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Music at Large : Architecture for the Renegade Musician Cai, Zhong 2020-05

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Music at LargeArchitecture for the Renegade MusicianbyZhong Ji CaiBachelor of Science in Architecture, McGill University, 2017Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTUREinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE PROGRAMCOMMITTEEMari Fujita (Chair)AnnaLisa MeyboomLing MengWe accept this report as conforming to the standardMari FujitaBlair SatterfieldcMay 2020iiiiiABSTRACT The classical music scene in Vancouver is preserved through the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, as well as the few institutions dedicated to musical learning. Because the VSO reproduces the most recognized and es-tablished works of classical music, works of less established composers and musicians do not find their way out through traditional channels. Musicians not employed by the orchestra, dubbed as “Renegade Musicians” in this proj-ect, are serious and talented musicians who do not follow the path laid out by the elite institutions. Currently, these musicians rely on busking, or performing in wed-dings and parties. Unfortunately, these performances and venues do not offer the musicians a legitimate platform for the appreciation of their music, nor do they offer the ideal spatial and acoustic conditions to compliment the musicians’ talents. Combined with Vancouver’s gradual closures of music venues and rehearsal spaces due to rising lease rates, musicians not part of an institution will have greater difficulty developing and performing their work.  Music at Large proposes that Renegade Musicians perform to their audience using pop-up stages. These flexible modules can be deployed any-where with vehicular access. Also, they provide adjustable acoustic panels that accommodates different acoustic needs for performances and practice. Renegade musicians take ownership of their spaces for music, and live music has the potential to appear at every corner of the city.ivTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstractTable of contentsList of figuresAcknowledgementsPART IIntroductionAging audienceWhy is attendance decreasing?Contemporary engagement with musicRise and fall of classical music - timelineConnection to math, art, and architectureVancouver music venues and closuresWho are the Renegade Musicians?PART IIDefining musical termsTheatre typologiesConcert ritualsClassical music and natureBuskers - Observational researchiiiivviviii01020405060810121418263032vBuskers - Precedents & findingsVancouver mappingPrecedent studiesToronto Music GardenDalhalla OperaPoint Counterpoint IISwiss Sound PavilionPART IIIProposalNew financial modelMusic pod designMusic pod variationsAdjustable acoustic panelsPod facility concept & site selectionArea & site analysisPod facility designStills from Music at Large (short film)Bibliography36384042444648505254555658606494viFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 27Figure 28 Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38Figure 39Figure 40Figure 41Figure 42Figure 43Figure 44Figure 45Figure 46LIST OF FIGURESSalvage Live music audience demographicsLive music attendance chartDaniil Trifonov at Carnegie HallClassical music attendance statisticsRise and fall of classical music - timelineViolinVancouver classical music venues mapVancouver rehearsal spaces mapReverberation in a theatreDiagram of musician tyoesResonance & amplification of soundLeopold Mozart with Wolfgane Amadeus and Maria AnnaThe interior of the Palais GarnierProscenium stage diagram planProscenium stage diagram sectionElbphilharmonie hallArena theatre diagram planArena theatre diagram sectionA thrust stage at the Pasant TheatreThrust stage diagram planThrust stage diagram sectionHattiloo Theatre interiorBlack box theatre diagram planBlack Box theatre diagram sectionOrpheum floorplan - audience circulation & destinationsOrpheum section - audience circulation & destinationsOrpheum main hallOrpheum guests at main hallGrieg’s Cabin, TroldhaugenPhotographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 1Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 2Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 3Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 4Jim Deva MegaphoneByward Market, OttawaCopenhagen Busking StreetDiagrams of buskersMapping of Vancouver’s culture, attractions, & public spacesHarbourfront Center - Toronto Music GardenToronto Music Garden programmingOriginal quarry sectionDalhalla Opera & reverberation within quarryDalhalla Opera aerial viewPoint Counterpoint II appears in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1989Vessel travelling to new destinationFigure 47Figure 48Figure 49Figure 50Figure 51Figure 52Figure 53Figure 54Figure 55Figure 56 Figure 57Figure 58Figure 59Figure 60Figure 61Figure 62Figure 63Figure 64Figure 65Figure 66Figure 67Figure 68Figure 69Figure 70Figure 71Figure 72Figure 73Figure 74 Figure 75Figure 76Figure 77Figure 78Figure 79Figure 80Figure 81Figure 82Figure 83Figure 84Figure 85Figure 86Figure 87Figure 88Figure 89Figure 90Figure 91Figure 92Vessel performance at the waterfrontSwiss Sound Pavilion componentsPavilion plan & locations for performaceSwiss Sound PavilionMusic pod concept diagramTypical financial modelMusic pod financial modelMusic pod design componentsMusic pod variationsMusic pod acoustic panelsPod facility conceptSound mapping of Vancouver’s bridgesBridge underside photosBurrard bridge axonometricArea analysis diagramsSite analysis diagramsPod facility organisationPod facility perspectiveAlleyway performance setupStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargeStills #1 from Music at LargePod facility axonometric drawingviiAcknowledgements I am extremely grateful to everyone who has taken part in my amazing journey through five years of architecture school. My time at both the University of British Columbia and McGill University has been the best years of my life. First, I would like to thank my thesis chair Mari Fujita, who has consistently pushed me throughout this project and made sure I did not progress in the wrong direction. I would like to thank my committee members Ling Meng and AnnaL-isa Meyboom, whose comments and advice during the project were extremely insightful and had a major impact on the final design. I would like to thank my amazing girlfriend Ying, whose support helped me through the completion of the thesis, as well as during the difficult world of the Covid-19 pandemic. She is also responsible for creating most of the human figures in the Music at Large short film. The film could not be complete without her help. I would like to thank my loving family, who has always supported me during the pursuit of my passion. I would like to thank all my friends, who were always kind and encouraging, and I would be who I am today without them. Next, a shout out to John Chan, whose vast knowledge of music helped me to kickstart this project. Without him initially showing me the world of classi-cal concerts, I would have lacked the confidence to tackle this difficult thesis due to my limited knowledge of classical music. Finally, a thanks to all the professors at UBC and McGill I have worked with throughout architecture school. Without their amazing lessons and guidance, I could not have gained the great passion and appreciation for architecture that I hold today.viiiPART IINTRODUCTION Classical music in our contemporary times is dying, especially in terms of audience attendances of live performances.  