variety of learners and the hardships that they may be facing.  It is important for adult educators to recognize that their understandings may be completely different than the adults within their program and privilege can play a key part in that.   Working to deconstruct and understand one’s privilege is a good place for programmers and educators to start as they reflect on their positionality and the lens through which they see the world. This lens can also greatly influence a programmer’s practice; how do their assumptions and values guide their work? The work of Daniel Pratt highlights the importance of understanding these values, educators reflecting on these values; like Horvat, he does not see education as a “one size fits all model”. Different pedagogical perspectives Pratt describes five different perspectives that can inform one’s approach to education: transmission, developmental, apprenticeship, nurturing and social reform (2002). The perspectives all describe different ways in which one perceives the process and purpose of education. ● Transmission Perspective: Perceives students as vessels to be filled with authorized knowledge. There is a focus on transmission of content and the role of teacher is privileged.  ● Developmental Perspective: Focuses on changing the way students think and is based on the idea that learners use what they know to filter and 6  interpret new information. The developmental model suggests an idea of progression through different stages of learning. ● Apprenticeship Perspective: This perspective values working with a more capable other to develop competencies. Tasks are chosen for students based on learning development within a community of practice. ● Nurturing Development: Perceives that students learn best when they are without fear of failing. The Nurturing Perspective encourages students’ self-sufficiency and self-esteem. This perspective acknowledges that many adults come to programs with wounds from previous education.  ● Social Reform Perspective: This perspective involves educators working towards a set of ideals in their teaching which emphasizes community development. This perspective encourages students to take a critical stance and perhaps engage in social action to improve their lives. Looking at overarching social teachings this perspective also aligns with reform-oriented community development approaches.    While Pratt’s five distinct perspectives provide a strong foundation for programmers to evaluate their own values and lens, it is important to note that these perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Programmers may be comfortable with more than one perspective and find pieces of more than one that resonate with them.  Associating oneself with just one perspective may be too limiting for programmers who are working with a variety of learners. There are certain concepts and perceptions that will be helpful for certain students and non-essential for others. For example, a program that teaches anger management skills may draw from developmental, nurturing and 7  social reform perspectives. Assumptions of program planning might be that adults can develop new skills through training and peer-to-peer learning, that they require an environment that encourages their self-confidence, and finally, that developing these skills will have overarching positive effects on society.  It is also important to acknowledge that depending on the context some perspectives may spark concern and challenges. For example, when working for an organization such as the Downtown Community Court, it would not be encouraged to adopt a solely nurturing perspective. The requirements of the job require staff to maintain healthy boundaries, which can become complicated within this nurturing perspective.  In my opinion, this is where programmers can really begin to thoughtfully create programming, understanding that their values and perceptions can be multi-faceted and ever evolving. The reflection and understanding highlighted by deconstructing one’s privilege and addressing their perspectives provides a good segue into the final question: what principles of adult education would be useful as a programmer? I feel that understanding one's positionality and lens (or lenses) helps one better understand what principles are important in programming. Principles of effective adult education Jane Vella (2002) highlights twelve principles of adult education that are also useful for program planners to consider: needs assessment, safety, sound relationships, sequence and reinforcement, praxis, respect for learners, ideas, feeling and actions, immediacy, clear roles and role development, teamwork, engagement and 8  accountability.  All these principles are vital for creating a good learning environment, but to address programming that caters to a variety of learners I will highlight three: 1) needs assessment, 2) engagement and 3) respect for learners. Similar to the work of Pratt, these three principles focus on being reflective and the importance of preparation.  First, when dealing with a variety of learners, assessment is vital. What each student needs can vary drastically so it is important to know this beforehand. In her piece, Vella (2002) references Paolo Friere and the importance of listening to the themes of the groups; what does the group need? What would be most beneficial for them? Understanding and assessing these group themes is vital because it allows students to engage with the programming.  This key principle also has strong connections to Pratt’s argument that there cannot simply be one way of teaching.  The second key principle in Vella is engagement.  