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Vancouver Port Discovery District : Container ship adaptive reuse as a new form of social infrastructure Liu, Jia 2020-05

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byJIA LIUB.A.S. Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Design Carleton University, 2015Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTUREinThe Faculty of Graduate Studies School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Architecture ProgramCommitteeMari Fujita  Chair    AnnaLisa Meyboom Faculty    Amirali Javidan  Architect The University Of British Columbia Vancouver, BC © Jia Liu, May 2020VANCOUVER PORT DISCOVERY DISTRICTContainer ship adaptive reuse as a new form of social infrastructure iiABSTRACTVancouver is the largest port in Canada and the third largest in North America. The city has been Canada’s primary hub for trade, with more than 170 world economies. The vessels anchored in the Burrard Inlet connect people with Vancouver’s port identity. Yet they always stay far away from people, like a distant mirage. Meanwhile, the public know very little about Vancouver’s port activities due to limited access for security reasons. Therefore, few people in the city can actually relate to Vancouver’s port and trade hub identity. The thesis looks at adaptively reusing a container ship at the end of its service life as a vehicle to engage Vancouverites with the city’s role as the largest port in Canada by infusing this new social infrastructure within the city’s transportation hub (cruise, container, railway, seabus, skytrain terminals). The ship enables the public to observe the various port activities and to make them feel proud of the city’s port identity through programs and public amenities brought onboard. The public can learn about and discover what Vancouver is made up of in a more tangible way. They can live, learn, socialize, experience, and work in unique environments that are created by inherent spatial qualities of the ship and shipping containers.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT iiTABLE OF CONTENTS iiiLIST OF FIGURES v1. INTRODUCTION 11.1 RESEARCH INTERESTS 21.2 ADAPTIVE REUSE 31.3 SHIP DISPOSAL 101.4 VANCOUVER AS PORT CITY 152. SOCIAL + CULTURAL CHALLENGES 192.1 IDENTITY + LANDMARK 202.2 PUBLIC SPACE + CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE 222.3 SOCIAL ISOLATION 233. ECONOMIC CHALLENGES 263.1 CREATIVE INDUSTRIES 273.2 TOURISM 293.3 ARTS + CULTURE 314. SITE + SHIP + PROGRAMS 374.1 SITE SELECTION 384.2 SHIP SELECTION 514.3 PROGRAMS 585. DESIGN 635.1 SHORT FILM 645.2 SHIP PLACEMENT 655.3 SITE ACCESS & CONCOURSES 675.4 SECTION PERSPECTIVE - LONG 735.5 PUBLIC SPACE & THE POOL 755.6 PROGRAMS ON BOARD 855.7 ADAPTIVE REUSE STRATEGY 1155.8 SECTION PERSPECTIVE - CROSS 1175.9 PLANS 119iv5.10 CONCLUSION 127EPILOGUE 129ENDNOTES 130BIBLIOGRAPHY 135IMAGE SOURCES 140vLIST OF FIGURESFig. 1 Vessels in the Burrard Inlet - View from English Bay 1Fig. 2 Limited access to port 2Fig. 3 Limited access to port 2Fig. 4 High Line today 4Fig. 5 High Line over city streets 4Fig. 6 The old grain elevator building 5Fig. 7 The raw, concrete structure is punctuated with convex windows. 5Fig. 8 Silo Atrium 6Fig. 9 Silo Hotel interior 6Fig. 10 La Fábrica aerial view 7Fig. 11 La Fábrica interior 7Fig. 12 Unique Steel Structure 8Fig. 13 Building Under Construction in 1969 8Fig. 16 El Avión Restaurant and Bar 9Fig. 14 Dive Bahrain 9Fig. 15 Dive Bahrain 9Fig. 17 A ship getting scrapped 10Fig. 18 Labourers on a beach 11Fig. 19 Workers breaking the ship 11Fig. 20 Ship breakingin Chittagong 12Fig. 21 Queen Elizabeth 2 Hotel in Dubai, UAE 13Fig. 22 Queen Mary at Long Beach, California 14Fig. 23 Geographic advantage 15Fig. 24 Canada Place Cruise Terminal 15Fig. 25 Gondolas & monorail 16Fig. 26 McBarge today 16Fig. 27 Piers in 1935, view looking east from Lost Lagoon 17Fig. 28 West Coast Shipbuilders Ltd. on the southeast shore of False Creek, 1941 17Fig. 29 Vessels in the Burrard Inlet 18Fig. 30 Designated Commercial Anchorages in the Burrard Inlet 18viFig. 31 Science World 20Fig. 32 Marine Building, 1946 20Fig. 33 Marine Building today 20Fig. 34 Oodi Library 24Fig. 35 Sewing at Oodi 24Fig. 36 Drum Studio at Oodi 24Fig. 37 The Shipyards 25Fig. 38 Skating at the Shipyards 25Fig. 39 Vancouver’s hotel shortage compared with rising overnight visitation 30Fig. 40 Culture Crawl Artist Studio 32Fig. 41 Status of artist space in East Vancouver 33Fig. 42 Example of affordable rental award studio 35Fig. 43 Parker Street Studios 36Fig. 44 Central Waterfront Site (highlighted) 38Fig. 45 Aerial view looking east 38Fig. 46 1933 Context 39Fig. 47 2019 Current Context 39Fig. 48 Future Context 40Fig. 49 Shoreline Comparison 40Fig. 50 Zones 41Fig. 51 Vancouver starts here. 41Fig. 52 Transportation 42Fig. 53 Industries & Public Spaces 42Fig. 54 Page 6 from Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement - Central Area Context 44Fig. 55 An artistic presentation of a proposed redevelopment of the central downtown waterfront, 1977 46Fig. 56 Map showing proposed siting of Whitecaps stadium 47Fig. 57 Anna Maersk loaded with containers 51Fig. 58 Anna Maersk docked at Centerm Terminal 51Fig. 59 The Evolution of Container Ships 52Fig. 60 Anna Maersk General Arrangement 54viiFig. 61 Size Comparison with QE2 & QM 55Fig. 62 Comparison with Landmark Buildings 56Fig. 63 Comparison with city block 57Fig. 64 Program Proposal Rationale 59Fig. 65 Existing Circulation 60Fig. 66 Museum Component 60Fig. 67 Critical dimensions to fit soundstages 61Fig. 68 A Typical Soundstage 61Fig. 69 Containers on deck 62Fig. 70 Container holds below deck 62Fig. 71 Keyframes 64Fig. 72 Facing Gastown 65Fig. 73 Facing Burrard Inlet 65Fig. 74 Affecting view extensively 66Fig. 75 Minimal view impact 66Fig. 76 Concourse I 67Fig. 77 Aerial view of the ship 68Fig. 78 Greenway Tunnel - towards the ship 69Fig. 79 View at the end of tunnel 70Fig. 80 Dock Plaza 71Fig. 81 Seawall Greenway on the port side, leading to Concourse II 72Fig. 82 Section Perspective - Long 73Fig. 83 The bow of the ship 75Fig. 84 The stern (the back or aft-most part) of the ship 76Fig. 85 Promenade meanders through container holds 77Fig. 86 Promenade diverges 78Fig. 87 Upper Deck 79Fig. 88 Amphitheatre w/ Open-air Cinema at night 80Fig. 89 Pools and amenities  81Fig. 90 Leisure Pool 82Fig. 91 Diving Pool 83viiiFig. 