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Beyond Human eyes : Designing an immersive system to shape the future landscape Shen, Huihui 2020-05-10

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B e y o n d  H U M A N  E Y E SDesigning an immersive system to shape the fu-ture landscapeHuihui  Shen2020.05.10Submitted in par t ia l  ful f i l lment for theMaster of  Landscape Architecture,  School of  Architecture and Landscape Architec-ture,  Univers ity of  Br i t ish ColumbiaGPII  Chair :  Kees Lokman; Chair  of  Landscape Architecture program: Susan Herr ington2 3t a b l e  o f c o n t e n t0 3 P RO FAC E0 5 S TAT E M E N T0 61 82 93 1GA M I F I CAT I O NS T RAT E G YS T RAT E G YS E R I OUS  GA M E SS M A R T  E DUCAT I O NS M A R T  L A N DSCA P ECAS E  S T U D Y - S M A R T  CA M P USCAS E  S T U D Y - S M A R T  C I T YS T R E E TT R E E SPA R K I N GB I K E WAY S  A N D  G R E E N WAY ST RA N S P O R TAT I O N  2 0 4 OZ E RO  WAS T EG R E E N E S T  C I T Y  P ROJ E C TS M A R T  C I T YDATA  I N T E G RAT I O N  A N D  SA F E T YS T RAT E G Y  A N A LY S I S3 44 04 75 04 3S I T E - VA N COU V E R  DO W N T O W NVA N COU V E R  F U T U R E  C I T Y  P ROJ E C TB I B L I OG RA P H YL I S T  O F  F I GU R E SGA M E  S Y S T E M  D E S I G N  F RA M E W O R KModern technology has become a total phenomenon for civilization, the defining force of a new social order in which efficiency is no longer an optional but a necessity imposed on all human activity.                                                                           -Jacques EllulP r o f a c e4 5  People’s way of living have been undergoing drastic changes  due to the social environment and renovation of technology,of which the pedagogy and digital entertainments are two main components. Serious video games is one of the products of technology revolution. Those games are designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment.     Meanwhile, the rising concept of ‘smart city’ and related areas have built a bridge between digital world and real life. Data generated from real life and smart devices connect our living environment with online managing platforms, making urban planning system more efficient or even playful.       Serious video games , smart education and immersive technologies are among the most popular ones. However, it also takes away people’s attention from appreciating the natural world. Can a different approach of employing technology bring both playfulness and education purposes  to contemporary landscape architecture? This project aims to answer that question and show people a whole new perspective of approaching nature via emerging technologies. P r o j e c t  S t a t e m e n t Figure 1 Project illustration6 7P a r t 1  R e s e a r c h  &  c a s e  s t u d y8 9G A M I F I C A T I O N Gamification means the application of game elements and game contexts to non-game fields. Gamification strategies are commonly used for improving user engagement, learning purposes, business etc. In other words, gamification is an application of game dynamism and system to real-life problem-solving(Zichermann & Cunningham, 2011), many apps have successfully applied gamification strategy in the app design to drive people’s engagement and influence the behaviour of people, such as duolingo, eBay, Alipay.According to Gautam Amit, there are several levels of successful gamification strategy.1.Context /relevance and UI design In order to gain attention from users, an attractive user interface will make it easier for users to keep using the apps.2.Progress/ narrative.The story of gamification can’t end with just users logging in.   3.Intriguing environment.The bonus level. Competition Brief Introductioncan be a very big driver of the gaming system, either with players themselves or others. Gamified systems always use ranking charts, graphs, periodical reports to let users inspect their learning path or achievements.4.Reward system. Scores, badges and points are widely used as rewards to constantly make users feel positive. 5.Achievements.Games are mostly about achievements and the evaluations. Periodically achievements and evaluation can be good strategies . (Gautam, 2016)    Gamification has been proved to be quite useful in education field. There are potentials that it can be  the main stream in the future to educate people. Compare to traditional ways of education,  pedagogy based on gamification strategy have 6 major effects on users(as Figure 5 shows). (Alessandra, Roland,2019)Serious games are developed as an important application of gamification.Figure 2 Gamification DiagramFigure 3 Gamification Strategy Diagram10 11Figure 4 Gamification Effects in Education fieldS E R I O U S  G A M E SVideo games emerged in the 1950s. During that time, academic computer scientists design computer games as part of their academic research. It was not until during the 1980s that video games reaches mainstream popularity. Games such as Pac man, Mario are considered as classic video games and well known around the world during that time period.    