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Outside-In : exploring spatial flexibility for the embodiment of different emotions Tecson, Tricia Marie 2020-05

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1OUTSIDE - INEXPLORING SPATIAL FLEXIBILITY FOR THE EMBODIMENT OF DIFFERENT EMOTIONSbyTRICIA MARIE TECSONCalifornia State University, Sacramento, 2013SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARCHITECTUREinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES,SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,ARCHITECTURE PROGRAMJill Bambury (Chair),Thena Tak, Sophie Maguire, Margot ReadyWe accept this report as conforming to the required standard...............................................  ..............................................Jill BamburyCommitee ChairBlair Sa�erfieldProgram ChairTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)© Tricia Marie Tecson, May 20202Out-side In:EXPLORING SPATIAL FLEXIBILITY FOR THE EMBODIMENT OF DIFFERENT EMOTIONSTricia Marie TecsonGraduate ProjectUBC - School of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureFall 2019 to Spring 2020iAbstractDesigned spaces affect us physically, mentally and emotionally whether we know it to be or not.An emotional response that one experiences in a piece of architecture, whether it be wonder, contempt, sadness, boredom, fear or stress, is inevitable.  Through looking at the cognitive psychology process of emotions and its connection to environmental design, I aim to gain a greater understanding in the connection of a person in space.  Additionally, how space, ever changing, can be perceived in differing ways.  Furthermore, applying this to the conceptual portion of design.In film, the design of a cinematic space is often accredited to evoking the many different emotions of storytelling within the confines of their fantasies.  The techniques in production design enforce that the built environment envisions and executes these fabricated fantasies, bleeding into the physical world of cinematic architecture.Architecture and its audience share a deep relationship through the experiences and the emotions felt within the space.  As designers we can captivate through the emotional bonds created in the history and narrative of the architecture.  We can incorporate film techniques to engage the emotional bond and further the architectural influence on one’s emotions.In the design approach, this thesis will engage in the ideas of how emotions and narrative can affect the built environment.  I look into three specific emotions and create scenes for them that are set in the same space.  I take this existing space, known for its frequent use in the film industry, and “renovate” it to incorporate different architectural interventions that can help facilitate the transformation of said space.In combining the aspects of psychology, film and architecture, I aspire to bring a greater understanding of one’s emotional response one experiences in a piece of architecture and film. Thereby designing more deliberate and engaging environments in the future.iiTable of ContentsAbstract ...............................................................................................iTable of Contents ............................................................................... iiList of Figures .................................................................................... iiiAcknowledgment .............................................................................. ixStatement of Thesis ...........................................................................xPART I: Thesis Framework ............................................................1Introduction .......................................................................................2Chapter 1 | Field of Inquiry ..............................................................3Psychology of Space .........................................................................Emotions & its surroundings .....................................................4“Emotionality” of Architecture ................................................10Extracting Emotions .........................................................................Production Design ...................................................................17Summary ..........................................................................................35Chapter 2 | Precedents ..................................................................39Cinema & Architecture ............................................................40Cinema .....................................................................................44Architecture .............................................................................48PART II: Design Project ................................................................52Chapter 3 | Design Approach ........................................................53Early Explorations ....................................................................54The Physical Site...............................................................................Coquitlam, BC ..........................................................................61Chapter 4 | Project ........................................................................71The Cinematic Site .......................................................................723 Scenes ...................................................................................76Conclusion .............................................................................101Bibliography ...................................................................................102iiiList of FiguresFigure 1.Cognitive Theories of Emotion. (Top) James-Lange (Middle) Cannon-Bard (Bottom) Schachter-SingerFigure 2.Cognitive Appraisal TheoryFigure 3.Distance Zones based on Edward T. Hall’s frameworkFigure 4.Early Environmental Research from “The Emotional Content of the Physical Space”Figure 5.Images from Adrian Bica’s TEDx Talk presentationFigure 6.Plutchik’s Wheel of EmotionsFigure 7.Hue, Saturation and Brightness DiagramFigure 8.Colour Palettes. (Top) Monochromatic with The Grand Budapest Hotel and Cam. (Bottom) Triadic with Man of Steel and Clockwork Orange.Figure 9.Colour Palettes. (Top) Complimentary with Amelie and Vertigo. (Bottom) Analogous with O Brother, where are thou? and Children of MenFigure 10.Colour comparison of (Top row) The Grand Budapest Hotel and (Top middle row) Cam.Figure 11.Colour comparison of (Bottom middle row) O Brother, Where art thou? and (Bottom row) Children of MenFigure 12.Lighting examples from “Laws of Light: How light conveys emotion.” (Top) Ratio and Contrast.  (Bottom) Hard verses Soft Light. ivFigure 13.Lighting examples from “Laws of Light: How light conveys emotion.” (Top) Warm verses Blue Light. (Bottom) Bottom verses Top Light.Figure 14.(Top) The grid for the “Rule of Thirds”. (Bottom) Applied To the opening scene of A New HopeFigure 15.Analyzed set from Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining with forced perspective.Figure 16.Analyzed shot from Her.  Figure 17.Inspired from the opening of Star Wars: A New Hope.Figure 18.“This Enchanting Southern Town was Built for a Movie (and Never Torn Down).” Country Living.Figure 19.Images from (Top)“Westworld Filming Locations.” Seeing Stars. (Bottom) “Eerie Photos of Abandoned Malls.” CBS NewsFigure 20.Images from Living on a Film Set: Arup Reveals Pinewood Proposals.”Figure 21.Analyzed scene from The Haunting of Hill House episode 5 “The Bent Neck Lady”Figure 22.Floor plan based on the long shot from The Haunting of Hill House episode 6 “Two Storms”Figure 23.Analyzed one shot from The Haunting of Hill House episode 6 “Two Storms”Figure 24.Images from “The Goat Farm.” Smith Dalia.vFigure 25.“White Arkitekter’s Design for Nuuk’s Psychiatric Clinic Emphasizes Nature in Mental Health Design.” Arch Daily.Figure 26.Sketches exploring 5 emotionsFigure 27.Explorations of the three aspects of Space, Colour, and LightFigure 28.Explorations of spatial Anxiety.Figure 29.Explorations of spatial Grief. Figure 30.Explorations of spatial Serenity.Figure 31.Map of Vancouver with film locations were shot overlaid on top.Figure 32.Area Map of Lower Coquitlam with Riverview Hospital highlighted.Figure 33.Site Context Map of the Riverview Hospital Campus. Majority of the Abandoned Buildings are used as film sets. Building 5, the Crease Clinic, comprises the area selected for the project.  Some buildings in use are currently Mental Health facilitiesFigure 34.Images from Riverview Hospital: A Legacy of Care & Compassion (British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services, 2009)Figure 35.Images from Riverview Hospital: A Legacy of Care & Compassion (British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services, 2009)Figure 36.Site map of the Riverview Hospital Campus with an emphasis on the Crease Clinic BuildingFigure 37.Existing floor plan of Crease Clinic.viFigure 38. Modified floor plan of Crease Clinic.Figure 39.Storyboard of the hypothetical narrative created to explore the space.Figure 40.Modified floor plan sectioned off to the focused areas of the project with programmatic labeling and the path of the camera noted.Figure 41.Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.Figure 42.Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray line.Figure 43.Section through Area 1.Figure 44.Section through Area 2.Figure 45.Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.Figure 46.Wall Detail.Figure 47.Floor Detail.Figure 48.Floor to Column Detail.Figure 49.Anxiety Render of Area 1.Figure 50.Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.viiFigure 51.Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray line.Figure 52.Section through Area 1.Figure 53.Section through Area 2.Figure 54.Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.Figure 55.Wall Detail.Figure 56.Floor Detail.Figure 57.Floor to Column Detail.Figure 58.Grief Render of Area 1.Figure 59.Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.Figure 60.Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray line.Figure 61.Section through Area 1.Figure 62.Section through Area 2.Figure 63.Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.Figure 64.Wall Detail.viiiFigure 65.Floor Detail.Figure 66.Floor to Column Detail.Figure 67.Anxiety Render of Area 1.Figure 68.Closing Collage.ixAcknowledgmentI would like to acknowledge the the support and guidance of my committee.  I want to thank Jill Bambury, my graduate project supervisor, for her constant support that helped push me throughout the semester.  I would also like to thank Margot Ready for her enthusiasm and insight into the world of production design for which I am grateful for.  Furthermore, I would also like to thank Thena Tak and Sophie Maguire who brought enlightening conversations and questions into our meetings that helped frame my project.Lastly I would like to acknowledge my friends and family who were there encouraging and supporting me all the way to the completion of this thesis.From the bottom of my heart thank you all.xStatement of ThesisArchitectural experiences can often result in emotional responses. They can range from contempt to wonder, boredom to sadness, or from fear to stress. The design of a cinematic space in film is often credited with intentionally evoking an entire range of emotions through storytelling within the realm of their fabricated fantasies.  The physical environment built for these fantasies is envisioned and executed for this explicit purpose.  A design praxis that can be beneficial to the process of architectural design.This project observes and explores film techniques applied to a cinematic space that engage emotions to be utilized in the design process, thus furthering the relationship between the architectural experience and the inhabitants’ intuitive reactions.  It investigates the versatility of design by addressing how one space can embody various contrasting emotions.  By looking through the lens of film, one can alter the ‘cinematic atmosphere’ of a space and reassess the implementation of different architectural design interventions to achieve various results.1PART I:Thesis Framework2IntroductionFrom the Main Street of Disneyland to the Museum of Pop Culture in Seattle or the National Memorial for Peace and Justice in Montgomery and the Jewish Museum in Berlin, architecture has the power to provoke specific emotional responses from its occupants.  The design of a space triggers, molds and defines the experience within it.  