92 Skylight over film office 84Fig. 93 Film Office 85Fig. 94 Film Office 86Fig. 95 Soundstage with water tank 87Fig. 96 Under-deck spaces 88Fig. 97 Sound Recording Studios 89Fig. 98 The studios offer an open view to the port 90Fig. 99 Hotel rooms 91Fig. 100 Hotel room interior 92Fig. 101 Various hotel room types 93Fig. 102 Walking between shipping containers 94Fig. 103 Movie Theatre 95Fig. 104 Soundstage with high ceilings 96Fig. 105 Community Amenities 97Fig. 106 Community Garden 98Fig. 107 Community amenities with a view 99Fig. 108 Maritime Museum 100Fig. 109 Main Engine and Funnel 101Fig. 110 Navigation and Flying Bridges 102Fig. 111 Flying Bridge view 103Fig. 112 Market, workshops & artist live+work units 104Fig. 113 Market 105Fig. 114 Workshops 106Fig. 115 Artist Live+Work Units 107Fig. 116 Artist Live+Work Units in containers 108Fig. 117 Unit with a deck 109Fig. 118 Other types of units 110Fig. 119 Artist Garden 111Fig. 120 Art classes 112Fig. 121 Skylight 113Fig. 122 Axonomatric drawing 116Fig. 123 Cross Section I 117ixFig. 124 Cross Section II 118Fig. 125 Dock Bottom 119Fig. 126 8th Deck 120Fig. 127 6th Deck 121Fig. 128 4th Deck (Ground Level) 122Fig. 129 2nd Deck 123Fig. 130 Upper Deck 124Fig. 131 A Deck 125Fig. 132 Roof Plan 126Fig. 133 Overview 128x1. INTRODUCTIONFig. 1 Vessels in the Burrard Inlet - View from English Bay 21.1 RESEARCH INTERESTSFig. 2 Limited access to portFig. 3 Limited access to portThe ever-changing view of the various commercial vessels anchored in the Burrard Inlet connect people with Vancouver’s port identity. Yet, the vessels stay far away from people and are as unapproachable as a mirage. The public know very little about Vancouver’s port activities due to limited access for security reasons. As a result, few people can relate to Vancouver’s port and trade hub identity.How can the public learn about Vancouver’s various port activities in a more tangible way? Is there an opportunity to integrate a ship into Vancouver’s social infrastructure so that people can visit it at all times?3Adaptive reuse has become a popular solution to disused post-industrial buildings and infrastructures. The precedents cast light on how adaptive reuse can help preserve historical characters and protect the cultural legacy of the local community. Transportation tools like bus and plane have also been transformed into other uses after their service life. How can we adopt the same approach to repurpose vessels? 1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSE 4James Corner Field Operations, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, and Piet OudolfNew York City, USHIGH LINEThe High Line is an elevated linear park converted from an abandoned railroad on the west side of Manhattan. It is a classic case study of redeveloping obsolete infrastructure as public space which in turn benefits and stimulates the development in adjacent neighourhoods.The railroad used to connect factories and warehouses with feight trains carrying milk, meat, produce, and other goods. The growth of interstate trucking during the 1950s led to a significant drop in rail traffic and its abandonment in 1980.1 The growing need for more public space and the rise of public awareness in cultural heritage preservation led to the redevelopment of the railroad. The fact that the railroad is elevated and that it connects directly to buildings has been utilized as a vantage point.1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSEFig. 4 High Line today Fig. 5 High Line over city streets51.2 ADAPTIVE REUSEA historic grain silo complex has been redeveloped into a museum that celebrates continent’s art with a boutique hotel to help draw both domestic and international visitors. The new complex respects and celebrates the industrial history of Cape Town by preserving the majority of the exterior structure of the grain silos while modifying the interior creatively to introduce new programs that are beneficial to the revitalization of the area.“Rather than strip out the evidence of the building’s industrial heritage, we wanted to find a way to enjoy and celebrate it. We could either fight a building made of concrete tubes or enjoy its tube‐iness. The project has become about imagining an interior carved from within an infrastructural object whilst celebrating the building’s character.”2  - Thomas HeatherwickZEITZ MOCAA & THE SILO HOTELHeatherwick StudioCape Town, South AfricaFig. 6 The old grain elevator building Fig. 7 The raw, concrete structure is punctuated with convex windows. 6 1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSEThe 9-storey 9,500 sq.m. museum contains 6,000 sq.m. of exhibition space in 80 gallery spaces, a rooftop sculpture garden, storage and conservation areas, a bookshop, a restaurant, a bar, and reading rooms. The museum also houses Centres for a Costume Institute, Photography, Curatorial Excellence, the Moving Image, Performative Practice and Art Education.3 “Our mission,” explains Zeitz MOCAA CEO Mark Coetzee, “is securing seminal artifacts from the African continent and making sure they stay on the African continent. As an institution, it’s important for us to empower not only the voices here but the youth, so they can see the art and voices coming out of their community and develop a sense of pride in the art of their country.”4The hotel rooms are enclosed in “inflated“ glass frames to make the experience more unique.Fig. 8 Silo Atrium Fig. 9 Silo Hotel interior7A disused cement factory has been transformed into the architect Ricardo Bofill’s own residence and the head office of Taller de Arquitectura. Unlike the MOCAA which serves the general public, a different approach to adaptive reuse has been applied here for a much more personal use.  “Abstraction in the pure volumes, which revealed themselves at times broken and raw. Brutalism in the abrupt treatment and sculptural qualities of the materials. Seduced by the contradictions and the ambiguity of the place, we quickly decided to retain the factory, and modifying its original brutality, sculpt it like a work of art.” 5 - Ricardo BofillThe transformation process began with the demolition of part of the old structure to expose the once concealed concrete forms. Eight silos were preserved and repurposed as offices, a models laboratory, archives, a library, a projections room and “The Cathedral”, a gigantic space used for exhibitions, concerts and a whole range of cultural functions. Eucalyptus, palms, olive trees, cypresses and other lavish greenery have been planted all over the complex.6“The construction work, which began with partial destruction with dynamite and jack hammers, lasted for more than a year and a half. It was a precision job, which consisted in revealing the hidden forms and recovering certain spaces, comparable to the work of the sculptor whose first task is to confront the material....The last phase was the annulment of functionalism: we had to give the factory new structures and different uses, invent a new program.”7 - Ricardo BofillRicardo BofillSant Just Desvern, SpainTHE FACTORY / LA FÁBRICAFig. 10 La Fábrica aerial view1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSEFig. 11 La Fábrica interior 8 1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSEArchitects William Rhone & Randle Iredale and structural engineer Bogue BabickiVancouver, BC, CanadaTHE QUBEPurposefully built in 1969 for the resource development company Westcoast Transmission, this iconic building with historical landmark designation is indicative of the ongoing expansion of Vancouver’s central business district during the corporate expansion and building boom in late 1960s and early 1970s, which was fuelled by the transfer of corporate headquarters to Vancouver.8The central concrete core with steel floors supported by cables hung from the top creates the unique column free open floor space. This striking design feature made it possible to convert the use of the building to residential with the maximum freedom to reconfigure the layout on each floor. The decision of the redevelopment was made by Anthem Properties in 2004 when the tenant at the time - Duke Energy - was undergoing corporate restructuring and market research showed that the location was out of the main business and financial district yet right in the middle of the emerging Coal Harbour condominium neighbourhood.9Fig. 12 Unique Steel Structure Fig. 13 Building Under Construction in 19699Fig. 14 Dive BahrainFig. 15 Dive BahrainDive Bahrain is the world’s largest underwater theme park. The decommissioned plane serves as the centrepiece of theme park and is the largest plane that has been intentionally submerged. It was created to offer visitors a unique diving experience.El Avión Restaurant and Bar is a converted Fairchild C-123 Provider in Costa Rica. The plane offers a one-of-a-kind dining environment.OTHER TRANSPORTATION TOOLSFig. 16 El Avión Restaurant and Bar1.2 ADAPTIVE REUSE 101.3 SHIP DISPOSALLIFE SPAN“How long a ship lasts depends on several factors. In general, most modern vessels will have a planned service life of between 25–30 years. In those first 30-years the ship will be relatively efficient to operate, but after that the maintenance costs and the needs for retrofitting to newer standards start to make continued operation unrealistic. Once a ship gets to it’s designed useful life, it is often sold “down-market” to lower end operators. For example, cruise ships might be initially purchased by one of the larger lines and used 25–30 years before they are sold to a smaller operators that may seek out 5–15 more years of service life before they are sold for scrap. “10 - Brent Pounds, Professional Mariner“As with any asset, ships as they age have rising maintenance costs and are not able to take advantage of more modern cost reduction technologies. As a result, they become less and less able to be operated at a cost-effective level. In time, the inefficient ship becomes so expensive to operate that the benefit of already owning an asset is eaten away. At that point in time, the wise owner gets rid of the ship in favour of a new one.”11 - Neill Conroy, Professional Ship ManagerFig. 17 A ship getting scrapped11Fig. 19 Workers breaking the shipFig. 18 Labourers on a beachWhen ships are determined unseaworthy, they usually get srapped in countries where labour is cheap and where people rely on recycling steel to make a living. Most ships end up in one of the world’s three largest ship breaking yards: Alang in India, Chittagong in Bangladesh or Gadani in Pakistan. There, an army of underpaid, unprotected workers break up the ship, stripping everything useful and cutting up the hull’s steel plates. Training and safety equipment are scant, and dozens of workers are killed or seriously injured each year in falls, explosions and other accidents. Workers are supposed to be at least 18, but even that basic law is often broken.12 Ship breaking activities pose an enormous threat to the health and safety of the workers. “The vast majority of the world’s end-of-life fleet is simply broken down - by hand - on the beaches of South Asia. There, unscrupulous shipping companies exploit minimal enforcement of environmental and safety rules to maximise profits. “13 - NGO Shipbreaking PlatformSHIP BREAKING1.3 SHIP DISPOSAL 12Fig. 20 Ship breakingin ChittagongSHIP RECYCLING & REPURPOSINGLarge shipping companies like Maersk and Hapag-Lloyd have been working on a cradle-to-cradle ship recycling policy to make sure their ships are not scrapped in substandard facilities. However, the ship breaking industry remains unsustainable and hazardous.In contrast to the fate of most ships that usually end up getting scrapped, exceptions were made of some cruise ships which have been modified and sometimes gutted to suit new needs. The most successful cases are Queen Elizabeth 2 docked in Dubai and Queen Mary at Long Beach, CA.1.3 SHIP DISPOSAL13Queen Elizabeth 2 is a floating hotel and retired transatlantic liner originally built for and operated by Cunard Line from 1969 to 2008. Since 2018, she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai. When QE2 was operated as an ocean liner, she had 13 decks with