The first educational video game was developed in mid 1970s called Logo. Later many educational video games were developed. However, the educational video games didn’t have vast market during that time, only school or other educational institutions would purchase those games. After the CD-ROM was invented in 1982, educational games grew rapidly.Serious games have been applied in different fields and are considered as an effective way. Educational theorist Gagne put forward a typology of processes which is necessary for effective game-based learning. The nine processes are: gaining the attention of the Brief Historyplayer; informing the player of the learning objectives; stimulating the player’s recall of prior learning; presenting the player with stimulus material; providing the player with guidance; eliciting player learning achievement; providing the player with feedback; assessing the player’s performance; and enhancing the retention and transfer of learned information. (Gagne, 2017) Those processes can be integrated with general gamification strategy to construct a more effective framework for serious games.Jim Gee says, all games are situational, complex problem-solving opportunities in which players are immersed in a culture and way of thinking. Games are the reflections and linkages of all the realistic problems. They can not only contextualize and situate learning.“(Gee JP, 2013 ) Thus, a good game design framework should situate itself in a real life condition and build the storyline accordingly. Players can identify and learn quicker through the cognitive game framework.12 13Figure 5 Serious Games Timeline(Information source: Mitgutsch, Konstantin,2011; Mildner, Philip, 2016)14 15Figure 6 Typology of Player Archetypes(Nicholas Sinkewicz, 2015)Figure 7 Typology of Game Themes (Nicholas Sinkewicz, 2015)S E R I O U S  G A M E SDesign Framework      Serious games design is intricate and agile. To design  serious games , the serious purpose of the game should be determined first.  The knowledge contents and game design strategy makes up the structure of the serious games. Entertainment is also an important component of the serious games to motivate people to continue playing the games.    The mechanics of gameplay design includes gameplay world, game themes,  game genres, AVATAR( the players’ game self) and player controller. Figure 8 Serious Game ComponentFigure 9 Serious Game Design Component16 17Case StudyAnt forest is project launched on the Alipay mobile app. It has received a 2019 Champions of the Earth award by United Nation for motivating people to reduce their carbon foot print that can result in real trees planted in places that suffer from environmental degradation. Relating personal activities with carbon foot prints, it acts as a personal carbon account by providing social activity services. Each user can get green energy by actions such as pay utilities online and taking public transportation. As the green energy accumulates to a certain points, an actual tree will be planted in the arid areas in China. The users can view the images of their trees by the real-time satellite. In addition, they can set certain areas as conservation on ant forest platform, which can provoke their thoughts in real life nature conserving solutions and help improve poor people’s life. Ant forest also collaborates with different online service platforms so that the ways to gain green energy are diversified.(UN Environment Programme,2019) Ant Forest shows the potential that digital technology can influence people’s behavior and shape future landscape and urban form. The System that incorporate environmental green deeds into an entertaining system successfully applies the gamification strategy.Figure 10 Dessert arial photo before & after the game(Quicktech website, Accessed 2019)A N T  F O R E S T18 19Figure 11 Gamification Strategy of Ant Forest Rapid urban development and severe environmental problems exert a complex pressure on contemporary urban planners,architects and landscape architects.  Ever since Internet is invented, almost everything can be connected to the internet. Internet that can always update data make people monitor and manage things efficiently. The concept of ‘smart city’ gradually comes out as a system that collects environmental data automatically and help people manage the urban areas efficiently and precisely. Based on the environment(input data)-icloud collecting-people (response)-manage system , smart city system uses data as medium.