I want to explore the psychological aspects of these architectural spaces by diving deeper into the cognitive narrative of emotions and the effects of the environment has on the psyche leading to the creation of dynamic, emotionally charged spaces.How do architectural spaces, in person or in media, affect a person psychologically and emotionally?  Furthermore, how can that dictate the social interactions within a space or manipulate one’s reaction to that space?  In the grander scale, I also want to examine these spaces and how they can affect a culture/society as a whole.  What are ways occupants are explicitly aware of how architectural designs influence their experiences? Implicitly?Film and television have a unique sense in extracting emotions from its audience, especially through the cinematic spaces built for the specific narratives.  I believe referring to techniques developed in film and production design can contribute to how architecture can have more forethought in emotions through design. I hope in understanding why and how Architecture and Cinema can influence emotions, I can uncover how it can be applied into the design process.  What is the design process in creating intentional spaces that evoke certain emotions?  Subsequently, I would like to apply this uncovering to architectural design interventions and and how these spaces can be transformed?  How can these interventions be applicable to various situations?3Chapter 1 | Field of Inquiry4Psychology of SpaceEmotions & its surroundingsAs a person who has visited Ground Zero, the place of great tragedy that happened on September 11th , the sense of emotion is overwhelming.  The air was still, yet the weight of the space is felt.  Knowing and living through the tragic event, I was filled with solemnness; yet, it was not until I had stepped foot on the site and immersed in the surroundings did I feel the weight taking a deep emotional toll.  The tears seemingly out of nowhere could not be stopped.  There was a heaviness in my heart that I felt from being there that I still recall to this day.  Architecture and design have the power to affect us psychologically and emotionally.In Architecture and the Unconscious, architecture is described as “a praxis that take our collectively held ideas and puts them concretely into the world.  The architect must reflect upon social formations and project them as material form into the environment”1.  Designing for places that have strong presences collectively and individually, one must look into the internal mind to make a meaningful connection in the external world.  “By addressing the unconscious, we may open up new ways of thinking about architecture.  An interdisciplinary discourse between architecture and psychoanalysis may be able to address the link between individuals, cities and communities.”2  An inherent aspect, yet scarcely discussed, in architectural discourse is its role in psychology and emotionality.According to The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, emotionality is the observation of the behavioral and physiological component within emotions; measuring a person’s emotional reactivity to stimuli3.  In terms of how architecture fits into psychology, it falls under the category of appraisal in accordance to stimuli, which will be further discussed in this section.5 Evolution of Cognitive Theory in Emotional PsychologyRecounted in the Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior textbook, psychology considers that memories experienced in heightened states of emotions are “more likely to be remembered longer, and in greater detail, then memories that are not connected with strong emotion.”4  To understand emotions in the framework of psychology and architecture, one must attempt to understand how emotions form within the mind.  The role of emotions can translate to experiences of the past to translate and interpret into the present and learn from them.“In scientific terms, emotion is a cluster of three distinct but interrelated phenomena: physiological responses, overt behaviour and conscious feelings.”5  The significant movements in emotional psychology through cognitive theory are James-Lange Theory, Cannon-Bard Theory, Schachter-Singer Theory (also known as the Two-Factor Theory) and the Cognitive Appraisal Theory.  Figures 1 and 2 are drawn interpretations that are based on those theories from the Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior.Stimuli Body Response(Arousal)Subjective Experience(Emotion)Cogni�ve Theories of Emo�onJames-LangeCanon-BardStimuliPalms SweatingHeart RacingSubjective Experience(Emotion)“Fear”Figure 1.Cognitive Theories of Emotion. (Top) James-Lange(Bottom) Cannon-Bard6 Schachter-Singer (Two-Factor)Stimuli Palms SweatingHeart RacingInterpretation Subjective Experience(Emotion)SurroundingSurrounding “Excitement”“Fear”Cogni�ve AppraisalInitial Precieved Stimuli(Preception)Contents of focal awaremess(Context)Associativelyactivtedrepresentation(Focal item)Appraisal DetectorsEmotional Response- Appraisal outsome- Physiological Activity- Action tendenciesContents of focal awaremess(Context)Associativelyactivtedrepresentation(Focal item)Appraisal DetectorsEmotional Response- Appraisal outsome- Physiological Activity- Action tendenciesdistance betweenFigure 2.(Top) Schachter-Singer(Bottom) Cognitive Appraisal Theory7 Environmental PsychologyThe intersection of psychology and architecture began through large corporations trying to find modes of improved productivity and through the inquiry of the “possible impact of buildings on the behaviour of psychiatric patients” creating a new branch of psychology called, environmental psychology.6  One study that began in the early stages of environmental psychology is Edward T. Hall’s “proxemic,” this framework deals with human, spaces and social interaction.  This development facilitated how people perceived personal space and how people can manipulate, make and design these spaces.  Hall “identified four distance zones, which reflected the four principal categories of relationship (intimate, personal, social and public) and the types of activities and spaces corresponding to them as seen in figure 3.7Personal space verses public spaces contribute to setting a mood to that area.  For example, a smaller space can be interpreted as either a comfortable space or a space of isolation.  The comprehension of these distances led to the organizing and categorizing emotions, spaces and activities that helped in the preliminary stages of architectural design. In 1975 Charles Osgood “developed a three-dimensional model involving concepts such as evaluation, activity and potency.” While  “Mehrabian and Russell found similar dimensions, which they called pleasure, arousal and dominance.”8  These models have been used in various ways throughout architectural design describing and organizing space through program diagrams shown in the chart in figure 49.Intimate SpacePersonal SpaceSocial SpacePublic Space1.5 ft4 ft12 ft25 ftFigure 3.Distance Zones based on Edward T. Hall’s framework8Aesthe�csImpressive, Unique, Interes�ngDynamic, Different, Interes�ngExci�ng, Unique, Interes�ngExpensive, Unique, Interes�ngFriendlinessBeau�ful, A�rac�ve, AppealingSo�, Friendly, WelcomingCivilized, Cheerful, JoyfulSo�, Friendly, Comfortable Fun, Happy, JoyfulOrganiza�onOrganized, Efficient, OrderlyTidy, Coherent, ClearOrdered, Controlled, ClearEquipped, Co-ordinated, CompletePotency Rough, Coarse, DarkRugged, Massive, PermanentSpace Roomy, Large, WideSpaciousness, Changeable, FlexibleSpacious, Large, LooseLivable, Lived in, CurtainedOrnate Bright, Colourful, GayConserva�ve, Colourful, BizarreGenerous, Rich, LavishTextured, Bright Colours, FlashyNeat Clean, Tidy, Neat Dirty, Empty, BroadClu�ered, Confined, RoomySize Large, Huge Big, Huge, Broad Large, Formal, Proud Big, Large, RoomyVielhauer-Kasmar, 1970Canter,                  1968Craik,                    1968Hersberger,         1972Collins,                  1969Early Environmental ResearchFigure 4.Early Environmental Research from “The Emotional Content of the Physical Space”9 Psychology in Design[A]s a man spends increasingly more time within controlled environments, as he plans enclosed cities, undersea and under earth structures, as he ventures into space – all of which will take him away from natural surroundings – he must understand and indeed master the elements that have sustained his life.10Interpersonal relationships can determine space, but it is how that space is design that creates the mood and emotions felt within.  Similar to the appraisal theory, the circular effect can happen where spaces effect people and people effect space.  Constantly being evaluated, emotions can also be manipulated from one state to another with how a space is designed.“The space is infinite and shapeless, but it is also ubiquitous. All forms adhere to the space, which transform with the time and space. The space can be solid or virtual, which creates different psychological feelings through different forms. Different processing methods of location, form, texture and color can cause different spatial magnitudes perceived by your mind.”11To not consider design in connection to emotion is a disservice, “If the sense of sight (along with other senses) is not stimulated, reactions will take place anyhow.”12  A lack of design can cause negative psychological impact on its inhabitant, as seen in spaces such as prisoners in solitary confinement, prison camps, monks in seclusion, sailors in small boats on the ocean, or people lost in the desert or woods.Faber Birren, an author and consultant of color and theory, describes M.D. Vernon’s “research and clinical studies [as] having to do with sensory deprivation.”13  Vernon took volunteers and put them individually into solitary confinement, with clouded visions goggles and long handcuffs to limit touch causing “effects of a monotonous environment.”  The volunteers suffered from visual and auditory hallucinations and the added objects creating dizziness and deterioration of their intelligence.  Vernon then concludes “that normal consciousness perception and thought, can be maintained only in a constantly changing environment.  When there is no change, a state of ‘sensory deprivation’ occurs.”14As humans, we need visual stimulation.  Other concurring studies have taken place that have also looked into the workplace environment as a subject of environmental psychology, moving from the IBM office building and evolving to areas such as the corporate offices like Google and Facebook.  As society turns into the new decade, focus on the human being and their mental health are now in the forefront more than ever.10“Emotionality” of ArchitectureWhen discussing and designing in the field of architecture and in some instance’s architecture school as well, one tends be directed towards the logically focus of “optimization, low cost and efficiency” where the emotional experience is cast aside.  Not to be deterred from the fact that these aspects are important but the emotional impact an architectural space creates should not be neglected.In a 2016 TEDx Talk at Ryerson University, architect Adrian Bica challenged the lack of emotion and intimacy in architecture.  He explains that in the 17th century, once “scientific thinking rejected the interpretive and non-tangible aspects of architecture […] things that [could no] longer be measured, lost their place within the world of design”15.  In the sphere of “optimization, low cost and efficiency,” Bica coincides that “we maybe placing too much emphasis on these [aspects]”16.  He continues on to describe the shift of the public realm from a space of “relaxation, enjoyment and social engagement […] where one felt connected to the greater social establishment” to a “place of transition […] standing in the way as obstacles [where] being in public is no longer desirable and architecture has started to reflect these principles”17.  In his presentation he relates the images in figure 5 by speaking to the result of architecture conforming to feeling restrained and then processed for consumerism as becoming a driving force in design.  Although the implications are a tad extreme, there is a validity in the fear of losing one’s architectural imagination and intimacy.He references a study done by Julia Bermudez from the Catholic University of America who “conducted a research study where over a thousand participants were asked to describe, their most intimate architectural experience.  