Classical music concert attendance saw a 34% decline between 2008 and 2012 (Ilchef, 2019). According to an article in the New York Times, not only is classical music suffering from a lack of connection with the younger population, but it also suffers from a variety of issues including: labour dis-putes from American orchestras due to lack of fund-ing, reduction or outright cancellation of Metropolitan Opera and New York Philharmonic tours and concerts, decrease in popularity of classical music radio stations in America, and the increasing popularity of rock and pop superstars while classical music venues have a hard time booking concerts for their artists (Dreyer, 2012).  The architecture for classical music has barely evolved in its lifetime, and primarily exists inside prestigious and expensive concert halls that cannot function without government support. The buildings themselves are enclosed and segregated from the com-munity, denying access without the purchase of a tick-et. In essence, classical music is physically isolated from the community, protected within the prestigious shell of the concert halls and the institutions.DECLINE OF CLASSICAL MUSICFigure 1. Salvage. By author, 2013.1 Vancouver is one of Canada’s hub for music and has a well-developed classical music scene. There are a variety of classical music performance spaces as well as public and private instructions for the educa-tion of classical music. The highest-level orchestra scene revolves around Vancouver Symphony Or-chestra and the Orpheum; their primary performance space. Despite an established classical music network, it still fails to escape the isolated and elite institutions and make a mark on the general population in the same way that popular music does today. Engagement with classical music is still highly former and done within isolated and enclosed architecture.AGING AUDIENCE One key issue with the decline in classical music is the aging audience demographics (see Figure 2 & 3). According to statistics, 13.6 % of the popula-tion aged 65 to 74 attended a classical musical concert in the year 2010, as compared to only 6.1% of the population aged 25-34 (McClintock, 2017). One of the primary objectives of modern-day orchestras is attrac-tion and retention of younger audiences, which costs more money as it is usually done by bringing in well known soloists. Therefore, even though many orches-tras, especially those in larger cities are succeeding, this gradual decline in attendance and gradual increase in age demographics will be greatly noticeable in the next decades. It is important then, to think of solutions now that can revive classical music by spreading it to the younger generation.ECONOMY OF MUSIC In an interview with Robert Flanagan, a professor of economics at Stanford University and the author of The Perilous Life of Symphony Orchestras, he discusses the economy of orchestras as: “They all run an operating deficit, in the sense that the money Figure 2. Live music audience demographics. From “Music attendance in Australia,” by Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009.2they earn from concerts, records and so forth does not cover their expenses (McClintock, 2017).” According to ABC news, no symphony orchestra in the world makes money (Ilchef, 2019). Each orchestra compris-es of 45 to 100 salaried musicians. Extra costs must be invested towards bringing in international conductors and soloists. The issue with orchestras is that it must change its performance routinely. Whereas a theatre production can operate using the same performance for upwards of a year and a half, orchestral perfor-mances usually spend a few days practicing and only give the same performance two or three times. This method greatly brings up the cost and time spent preparing for a performance (McClintock, 2017). As a result, orchestras receives about 40% to 75% of their funding from the government, depending on their size and popularity. Young musicians entering the classi-cal music industry have it particularly hard, with two fifths of newcomers in the UK taking unpaid work (Savage, 2018).In Vancouver, despite the prestige of the VSO, its centuries old history has been plagued by a series of financial obstacles; including a bankruptcy in 1988 (Gooch, Cluderay, & Ware, 2015). Today, the VSO operating relatively well, but still requires the support of government funding and philanthropic backing. To help spread the word and advertise to the greater audience, the VSO performs an annual free outdoor performs at Sunset Beach Vancouver. This outdoor concert is extremely successful with an expected attendance of over 7000 (Chan,2018). They have also performed very successful concerts at Burnaby and Whistler. On the other hand, the 2780 capacity Orpheum Theatre is rarely fully seated even when international soloists are performing. Figure 3. Live music attendance chart. From “Music attendance in Australia,” by Australian Bureau of Statis-tics, 2009.3WHY IS CLASSICAL MUSIC ATTENDANCE DECREASING? Music is often a reflection of society. There-fore, the most successful music effectively represents the people and culture of its era. The most successful music also takes advantage of technology, with the “architecture” that we engage with music changing over time as technologies evolve. The great classical composers of the 17th and 18th centuries created music that was new and refreshing for their time. If Beethoven were alive today, he could be producing music that would be new and refreshing for our time. This could be electronic dance music, pop, or perhaps he would be a movie music composer (which is often heavily based on classical music). Interestingly, orchestrally produced movie music (or music of high budget TV shows, anime, and even video games) are as popular as ever. In the VSO, a September 2019 concert featuring world renowned piano soloist Daniil Trifonov (see Figure 4) and a full orchestra costs $20 for the cheapest ticket and still possessed empty seats. On the other hand, an April 2020 performance featuring Joe Hisaishi (see Figure 5); a Japanese composer for studio Ghibli animated movies, possess a cheapest ticket of $130 and is sold out months before the performance. Both feature a traditional orchestra and produce high qual-ity instrumental music. It is clear that the audience of today appreciate music with a greater connection to pop culture and is less interested in traditionally composed classical music. Figure 4. Daniil Trifonov at Carnegie Hall. By S. Pisano, 2017.4 The ways in which people listen to music has drastically shifted throughout the past century (see Figure 7). The first breakthrough technology was the phonograph (the first record player) which was invent-ed in 1877. This technology revolutionized music by eliminating the need for live music and allowing peo-ple to enjoy music in the comfort of their own homes, in the absence of any performer. The next invention was the radio in 1895, which allowed live broadcasts of performances (whether it be music, sports, or news) across the nation. The invention of the television in 1926 provided a new form of household entertain-ment, as well as allowing audiences to engage both their audio and visual senses. The invention of the Walkman in 1979 provided the ability to take music on the go, further eliminating the need for live perfor-mance. Today, people engage with music primarily through handheld devices like Ipods and smartphones. We hear music through small ear pods or through headsets for higher sound quality. These devices can be considered an “architecture” for music, as they take a concert hall with all its performers and compresses it into a tiny machine that anyone can take to go. Music can be heard no matter where you are, or what you are doing.  