(Sergio, Jose, 2019)Those data usually includes real-time data streams from urban infrastructures, sensors networks and other online platform related to urban services. Smart City projects usually includes different scales, from community, district to city scales or even bigger. Regenerative urban system, smart waste management, updated urban planning. Smart City usually integrates with ICT infrastructure and technologies to help manage the city and the transformation of digital urban system. The major smart city technologies are as follows:1.Big data and IoT City lighting. City lighting can function as wifi hotspot, air quality measuring machine, charging station for electronic devices. The multifunctional street lighting system works not only as an actuator, but also a sensor, they improve citizens living qualities while collecting data for future city development.Waste Management. Smart technologies are also applied in waste management to provide a cleaner environment. Buildings in Songdo District have smart garbage stations that can classify the garbage bags and  send trash bags to recycling center automatically through high pressure pipes when it’s full. Public transport. Sensors in public transport like stations, buses and trains can send real time data to transportation management center.2. Sensors. Sensors are needed in every  smart city infrastructure. From cars, traffic lights to smart homes, all devices use sensors as a way to connect physical worlds to IoT and collect data.3. Connectivity between devices. The technology of connecting billions of smart devices and sensors is necessary when synthesizing data. The connections with different devices make the data sample more reliable and generate more accurate results.4.Geospatial technology. Urban planning and developing decision depends on accurate geographical data and accurate geolocation of the cities. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Information System (GIS) are two widely used geospatial technologies. Engineers and planners use those systems to make urban planning such zoning,street and bike lane design more precisely.5. Robotics. Urban robotic system can help the city operate in high efficiency. For example, drones can be used for postal services. Automatic cars and buses can reduce traffic jam and carbon emissions. Cities such as Singapore and Tokyo use humanoid robots to help with hotel services and survilliances.(HERE mobility,2019)WalkPersonal growth in the systemGamication StrategyTravel by public transportationBook tickets onlineOnline Service Booking Points Visual Green Energy Visual TreesCollaboration between UsersCerticatesLove TreesCharts Level goes upBonusBadgePeriodical evaluationFamily TreesFriendship TreesReal TreesNature Reserves establishedCarbon emission Recorded TransferPay utilities onlineOther low carbon activities7.92 million tons carbon emission reducedMany platforms such as Starbucks, Burberry-and Burger King are actively involved.Green energy comsumedVisual trees consumed122 billion trees plant-ed in the desertS m a r t  c i t y20 21Figure 12 Smart city mechanics (Vinueza, Paola, 2018)Based on Serious gamesNowadays, the way people learn things is more and more tech-centric. Learning process becomes visual, auditory, kinesthetic,  tactile and interactive. Gaining knowledge from class and text books is only one of the many choices that people have. At the same time, the knowledge and skills which the society requires update constantly with the development of the cities. Smart education is an important component in smart city projects It is “a model of learning adapted to new generations of digital natives.”(Redazione, 2018)Compared to traditional teaching methods, smart education ecosystem is more interactive, adaptive based on students’ interests and performances. Therefore,its requires a smart deployment of digital education ecosystem.Annika Wolff from the Open University in the UK has developed an approach of Urban Data Games (UDG). (Wolff, Annika, 2015)The games are based on principles of narrative,inquiry and game-based learning. In the game, players need to tackle a given challenge based on real urban data sets. The goal of the game is to engage participants in the real urban problem solving and develop their skills needed to tackle issues. The game includes two stages: learning stage and problem solving stage. During the learning stage, students work on data processing activities as a training course. After the skills are developed, students are asked to use them to deal with the challenges given.S m a r t  e d u c a t i o n22 23Figure 13 Smart education diagram (Khlaif, Zuheir, 2018)   Smart landscape, which means smart human landscape, see landscape as a complex system that involves smart economy, smart governance, smart mobility, smart living and so on. It can provide innovative bottom-up processes, developing models for landscape intelligent management. The concept is to put people at the centre and use renovated technology according to social and ecological context. The applications of those micro-actions are based on social innovation, local knowledge, creative-development models, new technologies and infrastructure systems. The smart domains that include smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, smart governance, are closely related to landscape design. Successful smart landscape design should be able to reduce resource consumption, conserve cultural and environmental assets, while at the same time building synergies between nature and human through technologies.