More than half the responses included the word ‘emotional’”18  Which begets the question: if the majority of responses to architecture is “emotional”, then why, as architects, does one negate them in the design process?There are a couple ways emotionality can be brought into architectural discourse and design: architecture through an emotional bond and architecture through a narrative.11Figure 5.Images from Adrian Bica’s TEDx Talk presentation12 An Emotional BondTwo recognized architects in the field who have spoken to the emotionality of architecture and have included it into their works are Daniel Libeskind and Frank Gehry.  Libeskind, the architect of the Jewish Museum in Berlin, once wrote, “As an architect, it’s my responsibility to make a personal connection -- not just with the physical environment but how it triggers our memories and emotional responses”19.In interviews with magazine, Fast Company, and online architectural platform, Architizer, Libeskind discusses and describes the emotional impact a site and a place has not just with the building but with the fabric of time and space.  He recalls both his time in Berlin and New York and how those site visits produced a profound effect on him and his designs.  One cannot summarize such a profound experience, so below are some of the questions and answers in Libeskind’s own words that were collected from the interviews:Interview with Saxon Henry | Architizer20Can you think of a situation when you experienced a particularly strong sense of emotionality toward a project?DL: Yes: it happened at Ground Zero. […] All the finalists were in One Liberty Plaza and as we all stood looking over into the pit, someone asked if any of us wanted to go down into the site. It was a miserable rainy day and it was still nothing more than a hole with nothing there except the ramp. Everyone else said, “No, we can see it clearly from here.” And it was true — you could see everything fine so I’m not sure what moved me, but I told them I wanted to go down. As Nina and I descended the ramp, I have to tell you an unexpected emotion took over; when I hit bedrock, something deeper happened; and when I put my hand on one of the walls, everything just changed […]How would you explain the fact that architecture inspires a broad range of emotional responses unique to each person who is designing or viewing it?DL: I equate a fine piece of architecture with a poem. The greatness of poetry is that the meaning of it is permanently open to the future. There is no such thing as “this is what it means.” In truth, I think that’s the nature of art — what is lodged in a work is something far deeper than you can momentarily define. That’s why we have poetry that lasts for thousands of years. That’s why we love art, and that’s why we love architecture. The discipline was formed so far back we don’t even know precisely what the religions or languages were and it has thrived in such diverse eras since. The fact that we are still moved by architecture is a testament to its emotionality.13Interview with Shaunacy Ferro | Fast Company21Can you give me an example of something you initially found at a site that later inspired your architecture?When I was in Berlin, for my very first project, [the Jewish Museum]. There were about 200 architects who were invited to the site after the colloquium, all with cameras. I was not interested in photographing the site. I was not interested in just looking at the obvious street elements. I was interested in what lay behind the site, below the site, up in the air over the site, in the smokes of the chimneys that went over the clouds. So, I was in a completely different world in some way, which I thought about in the sense of the invisible streets of Berlin, which were changed after the devastation of Germany. I didn’t start the project by immediately drawing the building–not at all–but drawing the matrix of what happened there. What was it across the abyss that connected us today to that site?Ground Zero was the same thing. I didn’t start by creating tall buildings and looking at street patterns, but really going into that bedrock and touching that space where people perished. And really being affected by something that is not so obvious, which is what the site really means in a sense of culture/spirit, not only in its technical response to rebuilding a whole urban neighborhood.You’ve done quite a few Holocaust memorials and museum designs. Why do you return to these projects?It’s not something that I choose very lightly, because it’s very difficult, but I believe that it’s very important.[…] Do something positive, do something hopeful, something that moves us beyond just the darkness and gives us something positive. That’s why I’ve always thought you’ve got to be an optimist. Even when it comes to the memory, you can’t just dwell on the irreversibility of the tragedy. You have to have something hopeful. You have to inspire, and you have to move people to look at different things.With so many genocides going on around us . . . There was now a competition for a project for Rwanda. It’s no longer just limited to this topic [of the Holocaust]. Others are realizing that this memory is important in the world, to teach and also to experience, that “never again” is not a slogan, but something that we have to embody in our spirit.14In both accounts he speaks to the connection he made with the sites, by taking in not just the physicality of the foundations and the street but engrossing himself with the emotions and memory left from the tragic events of the past that still reverberate through to today.  The importance of this felt in the air and in the heart of the people who come to visit these sites. True, everyone has their own experience, but there is one thing that is for certain that was evident from everyone who was visiting that day, the impact of the event that had happened there will never be forgotten.  It was important that Libeskind’s design reflected that and also bring hope of rebuilding the future from the wake of devastation.On the other end of the spectrum, Frank Gehry speaks to the emotional impact architecture has on memory and love; furthermore, how a building should move.  Gehry, known for his eccentric forms like the one’s of the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles and the Museum of Pop Culture in Seattle, once said:The great works of architecture express feeling.  When you visit and see them there’s a transfer of feeling from the artist, the architect, over time through the ages to now […] Most people don’t think of architecture as an art and it gets blurred because architecture, as well as being an art, is an act of social conscience because you’re making buildings for all kinds of people, give them shelter, make them feel loved and accepted […] Making art is an act of love and making love to the world.22Gehry reiterates these notions in an interview with NPR.  He expresses the need for love and how he stubbornly and passionately needs “to create buildings that inspire emotion” and continues on to say, “If you look at a great work of art in bronze from 600 B.C. and it makes you cry, some artist way back when was able to transmit emotion through time and space over years to today” comparing this notion of art to architecture23Similar in a way to Libeskind, Gehry relates to architecture as a social experience that transcending through time.  The impact of architecture is great.  Through response, emotions and memories architecture can affect culture.  “We’re living in a culture, in a time where movement is pervasive.  Everything is moving.  And so, if we hook onto that and use it as part of our language, our architectural language, there is some resonance for it ”2415 Architecture as a NarrativeThe other way Bica mentions as a way to generate emotion is through story.  Stories speak to people.  It is what connects people; a way to learn, a way to interact, a way to feel.  Throughout time stories “make us think and best of all they make us imagine”25In Narrative Architecture, Nigel Coates writes, “’The medium is the message’ a phrase coined by Canadian philosopher and educator Marshal McLuhan […] The medium of space is open and closed, multivalent and transmutable.  Architecture works by association, constantly mirroring and differing form ‘spaces’ in the mind. Like [television], architecture should hand the power of experience back to people”26Buildings already follow the natural story arc.  The story begins at the entrance.  It sets up the exposition, telling the visitor what lies ahead in their journey through the architecture.  The raising action shines through the circulation the visitor must go through to reach their intended destination within the building.  The climax, being the reason, the visitor enters the space in the first place and the experience they have.  The descent is the revisiting and descent towards the finale, the exit.  Understanding and utilizing narrative in architecture grants people into a deeper, richer experience.Architecture is not the only form that creates special relationships between people and the built environment, cinema and film have affected millions though the visualization of this relationship, specifically through narrative.  Cinematic architecture takes the ideas of both and marries the two, manifesting it into the physical world.16Pascal Schöning, author of the Manifesto for a Cinematic Architecture, expresses, “Cinematic architecture reveals the illusiveness of the house as a reliable and constant factor, and shifts the focus instead to life and narrative processes […] For unless it allows and exposes the ephemeral – process and change – architecture is no more than a sophisticated agglomeration of meaningless matter”27 Cinematic Architecture allows the expression of narrative to the project, placing the experience of the inhabitants in the forefront of the design, accentuating the importance of life and humanity.  Schöning goes on to say, “If architecture is often compared to cinema, it is because of their shared relation to both the visual world and the material world; then may they magnify, through their psychic image, the dimension of the physical universe: its surface, frame, light and depth […] It is when we touch the depths of personal and collective memory that architecture and cinema reveal their constructive force”28Cinema and film move people.  They connect to audiences and extract emotions through their expressions of narratives.  They do this with the help of directors and production designers that create worlds that nestle and enrich the narrative.  This cinematic space use similar techniques in architecture, though in different and unique ways.  Architects can learn from the way cinematic spaces are created to home in the craft and reacquiring techniques that can enhance the way narrative moves architecture.As Daniel Libeskind once said, “Buildings move us, there’s an element of care. It’s not a question of whether a building makes us feel good or bad. It’s about being moved. That’s what the word emotion means. What we feel is the sense of intensity, passion and involvement. It’s something that goes very deep.”2917Extracting EmotionsProduction DesignFor every scare, tear, and laugh that moves through a theater there is a film that reaches into one’s soul and extracts an emotion.  A film’s intention is to detach an audience from the physical world and place into a narrative that they live through for a moment in time.  In Atlas of Emotions it is acknowledged that, “Cinema was named after the Greek word kínēma (κίνημα), which connotes both motion and emotion”30.  Through narrative, the film takes the audience along an internal journey of emotions.  Through production design, the film can visually support the narrative.  Fionnuala Halligan, a writer and critic, wrote: “Film design is so influential yet at its very best, we don’t see it”31  Production design is the physical and visual manifestation of where the story inhabits.  It sets the mood of the story and can either make or break the audiences’ suspension of disbelief.  The suspension of disbelief is crucial part in art, especially storytelling.  It captivates the audience into going along the journey, without it the audience is lost and uninterested.  “Production designers create worlds for us to believe in and when it all works, we accept the finished product as ‘real’”32Production design consists of many aspects within the film, from costuming to set.  This analysis is going to focus on the set aspect of production design.  One of the roles in production design that primarily work with the design of the built environment is the art director.  The art director is often described as ‘artist’, ‘architect’, ‘technician’, or ‘visual director’33.  The designers within this realm are at the helm of the conception to construction of this world, using familiar aspects thought about in the architectural design process.  