A portion of the population still attend classi-cal music performances. It is collectively agreed that engagement with the younger population is paramount to the survival of classical music. In a study of Tai-wanese university students and their interest towards classical music (Chun-F & Hu, 2006), a random sample found that 67% of the students were interested in classical music, while 33% were not. The study also extracted the reasons that individuals did not attend the concert (see Figure 6). For the sampled male students, the primary reason was that the atmosphere of the classical performance is too serious (Chun-F & Hu). Age also plays a role in the study. All students appreciate convenience in buying tickets and the location of the venue. For younger students, the way in which the performance was advertised is very im-portant factor in deciding whether to attend a classical performance. For older students, a major factor is their inherent knowledge of the music, which provides the desire to see a live performance. This data is useful in developing physical and spatial qualities that can be designed to make live performances more attractive. CONTEMPORARY ENGAGEMENT WITH MUSICFigure 5. Classical music attendance statistics. From “The attitudes of university students to classical concerts: A study in consumer behaviour,” by Chun-Fu & Hu, 2006.5Figure 6. Rise and fall of classical music - timeline. By author, 2016.67CONNECTION TO MATH, ART, AND ARCHITEC-TURE Classical music is highly intertwined with a multitude of both scientific and creative disciplines. It has directly influenced architectural design and thinking in the past and in the present. In the 16th and 17th century, architects created forms and proportions in direct relation to rhythms found in classical pieces. This relationship produces a correspondence between architecture and music in the Baroque, the Classical, and the Romantic periods. In these three periods, there are very strong similarities between the music com-posed and the architecture designed. These similarities will be discussed later in the report.  On the other hand, some of the greatest works of architecture exist in the form of the opera house. The exteriors of this architectural typology are typically idiosyncratically designed, however the performance spaces themselves are highly scientific and directly corresponds to the type of music that is performed. The evolution of classical music and the formation of the modern-day orchestra places acoustic, ritualistic, visual, and functional demands on a space. These demands create and shaped the amazing concert hall designs we see today. BASIS FOR EDUCATION Despite the waning popularity of orchestras, classical instruments are regularly taught to young children. It is an important fundament teaching tool for Figure 7. Violin. By author, 2011.8increasing focus, coordination, and rhythm. Instru-ments can also be a lot of fun to play with. A study by the YouGov for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in the UK found that nine in ten children (aged 6 to 16) want to learn a musical instrument (Roberts, 2018). In this study, band instruments like the guitar (45%), piano (36%) and drums/percussion (35%) proved the most popular. Meanwhile, 75% of children opted for an orchestral instrument, such as the violin (10%), flute (8%) and saxophone (8%). This same study found that as the child gets older, they become less interested in classical instruments. The students that were interviewed stated that a major reason for this decline is the lack of encouragement from their school to develop an interest in music. Furthermore, the more a child is exposed to media and other forms of music, the less interest towards classical music.  For those who wish to pursue a career in composing music, whatever their end genre may be, a basis in classical music is a must. According to the UBC’s School of Music application page, application of the music composition program is required to know at least one classical instrument (preferable more, and preferable to know piano). The complexity and depth that is held within classical music enriches music of all forms. Even contemporary hip pop, rap, and EDM musicians still use various forms of classical music in their compositions. Classical music may indeed be past its prime in its reflection of our society, however it must be kept alive because it is still highly connected with the maths, arts, architecture, and serves as a basis for all music education.  9VANCOUVER MUSIC VENUES & CLOSURESVANCOUVER MUSIC VENUES & CLOSURES Over the past years, numerous Vancouver live music venues, schools, and rehearsal studios have closed down due to rising lease rates. Figure 8. Vancouver classical music venues map. By author, 2020.10ON THE BRIGHT SIDEIn 2016, the province of B.C. announced the creatio of the B.C. music fund, a $15-million investment to support the growth of B.C.’s music industry.In 2018, the province announed another $7.5-mil-lion in funding for Amplify B.C. to support local musiciansFigure 9. Vancouver rehearsal spaces map. By author, 2020.11WHO ARE THE RENEGADE MUSICIANS? For the purposes of this thesis, the “Renegade Musicians” are talented, classically trained musicians who are not employed by an orchestra. These musi-cians still rely on music to earn a living but prefer to take an alternative route than the one laid out by the elite institutions.  There are a variety of reasons why a talented musician is not employed by an orchestra; the musi-cian prefers to perform experimental music; does not like orchestra’s strict routine; the cost of formal edu-cation and orchestral level instruments are too high; the orchestra in the city is already full; and more. For the most part, Renegade Musicians are relatively unknown and are rarely offered a platform to perform to the public.  Oftentimes their only option is busking, which is not an ideal solution for a highly trained musician. Studies have shown that roughly half the population associate buskers with beggars, or at least, a failed musician. Whether or not people appreciate buskers, not having a stage to perform on limits the potential and legitimacy of the musician. On the other hand, buskers take on a degree of risk through their encoun-ters with a wide variety of people, as well as a heavy reliance on high quality public spaces. These Ren-egade Musicians need a dedicated space to develop their music and a better method for performing to the public.12Figure 10. Diagram of musician types. By author, 2020.13DEFINING MUSICAL TERMSClassical music has a long and rich history with many complex elements. A set of definitions is required to understand the fundamentals of musical components in their relationship to architecture, and to later design spaces that can accommodate them. Also, it is useful to understand the types of performances and the his-tory of classical eras to develope a social and cultural dialogue between music and architecture.REVERBERTAIONSound bounces off surfaces and behaves like light. Flat, hard surfaces directly reflect sound with minimal changes to sound quality (see Figure 9). Soft, textured surfaces scatter and absorb sound, leading to its decay. The most important factor for the design of theatres, reverberation is the time it takes for a sound to “de-cay” within a space. In typical concert halls (based on concert halls designed by Nagata Acoustics), the