(Cerreta, Maria,2016)S m a r t  l a n d s c a p e24 25Figure 14 Smart Landscape IllustrationFigure 15 Digital Landscape Collage  In the future, people’s daily life might become part of the gaming system, or even the whole city is part of the game. Data, as the core component of the whole system, is visualized, synthesized, experimented and regenerated through the process.-A proposed gaming system, Validate learning outcome: The gaming system can help shape the future of Vancouver through shifting people’s way of living and thoughts of greenest city. The input big data and knowledge about environmental issues and other related areas in the game system educate people through the process of gaming play. Greener lifestyle in Vancouver requires the renovation of urban infrastructure and city re-planning. Eventually, the game catalyzes a better city scape based on the greenest city project proposed by city of Vancouver.-Validate gameplay: The 3D world designed for the gaming system is based on real world of Vancouver. Augmented Reality technology is used to build the connections between digital gaming world with real world. The player will participate in the game as the first person controller without an avatar(the ). The player archetypes of the game is a mixture of stealther, tradeskiller and learner. Players in the game finish set daily tasks, gain points by taking actions in real-life. The narrative of the game is described as follow.G a m i n g  S y s t e m d e s i g n  f r a m e w o r k26 27Figure 16 Gaming System Diagram- City PerspectiveFigure 17 Gaming System Diagram- Individual Perspective28 29P a r t 2  i m m e r s i v e  p a r k  d e s i g n30 31Figure 18 Technology Diagram Figure 19 Design Mind MapAR, augmented reality, can be defined as a technology that has three features: an overlapped world that combines real and visual element, interaction with visual elements, and accurate 3D registration of both virtual and real objects. Those features can be achieved by AR projectors, glasses, elecrtronic screens. While for visual reality, it replaces the real world with a visual world so that the user will have totally different experience. VR can be a simulated world that is similar to real world or completely different one .VR also incorporates haptic technology to allow auditary and other sensory feedback.There are many possible ways of application, such as education, urban planning ,architecture design, etc.Smart Technology, gamification strategy and lot (lnternet of things can be applied in the contemporary landscape design,adding to a new layer of meaning to landscape architecture:We, human beings, just like any other species,can appreciate the nature as it is. However, with human intelligence and civilization ,we can appreciate the landscpe from a new perspective with the merging technologies.In real-life, people can have all kinds of physical activies and build landscape itself; while in the digital world, augmented Reality technology and visual reality are used to build the connections between digital with real world. The player will participate as the role of different animals to finish tasks according to animals’ social behaviors and habitats.32 33Figure 20 Vancouver Context Map, image from Google earth , edited by author The creekside park  in the vicinity of Science World is where the design takes place.  Creekside Park is a waterside public space with a playground. Near both Science World and waterfront, it is a popular site for both children and adults to visit. Currently, the site is equipped with lawns, children playing facilities and pavillions for resting. There’re potentials for the park to be another science world for people.   The park is intended as a complement to the Science World experience. While Science World provide indoor experience to users, the park accomodate different functions and activities for people to comprehend the science of nature.S i t e - C o n t e x t  a n a l y s i s34 35Figure 21 Mapping of Vancouver educational places, data from Open Data in City of Vancouver, edited by authorS i t e - C o n t e x t  a n a l y s i s36 37Figure 22 Science World Vicinity Analysis   The site is surrounded with all kinds of playgrounds, museums, and schools. Also, the site has easy access to skytrains and waterfront, which allows it to be an active hub in the east false creek area.      