She discusses how important it is that students are engaged with the course content and the programming. Vella explains that engaging in programming is not only proof that participants are learning but it is also how they learn. Engagement, like needs assessment, is important when working with a variety of learners and it can be shown in many different ways. For some students, engagement may be demonstrated by telling their personal story or helping the programmer set up and take down and leading a group activity, whereas for others engagement could simply mean sitting quietly and listening. Recognizing and fostering these various levels of engagement can be helpful in creating meaningful adult education programming.  9  The importance of engagement leads to the final principle that I feel is important when creating adult education programming, which is respect for learners.  Vella emphasizes the importance of respecting learners as decision makers. A programmer needs to recognize that the learner should have the power to make decisions about their own life; ideas cannot be forced. Understanding this principle is especially critical when students are marginalized, and student-teacher relationships are hierarchical because of institutional norms. If we do not view programming as transmission of knowledge, programmers must adapt lessons to ensure they support this respectful relationship. Respect is a prime factor in whether or not adult education programming is successful. This notion of respect also demonstrates how important it is for a programmer to start by deconstructing privilege and reflecting on their perspectives. Reflection on one’s own values and privilege help one better understands how to create a relationship built upon respect.  Section 2: Toward Reconciliation in programming  This section addresses the following questions: ● Why is it necessary to know about the history of Indigenous people in Canada?  ● Why is it important for program developers to understand the impacts of intergenerational trauma and how do we avoid further damage and deficit thinking?  ● What contribution could place-based education make to program development?            When speaking about adult education within the Canadian context, it is vital that there is an acknowledgement and discussion of how Indigenous people in Canada have experienced education historically and consideration of how to make changes that are consistent with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s calls to action on education.  10  The goal of my report is to discuss principles and perspectives of adult education that could support a variety of learners who are at the margins of society. For example, Indigenous peoples of Canada have had oppressive and traumatic experiences with the education system since colonization. They are also overrepresented in the justice system, “in 2017/2018, Indigenous adults accounted for 30% of admissions to provincial/territorial custody and 29% of admissions to federal custody, while representing approximately 4% of the Canadian adult population” (Department of Justice, 2020, page 1). Thus, it is important that effects of intergenerational trauma and dispossession are taken into account in developing culturally appropriate adult education programming   As highlighted in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission report, the residential school systems were an act of “cultural genocide” that stripped individuals of their community, their family, culture, and overall identity (Truth and Reconciliation, 2015). The abuse and trauma experienced within this Western system of education is now the basis for a lot of feelings of animosity towards these traditional systems of education. The Western system represents pain and oppression for many, and program planners must be aware of this history and what such programming might bring up for clients. Author Gabor Mate (2012) explains that a childhood experience with trauma and experiences with abuse can greatly impact how individuals manage stress and act in certain situations when they get older, and although Mate is not speaking specifically about Indigenous children, I think that this is an important point to keep in mind. Therefore, the principle of understanding and learning about who will be participating in the programs is so vital to creating an enriching and supportive environment. 11  Secondly when creating programming for adult education, it is especially important that program planners are aware of the land they are teaching on and the history of it.  In an interview, Indigenous scholar Leanne Simpson suggests possibilities of using urban spaces for Indigenous learning. In a piece entitled, “Putting the city at the Heart of Place-Based Learning,” author Daniel Rabuzzi (2016) discusses the misconception that students can only learn off the land in rural and wild settings. There is so much history and culture within urban centres that would be very helpful in growing to understand that Indigenous experience.  Many urban centers are historical sites where Indigenous groups were forcibly removed from their land (Simpson & Coulthard, 2014). This narrative was further emphasized in the piece, “The banality of colonialism: Encountering artifacts of genocide and white supremacy in Vancouver today,” where the author discussed the importance of understanding the history of Vancouver landmarks; whose land were all these Vancouver artifacts built on, and who benefitted and who suffered in their creation? (Stanley, 2009). Relating back to the principles discussed in section one, this once again emphasizes the importance of understanding the learning environment. Finally, when discussing adult education, there is a lot that can be learnt from the traditional Indigenous ways of knowing. As discussed in section one, adult education often focuses on transformative learning and holistic learning experiences. This way of teaching can be seen consistent with Indigenous pedagogy and the way knowledge has been taught throughout their communities. To begin with, the traditional role of the teacher and student is replaced by a learning environment that focuses on building community and creating a strong cohort. It is not based in the rigid transmission 12  perspective (Vella, 2002).  