a total deck space of 54,000 square feet. There were 760 hotel staff members. They looked after the 564 de luxe and 1441 standard class passengers on the North Atlantic run, or 1350 one-class passengers on a cruise, who occupied 291 de luxe and 687 standard class rooms and 30 public rooms.14QE2 was retired on 27 November 2008 and had been acquired by Dubai World to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai. The 2008 financial crisis intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and later Port Rashid. In March 2017, a Dubai-based construction company announced that it had been contracted to refurbish the ship. The restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018.15Fig. 21 Queen Elizabeth 2 Hotel in Dubai, UAEQUEEN ELIZABETH 21.3 SHIP DISPOSAL 14The RMS Queen Mary is a retired ocean liner that sailed primarily on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line. After several years of decreased profits, Queen Mary was officially retired from service in 1967 when she sailed to the port of Long Beach, California, US, where she remains permanently moored.16 Queen Mary used to have 12 decks and can carry 2,139 passengers in 776 first (cabin) class, 784 cabin class, and 579 tourist class with 1101 crew. 17The new owner decided to clear almost every area of the ship below C deck to make way for Jacques Cousteau’s new Living Sea Museum. This increased museum space to 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2).18Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, and all of the boilers, were removed. The ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring restaurants, a museum and a hotel.19Fig. 22 Queen Mary at Long Beach, CaliforniaQUEEN MARY1.3 SHIP DISPOSALTO ASIATO USTO USTO CANADA15Vancouver’s geographic location plays a crucial role in shaping the city’s economy. Owing to its proximity to Asia and the United States, as well as its excellent deep-water harbour and transportation infrastructure, Vancouver is Canada’s primary hub for trade. The railway links the city with the rest of Canada and has made Vancouver the country’s leading Pacific coast port.20Port of Vancouver is the largest port in Canada and the 3rd largest in North America by tonnes of cargo, supporting trade with more than 170 economies around the world. Over 90 percent of the total volume handled by the port serves the country’s import and export markets. The port operates across five business sectors: automobiles, breakbulk, bulk, container and cruise, making it the most diversified port in North America.21Both cargo and cruise volumes broke record in 2018 and 2019. On the weekend of September 21-22, 2019, more than 30,000 passengers from six cruise ships debarked at Canada Place Cruise Terminal. In 2019, the city has seen an increase of 21 percent in cruise passenger volume from 2018.22 Meanwhile, the overall cargo volume in 2018 reached a record high of 147 million tonnes, a 3.5 percent increase from 2017.23“In Vancouver, containers arrive filled with appliances, clothing and other consumer products as well as auto parts and manufactured goods from Asia. They leave loaded with Canadian grain, lumber and food products, among other goods. For Canadian businesses large and small, container trade through the Port of Vancouver is essential to gaining access to international markets.”24 - Port of Vancouver1.4 VANCOUVER AS PORT CITYFig. 23 Geographic advantageFig. 24 Canada Place Cruise Terminal 16The theme of Expo 86 was “Transportation and Communication: World in Motion - World in Touch”. The fair coincided with Vancouver’s centennial celebration, which imbued Vancouerites with a sense of pride and optimism. The transportation theme reflected the city’s role in connecting Canada by rail, its status as a major port and transportation hub. The $15-million monorail transported 60,000 passengers a day along a 5.6-kilometre route while the picturesque gondolas transported close to 10 million people over the five months of the fair.25One of the highlights was the floating McDonald’s restaurant constructed on a barge, nicknamed McBarge. It shed light on repurposing a barge into other uses. Although the barge was left to rust for the last 30 years after the expo, Howard Meakin, the current owner of the barge, announced in 2017 that the barge will be transformed into Deep Discovery Centre.26 “We completely gutted the barge. The museum will be spread over 15,400 square feet, plus a 4,000-square-foot rooftop, and will feature submersibles, deep-sea artifacts and a movie theatre.”27 - Howard MeakinEXPO 86Fig. 25 Gondolas & monorailFig. 26 McBarge today1.4 VANCOUVER AS PORT CITY17Vancouver’s early development relied heavily on railway network. As a result, piers servicing freighters and passenger ships concentrated along the CP railways on the south shore of Burrard Inlet  (in the Coal Harbour, CBD, Gastown areas today). Vancouver has a long history of shipbuilding as well. Burrard Dry Dock Company, for example, was established in the 1890s and built more than 350 ships throughout its 90-year business.28 Today, the shipbuilding industry continues to thrive. Seaspan, the largest marine conglomerate in Metro Vancouver, offers shipbuilding, repairs, barging, tug boats, and other harbour services. In the summer of 2019, in order to complete a 680-passenger cruiseship (MS Regatta) refit in 16 days, Seaspan had to hire an army of construction crew of 2,000 contractors, cruise ship specialists, and drydock employees to work around the clock on the job. The refit project was so enormous and time intensive that it required a second cruiseship (Grand Classica) berthed next to the drydock to house all of the crew. The work involved stripping the hull and recoating it, and updates to the propulsion system and rudder. The upgradation of interior passenger amenities was within the scope of the refit project as well.29Fig. 27 Piers in 1935, view looking east from Lost Lagoon1.4 VANCOUVER AS PORT CITYVANCOUVER’S MARITIME HISTORYFig. 