As for the park itself, Creekside Park is a waterside public space with a playground. Near both Science World and waterfront, it is a popular site for families to visit. Currently, the site is comprised of lawns, children playing facilities and pavilions for resting. Considering its location and connections to the vicinity, the site is recognized as a good spot to provide education, entertainment, and technological function to attract users. This gives the park a potential to become the outdoor science world.   38 39Figure 23 Design Circulation Diagram Figure 24 Design Programming DiagramFigure 25 Immersive Center DiagramThe proposed park is intended as a complement to the Science World experience. While Science World provides indoor experience to users, the park accommodates different functions and activities for people to discover the science of nature.Due to the heavy traffic at the Science World and the surrounding area, a waterfront promenade is designed as ‘Parametric Web’, ‘Underground World’, ‘Triangular Wetland’, ‘Mountain and Streams’, ‘Sky Garden’. All those programs are intended to show a wide spectrum of plants, fauna and landforms as fundamental science park experiences.There are in total three immersive pavilions on different areas of the site, each one is assigned to show different plants and fauna categories. the primary circulation route leading to the entrance of 8 major experiences on site. The secondary walkway and paths help better orient and circulate people in the immersive park.There are a series of fundamental design/programming elements incorporated in the overall design. These elements are based on the animal categories and landscape types in nature: ‘Grass Field’, ‘Magic Trellis’, different area are the immersive learning center, where people can learn and interact with nature through the 3D projections. The three pavillions corespond to the central game center -- Science World. These are where people can learn and interact with nature through the 3D projections. They all correspond to the central science center, Science World. Within the overall design, the immersive game experience and real life  experience are both continuously incorporated in and reflected throughout.The three pavillions located in different area are the immersive 40 41Figure 26 Site Plan      Inspired by Roberto Berle Marx and Gaudi, the project uses a balance of both curvy and angled lines, asymmetrical and oscillating design style. As Antoni Gaudi states, straight lines belong to men, and the curved ones to god. The shapes and lines suggest the dual experience of nature and human design.42 43Figure 27 Grass Field Detail Plan‘The Grass Field’ features triangular decks of different sizes surrounded by grass. The immersive center sits in the middle of the wood platform. The pavilion is equipped with augmented reality projector, and wind and smell generator. People can learn about the plant and animal species through interactive 5D projected objects in the pavilion. Those projections are in exaggerated scales.44 45Figure 28 Grass Field PerspectiveFigure 29 Grass Field Section46 47Figure 30 Immersice Pavilion Experience48 49Figure 31 Undersea World SectionThe submerged structure intends to be an extra supplement of indoor experience. It sits underneath the deck and leads all the way to the upper floor of science world. The original deck piles are remained as part of the interior supporting column, also functions as a historical label. The waterfront side of it is covered with reinforced glass windows. Part of the window has a tide gauge, which enables people to watch the sealevel change and appreciate false creek from a low point. Meanwhile, with the AR projector installed in the room, users can experience the underwater world as a mermaid and take a closer look at the undersea species. It can also let people experience ocean pollution scenarios as if you are a part of the suffering species in order to raise people’s awareness of ocean pollution.50 51Figure 32 Undersea World PerspectiveFigure 33 Undersea World Interior Perspective Figure 35 Undersea World Immersve PerspectiveFigure 34 Undersea World Detail Plan52 53Figure 36 Magic Mirror AR Historic PerspectiveFigure 37 Magic Mirror AR Futuristic PerspectiveFigure 38 Parametric Structure Detail Plan‘The Magic Mirrors’ are located along the primary promenade, which is equipped with augmented reality technology can show users the rich history of false creek and also the potential future layout. With this, people can learn about the evolution of false creek over centuries, hence evoking the thought of what technological development could bring to the coastline.The parametric structure on both side of the entrance shows two scenarios of how it can be used.54 55Figure 39 Parametric Web PerspectiveFigure 41 Magic Trellis