ideal reverberation time is anywhere between 1.0s (Fonda-tion Louis Vuitton) and 2.3s (Hamburg Elbphilharmo-nie) depending on the size of the space. If the rever-beration time is too short, the sound may not reach the entire audience, especially those sitting in the back. If the reverberation time is too long, the extended echoes of sound will disrupt the quality and clarity of the performance. Reverberation directly affects the shape and materiality of a performance space, as the way and direction that sound bounces or are absorbed on surfaces is paramount to its acoustic quality.RESONANCESound travels in waves. Like a wave of water, it possesses an amplitude, wavelength, and frequen-cy. When two soundwaves with the same frequency connect, the amplitude of the wave increases, and the result is a more powerful sound (see Figure 10). The comparatively weak vibrations produced at the end of an organ pipe, for example, cause a column of air in the pipe to vibrate in resonance, thus greatly increas-ing the loudness of the sound (Muecke & Zach, 2007). Designers of acoustic spaces must consider the fre-quency and wavelength of different sounds to obtain a suitable level of resonance for the intended purpose of the space.HARMONYHarmony refers to the balance of different notes in a musical piece which produces a sound that is pleasant to the ear. Harmony is solely controlled by the musi-cians themselves and is not affected by the architec-tural space. However, the principles of harmony and balance have been used in architectural practice for centuries, hence the deep relationship between music and architecture (Muecke & Zach). PART II14Figure 11. Reverberation in a theatre. By author, 2019.Figure 12. Resonance & amplification of sound. By author, 2019.15TEMPOThe rate of speed of a musical piece or movement. Tempo affects the energy and atmosphere of a perfor-mance. A slow tempo can be used to convey sadness to the audience. A fast tempo can be used to convey excitement and often used for the climax of a move-ment (Muecke & Zach). MOVEMENTA musical movement refers to a longer performance that features a series of musical ideas and themes. Performance of musical movements can surpass an hour, in which the performers are playing throughout its entirety without a break.SOLOA performance by a single musician. The most popu-lar instruments for solos are pianos and violins.CONCERTOA performance accompanied by an orchestra. It is led by a conductor and features a variety of instruments. The performance could still be focused on a single performer or group of performers. CHAMBER MUSICClassical music performed by a smaller number of musicians as compared to an orchestra. There is no conductor and the musicians lead the performance themselves. OPERAA classical music performance where the lead role is taken up by a singer. A wide variety acts may be used, which may include actors, musicians, props, and backdrops. 16BAROQUE PERIOD (1600 – 1750)Baroque represents the genesis of the age of clas-sical music. Famous composers including Johann Sebastian Bach, Antoni Vivaldi, and George Frid-eric Handel pioneered new styles like the concer-to, sonata, and opera. The loosening of religious control over Europe is what allowed non-religious instrumental music to flourish, and Baroque music exploded in popularity. Opera became a way for composers to express their mood and emotions through music. Similarity, the intention of the music was to affect the emotion of the audience (Clas-sicFM, 2019). CLASSICAL PERIOD (1730 – 1820)This is a specific term that describes an era in which composers Beethoven, Mozart (see Figure 11), and Haydn were active. In this period, symphonies were revolutionized, comic operas were created, as were the creation of piano sonatas (piano replaced the harpsichord as the main keyboard instrument). Classical period music is known to be lighter and clearer as compared to Baroque music and is less complex (ClassicFM).  ROMANTIC PERIOD (1830 – 1900)The simplified music of the Classical period became more enriched in the Romantic period as music took greater inspiration from literature and art. Sym-phonies were expanded and operas became more dramatic. Richard Wagner revolutionized the opera by lengthening the performances of each piece, at a time when music was performed I shorter pieces like modern day songs. Other famous composers in this time include Tchaikovsky, Brahms, Mahler, and Verdi (ClassicFM).Figure 13. Leopold Mozart with Wolfgane Amadeus and Maria Anna. By L.C. Carmontelle, 1763.17THEATRE TYPOLOGIESPROSCENIUM STAGE This is a standard typology that features the stage on one end of the room, and the audience on the other side. These theatres typically possess a curtain and a large back-of-stage space. For classical music venues, a there often exists an orchestral pit underneath the apron for use by musicians. This provides the opportunity for an orchestrally-backed theatre production. Back-drops, lighting, and curtains can all be easily controlled without the operator being seen by the audience. This makes this typology popular for theatre productions. It is easy for performers to enter and exit the stage without disrupting the performance. Movie theatres are form of proscenium theatre as the audience needs to face in one direction to view the flat screen. Famous proscenium theatres include the Palais Garnier (see Figure 12), and Vancou-ver’s Chan Center as well as the Orpheum Theatre.Figure 14. The interior of the Palais Garnier. By FHKE, 2010.18Figure 15. Proscenium stage diagram plan. By author, 2019.Figure 16. Proscenium stage diagram section. By author, 2019.19Figure 17. Elbphilharmonie hall. From “Showtime for the Elbphilharmonie,” by C. Charisius, 2016.ARENA THEATRE This typology places the performers in the middle platform of the theatre with audiences on all sides. This design provides more intimacy between the performers and the audience by providing more seating closer to the stage. This typology is almost always created for orchestral performances, providing the highest quality acoustic spaces. Famous arena theatres include the Hamburg Elbphilharmonie and the Paris Philharmonic Hall. 20Figure 18. Arena theatre diagram plan. By author, 2019.Figure 19. Arena theatre diagram section. By author, 2019.21THRUST STAGE The audience is “thrust” into the auditorium with the audience sitting on three sides. This typology provides more intimacy between the audience and the performers, without sacrificing the performer’s ability to use back-drops and preserving ease of access. This typology is commonly used by circuses such as Cirque du Soleil. Figure 20. A thrust stage at the Pasant Theatre. By Wharton Center, 2007.22Figure 21. Thrust stage diagram plan. By author, 2019.Figure 22. Thrust stage diagram section. By author, 2019.23BLACK BOX THEATRE These are minimalist performance spaces that are designed to be flex-ible and accommodating to a wide variety of different performances. They are often painted black, hence “black box,” and have a flat floor. This means that the audience is level with the performers. Black box theatres are used for rehearsal and small productions, providing an intimate environment that is more ideal for theatre productions than for classical music.Figure 23. Hattiloo Theatre interior. From “Hattiloo Theatre / archimania,” by H. Mardukas, 2007.24Figure 24. Black box theatre diagram plan. By author, 2019.Figure 25. Black box theatre diagram section. By author, 2019.25 Attending a concert is a highly ritualistic activity and provides the experience with a level of prestige. It is