28 West Coast Shipbuilders Ltd. on the southeast shore of False Creek, 1941North VancouverVancouverWestVancouverEnglish BayFalse CreekCoal HarbourFirst NarrowsInnerHarbour 18The stunning ever-changing view of the Burrard Inlet seems almost staged. However, the commercial vessels simply follow the rules set by Port of Vancouver to anchor themselves within the designated areas. English Bay accommodates the majority of the ships. The vessels are visible from all municipalities around Burrard Inlet: West Vancouver, North Vancouver, and Vancouver. The mesmerizing view is the ultimate manifestation of Vancouver’s port and trade hub identity. Fig. 29 Vessels in the Burrard Inlet1.4 VANCOUVER AS PORT CITYCOMMERCIAL ANCHORAGES IN THE BURRARD INLETFig. 30 Designated Commercial Anchorages in the Burrard Inlet192. SOCIAL + CULTURAL CHALLENGES 20Even though the ships remind people that Vancouver is a port city, the city doesn’t really have a distinct visual identity within its built environment. As “Hollywood North”, many films have been shot in Vancouver, yet it has always pretended to be some other city. “Vancouver Never Plays Itself” is a YouTube video that made its way to the news in 2015, arguing that the city should step into the spotlight rather than playing as a generic background city.30 Sydney Opera House marks Sydney while Eiffel Tower signifies Paris. Is there any landmark in Vancouver? in 2019, CBC Municipal Affairs reporter Justin McElroy hosted a Twitter poll and after 25,000+ votes Science World was determined the most iconic building in the city. The reasons were it offered a mix of unique architecture, a rich historical legacy (Expo 86), as well as a wide range of exhibitions that satisfy the cultural needs of young and old, locals and tourists.31Marine BuIlding ranked second, being the most iconic heritage building. It was completed in 1930s and was then the tallest building in the city. It is now buried in a forest of modern high-rises which has made it less noticeable. Moreover, it is less accessible to the public due to its office nature.2.1 IDENTITY + LANDMARKFig. 31 Science WorldFig. 32 Marine Building, 1946 Fig. 33 Marine Building today21Amongst other top listed iconic buildings are Vancouver Library, Canada Place, and Museum of Anthropology. Personally, I was surprised that Vancouver Library ranked higher than Canada Place since Vancouver Library doesn’t appear on the postcards as often as Canada Place does. One explanation would be that the library offers more services to the public than Canada Place does. Canada Place was, in the end, built to hold conferences and exhibitions for visitors. This raises an interesting question of the role landmark plays in a city. Is it the pure geometry and stunning form of architecture that makes something a landmark? Is it more important to promote the profile image of the city than to benefit those who actually live in the city? Are those iconic buildings simply tourist attractions?It is worth noting that both Canada Place and Science World were legacy from the Expo in 1986. No other significant landmarks have been built since then. 2.1 IDENTITY + LANDMARK 22Public spaces and cultural amenities are places where public can go and socialize. Vancouver’s hot real estate market in the past decades led to the boom of residential and office towers. The population is growing exponentially, leading to much densified private spaces, while the city grid stays the same with little increase in public spaces. Most cultural institutions were built between 1950s-1980s (Vancouver Aquarium 1956, Queen Elizabeth Theatre 1959, Museum of Vancouver 1967, Vancouver Art Gallery at Robson Square 1983). They are outdated and are in dire need of renovation and expansion. The new dazzling towers downtown, e.g. the “dancing” Vancouver House and the Charleson with bold public art on its entire south facade, are residential towers of private spaces. What Vancouverites really need is more public spaces that they can use and enjoy. There have been no major developments of public infrastucture in the downtown area since the city built the Vancouver Library in 1995. The north plaza of the Art Gallery has been renovated in 2019 yet no increase in size. Although the new Art Gallery is slated for completion in 2023, no other public projects have been on the drawing board of the city so far.Public and cultural infrastructure helps build stronger communities. CIty of Vancouver, fortunately, was aware of the issue and launched a planning project in 2017 called Places for People Downtown, which aimed to create a strategy to shape and deliver vibrant public spaces downtown. The city recognizes that public spaces are where people connect with the city and with each other. “It’s where community is created.” 32Therefore, the thesis project seeks to introduce well-planned public spaces and quality cultural amenities to help the city keep up with the growth of private spaces. 2.2 PUBLIC SPACE + CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE23“Metro Vancouver residents feel increasingly estranged from their friends, their neighbours and their communities.“ The 2012 survey Connections and Engagement conducted by Vancouver Foundation found that the lack of connection beat out homelessness, drug abuse and affordability in terms of what concerns Vancouverites most. One in four Metro residents felt alone more often than they would like and one-third considered Vancouver a difficult place to make friends. The survey reported that people between the ages of 24 and 35, those who had lived in either Canada or their neighbourhood for fewer than five years and people who live in apartments or suites in houses were especially likely to feel this way.33One respondent, Jacob Kojfman, moved to Vancouver from Toronto to take a job at age 31. He found Vancouver a “tough socialnut to crack.