PerspectiveFigure 42 Parametric Web Immersive ExperienceFigure 40 Parametric Web SectionThe structure north to the entrance is a climbing web for children. Children can get physical exercise by exploring the climbing web. With VR glasses on, children can play the role as spiders and climb over the webs to find food and avoiding predators.South to the entrance is the ‘The Magic Trellis’. The structure is occupied with all kinds of dynamic hanging plants, served as a walking plant encyclopedia for kids to study plants while they stroll around inside.56 57Figure 43 Ungerground World Detail PlanThe underground view area is populated with angulating topography and caves that children can creep in. The leisure pavilion is a sun and rain shelter where people can rest. In the artificial caves, children can participate in the VR game as an ant.58 59Figure 46  Ungerground World SectionFigure 44 Ungerground World Perspective Figure 45 Ungerground World VR Experience60 61Figure 47 Mountains & Streams Detail PlanFigure 48 Mountains & Streams PerspectiveFigure 47 Mountains & Streams SectionFigure 49 Ungerground World VR ExperienceFigure 50 Mountains & Streams SectionThe parametric mountains and streams are miniature natural but artificial landscape. It features pixelated mountains and shallow streams with stepping stone in it. The planters at the foot of the mountain allow shrubs and climbers to grow. The tunnels and streams provides an enjoyable way for children to explore the artificial ‘nature’ as it is. Meanwhile, they can participate in the beaver dam building game as a beaver and understand the intelligence of animals through the game.62 63Figure 51 Sky Garden Detail PlanFigure 52 Sky Garden Section‘The Sky Garden’ is located next to the ‘Mountains & Streams’ featuring an elevated walkway which leads to the immersive pavilion. Children can use the zipline to fly across the sky garden. The game theme in this session is Bird; children can experience the area from the perspective of a bird.64 65Figure 53 Sky Garden SectionFigure 54 Sky Garden Perspective66 67Figure 55 Triangular Wetland Perspective Figure 56 Triangular Wetland AR ExperienceFigure 57 Triangular Wetland  SectionThe triangular floating islands are a place for children to access the water and wetland plants. Floating wetland islands of different sizes populate the water surface, having both water purifying and ornamental functions. Floating decks allows people to circulate on water. The floating islands are also digital wetland plants learning center for children. With their electronic devices, they can scan the wetland plants and have plant fairies in the phone talking to them and discovering the landscape in a fun way.68 69To a certain degree, technology can change faster than nature. Concurrently, technology changes the way people appreciate understand and live with nature. The environmental crises we encounter globally nowadays are all thanks to the use of technology. How can it help educate the next generation with the right attitude towards nature and different species? This project endeavors to see technology as a tool to raise people’s awareness and compassion for nature.p o s t fa c e70 711   Zichermann & Cunningham,2011, Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps2    Gauham A, 2016, 6 levels of successful gamification strategy, UpdersideLMS3    Alessandra Antonaci , Roland Klemke and Marcus Specht, 2019 The Effects of Gamification in Online Learning Environments: A Systematic Literature Review 4    Krause, M.; Mogalle, M.; Pohl, H.; Williams, J.J. A Playful Game Changer: Fostering Student Retention in Online Education with Social Gamification. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Conference on Learning@Scale (L@S’15), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 14–18 March 2015; pp. 95–102.5     De-Marcos, L.; Domínguez, A.; Saenz-De-Navarrete, J.; Pagés, C. An empirical study comparing gamification and social networking on e-learning. Comput. Educ. 2014, 75, 82–91.6    Gagne R. The Conditions of Learning. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985.7     Gee JP. What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrae MacMillan, 20038   Mitgutsch, Konstantin. “Serious Learning in Serious Games.” Serious Games and Edutainment Applications, 2011, pp. 45–58., doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9_4.9    Mildner, Philip, and Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller. “Design of Serious Games.” Serious Games, 2016, pp. 57–82., doi:10.1007/978-3-319-40612-1_3.10       “Educational Games.” Debugging Game History, 2016, doi:10.7551/mitpress/10087.003.0017.11      “HERE Mobility.” Smart City Technologies: Role and Applications of Big Data and IoT, https://mobility.here.com/smart-city-technologies-role-and-applications-big-data-and-iot.12 Vinueza Naranjo, Paola & Pooranian, Zahra & Shojafar, Mohammad & Conti, Mauro & Buyya, Rajkumar. (2018). FOCAN: A Fog-supported Smart City Network Architecture for Management of Applications in the Internet12      Wolff, Annika, et al. “Towards Smart City Education.” 