The pedagogy is built on how to accommodate differences and create an ethical framework that relies on dialogue and group consensus (Simpson, 2014). There is an understanding that there cannot simply be one homogenous curriculum or plan for all learners; differences are recognized and celebrated.    Also, a lot of value is held by place-based learning and learning off the land.  “Those who want to live in deeply sacred and intimate relationship to Land must understand that it first and foremost requires a respectful and consistent acknowledgment of whose traditional lands we are on, a commitment to journeying—a seeking out and coming to an understanding of the stories and knowledges embedded in those lands, a conscious choosing to live in intimate, sacred, and storied relationships with those lands and not the least of which is an acknowledgment of the ways one is implicated in the networks and relations of power that comprise the tangled colonial history of the lands one is upon.” (Sandra Styres, 2019, page 29) Place based learning is an active form of education that encourages students to make connections to what they are learning and the environment around them. The hope with place-based education is that students will immerse themselves in the environment around them, feel a sense of connection and learn from the places that they inhabit.  Place based education also caters to the needs of individual students by allowing the learning experience to be personalized. It gives the student agency, caters to students’ interests and strengths, and gives students more choice in what they learn. Place based education also challenges students to see through different lenses and encourages them to try to understand larger ecological, social, and political forces at play (Getting Smart, 2020). Students are encouraged to learn in nature, learn the traditional systems of their ancestors, and learn from their elders. 13  The holistic view of education has also enabled Indigenous adult education programs to eliminate some of the challenges that have inhibited the ability of individuals to access education previously.  For example, at the Dechinta Bush University, program planners saw that many women were not attending classes, and after researching they found out it was due to the fact that they did not have access to childcare. The university then worked to create a childcare program so mothers could access the programming (Simpson & Coulthard, 2014). While this is only one example, it demonstrates how these ways of knowing look at the learner from a holistic  perspective and how much value can be found in this model. I acknowledge that there is so much more that can and should be discussed in terms of the Indigenous experience with Western education systems, the land on which we learn and the Indigenous ways of knowing. But I think that these three areas--understanding history, inter-generational trauma, and the value of place-based education--are an excellent start for program planners to begin their own research about what they need to consider when creating programming for Indigenous learners. There is a lot to be learned by facilitators in order to create meaningful and purposeful programming. Section 3: Promising practices (justice, Indigenous learners, DTES)  This section addresses the following questions: ● What are some examples of programming that may inform the work of the DCC? What aspects of these programs are worth consideration? ● Why are these particular initiatives valuable? How are their aims and outcomes similar to the DCC?  14  This third section looks at how these adult education principles and perspectives have been put into practice to create meaningful programming for marginalized members of society. As discussed in section one and two, many individuals who are accessing these programs come from very diverse backgrounds and are at a variety of different learning levels. While Section 1 examined some of the principles for creating programming for such learners, and Section 2 looked specifically at Indigenous learners, this final section provides promising examples of existing programs. Addressing the successes and lessons learned of these programs along with my own experience in facilitation will add life to the discussion of adult education. In this section I reference three examples: Diane Conrad’s experience facilitating improv in youth detention facilities, Homeboy Industries job and life skills model, and the Invisible Heroes Initiative on Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside.  These examples represent very different approaches to create meaningful programs for a variety of adult learners. All work with individuals who have been marginalized or have had encounters with the justice system.  Inventiveness, compassion, peer to peer learning, and place-based learning are all key aspects of each example. Incarcerated Youth and Participatory Drama The first example focuses on the building self-confidence, empowerment and peer to peer learning. Conrad begins her activity by reflecting on the question, “How can participatory drama contribute to the education of incarcerated youth to avoid future negative outcomes of their at-risk behaviors?” (Conrad, 2014, page 4).  