“ At work, there weren’t a lot of people his age who weren’t married or in relationships. He joined networking groups, played some sports and spent time volunteering, but found it difficult to develop anything more than superficial relationships. Janelle Snipe-Burke, who also moved to Vancouver from Toronto, echoed Kojfman’s point: “Being almost 30, I find most people my age already have their group of close friends,” she said. “I’ve been homesick for more than one year, I think in large part because I haven’t made any good friends that make me feel like Vancouver could be home.”34The existing public and social infrastructure in the city is neither conducive to community cultivation nor neighbourhood building. The current configuration of building programs almost prohibits impromptu social interactions.Therefore, the thesis aims to provide community amenities that cultivate an inviting environment for people to make friends and connect with other community members. It seeks to help Vancouverites, especially young adults, to feel less socially isolated.2.3 SOCIAL ISOLATION 24Fig. 34 Oodi LibraryFig. 35 Sewing at OodiALA ArchitectsHelsinki, FinlandOODI HELSINKI CENTRAL LIBRARYIn this 17,250 sqm cultural facility, Oodi redefines the meaning of a library.  Books only fill one third of the floor area. By consulting the locals on how they access culture, new facilities are introduced, including a café, restaurant, movie theatre, audio-visual recording studios and a maker space. Visitors adopt Oodi as a shared living room.“Oodi is what you want it to be. Borrow books, read magazines, enjoy lunch, work, hang out, see a movie, study, hold a meeting, organise events, enjoy a glass of wine, learn about the EU’s activities, create music, meet friends, sew curtains, play with children or play boardgames. “35 - OodiFig. 36 Drum Studio at Oodi2.3 SOCIAL ISOLATION25Fig. 37 The ShipyardsThe Shipyards integrates old with new to celebrate the shipbuilding history of the site. The weather-protected large open space operates as a 12,000 sq.ft. skating rink in the winter and as a water play area with markets, exhibitions, performances, and festivals in the summer.36“It becomes a regional attraction. The citizens are ready for this of public infrastructure, and my hope is that this opens up Lonsdale and puts it on the map,” said project architect Shane Oleksiuk on the place-making efforts. He added that the redevelopment has been designed to be porous to allow the public to enter and exit the site from all directions.37The casual seating is strategically placed on the edges of the Shipyard where people can sit and watch children play. A second level platform at the end of the Shipyards provides a unique vantage point for visitors to soak in the waterfront view and watch the activities happening below. “Today the shipbuilding continues around us, just behind us, and to the west of us. But we’ve shifted the focus of our waterfront away from industry and on to people. Our council and the councils before us conceived of this place as a people-focused space that is welcoming and enjoyable to everyone all year long,” said Mayor Buchanon.38Fig. 38 Skating at the ShipyardsDIALOG ArchitectureNorth Vancouver, BC, CanadaTHE SHIPYARDS2.3 SOCIAL ISOLATION263. ECONOMIC CHALLENGES273.1 CREATIVE INDUSTRIESCreative BC is an organization established by the provincial government that oversees the film and television industry, the interactive and digital media sector, the music and sound recording sector, and the book and magazine publishing industries. 39 The 2018 report released by the Canadian Media Producers Association (CMPA) shows that BC had the highest volume of film and TV production - a 40% share of Canada’s total production.40Over the last five decades, BC has generated more than $3.5 billion in annual GDP and supported 85,000 jobs, making the province the third largest production centre in North America, after California and New York State.  During the 2017-18 fiscal year there were 452 productions, including 289 productions by non-BC and foreign companies and 163 productions by BC-based creators. CreativeBC has declared that the industry is now shoulder-to-shoulder with other industrial sectors such as mining, agriculture and forestry. 41The creative industry in Vancouver owes its success to close proximity to Hollywood in the same time zone in addition to competitive tax incentives offered by the provincial government of BC. In September 2019, Martini Film Studios announced a new construction of 600,000 sq.ft. purpose-built film studio in Metro Vancouver, which is to be the largest motion picture production studio in Canada. 300,000 sq.ft. will be purposed as soundstages, with the other half being offices and production support buildings. “Space is in huge demand, and with the industry thriving and the growth potential for the film and television business across all of BC, we’re proud to expand our services for the sector,” said Gemma Martini, founder and CEO of MFS.42 28The creative industry continues to thrive in BC. However, the growth of local production activity has far outpaced available studio space in recent years.43David Shepheard, director of the Vancouver Film Commission, stated that Martini’s new studio expansion is a much-needed addition to local production infrastructure. Justis Greene, a prominent Vancouver-based producer, added: “The Martini investment into stage expansion comes at a critical time — the Vancouver industry has never felt busier, or more crowded....If you don’t have the factory, you won’t get the product.”44The demand for film workers is also stronger than ever. “There is a labour market information project due to be released by the government very soon that suggests a five-per cent attrition rate throughout the industry per year up against a three to four per cent annual growth which means we need at least an eight to nine per cent workforce increase to keep up with that pace. For my 9,000 members, that means 720 jobs a year,” said Phil Klapwyk, the business representative at IATSE local 891 - the union representing motion picture technicians, artists, and craftspersons.45“The creative industry attarcts billions of dollars of investment annually and creates thousands of diverse jobs for the local community,” said Shepheard.46 The thesis project looks at providing facilities that can help ease the pressure of the growing needs of the film industry. The unique filming and work environments can attract more talents and companies to make films in Vancouver.3.1 CREATIVE INDUSTRIESTHE SQUEEZE293.2 TOURISMIn 2017, tourism industry accounted for $4.8 billion of Metro Vancouver’s economy and supported over 