Production design utilizes techniques like color; light and shadow; as well as framing through perspective, scale and composition to establish a mood and evoke emotion. Though different when applied through this medium of film, the techniques can be reevaluated and applied in the physical world of architecture.18ColourOne of the most recognizable aspects, when determining a mood, is the colour palette used.  Even though there are many different people and many different perspectives, there is often a subconscious association people have with certain colours and emotions, such as, red for anger, yellow for happy, blue for sad or calm, an example is the association of colour with Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions shown in figure 634.  Because there are cultural and social associations with colour, film often uses color palettes to enhance and fortify the mood of a set and story to solidify the emotion the film wants their audience to feel.  In The Filmmaker’s Guide to Production Design, it is acknowledged that “a set, location, or environment is interpreted by its use of color. Color is a powerful design tool that often works subliminally. Many colors come with an intrinsic symbolic meaning”35. Production Design: Architects of the Screen also attributes “the psychological effects of colour can be harnessed in film design to suggest mood, plot developments and character […] Colour can thus be used as an organizing principle behind the design”36.  To begin utilizing colour, one must grasp a general comprehension on the matter.There are three categorizations in establishing of colour: hue, saturation, and brightness.  Hue is the actual color or shade, while saturation is the intensity which is expressed in its relation to gray, and brightness how light or dark the colour is37. Cinematographer Lawrence Sher visually explains this through an X,Y,Z axis where hue is on the Y-axis, saturation on the X-axis and Brightness on the Z-axis as seen recreated in figure 738.The world is seen through many different colours and understanding what one colour associates with is more complex than one to one comparison.  Grasping the relationships between the colours can enhance the understanding of the mood and allow for more complex emotions within the composition. Returning to the colour wheel, film begins to investigate further into the wheel than original Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions.19angeranticipationjoytrustfearsuprisesadnessdisgustapprehensionacceptanceserenityinterestannoyanceboredompensivenessdistractiondisgust + angercontemptanger + anticipationagressivenessinterest + serenityoptimismjoy + trustlovetrust + fearsubmissionfear + supriseawesuprise + sadnessdisapprovalsadness + disgustremorse rageterrorgrief ecstacyloathingadmirationamazementvigilanceBrightnessSaturationHueFigure 7.Hue, Saturation and Brightness DiagramFigure 6.Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions20Figure 8.Colour Palettes.(Top) Monochromatic with The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) and Cam (2018).(Bottom) Triadic with Man of Steel (2013) and Clockwork Orange (1971).In film colour theory, it is noted that colours used in certain ways can illicit emotions from its viewer.  They employ four different colour concepts to explore the relationships between colours to set the mood.  The four concepts being monochromatic, complimentary, triadic and analogous.  Monochromatic uses a single colour on the wheel but uses the different shades to create the colour palette and tone.  Complimentary uses colours on the opposite side of the wheel that can be paired and still produce a pleasant visual.  Similar to complementary colours, the Triadic concept uses three colours equidistant from each other on the colour wheel.  Finally, the analogous are neighbouring colours on the colour wheel, usually three to four, that are harmonious to one another, an example being warm colours (red, orange, yellow) verses cool colours (green, blue, purple).  Examples of these different type of colour concepts can be seen in figures 8 and 9.MONOCHROMATICTRIADICANALOGOUSCOMPLIMENTARYFigure 9.Colour Palettes.(Top) Complimentary with Amelie (2001) and Vertigo (1958). (Bottom) Analogous with O Brother, where are thou? (2000) and Children of Men (2006)MONOCHROMATICTRIADICANALOGOUSCOMPLIMENTARY21Pulling out examples from figure 8 and 9 .  A colour concept can be not just be identified as one mood but can be utilized in different moods.  This can be done through the variations a colour can present itself though saturation and brightness.  In the Monochromatic example, a comparison can be made between the comedic-drama The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) and the psychological-thriller Cam (2018) and their use of the colour pink.In The Grand Budapest Hotel, director Wes Anderson and production designer Adam Stockhausen utilize different colours and ratios to depict different eras and moods.  The reason for pink, according to Anderson, was for a wedding cake idea for the 30s to contrast from the tones of 60s and 80s39.  The mood they wanted to create was for a comedic tone with a light-hearted mode.  By dialing back and muting the pink it created a pastel-like scheme that enhanced the “wedding cake” feel and contributed to the whimsical emotion even through the dramatic narrative.On the complete opposite scale, there is Cam directed by Daniel Goldhaber and production designed by Emma Rose Mead.  According to Mead, “Cam is a technology-driven psychological thriller set in the world of webcam porn”40.  Their use of pink went towards bright and excessively saturated creating a neon effect.  The neon effect can be associated with technology and extreme.  There is no subtly, the colours are harsh and sharp.  This effect of the pink creates a sense of excitement and seduction that then turns to the boldness which leads the audience to the horrific narrative that takes place and the fearful tone that underlines the whole mood.22Figure 11.Colour comparison of(Bottom middle row) O Brother, Where art thou? and (Bottom row) Children of MenFigure 10.Colour comparison of (Top row) The Grand Budapest Hotel and(Top middle row) Cam.Monochroma�c Colour Scheme - Fuchsia (Pink)Analogous Colur Scheme - Yellow to Blue-GreenMonochroma�c Colour Scheme - Fuchsia (Pink)Analogous Colur Scheme - Yellow to Blue-Green23Another example if the analogous colour scheme applied to the films O Brother, Where art thou? (2000) and Children of Men (2006).  Both using the colours between green and orange-yellow.In O Brother, Where art thou? directed by Coen Brothers (Ethan and Joel) and production designed by Dennis Gassner & Nancy Haigh, used the burnt yellows and oranges with hints of muted green to emphasize the dry hot summer days of the American South.  It also brings a humorous tone to the film of three men who escape prison in search for treasure.On the opposite spectrum is the Children of Men directed by Alfonso Cuaron and production designed Geoffrey Kirkland & Jim Clay, used a subtle muted blue-greens to show the tension and uneasiness in the war zone with the yellows used to brighten the scene bring warmth and hope with the birth of the first baby in years.Colour in film production is crucial in setting the mood of the film and generating the emotions experienced by the audience.  The production design can use it as a jumping off point for the design, executing through set and costuming.  Colour is poignant for a film architecturally though the careful consideration of textures and material.  Interestingly enough a colour scheme can be used in two very different ways.  The architectural context can be experienced very differently though how it is represented by saturation and brightness, changing a comedic tone of a film to a horrific one.  It is this duality that architecture design can examine and understand to enhance the built environment.24Light and ShadowFrom horror to comedy, the lighting can assist make the distinction to the tone of the film.  Sayings such as “She can light up a room” and “There is darkness in her soul” are more telling than just being descriptors.  Lighting can embody an internal aspect and bring it to the forefront, visualizing the complexities of the internal mind.  In Film Light: Meaning and Emotion, Lara Thompson writes: One of the primary values of the cinema as both entertainment medium and an art form is its ability to travel within, to visualize the workings of the human mind, to imagine through processes and emotions on the screen.  As much as light invents and authenticates unfamiliar environments, it also makes familiar feelings spectacular.  Expressive illumination can remove the spectator from a character’s humdrum external reality and transport us inside their head, flashing colored psychic reactions and spontaneous memories across the screen.  These moments of luminous revelation occur most frequently at the height of emotional experience, as though bodies can no longer contain the intensity, bursting in colored waves of illumined expression.41The play of light and shadow in film creates visible tension and tone that heighten or ease the mood that effects the emotions portrayed on film.  Light can be used to contrast the intended mood set by the surroundings constructing an advanced emotional effect but for the most part one uses lighting to support and strengthen the architectural surroundings of the film set.  Without light, the audience cannot decipher the narrative on-screen but it can still conjure an emotion.  The presence or absence of light generates a psychological response and emotion.  Film employs tactics to control how the audience sees and feels.As light and bright is associated with openness, dark is associated with fear and the unknown.  As explained and demonstrated by photographer and film director, Jay P. Morgan who has been working in the industry for over 20 years, there are four aspects of lighting that is used in film: Ratio and Contrast; Quality of Light; Colour; and the Direction of light as seen in figures 12 and 13.4225Ratio and contrast, as seen in the top of figure 12, can be described between the spectrum of a strong split light to an open light using a key light.  The strong split light shows the clear divide between what is lit and what is in the shadow creating a two-faced effect that renders subject untrustworthy of the audience.  It literally shows the metaphoric notions of a character hiding a piece of themselves from the audience, opposed to the literal openness of the key light.The quality of light, as seen in the bottom row of figure 12, depicts the transition between the light and shadow from a hard light, creating a darker tone, to a soft light, creating a softer tone.  As seen in the example above dealing with contrast, the hard tone continues on with the feeling of uncertainty and on edge feeling.  The soft light allows for shadow and depth to happen like the hard light, but the transition is a bit more welcoming from the hard light due to the reasoning that the audience is able to see bits into the shadowed area.26Figure 12.Lighting examples from “Laws of Light: How light conveys emotion.”(Top) Ratio and Contrast. (Bottom) Hard verses Soft Light. 27Figure 13.Lighting examples from “Laws of Light: How light conveys emotion.”(Top) Warm verses Blue Light.(Bottom) Bottom verses Top Light.28Colour, as seen in the top row of figure 13, in light can be associated with the physical feeling of a space, i.e. warm verses cold, as well as the emotional response to the space.  Using cooler tones, such as blues and grays make a space or the character physically cold while also can create a suspicious tone and igniting fear in the audience.  On the other side of the spectrum, the warm tone, such as yellows and oranges, makes a space or character feel physical warm while generating a welcoming tone and allowing for a sense of calm or happiness.And finally, the direction of light, as seen in the bottom row of figure 13, can elicit a characterization towards a place or subject.  A light located above cast shadows in the eyes and neck areas that can be seen as sullen and sad emulating a similar effect that is recognized in everyday life, when someone’s head is down.  Light straight on as shown previously in the colour and key light examples show an openness.  Light shined from below or under is affectionately known as “horror lighting”.  