one of the reasons that classical concert halls feel like an escape from reality. Its formality both attracts a certain demographic of individuals (usually older) and turns away younger and more casual audiences. Understanding the rituals of both the performers and the audience is important to develop an architecture that preserves the integrity and pro-fessionalism of a classical performance. It also helps to understand the barriers and inefficiencies that can be mitigated to create an experience that is more open and democratic. There is a set etiquette for attending a classical concert that is generally agreed upon across the world. This etiquette has been developed over the centuries that classical music has existed and is still preserved today. For the purposes of this study, the exact rituals will be simplified down, and focus will be given towards the most important activities. ARRIVAL The theatre begins with the arrival at the front steps of the concert hall (some may even argue that it begins with the car ride there). The arrival can be a highly social ritual, depending on the design of the de-sign of the hall. In the case of Vancouver’s Orpheum (see Figure 24), the small ticketing area means that most guests must form a line that sometimes warps all the way to the end of the structure on Seymour Street. This issue can only be mitigated by constructing a larger lobby. After patiently navigating towards to end of the line and picking up their ticket, the guests move along towards the main hall.CONCERT RITUALS26Figure 26. Orpheum floorplan - audience circulation & destinations. By author, 2019.Figure 27. Orpheum section - audience circulation & destinations. By author, 2019.27MAIN HALL Second to the theatre itself, the main hall is the most important space in a concert hall. An inte-gral step in the theatregoing ritual, this is where the concertgoers can observe the other guests and social-ize. Being seen and being able to see others is tradi-tionally an important social dynamic when attending a performance. Therefore, the architecture is designed to accommodate this interaction. Depending on the ar-chitect and the time of construction, the main hall can take on a variety of forms. The most important thing is that it needs to be a high, multilevel space that is visu-ally permeable. In older theatres like the Vancouver’s Orpheum (see Figures 24 & 25), a grand staircase sits in the middle of a large atrium, taking guests up to second level that is lined with balconies. The concert-goers standing at the balconies can watch the arriving guests below (see Figure 26 & 27), often looking out for familiar faces or important figures. The people walking up the staircase are advantageously displayed for the entire hall to see. Then the next group walks up, and its their turn to be seen. After the initial period of entropy, everyone will find a place in the hall to so-cialize or have a drink. Eventually, the performance is about to begin, and everyone makes their way towards their gate to enter the theatre. THE PERFORMANCE During the time that the audience slowly files into the theatre, the musicians are already onstage pre-paring. During this time, the concertmaster (head of the violin section) must stand up and ask for quiet so that the musicians can begin tuning their instruments. At this point, the audience can watch the musicians go about their preparations and various sounds from various instruments can be heard. Usually a single in-Figure 28. Orpheum main hall. By author, 2019.Figure 29. Orpheum guests at main hall. By author, 2019.28strument (usually oboe) plays a tuning note so that the other musicians can match the note with consistency. Next the conductor comes on stage, at which time both the audience and the musicians all stand up and applaud. The conductor shakes hands with the quartermaster. At this point the musicians sit back down and the conductor turns towards them, and be-gins the music.  In classical music, the music piece is often played with multiple parts. The musicians may briefly stop during these parts, but the audience cannot clap. For a newcomer, this unspoken rule may be alien and confusing. The orchestra hands out a detailed break-down of the program to help guide the audience and provide a sense of time. Only when a piece is finished, is when the audience should give applause. In the VSO, a typical classical performance features two to three pieces of music, includes a 15-minute intermis-sion, and takes around two hours to complete.END OF THE PERFORMANCE At the end of the performance, the audience gives out a long, extended applause. This seemingly old-fashioned ritual is intended as a way of giving and receiving energy. The performers gave their energy to the audience through music, and the audience gives energy back through applause. In the past, had the performance not been to the audience’s liking, “boos” would have been heard and produce sometimes thrown at the performers. After the applause has died down, both the audience and performers begin to de-part the theatre. The audience is free to leave immedi-ately, or to continue socializing in the grand hall. The conductor or soloist will sometimes join and mingle with the audience after the performance. 29 Classical music has a special connection to the natural world in that many pieces of its music are inspired by the natural world. In fact, classical music is primarily inspired by nature and older folk music. This deep connection to nature differentiates classical music from contemporary music, which are primarily reflect society and people. Because of this relation-ship, tradition composers often preferred writing mu-sic in the heart of nature, away from the city. In fact, famous Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907) had built a separate composer’s hut detached from his main home (see Figure 28). This hut sat on a small hill, surrounded by forest, overlooking an ocean bay. His house, known now as Troldhaugen, has become a popular museum destination and features a small concert hall for classical performances.  According to performing musician and composer Dr. Justin Wildridge, being inspired by nature when composing music is inescapable. One well-known piece music he mentions is Beethoven’s Pastorale’ Symphony No. 6 in F major. In need of relaxation as well as inspiration, Beethoven would nearly always be accompanied by his sketchbook so that in the heart of nature he could notate his ideas undisturbed by other humans (Wildridge 2019). No. 6 is specifically titled with direct references to nature. For example, the first movement is titled: “Awakening of cheerful feelings on arrival in the countryside,” while the fourth movement is: “Thunderstorm.” The tone and atmosphere of the music follows the names precisely. Another well known piece that draws upon nature is Flight of the Bumblebee by Rimsky-Korsa-kov. CLASSICAL MUSIC & NATURE This relationship speaks to the origin of clas-sical music, and it is logical to conclude that classical music would best be performed in the outdoors, as opposed to the interior of a building (preferably with equally good acoustics). If performed in the outdoors, the music may reveal its meaning more clearly, whilst being supplemented by the visuals, smell, and feeling of the environment.  30Figure 30. Grieg’s Cabin, Troldhaugen. By B. Buster, 2008.31BUSKERS - OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCHFigure 31. Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 1. By author, 2020.32Figure 32. Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 2. By author, 2020.33Figure 33. Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 3. By author, 2020.34Figure 34. Photographs and diagrams of Vancouver buskers part 4. By author, 2020.35Figure 38. Diagrams of buskers. By author, 2020.Figure 37. Copenhagen busking street. By Dawn, 2016.Figure 36. Byward Market, Ottawa. By P., Perreault, 2018.Figure 35. Jim Deva Megaphone. By R., Bollwitt, 2019.36BUSKER RESEACH FINDINGS An observation research was conducted on the buskers in Vancouver, with a focus on the factors that allow the performer to attract a stationary audience. I took note of the type of music that buskers play, professionalism of the performance, location, and reception by the audience. Do people give money? Do people stop and listen, or do they keep walking?  The research reveals that acoustic and spatial qualities are extremely important factors influencing the success of the performance. First, performers who had good acoustic amplification, and who could be heard from far away in a busy area, managed to attract a bigger audience than performers with poor acoustic amplification.  This makes sense, as these performers could draw in people from a wider area, as well as provide a livelier and more dominating performance. Due to this fact, performers should look for spaces with good acoustic qualities – eg. place with natural amplification and low ambient sound.  These research findings in Vancouver are also supported by other examples from Copenhagen, Otta-wa, and Vancouver itself. Copenhagen is one of many European cities that create an ideal setting for buskers. The city is an extremely popular and profitable setting for buskers. The city is filled with many pedestri-an-only streets that are enclosed by medium-height buildings on each side (see Fig. 1 & Fig. 2), allowing sound to bounce naturally between the building walls to help amplify the performance.  Although Canada rarely possess the beauti-ful rows of ornate stone buildings alongside a busy pedestrian-only street, Canada does have alternative busking hotspots. A popular busking spot exists in Byward Market, Ottawa (see Fig. 3 & Fig. 4). This is a market district that is enclosed by a flat façade of shops and restaurants, allowing the sound to resonate between the tight streetscapes. This area is a hive of shopping and culture, and buskers naturally fit in with the environment. In this case, it was the Ottawa buskers themselves that pushed the city to make this a busking spot,  and it has been a popular busking spot ever since. This example highlights a “less is more” approach, achieving the same success as some of the best European public spaces using a small space with less impressive architectural surroundings. In Vancouver, a unique design intervention is the Megaphone in Jim Deva Plaza (see Fig. 5 & Fig. 6). Originally an art installation in honour of Jim Deva, a West End business owner and vocal advocate for free speech rights and equality in Vancouver’s LGBTQ2+ community,  it has been often used by buskers for its ability to amplify sound properties. Furthermore, the bright backdrop provides a greater level of legitimacy to the performance as compared to the backdrop of generic buildings and trees behind it. This is a good example of a small-scale installation that can have a great impact on the activities surround-ing it, and at the same time promoting culture and music in an otherwise normal public square.37Figure 39. Mapping of Vancouver’s culture, attractions, & public spaces. By author, 2020.3839Precedent StudyTORONTO MUSIC GARDENToronto, Canada The park design is inspired by Bach’s First Suite for Unaccompanied Cello, with each dance movement within the suite corresponding to a differ-ent section of the garden. Free classical music con-certs are offered in the summer, and guests are encour-aged to bring folding chairs or blankets as the benches fill up quickly. Two Canadian artists created special features for the Music Garden. Tom Tollefson, archi-tectural blacksmith, fabricated the Music Pavilion, and the late Anne Roberts of Feir Mill Desing Inc., designed the Maypole. The park is broken down into six sections, each specifically curated to match the different segments of Bach’s No 1. (see Figure 31). The varying landscapes include; an undulating riverscape, a forest grove of wandering trails, a wildflower meadow, a conifer grove, a formal flower parterre, and a large grassy amphitheatre. Visitors can traverse this garden in sequence to experience the phenomenological connec-tion to Bach’s composition. DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE Landscape is curated to tell the story of Bach’s composition. Although this design methodol-ogy is highly personal and subjective, it does add an extra layer of richness and peculiarity to the garden. Visitors will understand that this garden is all about music; specifically, classical music. Sound and move-ment are expressed through the design, and it pre-serves history by representing it through an alternative medium.Figure 40. Harbourfront Center - Toronto Music Garden. By G. Dillon, 2018.40Figure 41. Toronto Music Garden programming. By author, 2019.41Precedent StudyDALHALLA OPERARättvik, Sweden In 1991, Rättvik municipality saw a growth in arts & culture and needed a new performance space. Former opera singer Margareta Dellefors proposed the idea of using the former limestone quarry which was far away from all the buildings and free from noise pollution (Rock Engineering Research Foundation, 2014). A new building with an outdoor amphitheatre was constructed at the base of the quarry, and this stunning performance space has been in use ever since. The ticketed venue holds 20-25 concerts a year.The site is primarily accessed by vehicle, and guests follow a long ramp that slowly descends into the quar-ry base. Interestingly, the high rock walls of the quarry produced excellent reverberation that made this an excellent natural acoustic space. A moat separates the stage from the audience, and warps around the back of the concert hall. Several expansions of the years has brought the seating capacity of the amphitheatre to 4000.DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE Taking advantage of existing natural forma-tions is a powerful method of producing interesting architectural spaces. Dalhalla also represents that new functions can be created by combining two disci-plines that most would think are unrelated; music and mining. For the purposes of Music at Large, clashing seemingly unrelated ideas to form new ideas is a use-ful methodology to exceed the boundaries of current architectural understanding and bring new paradigms to the built environment.Figure 42. Original quarry section. By author, 2019.42Figure 44. Dalhalla Opera aerial view. By Dalhalla, 2014.Figure 43. Dalhalla Opera & reverberation within quarry. By author, 2019.43Figure 45. Point Counterpoint II appears in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1989. By American Wind Symphony Orchestra, 1989.Precedent StudyPOINT COUNTERPOINT IIPittsburgh, USA One of Louis Kahn’s lesser-known projects, this playful, retro-futuristic maritime vessel doubles as a floating concert stage. Originally built for use in Pittsburgh USA in 1967, this vessel brought music from the rivers of Pittsburgh to small towns through-out America to the great capitals of Europe. It brought music and art to small towns that didn’t have their own orchestras, spreading culture all over the world. It is used by the American Wind Symphony Orchestra when in operation. The vessel features a 75-foot stage sits at the center of the vessel