Conrad’s work is rooted in the social reform perspective as she works to destigmatize the youth who are incarcerated and hopefully demonstrate through her programming how youth can 15  benefit from participatory drama. Throughout her piece she advocates for the idea that youth who are incarcerated should not be forgotten about. She states, “let’s not give up on our youth. Let’s not lock them up and throw away the key. Our collective challenge is to reclaim our responsibility to our young citizens (Conrad, 2014, page 14).  Participatory drama is at the core of Conrad’s program, as she hosts improv classes for youth who are incarcerated. Conrad’s group met once a week over the span of three years, and they played improv games, worked on storytelling and created various scenes.  While Conrad’s program faced institutional challenges because of taken for granted ways of doing things, improv proves to be an amazing outlet that may be beneficial in programming. To begin with, as Conrad explained, it allowed the participants to reflect on their own experiences and connect the stories they were telling to overarching feelings and themes in society.  The drama aspect gave the participants a creative outlet to share about themselves that was less restrictive. It also enabled participants to indirectly address feelings, hopes and concerns. In Conrad’s program, she was able to facilitate meaningful discussions and critical reflections through the reading of newspaper articles and then acting them out. Participants “linked the criminalization of the poor with a similar criminalization of youth by police and the city’s “good citizens.” They claimed that, in their experiences, any group of two or more youth were treated as a threat. They spoke at length about their experiences of harassment by the police and wanted to create a scene about police harassment of youth (Conrad, 2-14, page 11).  Given the critical issues currently in the news related to Black Lives Matter, this kind of activity is worth consideration. It is also important to note that this kind of activity 16  may spark responses on the part of learners that need to be handled sensitively. In addition, it may not be easy to adopt a social reform perspective in programs that involve multiple service providers with different aims. Participatory drama also proves to be an amazing platform for peer-to-peer learning and building of camaraderie and teamwork. Within improv one of the most important phrases is, “yes, and?”, and this phrase is crucial to whether or not these programs can be successful. For improvisation games to be successful, participants need to be open, engaged, and willing to collaborate.  “This “yes” exercise is an expression of wholesale acceptance. It is not about approval or judgment. It is, in fact, an exercise in approaching the unknown from what is the opposite of fear and dread. The “yes” of improvisation is a connection with what is. A radical acceptance of what is offered. To live in that mindset is to bring the full force of our intellect, emotion and spirit to the moment, which expands our field of awareness so we can build on what is offered, to respond consciously and creatively. “Yes” is an acknowledgement of what is. The “and” is how we shape the next step.” (Wolff, 2018, page 1).  Overall, Conrad’s program provides an example of another way in which programmers could get clients to engage with content and collaborate with their peers. Participatory drama fosters discussion empowers individuals and encourages peer to peer learning. Working within the justice system as well, there are many aspects of Conrad’s program that could be adopted by the Downtown Community Court.   17  Social Enterprise and Life Skills The second example of programming is Homeboy Industries in Los Angeles. Once again, this programming works with a similar demographic to the DCC. Homeboy Industries works with individuals who have been incarcerated and helps them transition back into society. Homeboy Industries is led by a Jesuit priest named Father Gregory Boyle. The inspiration for the programming came from his firsthand experience working within the community and witnessing the endless cycle of violence and incarceration. Father Gregory Boyle’s motto is, “nothing stops a bullet like a job” and he has implemented job skills and life skills opportunities for men and women to facilitate this model (Choi, 2007). A wide variety of courses focusing on anger management skills, opportunities to complete high school and job skills enable the “Homeboys” and “Homegirls” to become well rounded. Similarly, to the example of daycare in Section 2, Homeboy Industries works to address all the issues facing its members and find solutions. For example, after recognizing that despite the job skills and other courses, participants were still not successful in the hiring process, Homeboy Industries worked to collaborate with specialists in other fields. Facial tattoos provide a permanent reminder of gang violence and incarceration and can be concerning to potential employers. Thus, Homeboy Industries recognized that and began facilitating tattoo removals so their members could move forward from their violent pasts. Also, after recognizing the difficulties surrounding employment and acceptance Homeboy Industries created its own social enterprises including: graffiti removal, a restaurant, a bakery and a silk screening business. All of these ventures provide an 18  opportunity for growth and enable participants to gain valuable work experience. These ventures also allow Homeboy Industries to proudly display their work to the community and help to destigmatize their program participants. By allowing the public to see and participate in the Homeboy Industries, it allows community members to learn more about the organization and look beyond the gang violence and incarceration stigmas.  