It is typically associated with the horror genre and fear because of its unnatural way that it highlights the face, extenuating the mouth and exposing the neck (a vulnerable area of the body that is not normally exposed to others outright and willingly).Lighting, along with colour, aid in facilitating a narrative’s mood and tone, key aspects in extracting emotions form its audience.  Although most would correlate lighting in a film to a subject like a person, the architectural set of a film can also be the subject of these lighting techniques.  The illumination of a space can be developed in such a way that can hinder the experience of an inhabitant or help them.29 CompositionIn film, it is the art of show not tell that drives the narrative and framing and composition is the language used to read it.  Production designers and directors must build a world where the characters inhibit and support the narrative but more so it is how these worlds are represented through film that the audience can understand the mood being set.  Reminiscent to the aspects of framing and composition in paintings and photography, cinematography consists of many variables; such as the rule of thirds, scale and forced perspectives.  The spatial relationship between the characters and the built environment are highly influenced by composition.  Barnwell defends this relationship in Production Design: Architects of the Screen:Composition is fundamental in creating a sense of balance, and as such can be manipulated.  From an architectural point of view volume can create a sense of depth.  Some designers use grids to divide space into lines, which can then create symmetrical or deliberately asymmetrical shapes on screen […] The composition can include gaps or shadows, and by suggesting certain shapes a place and time can be indicated, without necessarily filling in all of the detail […] Spaces are as important in this as objects.43  As a plan on a site, the composition sets the framework in which the main action take place.  One of the preliminary ways to attempt composition is through the “Rule of Thirds” a film variation of the “Golden Ratio”, as seen in figure 14. The screen is divided into 9-sectors, three areas equally divided horizontally and vertically.  When an object is placed on one of the 2 vertical lines or 2 horizontal lines or in the intersection of the lines, it’s commonly visually appealing and considered a reliable composition.30Figure 14.(Top) The grid for the “Rule of Thirds”.(Bottom) Applied To the opening scene of A New Hope31Once understanding the basics of general composition in film, one can physically manipulate the structures of the set and play with perspectives and scale furthering and exaggerating what is seen on screen.  Richard MacDonald, the production designer of many films of differ genre’s such as Jesus Christ Superstar (1973), Coming to America (1988), and The Addams Family (1991) speaks of the importance of understanding perspective in By Design: Interviews with film production designers.  He says, “Yes, you bloody well know it! You’ve got to know how to distort it and how to actually play with the damn thing.  I build all my sets in perspective.  There isn’t a straight wall […] It gives it more depth […] a sort of atmosphere […] It’s an idea of how you can work out space with a unit of views.”44  The spatial relationship between space and its occupants change based on the how they are compositionally placed with in the frame of the viewing screen.Forcing perspective can create space visually elongated than what it physically present.  It is used in many films, specifically in the horror genre, to distort the world.  It takes what is seemingly within the normal conventions of space and slightly jarring it, closing off the space from a larger to a smaller one and slanting the walls towards the center exaggerating the focal point of the scene.  This causes an uneasiness with the audience, a sense of claustrophobia is intended and heightens the sense fear, simulating the common nightmare of the hallway that never ends.  A great example is through the Stanley Kubrick film, The Shining.  Where in multiple times in the film hallways seem endless and enticing yet terrifying supporting the notion of the labyrinth that is the hotel and within the minds of the characters.32Figure 15.Analyzed set from Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining with forced perspective.33Scale in film can be described in many different ways, whether it is how the large or small the scope of the narrative is set or the way objects are viewed within a compressed space or open space.  In the many interviews with different production designers conducted by Emily Russell, the importance of setting a scale in the process of world building in a narrative is one of the jumping off points.  Scale in the confines of the composition can illustrate different moods and emotion.  How much an object or space takes up a composition activate the senses and can convey feelings of either superiority to isolation.  For example, in Her (2014) the character Theodore Twombly’s loneliness and feelings of isolation are emphasized and portrayed through the composition the director Spike Jonze creates.  Many of the shots depict Theodore in the city of Los Angeles, a vast and sparling city, yet through scale he is shown to be small in comparison as well as sometimes being single-out in large open areas.Another example is through the opening scene of Star Wars: A New Hope.  This iconic scene is the first visual the audience gets into this sci-fi world that is yet to be explored.  Yet through this one shot many feelings and exposition can be inferred.  If one does not read the scrolling text the next shot after the pan down, has a large Star Destroyer encompassing the top third half of the screen, in juxtaposition with the tinier spaceship in the lower third.  From this one shot the feeling of superiority and inferiority can be felt, setting up the David verses Goliath type tale.Film Production techniques divulge deep within the psyche of the characters and enhance the narratives, extracting emotions from the audience along the journey they embark together.  Colour, lighting, and composition through forced perspective and scale establish the world the production design creates for the narrative. It is the physical embodiment of the emotions in which the narrative unearths from its audience.  It is amidst these production techniques that architecture can investigate from.  A space tells a story, a narrative that feeds through emotions that encapsulate the experience from the inhabitants.  The spatial relationship between subject and surrounding is the essence in which an architectural design can be enlightened.Films referenced in screenshots: Cam. Film. Directed by Daniel Goldhaber. Netflix, 2018.Children of Men. Film. Directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Universal Pictures, 2006.The Grand Budapest Hotel. Film. Directed by Wes Anderson. Fox Searchlight Pictures, 2014.Her. Film. Directed by Spike Jonze. Warner Brothers, 2013.O Brother, Where Art Thou? Film. Directed by Ethan Coen and Joel Coen. Universal Pictures, 2000.Star Wars: A New Hope. Film. Directed by George Lucas. Lucasfilms, 1977. 34Figure 16.Analyzed shot from Her. Figure 17.Inspired from the opening of Star Wars: A New Hope.3/4th of the screen dedicated to backround3/4th of the screen dedicated to backround35SummaryArchitecture and its audience share a deep relationship through the experiences and the emotions felt in the space.  By looking at the cognitive theories of emotion, there is a greater understanding in the role the built environment plays in affecting the psyche.  Cognitive appraisal brings in a unique perspective that a single space can evoke different emotions based on different conditions in the environment suggesting a circular relationship: environment affects emotions and emotions affect environment, leading to the impact of psychology on space resulting in the field of Environmental Psychology.Environmental Psychology helps us understand the space in relation to the person.  As seen through the experiences of Libeskind and Gehry, architecture moves people internally.  Through emotional bonds and architectural narratives, designers can engage with its audience on a deeper level.Though it has been spoken about in some occasions, most designers overlook how one can design a space to affect emotions.  Techniques used in film can facilitate how the built environment supports narrative design and encourage emotional bonds with people and space.  A building has a life of its own and the people within them create experiences and an emotional bond between them makes the experience reside within the people.36ENDNOTES1 John Shannon Hendrix and Lorens Eyan Holm,  “Introduction,” Architecture and the   Unconscious, (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing   Limited, 2016) 19.2 Ibid. 18.3 Arthur S. Reber, and Emily Sarah Reber, The Penguin   Dictionary of Psychology. 3rd ed. (London;   New York: Penguin Books, 2001).4 Mark A. Gluck, Eduardo Mercado, and Catherine   E. Myers, “Chapter 10, Emotional Influences   on Learning and Memory,” Learning and   Memory: From Brain to Behavior. 2nd ed.   “New York: Worth Publishers, 2014) 385.5 Ibid. 386.6 Mahtab Akhavan Farshchi and Norman Fisher, “The   Emotional Content of the Physical Space,”   1997. 3.7 Ibid. 5.8 Ibid. 5-6.9 Mahtab Akhavan Farshchi and Norman Fisher10 Faber Birren, Psychological Implications of Color   and Illumination, (New York, N.Y.: Color   Consultant, 1969) 397.11 Zhao Ruoxi. 2016. Architectural Space and   Psychological Feelings. 5th International   Conference on Social Science, Education and   Humanities Research.12 Ibid.401.13 Ibid.14 Ibid. 401-402.15 Bringing Back Emotion and Intimacy in Architecture.   Video. Presented by Adrian Bica. TEDx, 2016.16 Ibid.17 Ibid.18 Ibid.19 Daniel Libeskind, 2017. “We Mustn’t Forget the   Emotional Impact of the Buildings Around   Us.” CNN Style. CNN. 20 Saxon Henry, “Daniel Libeskind on the Emotionality   of Architecture,” Architizer. https://architizer.  com/blog/practice/materials/daniel-  libeskind-on-the-emotionality-of-  architecture/21 Shaunacy Ferro, “Freedom Tower Architect Daniel   Libeskind: Ground Zero is very, very Close to   My Original Idea,” Fast Company, Oct 9,   2014.22 Creating Feeling with Frank Gehry. Short film. 37  Directed by Emile Rafael. Nowness, 2018.23 Susan Stamberg, 2015. Frank Gehry’s Lifelong   Challenge: To Create Buildings that Move.   Frank Gehry. NPR. (Radio).24 Ibid.25 Bringing Back Emotion and Intimacy in Architecture.   2016.26 Nigel Coates, Narrative Architecture, (Chichester,   West Sussex: Wiley, 2012) 80.27 Pascal Schöning and Architectural Association (Great   Britain), Manifesto for a Cinematic   Architecture, (London, [England]: AA   Publications, 2006) 22.28 Ibid. 27.29 Daniel Libeskind, 2017. “We Mustn’t Forget the   Emotional Impact of the Buildings Around   Us.”30 Giuliana Bruno, Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art,   Architecture, and Film, (New York: Verso,   2002) 7.31 Fionnuala Hannigan, Filmcraft: Production Design.   (New York: Routledge, 2013). 8.32 Ibid. 8.33 Jane Barnwell, Production Design: Architects of the   Screen, (London; New York: Wallflower,   2004) 8.34 “Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions.” Six Seconds.,   accessed December 2, 201935 Vincent LoBrutto, The Filmmaker’s Guide to   Production Design, (New York: Allworth   Press, 2002) 77.36 Barnwell, Production Design: Architects of the   Screen, 54.37 Color Theory in Film - Color Psychology for Directors:   Ep 5. Video. Produced by Studio Binder.   2018.38 Joker Cinematographer Explains the Impact of Color   in Film. Video, Sher, Lawrence, Vanity Fair.39 Wes Anderson on the Colors and Ratios of ‘the   Grand Budapest Hotel. Video. Produced by   Deadline Hollywood. 2015.40 Emma R. Mead. “Cam.” Emma Rose Mead,   Production Design. https://emmarosemead.  com/CAM-Feature-Film.41 Lara Thompson, Film Light: Meaning and Emotion,   (Manchester: Manchester University Press,   2015) 76.42 Laws of Light: How Light Conveys Emotion. Video.   Directed by Jay P. Morgan. The Slanted Lens, 2017.3843 Barnwell, Production Design: Architects of the   Screen, 58-59.44 Vincent LoBrutto, By Design: Interviews with Film   Production Designers, (New York: Praeger,   1992) 70.39Chapter 2 | Precedents40Cinema & ArchitectureFor the premise of the design portion of my project, I wanted to look at spaces that were or are affected by film. The first two precedents I look at in this section are the abandoned film sets of a town called Spectre in Montgomery, Alabama which was made for the film Big Fish (2003) and the Hawthorne Plaza Mall in Hawthorne, CA which was featured in many film and television shows.  