70,000 full-time jobs. Tourism makes more substantial contribution to the provincial GDP than any other primary resource industry, except oil and gas extraction.47 In 2018, Vancouver welcomed more than 10.6 million overnight visitors, breaking the record for five consecutive years.48According to Statistics Canada, tourists spend more than double what an average Vancouver resident spends per day, thus playing an essential role in supportiing local businesses.49  30Vancouver has experienced record-breaking volume of visitors in the last five years, with a prediction of 2.8 percent increase (an additional 298,760 visitors) of overnight visitors in 2019. At this rate, downtown Vancouver would be unable to handle the demand for rooms in the near future.50 The commercial property brokerage firm CBRE, said there would be simply no notable new hotel inventory coming to the market in the next couple of years.51 The vitality of Vancouver’s cruise ship and convention businesses rely heavily on abundant hotel room supply.52 If there are not enough accommodations available in the city, people will not be able to come and tour the city or attend conferences.“Although the economy related to tourism and conferences has continued to grow, the number of hotel rooms in the city has declined by 1,105 rooms over the past decade,” city staff reported in the 2018 document Interim Hotel Development Policy and Related Amendments to the Downtown Official Development Plan. “A further 1,674 hotel rooms are at risk in the short and medium term for redevelopment.” Developers in a land-constrained market like Vancouver usually find more profitable things to do with land: “In this period, land values have risen substantially for strata, rental residential and office space, resulting in proposals for the conversion or redevelopment of existing hotels, primarily for residential,” reads the report by city staff.53The project introduces hotel as one of the uses on board not only to help alleviate the burden of hotel room shortage but to give visitors a chance to experience what it feels like living inside shipping containers and learn about Vancouver’s port identity.HOTEL CRUNCHFig. 39 Vancouver’s hotel shortage compared with rising overnight visitation3.2 TOURISM31“Culture is an essential ingredient in the 21st Century city … no global city can be successful without it. Contributing to city reputation, economic prosperity and quality of life.” 54 - World Cities Culture Forum 2017Why is Arts and Culture important? Richard Newirth from Vancouver’s Cultural Services listed the key reasons:• “How and to what degree we engage with cultural activities impacts our individual and collective well-being (City of Vancouver Healthy City Strategy)• Participation in arts and culture has a strong connection with better health, more volunteering and greater satisfaction with life (Hill Strategies 2010)• Celebrates community values and aspirations• Critical to building a vibrant, livable and healthy city”55Efforts have been made both city wide and provincial wide to promote Arts and Culture. Vancouver Biennale, BC Culture Days, pop-up artisan markets, Eastside Cultural Crawl, Vancouver Mural Festival, etc. are good examples. However, those events only last a few days and are held annually or biannually. Moreover, artists, as the roots of the Arts and Culture scene in Vancouver, are being displaced since they can no longer afford to live and work in the city with their modest income. Thus, more permanent infrastructure is needed to engage people from the community to participate in Arts and Culture year round and to provide a platform for artists to showcase and sell their works to improve their financial situation. 3.3 ARTS + CULTURE 32 3.3 ARTS +CULTUREEASTSIDE CULTURE CRAWLEastside Culture Crawl is an annual 4-day arts festival that features the opening of artist’s studios to the public. The studios are concentrated on the eastside of the city in that the area used to be predominently industrial with old warehouses where artists can rent cheap work spaces. The area is bounded by “Columbia St, 1st Ave, Victoria Drive, and the Waterfront and involves painters, jewelers, sculptors, furniture makers, weavers, potters, printmakers, photographers, glassblowers; from emerging artists to those internationally established.“56Since 1997, the event has “grown to include over 500 artists, crafts people and designers, attracting an audience of more than 45,000 attendees,” according to the Eastside Culture Crawl Society (ECCS). Their vision is to provide opportunities and create programming for the public to connect with the artists.57Fig. 40 Culture Crawl Artist Studio33Despite all of the efforts made to engage the public with arts, the roots, namely the artists, are struggling to stay in the city. The ECCS hosted a forum in 2019 two weeks before the annual Eastside Culture Crawl festival to specifically discuss the issue of “Displacement”. A report, called City Without Art? No Net Loss+, was released at the same time that gathered information on over 300 artist spaces and more than 2,000 artists. According to the survey, 78% of the artists said they planned on moving “with 38% citing rent increases and 35% due to redevelopment, change in property ownership, or demolition.”58Two studios in the Eastside area shut down in 2019, displacing about 100 creatives. Land speculation and the corresponding huge cost increases were to blame in both instances.59 According to the report, the median rental rate of studio space has risen by 65% in the past eight years and the pressures on the viability of art production spaces have now reached destructive levels. “Without access to sufficient studio space, artists will be increasingly forced to abandon their practice or relocate to other cities and regions where they can find suitable art production space.This would result in a loss of creative talent and loss of a strong community that has developed over the past few decades in the Eastside Arts District,” reads the report.60Esther Rausenberg, artistic and executive director of the ECCS, noted that 153 out of 325 buildings that used to house artist space were lost over the last decade, representing a loss of 400,000 square feet of studio space.61 “Currently, we have about 742,000 square feet. If this trend continues, you can see that it will obliterate the community.” She also argued that the city needed to take a more proactive approach, such as incentives for developers to provide high density clusters of artist studios and production spaces in new or existing industrial or commercial buildings. Rausenberg pointed out that a few of the eastside’s longest-running major studio buildings, like the Parker Street Studios, are owned by developers who are friendly to artists and art production space. ”That kind of industrial space is particularly needed by artists who work with kilns, furniture design and heavy machinery.”62DISPLACEMENT - RISK OF LOSING CREATIVE ROOTSFig. 