In my own personal experience visiting and studying Homeboy Industries, I was struck by the sense of community and empowerment. Every morning there is a meeting in the main entrance of all the staff, teachers, employees and special guests. At this time, an inspirational quote or thought of the day is shared along with the daily announcements and schedule. This moment has become a routine at Homeboy with a large call and response portion. Achievements are celebrated, concerns are voiced, and all participants are encouraged to speak. By starting the day like this, it felt like all programming for the day was off to a strong start; people were energized and reminded of their shared purpose as a team working toward a common goal. This morning's meeting was powerful and since then I have tried to adopt such a daily check-in into my own practice.  While DCC may already be participating in social enterprises initiatives, it could interest programmers to explore the scope of Homeboy Industries initiatives further.  Similarly, to the work of Conrad Homeboy Industries has adopted a social reform perspective, aiming to destigmatize those who have been incarcerated. They work to provide individuals with opportunities to foster their learning and development.     19  Literary Projects and Storytelling  The final example of programming I would like to speak about is the Invisible Heroes project, which took place in Vancouver in 2015. Invisible Heroes is a literary project that tells the stories of eight Aboriginal community members in Vancouver’s downtown eastside. The project was produced as a book by Capilano University, which is available at the public library.  An Advisory Committee, comprised of members with relevant knowledge of the community and project guided it to successful completion. The Invisible Heroes initiative allowed the eight individuals to reflect on their own experiences of day-to-day colonialism for inner city Aboriginal peoples, while sharing how they are able to persist in making positive contributions to life in the neighborhood (see book, p., 7). The initiative, conducted at the Carnegie Learning Centre (a partnership between the Carnegie Community Centre and the Community Development and Outreach Department at Capilano University), was very inventive in that it was multifaceted in its community impacts. To begin with, the initiative allowed these community leaders to reflect on their own experiences and to build community. The selected individuals attended workshops and learned very valuable skills in regards to storytelling, gaining valuable skills in the arts, and self-expression. This opportunity also allowed them to reclaim their stories and put forth the narratives that they felt were important (Decoda Literacy Solutions, 2017).  Invisible Heroes was also very valuable in that it provided community organizations and members the opportunity to learn from these firsthand narratives. These accounts created a resource that could be used to facilitate discussions and teach community members. “These stories have important lessons for First Nation 20  communities, community organizations and post-secondary institutions serving Aboriginal communities” (Decoda Literacy Solutions, 2017, page 1). Creating a resource allows the learning to continue and also highlights the initiative. As discussed in Section 2, the Indigenous experience and emphasis on place-based learning is highlighted through the Invisible Heroes storytelling model. This model also allowed the community to come together and connect over these stories through readings and ceremonies. Invisible Heroes proved to be a community achievement because it focused on respecting its participants' stories and gave them the opportunity to be engaged in the whole process (Vella. 2002).   Summary Overall, these examples present three different ways that programming can be made to support marginalized members of society. Programming models that understand where their participants come from, encourage dialogue, and celebrate self-expression can be very successful for adult learners.   Also, as demonstrated by Invisible Heroes and Homeboy Industries, a lot can be gained from allowing the community to participate in the project. By being able to guide the project as members of an Advisory Committee and read the Invisible Heroes stories or buy products from Homeboy Industries community members get to experience the projects and help support the programming.   Overall, I feel that these three examples exemplify the power of empowerment in programming. By including lively morning meetings, enabling expression through improv and giving individuals the space to tell their story these projects empower the adults. 21  Looking at them as whole beings and not simply their racialized identities or their criminal past enables participants to really grow within programming.                      22  References Arocha, M. (2015). Situated learning and latino male gang members at homeboy industries. Dissertations & Theses Global. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1752512435?accountid=14656 Choi, D. Y., & Kiesner, F. (2007). Homeboy industries: An incubator of hope and businesses. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(5), 769-786. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00199.x Conrad, D. (2014). “Lock ‘Em Up . . .” but Where’s the Key? Transformative Drama with Incarcerated Youth. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 8. 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