These pose two different strategies, one built for the purpose of a film and the other repurposed from an already abandoned building.  Yet both have had the same fate, being abandoned.The other project I regarded was the proposed Pinewoods Studios in Buckinghamshire, England.  The project was an ambitious union of mixed use and film sets.  It featured around “1,500 homes and features a series of streets representing cities including New York, Paris and Venice”45  It brought of the idea of what happens when the façade of cities built for film were actually occupied and became a community of its own.These two concepts address the question I propose in the design approach portion of my proposal: How can I revitalize an abandoned space used for film?Image Sources: “Eerie Photos of Abandoned Malls.” CBS News., accessed Dec 10, 2019, https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/eerie-photos-empty-shopping-malls-abandoned-stores/24/.Matthews, Lauren. “This Enchanting Southern Town was Built for a Movie (and Never Torn Down).” Country Living. https://www.countryliving.com/life/entertainment/a37949/big-fish-spectre/.“Teen Wolf Filming Locations.” Seeing Stars., accessed Dec 10, 2019, https://www.seeing-stars.com/Locations/TeenWolf/Mall.shtml.“Westworld Filming Locations.” Seeing Stars., accessed Dec 10, 2019, https://www.seeing-stars.com/locations/Westworld/ColdStorage.shtml.Waite, Richard. “Living on a Film Set: Arup Reveals Pinewood Proposals.” Architect’s Journal., last modified Jun 4, accessed Nov 19, 201941Town of Spectre | MONTGOMERY, ALFigure 18.“This Enchanting Southern Town was Built for a Movie (and Never Torn Down).” Country Living.PhotoRedacted42Hawthonre Plaza Mall | HAWTHORNE, CAWestworld, HBOFigure 19.Images from(Top)“Westworld Filming Locations.” Seeing Stars.(Bottom) “Eerie Photos of Abandoned Malls.” CBS NewsPhotoRedacted43Pinewoods Studio | BURLAND TMFigure 20.Images from Living on a Film Set: Arup Reveals Pinewood Proposals.”44CinemaFor cinematic precedents, I elected to investigate films within the horror and psychological thriller genre.  The reasoning for this being the precise way sets and production design are as much a character in the narrative as the actor.  Horror and Psychological Thrillers apply light, colour and formation in unique ways that make the set architecturally and cinematically intriguing.The cinematic piece I wanted to observe is the Netflix series The Haunting of Hill House.  In particular the episode 5, “The Bent Neck Lady,” and episode 6, “Two Storms.”  In episode five, the character Nell deals with the trauma of having grown up in the haunted house dealing with the notions of fantasy and reality.  She struggles with the happiness in her life with the over looming sense of fear and depression that follow her through series of tragedies.  The production design and cinematography of one scene in particular draws and uncanny line between love and uneasiness.  As Nell confronts her demons she returns to the haunted house only to be shown hallucinations of her love ones resulting with her dancing with her deceased husband through the decrepit home.  The audience is shown the duality in her mind through in the interchanging of what Nell sees (her beautiful warm dance) and what is really there (the cold old house).45Figure 21.Analyzed scene from The Haunting of Hill House episode 5 “The Bent Neck Lady”WHAT IS INSIDE NELL’S HEAD WHAT IS IN THE “REALITY” OF THE NARRATIVESEASON 1 EPISODE 5“THE BENT-NECK LADY”OF THE HAUNTING OF HILL HOUSE46 Following episode five, episode six “Two Storms” is set in the past and in the present.  This episode is not only a narrative peak but a cinematic accomplishment.  It consists of approximately two to three 20-minute one-shots within the 60-minute time frame.  One of the shots simultaneously and seemingly goes from the present in a funeral home to the present in the aforementioned Hill House.  The production designer, Patricio M. Farrell, had built the two-story house in a sound-stage in Atlanta, Georgia.  Not like an ordinary home, Farrell had to consider camera, cranes, and multitude of people that had to move not only on camera but off, a stage for a well-choreographed dance.The Haunting of Hill House aides as an example to a set design for a similar type of series I propose for the film portion of the site I will propose.  As well as being an example of the techniques I speak about in the field of inquiry and how I can apply them.Source: The Haunting of Hill House. Mini Series. Directed by Mike Flanagan. Netflix, 2018. 47Hill HouseMorturaryPath of the CameraFigure 23.Analyzed one shot from The Haunting of Hill House episode 6 “Two Storms”Figure 22.Floor plan based on the long shot from The Haunting of Hill House episode 6 “Two Storms”48ArchitectureFor architectural precedents, I decided to look at different typologies that associate with emotions that deal with joy and serenity.In projects concerning joy, I looked into the Goat Farm Arts Center in Atlanta, Georgia.  This project was designed by Smith Dalia Architect and “has been a low-key arts center since the 1970s”46.  The Goat Farm has been home to the industrial age, ammunition and mortar evolving then to housing for the arts and “evocative sets for TV and film.”47 As a place of joy and expression it was an ideal example as well as being and exploration for repurposed architecture and a baseline for duality on a site: war and peace.For serenity, I decided to focus on healing, specifically mental health.  The Nuuk’s Psychiatric Clinic designed by White Arkitekter is a psychiatric clinic that “emphasizes nature in mental health design.”48 Located in Greenland it is a 35,521 square-foot design that utilizes the natural beauty of the landscape to connect with the clinic’s atmosphere.  It aims to for a “calm, healing environment” and raises the questions: “can architects successfully design a space that has an overall positive influence on the healing process? What integrated elements of the building, in particular, aid in the process while fighting the prejudice and stigma of mental health issues?”49White Arkitekter use of natural and intentional actions towards connecting with the landscape as well as the use of materials is a great precedent incorporating the aspects of psychology, as a space for mental health and healing.Joy and serenity can bring places a sense of where “the built atmosphere in which we live has a profound impact on our mood and well-being.”These projects bring options and opportunities to design for joy and serenity as well as being the dual side to the post-film site I will propose.Image Sources: “The Goat Farm.” Smith Dalia., accessed Dec 10, 2019Duddy, Lindsay. “White Arkitekter’s Design for Nuuk’s Psychiatric Clinic Emphasizes Nature in Mental Health Design.” Arch Daily., last modified Nov 3, accessed Dec 10, 2019, 49Goat Farm Arts Center | SMITH DALIA ARCHITECTFigure 24.Images from “The Goat Farm.” Smith Dalia.50Nuuk’s Psychiatric Clinic | WHITE ARKITEKTERFigure 25.“White Arkitekter’s Design for Nuuk’s Psychiatric Clinic Emphasizes Nature in Mental Health Design.” Arch Daily.51ENDNOTES45 Waite, Richard. “Living on a Film Set: Arup Reveals   Pinewood Proposals.” Architect’s Journal.,   last modified Jun 4, accessed Nov 19, 2019,   https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/news/  search-begins-for-architect-to-restore-the-mac/  www.architectsjournal.co.uk/living-on-a-film-set-  arup-reveals-pinewood-proposals/5202998.article.46 “The Goat Farm.” Smith Dalia., accessed Dec 10, 2019,   https://www.smithdalia.com/the-goat-farm/.47 Ibid.48 Duddy, Lindsay. “White Arkitekter’s Design for Nuuk’s   Psychiatric Clinic Emphasizes Nature in Mental   Health Design.” Arch Daily., last modified Nov 3,   accessed Dec 10, 2019, https://www.archdaily.  com/906440/white-arkitekters-design-for-  nuuks-psychiatric-clinic-emphasizes-the-  relationship-between-architecture-nature-and-  mental-health.49 Ibid.52PART II:Design Project53Chapter 3 | Design Approach54In this portion, I look into the relationship between architectural experiences and emotional responses.  I observe the cinematic space; whose purpose is to evoke a spectrum of emotions through the storytelling narrative.  Architectural design can benefit from looking through the lens of film techniques such as lighting, colour, and spatial relationships within a composition better understand atmosphere and the experience of its inhabitants.Early ExplorationsThis process began with the exploring of the relationship between space and emotions.  I sketched and wrote out initial feelings and words that associate with certain emotions such as fear, sadness, joy, anger, and calm.   Furthermore, I used a “simple box” to represent a constant and then visualized them into abstract forms within and around those boxes.After examining those five emotions, I applied them to the three aspects of colour, light and space.55GRIEFANXIET Y SERENIT YFear/AnxietySadness/GriefJoy/ExcitementAngerCalmFigure 26.Sketches exploring 5 emotions56SPACEGRIEFANXIET Y SERENIT YCOLOURLIGHTGRIEFANXIET Y SERENIT YGRIEFANXIET Y SERENIT YFigure 27.Explorations of the three aspects of Space, Colour, and Light57From the former part of the design approach, I then narrowed down my 5 explorations to 3 distinct emotions and then asked various peers to describe this space as if they were feeling this emotion.  Beginning the process of visualizing and translating these words into physical spaces.58ANXIETYANXIETYGRIEFGRIEFSERENITYSERENITYSmaller“Melting to the ground”Not noticeableNooksO the beaten path“Exposed”DarkCreepyLow visibilityUnknownDirtyLostPeacefulStillWarmthSoothingPastelWhiteCleanFigure 28.Explorations of spatial Anxiety.59ANXIETYANXIETYGRIEFGRIEFSERENITYSERENITYSmaller“Melting to the ground”Not noticeableNooksO the beaten path“Exposed”DarkCreepyLow visibilityUnknownDirtyLostPeacefulStillWarmthSoothingPastelWhiteCleanFigure 29.Explorations of spatial Grief.60ANXIETYANXIETYGRIEFGRIEFSERENITYSERENITYSmaller“Melting to the ground”Not noticeableNooksO the beaten path“Exposed”DarkCreepyLow visibilityUnknownDirtyLostPeacefulStillWarmthSoothingPastelWhiteCleanFigure 30.Explorations of spatial Serenity.61 The Physical Site Coquitlam, BCWhen Looking for a site and thinking about film, I began to wonder if production design and architecture can benefit from one another, especially here in Vancouver.Vancouver has been the backdrop for many film and television shows throughout the year, bringing in a revenue of about $1 billion dollars per year50.  With many  productions in circulation every year, there are millions of places around Vancouver used and created for film sets, as seen in figure 31.With so many places in use and in creation, it brings the question: Where and what locations can film productions use?  What are the limitations for a film set?62Figure 31.Map of Vancouver with film locations were shot overlaid on top.63One of the sites that intrigued me the most was Riverview Hospital in Coquitlam, about a 30 minute drive from Vancouver.  It is one of the most used locations in the film industry here as well as having a rich history within itself.The Riverview Hospital, located on the traditional Kwikkwetlem territory in Coquitlam, BC, was a mental health facility under the BC Mental Health & Addiction Services during the time of its close in 2012.Originally call the Essondale Hospital it was one of the first mental hospitals in BC during the early 1900s.  Growing throughout the years into a vast 244 acres with its last patient moved out in 2012 and officially closed.  The large site of the hospital houses about eight main buildings.  Throughout history though some of the sections and buildings have been discontinued and abandoned due to changes in the role of the hospital and the BC government deeming the hospital “outdated and dilapidated”51.  Placement of the discontinued buildings in context with other buildings on the campus can be seen in figure 33.Through it closed, many people still walk its grounds and use its buildings, whether they be locals taking a jog or tourist admiring its trees and buildings.64Burnaby MountainConservation AreaPort Moody CoquitlamPort CoquitlamMuddy ParkGatesParkColony FarmRegional ParkRobert BurnabyParkBurnaby LakeFraser River0 200m 500m 1000m 2000mNFigure 32. Area Map of Lower Coquitlam with Riverview Hospital highlighted.Figure 33. Site Context Map of the Riverview Hospital Campus. Majority of the Abandoned Buildings are used as film sets. Building 5, the Crease Clinic, comprises the area selected for the project.  