and is opened and closed using hydraulics (Bloom, 2017). It also holds a theatre showroom and a small art gallery. The round windows and doorways give the ship the resemblance of a flute, which could be dedicated to Louis Kahn’s daughter; who is a flute player. When in use, the rotating cast of young AWSO musicians often stayed with the host families in the towns that they were performing. The vessel would park alongside a beach, and the towns-44people would turn up with picnic blankets and lawn chairs during a performance. This riverboat is not de-signed for oceanic travel, so when needed to perform in Europe, it would be ferried by a container ship to make it across the North Atlantic (Bloom, 2017). This vessel made its final performance in 1997 and is currently being considered for demolition.DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE Concert halls are a stationary space that isolate classical music within its enclosed shell. From the research by Chun-F & Hu, it is noted that one of the primary reasons preventing interested university stu-dents from attending a classical concert is the location. This vessel solves the problem of location and brings the music to the audience. Furthermore, it possesses the power to travel further and enrich the culture of towns without a developed musical scene, spreading music beyond the city. Movement and change are especially important themes in our modern, fast paced world. The idea of a moving performance aligns with the nature of active and energetic Vancouverites. There is great potential for a similar system to be deployed in Van-couver, which is lined by a myriad of waterfront public space. Figure 47. Vessel performance at the waterfront. By author, 2019.Figure 46. Vessel travelling to new destination. By author, 2019.45Precedent StudySWISS SOUND PAVILIONHanover, Germany Designed by architect Peter Zumthor, the Swiss Sound Pavilion is Switzerland’s entry in Expo 2000 in Hanover. It is intended to function as an acoustic space and an architecture of the senses. Rotating musicians perform within the structure, sound weaving through the permeable, interwoven walls to provide each visitor a unique experience. The project is highly phenomenological, focused on change, atmosphere, emotion, and memory (Hubertus, 2011). A harmony is created between multiple musical performances and the casually stalling visitors without acoustic dissonance.   The structure is composed of 118 wood-stacked walls that are held together with post ten-sioned cables and uses no adhesives or nails. The plan follows a basket weave pattern and is highly permeable and open without dead ends. The spacing between the walls are varied, creating spaces with different atmospheric and light qualities. The inter-connected corridors give way to inner courtyards and rooms, which are used for performances and dining. DESIGN SIGNIFICANCE This project is interesting in its Phenomeno-logical aspects and its focus towards curating unique experiences for each visitor. Having multiple musi-Figure 48. Swiss Sound Pavilion components. By author, 2019.Figure 49. Pavilion plan & locations for performace. By author, 2019.46Figure 50. Swiss Sound Pavilion. By Wikiarquitectura, 2001.cians playing at the same time while visitors weave in and out inside the space provides more freedom and engagement between musician and audience (Huber-tus). Of the precedents, this is the first that proposes the act of listening to music without looking at the performers. The sounds act as a guide to help guests navigate the maze-like pavilion. Audience engagement and interaction is very important in bringing classi-cal music to the masses. In typical performances, the audience is looking at the musicians from a distance, like they are some sort of precious display. Creating more interaction breaks down the isolation and elitism of classical music and is a powerful tool in drawing in younger, more casual audiences.47PROPOSAL This thesis proposes a new system of practice and performance of music, tailored specifically to the needs of the Renegade Musicians. This system will involve a new form of architecture for rehearsal and performance, as well new financial relationships that mitigate the detrimental effects of Vancouver’s rising lease rates. Inspired by versatility of buskers, Music at large proposes to bring the acoustic and aesthetic qualities of concert halls to the dynamic street perfor-mance. Instead of the audience travelling to the con-cert hall, the concert hall is brought to the audience. Renegade Musicians will practice and per-form using highly flexible and adaptable “Music Pods”. These pods provide acoustic and visual con-trols to greater legitimize a musical performance. The pop up stage can be brought to anywhere with a road, bringing high quality live performances to areas without performance venues. Furthermore, the stor-age facility for the Music Pods act as a center for the Renegade Musicians. In this facility, musicians can practice, collaborate, develop connections, and offer performances to the public. Due to the flexible nature of the storage structure, the prototype design will engage in the adaptive reuse of an underutilized site instead of building on an empty lot of land. Music at Large intends to support the needs of the experimental classical musicians and breathe new life into the live music scene of Vancouver.MUSIC AT LARGEPART III48Figure 51. Music pod concept diagram. By author, 2020.49Figure 52. Typical financial model. By author, 2020.50Figure 53. Music pod financial model. By author, 2020.5152Figure 54. Music pod design components. By author, 2020.53Figure 55. Music pod variations. By author, 2020.54POD VARIATIONS Three pod types complement the needs of different musicians and musician groups. Standard pods are the most flexible and offer the best acoustic performance. Their size requires the use of a custom delivery truck to assemble on a site. Micro pods are smaller and can be towed with any vehicle. The do not offer the height advantage of standard pods, but are effective for sites with existing height advantages or for performing to smaller audiences. The grand pod for larger musician groups combines two standard pods, and offers all of the features of the standard pod. Two trucks are required to deliver the pieces of the grand pod. REVOLVING ACOUSTIC PANELS The typical walls of the Standard and Grand pods possess acoustic walls that revolve to shift between different absorptive and reflective acoustic qualities. For rehearsals in a closed room, it is best to reduce the reverberation of sound to avoid damaging the musicians’ ears. For outdoor performances, high reflection is important to allow the sound to travel further. Just like how a musician can tune their instru-ment, they can now tune their performance space to match their acoustic requirements.Figure 56. Music pod acoustic panels. By author, 2020.55POD FACILITY: A NEW TYPOLOGY Music pods cannot be left out in public spaces permanently, therefore a pod storage facility is re-quired to facilitate and maintain the pods. The archi-tecture of the pod facility should represent the needs of the Renegade Musician and visually differentiate itself from the elite musical institutions. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA The prototype pod facility will be designed for the city of Vancouver. Due to the presence of many cultural institutions and quality pedestrian networks, the pod facility will be designed for public access to act as a center for music. To reach the largest amount of people, it is important to select sites that are close to a major public space, or along a major pedestrian route. For ease of access for the musicians to travel to and from the site, it is preferable that the site is locat-ed nearby a music institution with existing infrastruc-ture. The integration of the pod storage facility should subtly, but effectively supplement the existing music network. Figure 57. Pod facility concept. By author, 2020.56Figure 58. Sound mapping of Vancouver’s bridges. By author, 2020.Figure 59. Bridge underside photos. By author, 2020.57Figure 39. Burrard bridge axonometric. By author, 2020.Figure 61. Area analysis diagrams. By author, 2020.Figure 60. Burrard bridge axonometric. By author, 2020.58Figure 62. Site analysis diagrams. By author, 2020. 59POD FACILITY DESIGN Underneath the Burrard bridge, the prototype pod facility is designed as a flexible scaffold structure that expands over time to accomodate greater demand. The uniquely cladded music pods sit on top of the scaffold structure, forming a outdoor gallery of albulm artwork. Within the facility, musicians are given the space to interact and collaborate. On specific days, the music facility opens uo to the public, allowing the audience to take a peek inside the world of music creation. The facility becomes Vancouver’s Center for Renegade Music.60Figure 63. Pod facility organisation. By author, 2020.6162Figure 64. Pod facility perspective. By author, 2020.63MUSIC AT LARGE A short film was made to represent how Mu-sic at Large comes together. The interaction between musicians and audience, between music pods and the city, and inner workings of the pod facility are de-tailed out in this hand drawn animation. The following images are stills from the short film Music at Large.Figure 65. Alleyway performance setup. By author, 2020.6465Figure 66. Stills #1 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.66Figure 67. Stills #2 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.Your music pod is vacant and ready for use!67Figure 68. Stills #3 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.68Figure 69. Stills #4 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.69Figure 70. Stills #5 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.70Figure 71. Stills #6 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.71Figure 72. Stills #7 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.Your performance site will be avail-able in 1 hour!72Figure 73. Stills #8 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.73Figure 74. Stills #9 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.74Figure 75. Stills #10 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.75Figure 76. Stills #11 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.76Figure 77. Stills #12 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.77Figure 78. Stills #13 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.78Figure 79. Stills #14 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.79Figure 80. Stills #15 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.80Figure 81. Stills #16 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.81Figure 82. Stills #17 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.82Figure 83. Stills #18 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.83Figure 84. Stills #19 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.84Figure 85. Stills #20 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.85Figure 86. Stills #21 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.86Figure 87. Stills #22 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.87Figure 88. Stills #23 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.88Figure 89. Stills #24 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.89Figure 90. Stills #25 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.90Figure 91. Stills #26 from Music at Large. By author, 2020.91Figure 92. Pod facility axonometric drawing. By author, 2020.9293BIBLIOGRAPHYAmerican Wind Symphony Orchestra (1989). Point Counterpoint II appears in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1989 [Pho-tograph]. Retrieved from, W. (1921). First floor plan of the orpheum theatre [Photograph]. Retrived from, E. (2017). Pittsburgh’s weird, silver, 195-foot-long concert boat could soon be dismantled. Yo-Yo Ma is trying to save her, Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrived from, R. (Photographer). (2019). Jim Deva Plaza [Photograph]. Retrieved from, B. (Photographer). (2008). Grieg’s Cabin, Troldhaugen [Photograph]. Retrieved from, L.C. (Painter). (1763). Leopold Mozart with Wolfgang Amadeus and Maria Anna [Watercolor]. Re-trieved from, K. (2018). Dailyhive: Free concert by the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra coming to Sunset Beach on July 14. Retrived from, C. (Photographer). (2016). Elbphilharmonie hall [Photograph]. Retrieved from, C., & Hu, H. (2006). The attitudes of university students to classical music concerts: A study in con-sumer behaviour. International Journal of Management, 23(2), 366-374. Retrieved from (2019). Discover music. Retrieved from (2014). Dalhalla opera aerial view [Photograph]. Reteived from (2016). Copenhagen busking street [Photograph]. Retrieved from, Gera. (2018). Harbourfront Centre – Toronto Music Garden [Photograph]. Retrieved from, L. (2012). Sunday dialogue: Is classical music dying?: Readers react to a violinists fear that its audience 94is declining. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from (Photographer). (2010). The interior of the Palais Garnier [Photograph]. Retrived from,_2010.jpgGooch, B., Cluderay, L., Ware, E. (2015). The Canadian encyclopedia: Vancouver Symphony Orchestra. Re-trieved from, A. (2011). Architektur Musik; Boa Baumann, Fritz Hauser. Switzerland: Niggli.Ilchef, M. (2019). Cutcommon: Do you really think classical music is dying? Retrieved from, H. (Photograpger). (2014). Hattiloo Theatre interior [Photograph]. Retrieved from, A. (2017). ABC radio national: Why no symphony orchestra in the world makes money. Retrieved from, J. (1997). The view from here: Vancouver merger a hostile takeover? Performing Arts & Entertainment in Canada, 30(4), 46. Retrieved from, M. W. & Zach, M. S. (2007). Resonance: Essays on the Intersection of Music and Architecture. Ames, U.S.A: Culiciade architectural press.Music attendance in Austrailia. (2009). Austrailian bureau of statistics. Retrieved from, P. (Photographer). (2018). Byward Market busker [Photograph]. Retrived from canada/ottawa/buskers-byward-market-displace-casino-event-1.4737292Pisano, S. (Photographer). (2017). Daniil Trifonov at Carnegie Hall [Photograph]. Retrieved from, M.S. (2018). Classic FM: Nine in ten children want to learn a musical instrument, survey finds. Re-trieved from Engineering Research Foundation (2014). Dalhalla – a rock amphitheatre. Retrieved from, D. (2013). Listening to the Now. Daedalus, 142(4), 38-44. Retrieved from, M. (2018). BBC news: Orchestral musicians ‘living on breadline.’ Retrieved from, M. (1860). HOW TO ENJOY CLASSICAL MUSIC. Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter, Jan.1851-Dec.1888, (89), 236-95239. Retrieved from, J. O., & James O Young. (2016). How classical music is better than popular music Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S003181911600033Wharton Center (Photographer). (2007). A thrust stage at the Pasant Theatre [Photograph]. Retrieved from (2001). Swiss Sound Pavilion [Photograph]. Retrieved from, J. (2019). CMUSE: 5 Pieces of Classical Music Inspired by the Sounds of Nature. Retrived from


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