2015 Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability (SustainIT), 2015, doi:10.1109/sustainit.2015.7101381.14      Khlaif, Zuheir N., and Shahid Farid. “Transforming Learning for the Smart Learning Paradigm: Lessons Learned from the Palestinian Initiative.” Smart Learning Environments, vol. 5, no. 1, 2018, doi:10.1186/s40561-018-0059-9. 15  Redazione. “Smart Education, Goodbye to Classroom Teaching.” Morning Future, The Adecco Group, 9 Feb. 2018, https://www.morningfuture.com/en/article/2018/02/09/smart-education-andrea-cioffi/227/. 16     Yang, Zhaojun, et al. “Switching to Green Lifestyles: Behavior Change of Ant Forest Users.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, no. 9, 2018, p. 1819., doi:10.3390/ijerph15091819. 17      快科技(Quicktech).“蚂蚁森林:未来5年投入5亿元 植树5亿棵.” 快科技中文资讯, 快科技, 11 Mar. 2018, http://news.mydrivers.com/1/569/569442.html.18      Cerreta, Maria, and Luigi Fusco Girard. “Human Smart Landscape: An Adaptive and Synergistic Approach for the ‘National Park of Cilento, Vallo Di Diano and Alburni.’” Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, vol. 8, 2016, pp. 489–493., doi:10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.02.051. 19       Johannes, Mirjam, and Zigurat Global Institute of Technology. “Barcelona Smart City: Most Remarkable Example of Implementation.” Engineers & Architects, 7 Feb. 2019, https://www.e-zigurat.com/blog/en/smart-city-barcelona-experience/).20 Fortes, Sergio & Santoyo-Ramón, José & Palacios Campos, David & Baena, Eduardo & Mora-García, Rocío & Medina, Miguel & Mora, Patricia & Barco, Raquel. (2019). The Campus as a Smart City: University of Málaga Environmental, Learning, and Research Approaches. Sensors. 19. 1349. 10.3390/s19061349. 21 Barlow, Mike, and Cornelia Lévy-Bencheton. Smart Cities, Smart Future: Showcasing Tomorrow. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019.B i b l i o g r a p h y B i b l i o g r a p h y72 73Figure 1 Project illustrationFigure 2 Gamification DiagramFigure 3 Gamification Strategy DiagramFigure 4 Gamification Effects in Education fieldFigure 5 Serious Games Timeline(Information source: Mitgutsch, Konstantin,2011; Mildner, Philip, 2016)Figure 6 Typology of Player Archetypes(Nicholas Sinkewicz, 2015)Figure 7 Typology of Game Themes (Nicholas Sinkewicz, 2015)Figure 8 Serious Game ComponentFigure 9 Serious Game Design ComponentFigure 10 Dessert arial photo before & after the game(Quicktech website, Accessed 2019)Figure 11 Gamification Strategy of Ant ForestFigure 12 Smart city mechanics (Vinueza, Paola, 2018)Figure 13 Smart education diagram (Khlaif, Zuheir, 2018)Figure 14 Smart Landscape IllustrationFigure 15 Digital Landscape CollageFigure 16 Gaming System Diagram- City PerspectiveFigure 17 Gaming System Diagram- Individual PerspectiveFigure 18 Technology DiagramFigure 19 Design Mind MapFigure 20 Vancouver Context Map, image from Google earth , edited by authorFigure 21 Mapping of Vancouver educational places, data from Open Data in City of Vancouver, edited by authorFigure 22 Science World Vicinity AnalysisFigure 23 Design Circulation DiagramFigure 24 Design Programming DiagramFigure 25 Immersive Center DiagramFigure 26 Site PlanFigure 27 Grass Field Detail PlanFigure 28 Grass Field PerspectiveFigure 29 Grass Field SectionFigure 30 Immersice Pavilion ExperienceFigure 31 Undersea World SectionFigure 32 Undersea World PerspectiveFigure 33 Undersea World Interior PerspectiveFigure 34 Undersea World Detail PlanFigure 35 Undersea World Immersve PerspectiveFigure 36 Magic Mirror AR Historic PerspectiveFigure 37 Magic Mirror AR Futuristic PerspectiveFigure 38 Parametric Structure Detail PlanFigure 39 Parametric Web PerspectiveFigure 40 Parametric Web SectionFigure 41 Magic Trellis PerspectiveFigure 42 Parametric Web Immersive ExperienceFigure 43 Ungerground World Detail PlanFigure 44 Ungerground World PerspectiveFigure 45 Ungerground World VR ExperienceFigure 46 Ungerground World SectionFigure 47 Mountains & Streams Detail PlanFigure 48 Mountains & Streams PerspectiveFigure 49 Ungerground World VR ExperienceFigure 50 Mountains & Streams SectionL i s t  o f  f i g u r e s L i s t  o f  f i g u r e s74 75Te c h n o l o g y  i s  a  v e r y  h u m a n  a c t i v i t y  –  a n d  s o  i s t h e  h i s t o r y  o f  t e c h n o l o g y.M e l v i n  K r a n z b e r gFigure 51 Sky Garden Detail PlanFigure 52 Sky Garden SectionFigure 53 Sky Garden SectionFigure 54 Sky Garden PerspectiveFigure 55 Triangular Wetland PerspectiveFigure 56 Triangular Wetland AR ExperienceFigure 57 Triangular Wetland  SectionL i s t  o f  f i g u r e s

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