Some buildings in use are currently Mental Health facilities9 - BC Ambulance Service10 - Dogwood Credit Union11 - Administration12 - Fernwood Lodge15 - Unit 613 - Unit 514 - Cottage 116 - BC Ambulance Service17 - Transportation Garage18 - Roadside19 - Leeside20 - Old Fire Hall21 - Boiler House22 - Central SuppliesSocial ServicesMaintenance23 - Holly Drive Cottages24 - Oak Terrance Cottages25 - Bakerview Cottages26 - North Lawn27 - Unit 828 - Brookside29 - Hillside30 - Connolly Lodge31 - Cottonwood Lodge32 - Cypress Lodge33 - Auditorium/ Daycare34 - Healing Spirit HouseResidencesFacilitiesIn-UseDiscontinued and Abandoned Buildings1 - Penn Hall2 - West Lawn3 - Centre Lawn4 - Crease Cafeteria5 - Crease Unit6 - East Lawn7 - Industrial Services8 - Henry Esson Young Building35 - Valleyview Lodge37 - Cottage 336 - Cottage 2To Fraser RiverTo VancouverResidentialForested AreaFinnie’s Garden3547682191011 1215131416353736202118191722262324252734282930313233CemeteryCoquitlam, BCVancouver, BCPacic OceanNMap of British ColumbiaN65Figure 34.Images from Riverview Hospital: A Legacy of Care & Compassion (British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services, 2009)66Figure 35.Images from Riverview Hospital: A Legacy of Care & Compassion (British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services, 2009)Holly DriveSundew DriveLawn DriveThyme Drive Thistle Place      Kerrina Drive      Clover Street                                                Lawn Drive      Sorrel Street                             Holly Drive            Holly Drive           Holly Drive      Iris Crescent        Orchid Drive                                                              Oak Crescent         Oak CrescentBoxwood Drive         Boxwood DriveLawn DriveSage PlaceHolly DriveClover StreetClover StreetFern Terrance      Fern Terrance      Fern Terrance         Holly Drive            Thyme DriveLilac PlaceChampion WayThistle PlaceViolet Way     Kerria Drive             Kerria Drive                 Birch Crescent  Champion Way      Orchid DriveOak CrescentSundew DriveRose WayPine TerranceChampion WayPalm TerranceRiverview Crescent                           Chiko DriveCape Horn Avenue       Holly DriveLougheed Highway                 British Columbia Highway 7                           Lougheed Highway                 British Columbia Highway 7Pitt River RoadNSITE PLAN 1:3000Crease ClinicExisting Information - Constructed: 1930Floors: 4Square Feet: 90,992 sq. ft.Original Use:  WWI Veterans ClinicCurrent Use: Frequent Filming Location for various ProductionsNTreesCemeteryFinnie’s GardenRiver20 200m50 1000     Coquitlam River                   Coquitlam River                       Coquitlam River                        Coquitlam River67Holly DriveSundew DriveLawn DriveThyme Drive Thistle Place      Kerrina Drive      Clover Street                                                Lawn Drive      Sorrel Street                             Holly Drive            Holly Drive           Holly Drive      Iris Crescent        Orchid Drive                                                              Oak Crescent         Oak CrescentBoxwood Drive         Boxwood DriveLawn DriveSage PlaceHolly DriveClover StreetClover StreetFern Terrance      Fern Terrance      Fern Terrance         Holly Drive            Thyme DriveLilac PlaceChampion WayThistle PlaceViolet Way     Kerria Drive             Kerria Drive                 Birch Crescent  Champion Way      Orchid DriveOak CrescentSundew DriveRose WayPine TerranceChampion WayPalm TerranceRiverview Crescent                           Chiko DriveCape Horn Avenue       Holly DriveLougheed Highway                 British Columbia Highway 7                           Lougheed Highway                 British Columbia Highway 7Pitt River RoadNSITE PLAN 1:3000Crease ClinicExisting Information - Constructed: 1930Floors: 4Square Feet: 90,992 sq. ft.Original Use:  WWI Veterans ClinicCurrent Use: Frequent Filming Location for various ProductionsNTreesCemeteryFinnie’s GardenRiver20 200m50 1000     Coquitlam River                   Coquitlam River                       Coquitlam River                        Coquitlam RiverFigure 36.Site map of the Riverview Hospital Campus with an emphasis on the Crease Clinic Building68Founda�on       FairBasement Condi�on  GoodSuperstructure FairExterior Walls FairExterior Windows PoorExterior Doors GoodIndustrial Doors FairRoofing FairPar��on FairInterior Doors GoodCasework PoorStairs FairFinishes (Wall, Floor, Ceiling) PoorElevator (x1) PoorPlumbing PoorAccording to the Building Conditions Assessment (2013) provided by BC Housing for the Renewing Riverview Hospital Project,  Crease Clinic is condemned by the Facility Condition Index (FCI) as critical at 67%EXTERIOR INTERIORYet it is still occupied, primarily by lm productions with an average of 150-300 people per production (cast and crew).NAccording to the Building Conditions Assessment (2013) provided by BC Housing for the Renewing Riverview Hospital Project,  “Crease Clinic was constructed in phases starting in 1914. The west wing was constructed in 1934. In 1949 the building doubled in s ze with the add tion of the east wing. Crease Clinic is a four-story reinforced concrete structure” and is condemned by the Facility Condition Index (FCI) as critical at 67%52.EXTERIOR INTERIORYet it is still occupied, primarily by film productions with an average of 150-300 people per production (cast and crew).Figure 37. Existing floor plan of Crease Clinic.HospitalUniversity CampusMilitary BaseHistorical SettingApartmentsLocations that Crease Clinic has been masked asAs Vancouver began to develop as “North Hollywood”, Riverview Hospital, especially Crease Clinic, became an ideal lming location for numerous productions.  Film productions that have used Crease ClinicThe Magicians The FlashPsych Psych: The MovieSupernatural The Buttery EectThe 100 ArrowStargate SG-1 Stargate AtlantisiZombie SalvationLegends of Tomorrow SupergirlThe X-Files Battlestar GalaticaFringe Van HelsingTimeless A Christmas Story 2Deadpool Deadpool 2Riverdale Romeo Must DieJennifer’s Body Altered CarbonDark Angel LegionAlcatraz CapricaTru Calling WatchmenThe InBetween Motherland: Fort SalemBatwoman Bletchley Circle: San FranciscoCharmed (2018) Man in the HighcastleDirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency  etc.Due to the many lm productions using the Riverview campus, Riverview uses its revenue to revitalize the buildings and its grounds.Its future goal is to renovate the condemned and abandoned buildings to become safe and habitable again.N69HospitalUniversity CampusMilitary BaseHistorical SettingApartmentsLocations that Crease Clinic has been masked asAs Vancouver began to develop as “North Hollywood”, Riverview Hospital, especially Crease Clinic, became an ideal lming location for numerous productions.  Film productions that have used Crease ClinicThe Magicians The FlashPsych Psych: The MovieSupernatural The Buttery EectThe 100 ArrowStargate SG-1 Stargate AtlantisiZombie SalvationLegends of Tomorrow SupergirlThe X-Files Battlestar GalaticaFringe Van HelsingTimeless A Christmas Story 2Deadpool Deadpool 2Riverdale Romeo Must DieJennifer’s Body Altered CarbonDark Angel LegionAlcatraz CapricaTru Calling WatchmenThe InBetween Motherland: Fort SalemBatwoman Bletchley Circle: San FranciscoCharmed (2018) Man in the HighcastleDirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency  etc.Due to the many lm productions using the Riverview campus, Riverview uses its revenue to revitalize the buildings and its grounds.Its future goal is to renovate the condemned and abandoned buildings to become safe and habitable again.NAs Vancouver began to develop as “North Hollywood”, Riverview Hospital, especially Crease Clinic, became an ideal filming location for numerous productions.  Crease Clinic has been masked as many different typologies such as a hospital, a university campus, a military base, a historical setting, apartments, ect.Due to the many film productions using the Riverview campus, Riverview uses its revenue to revitalize the buildings nd its grounds.  Its future goal is to renovate the condemned and abandoned buildings to become safe and habitable again.Film productions that have used Crease ClinicJennifer’s Body Altered CarbonDark Angel LegionAlcatraz CapricaTru Calling WatchmenThe InBetween Motherland: Fort SalemBatwoman Bletchley Circle: San FranciscoCharmed (2018) Man in the HighcastleDirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agencyetc.Figure 38. Modified floor plan of Crease Clinic.70ENDNOTES50 “Filmed in Vancouver.” Tourism Vancouver., accessed Dec 7, 2019, https://www.tourismvancouver.com/vancouver/filmed-in-vancouver/51 Riverview Hospital: A Legacy of Care &; Compassion 2010. British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services.52 Building Condition Assessment Report, PDF document (British Columbia, Coquitlam, 2013).71Chapter 4 | Project72The Cinematic SiteFor the latter part of the design approach,  the main focus of the project became the “renovation” of East Wing.  Due to the repetitive style in the plans, I chose to focus on one wing assuming that the other wing would reflect the same plan in the renovation.  This “renovation” project would assume the film industry as the user and assist in ways to create a transformative space using architectural design interventions to support the cinematic space and narrative.  With the intentions of keeping some of the previous structure, I intend to experiment using the same techniques used to create a journey of anxiety to grief and finally to serenity.When speaking with a production designer who frequently uses this location, the list on the following page were some spatially programing that was felt that was needed.  That determined the plan in figure 38.By widening the hallways and doorways I am able to fit multiple people in one area, such as the boom, the grip, the camera man and others besides the “actor”.Furthermore, I included two more elevators near the existing staircases for easier circulation and access.  I also assigned designated “backstage areas” near these circulation cores.I also generated opportunities for “wilding walls”, a term used in production design to describe movable partitions, to be added and removed to create different atmospheres.For the remainder of the project I created a hypothetical film narrative to guide and support the design choices I made.  By looking through a narrative lens and requirements needed for film production, I determined how could this be possible in the space I allocated for this project.  One possibility that I have added to the narrative storyboard is the ability to do a “one shot”.  A one shot allows for continuous movement of the scene and camera that a regular shot that does not have.  It permits the audience to see more of the physical space.  The path of the camera that depicts this one shot is highlighted in figure 40.73 The NarrativeThe narrative is of a woman’s time spent from anxiety to acceptance.  She goes through her days experiencing a groundhog’s day effect, repeating the same routine, the same interactions in the same place.  In the duration of her stay and story she begins to look deep within herself, first refusing then reluctantly.  Finally leading to her accepting herself and ultimately being comfortable in her own skin. Even through the narrative setting is the same I wanted the physical surroundings to reflect her internal conflict.74scene 1scene 2scene 3 SerenityRoom Residence Hall Main Hall OceGrief- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares then turns to go into room- A moves towards wall... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shotAnxiety- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares then turns to look over balcony- A moves towards window... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shot- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares, smiles then turns to go into open space- A moves towards open space... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shotRequirements for Film ProductionsProduction crews can vary from 150 to 300 people at a timeSpatial/AtmosphericWider doorsMore elevatorsEasier circulationModular setsAbility for multiple looksControl of lightingProgrammatic“Video Village”CostumingMake-Up and HairGreen roomsStorageWashroomsNarrative for Designa hypothetical lm narrative to be used in the exploration of the spaceFigure 39. Storyboard of the hypothetical narrative created to explore the space.75Filming AreasBackstage Areas - Video Village - Green Room - Hair / Make-Up - CostumesServices - Stairs / Elevators - WCPath of camera for the narrativeCamera that coincides with the storyboardscene 1scene 2scene 3Nscene 1scene 2scene 3 SerenityRoom Residence Hall Main Hall OceGrief- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares then turns to go into room- A moves towards wall... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shotAnxiety- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares then turns to look over balcony- A moves towards window... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shot- A moves from bed to door - Other in-patient stares, smiles then turns to go into open space- A moves towards open space... - ... then moves towards oce doorCut to doctor waiting for ACam. follows subject for one-shotRequirements for Film ProductionsProduction crews can vary from 150 to 300 people at a timeSpatial/AtmosphericWider doorsMore elevatorsEasier circulationModular setsAbility for multiple looksControl of lightingProgrammatic“Video Village”CostumingMake-Up and HairGreen roomsStorageWashroomsNarrative for Designa hypothetical lm narrative to be used in the exploration of the spaceFigure 40. Modified floor plan sectioned off to the focused areas of the project with programmatic labeling and the path of the camera noted.76 3 Scenes Exploring the emotions of anxiety, grief, and serenity   through architectural interventions.When looking at the East Wing space, I intentionally center the project on the top floors of the building.  I wanted to keep the lower floors intact with its original plans for productions who want to use them or people to view the original space.  Continuing onto the project, I split and concentrate on the 2 designated areas looking at the different opportunities each space brings with the different movements of the walls and ceiling/floor.For each scene I first created a mood board with images that acted as precedents for each scene.  The mood boards consisted of four different areas: colour scheme, materials, composition and lighting.Due to copyrights, I am inclined not to have them shown within this book.77scene 1AnxietyFor the Scene 1: Anxiety mood board, I was inspired by compositions that showed the subject being centered yet off centers, especially scenes that utilize the dolly zoom.  A dolly zoom being a technique that happens when the subject is still, but the surrounding is being zoomed on.  It is reminiscent of a never-ending hallway.  Other compositions also included forced perspectives and symmetry.  When deciding the colour scheme, I wanted the feeling to be “sickly and murky” and revolve around greens tones with slight yellow undertones.  In regard to lighting, I looked to subjects being back lit, textured lights that created patterns and being underexposed.  Finally, when that was determined I chose to think of materials in the same vain with tiles being prominent.In this scene, I wanted most if not all the walls in place in the position I called closed.  The walls used for this scene are ideally partitions with windows in them to create textured shadows.  For this scene especially, I wanted to create an opportunity to have a wall and then be moved for the intention of the camera to be allowed to swing around the subject and still capture the closeness of the space.78PLANNLevel 1 - Scene 1AREA 2AREA 1Moveable WallPLANNLevel 2 - Scene 1Moveable WallFigure 41. Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.Figure 42. Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines.79SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 43. Section through Area 1.80SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 44. Section through Area 2.81AREA 1 AREA 2Inducing ANXIETY through architectural interventionAREA 1 AREA 2Inducing ANXIETY through architectural interventionStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsSliding Floor System Movable Wall System Structural SystemIn the wall detail I have one of the elements in place so it can support the “wilding wall” via magnetic strips.  Yet the other element closed with a cover and a slight ramp on it for the wall to be rolled out of the way.The ceiling/floor detail was inspired by floor that cover pools and are able to be stood upon.  The tracks are embedded in a custom concrete slab.  The wood floor also supports a grid system where lights or materials can be added, similar to a theatrical grid used commonly in theatres. Figure 45. Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.82Heavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood paced in-between columns supported by U-bracket @ each endSloped piece with magnetized bottomfor easy removal during filming 1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingePartition/”Wild Wall”provided by Film ProductionSloped piece with magnetized bottomfor easy removal during filming1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingeWood encased in metal frame to act as a footer or to be concealed by material determined by Film ProductionHeavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood encased in metal frame to act as a footer or to be concealed by material determined by Film ProductionFigure 46. Wall Detail.83Concrete Slab FloorMetal TrackWheels connected to Sliding FloorWood Sliding FloorMetal Grid to attach detachable ceilingCeiling PieceFigure 47. Floor Detail.Figure 48. Floor to Column Detail84Figure 49. Anxiety Render of Area 1.85scene 2GriefFor the Scene 2: Grief mood board, I was inspired by compositions that showed the subject being isolated either being prominent on one side of the screen or being filmed from a far to create distance. When deciding the colour scheme, I wanted the feeling to be cold and revolve around cool tones light deep blues and gray violets with hints of green undertones.  In regard to lighting, I looked to scenes with single source lighting, opportunities where a strong split light can be used, and times of high contrast can be scene.  Finally, when that was determined I chose to think of materials in the same vain with cold materials being alluded to and prominent, for one element glass intrigued me and illicit a fishbowl feeling.For this scene, I wanted some all the walls in place in the position I called mid.  The walls ideally put in place are glass dividers that are partially opaque.86PLANNLevel 1 - Scene 2AREA 2AREA 1Moveable WallPLANNLevel 2 - Scene 2Moveable WallFigure 50. Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.Figure 51. Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray line.87SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 52. Section through Area 1.88SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 53. Section through Area 2.89AREA 1 AREA 2Inducing GRIEF through architectural interventionAREA 1 AREA 2Inducing GRIEF h ough architectural interventionStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsLike the previous scene I have the wall detail with the elements in place so it can support the “wilding wall” via magnetic strips.  Here it can be seen that both elements are being used.  Productions can also apply seals to cover the elements that match the textures being used in the scene.The same ceiling/floor detail is being shown but partially opened.  For this scene the ceiling is partially opened and has access to the skylight I placed in the attic so lighting from above could be utilized or if the production wants to add effects of a storm outside to be highlighted.Sliding Floor System Movable Wall System Structural SystemFigure 54. Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.90Heavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood paced in-between columns supported by U-bracket @ each endCover with magnetized bottoms1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingePartition/”Wild Wall”provided by Film ProductionCover with magnetized bottoms1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingeWood encased in metal frame to act as a footer or to be concealed by material determined by Film ProductionHeavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood encased in metal frame to act as a footer or to be concealed by material determined by Film ProductionFigure 55. Wall Detail.91Concrete Slab FloorMetal TrackWheels connected to Sliding FloorWood Sliding FloorMetal Grid to attach detachable ceilingCeiling PieceWood SheathingWall Finish CoverDetachableRailingFigure 56. Floor Detail.Figure 57. Floor to Column Detail92Figure 58. Grief Render of Area 1.93COLOUROrangesCreamsWarm TonesCOMPOSITIONJojo Rabbit (Left Top & Bottom)The Magicians - Writing Room (Top Middle)The Magicians - No Better to be Safe than Sorry (Bottom Middle)Joker (Right Top & Bottom)LIGHTINGSoft LightNaturalVibrantChimera PancakeMATERIALSWoodVegetationFrosted & Transparent GlassO white Gymscene 3SerenityFor the final scene, Scene 3: Grief, mood board I was inspired by compositions that had a sense of openness and at times balance in the scene.  Most scenes were either outside of allowed the outside in  When deciding the colour scheme, I wanted the feeling to be warm and revolve around warm tones like creams and oranges with specs of a spectrum of other colours.  In regard to lighting, I looked to scenes that utilized soft lighting, also favoring “natural” lighting to accentuate the vibrance of the colours used.  Finally, when that was determined I chose to think of materials in the same vain with natural materials like wood being alluded to and prominent, for one element I toyed around with having greenery via access to a green wall.For this scene, I wanted no walls, only the support system seen in the position I called open.  The walls ideally put in the storage areas I allocated for the set.94PLANNLevel 1 - Scene 3AREA 2AREA 1Moveable WallPLANNLevel 2 - Scene 3Moveable WallFigure 59. Modified 3rd floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray lines and indicating the 2 different areas.Figure 60. Modified 4th floor plan of Crease Clinic.  Indicating movable walls with gray line.95SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 61. Section through Area 1.96SECTION 1:100Modified Floors“Existing” FloorsFigure 62. Section through Area 2.97AREA 1 AREA 2Inducing SERENITY through architectural interventionAREA 1 AREA 2Inducing SERENITY through architectural interventionStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for Walls for quick change during filmingStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsStorage Area for WallsIn this wall detail I have the elements down and covered via magnetic strips.  There is a cover that is applied, and productions can mask them to that match the textures being used in the scene.The same ceiling/floor detail is shown being completely opened.  For this scene the ceiling is completely opened to the upper floor and has access to the skylight I placed in the attic so lighting from above could be utilized to bring in controlled “natural” light.  This also allows for a double height space to be operated in.  For example, a camera as room to be able to do a dynamic crane shot that goes between floors.Sliding Floor System Movable Wall System Structural SystemFigure 63. Diagrams of both areas highlighting the different systems.98Heavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood paced in-between columns supported by U-bracket @ each endCover with magnetized bottoms1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingeCover with magnetized bottoms1.5mm thickness Heavy Load stainless steel hingeWood encased in metal frameHeavy Duty Magnetic Strip in elbow of hingeWood encased in metal frameFigure 64. Wall Detail.99Concrete Slab FloorMetal TrackWheels connected to Sliding FloorWood Sliding FloorMetal Grid to attach detachable ceilingCeiling PieceWood SheathingWall Finish CoverFigure 65. Floor Detail.Figure 66. Floor to Column Detail100Figure 67. Serenity Render of Area 1.101 ConclusionAlthough I focused on specifically three emotions in a certain typology I feel this is an exploration that can continue on after this project.  The process and techniques I learned from architecture and production design and developed throughout this project can be applied to many situations.  In realizing the connection between the two I hope to introduce and continue on the conversation that bridges these fields together.In combining the aspects of psychology, film and architecture, I aspire to bring a greater understanding of one’s emotional response that one experiences in a piece of architecture or film, whether it be wonder, contempt, sadness, boredom, fear or stress. Thereby designing more deliberate and engaging environments in the future.Figure 68. Closing Collage.102BibliographyBarnwell, Jane. 2004. Production Design: Architects of the Screen. London; New York: Wallflower.Birren, Faber. 1969. 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