41 Status of artist space in East Vancouver3.3 ARTS +CULTURE 34The City of Vancouver was aware of the displacement issue and released a new culture plan in September 2019 to “explore and develop mechanisms to support affordable non-profit arts and cultural space in commercial and industrial zones including density bonusing, commercial fees, cultural districts, rental only zones, and ways to lower property tax rates on undeveloped buildings.”63The new overarching 10-year cultural plan is called Culture|Shift: Blanketing the City in Arts and Culture. “The (Arts and Culture) landscape is critical to our shared economic prosperity, social cohesion, and sense of environmental responsibility,” said Branislav Henselmann, Managing Director of Cultural Services at the City of Vancouver.64Through 2029, Culture|Shift sets a goal for the municipal government to create, repurpose, or expand 800,000 sq.ft. of affordable city, non-profit, and private spaces for arts and culture, “including 650,000 sq.ft. of new or repurposed space, 150,000 sq.ft. of enhanced existing spaces, and 400 units of affordable artist housing.” The city currently owns or leases 1.3 million sq.ft. of arts and cultural space and 830,000 sq.ft. at below-market or nominal rent to about 137 arts and cultural tenants.65The city is also looking at implementing a new property tax strategy with lower tax rates to address the displacement issue, since most artists in Vancouver are living under the poverty line; 63% see an income of less than $40,000 annually, and they have a median income of $22,000 per year, according to the census conducted by the provincial government.66 In 2019, city staff reviewed property tax assessments for 11 of the studio sites, and discovered an average tax increase of more than 77% over the past five years. One of the studios saw a rent increase of over $60,000 from the previous year due to tax increase with the average for all 11 studios being $30,000.673.3 ARTS +CULTURECULTURE|SHIFT, VANCOUVER’S NEW CULTURE PLAN FOR 2020-202935ARTIST STUDIO AWARD PROGRAM“The Artist Studio Award Program is a critical part of the City of Vancouver’s efforts to provide studio spaces to support artists and their work since 1995. The program is offered once every three years through an open call to emerging professional artists living in the City of Vancouver. “68 - CIty of VancouverThe city offers both work-only and live-work spaces with monthly rent from no cost to just under $500.69 The typical live work unit layout consists of a storage space in the basement with studio space on the ground and bedroom on the mezzanine floor.However, there have been only seven studios provided by the city so far. “We’re good at providing places for artists to exhibit their work, but we could do better in terms of addressing where an artist produces their work,” said Rausenberg.70Fig. 42 Example of affordable rental award studio3.3 ARTS +CULTURE 36 3.3 ARTS +CULTUREPARKER STREET STUDIOSFig. 43 Parker Street StudiosParker Street Studios provides 152,000 sq.ft. of production space for 110 studios and 227 artists diverse in style and discipline. Under one roof, “the buzz of creativity is ongoing night and day...It is here a unique community of les beaux arts thrives.”71“There’s a lot of collaboration at Parker Street, especially among the designers and manufacturers. Either somebody’s making a piece and they need furniture or upholstery, or I’m making a piece and I need woodwork or sometimes just doing installations and stuff. We help each other quite a bit; it’s part of the reason I’ve been here for 17 years. You really can’t compare it to anywhere else in the city.”72 - Mark Cocar, artist in the Parker Street StudiosDavid Robinson, sculptor and long-time tenant at Parker, resonates with Cocar, “it’s being a part of a community of artists and contributing to a living space that’s vital.”73374. SITE + SHIP + PROGRAMS500mTRANSITHUB 38Fig. 44 Central Waterfront Site (highlighted)Fig. 45 Aerial view looking east4.1 SITE SELECTIONCENTRAL WATERFRONT SITE - PORT OF VANCOUVERA number of factors have been considered for the site selection:• At a location that has access to deep water so that the repurposed ship can be delivered.• In an area where people can observe various port activities.• Adjacency to existing creative industry and arts and culture clusters is a bonus• Ideally, in alignment with the existing neighbourhood planning guidelines.The criteria narrow the search down to the only undeveloped land operated by Port of Vancouver on the waterfront:• It has easy access to deep water where the repurposed ship can be delivered.• At the centre of the port and transportation hub.• Due north to the Gastown neighbourhood where creative industry and arts and culture businesses are concentrated and in close proximity to the existing Eastside artist studios.• The proposed uses (section 4.3) align with the Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement 1994 and Central Waterfront Hub Framework 2009.39Fig. 46 1933 Context Fig. 47 2019 Current ContextCurrently, the site is being used as a bus staging area and a parking lot. The east side of the site has been developed into a community park, accessed via an overpass. To the far northeast is the Centerm Container Terminal. The west side of the site is a vacant lot with surface parking servicing the Helijet. To the far west is Canada Place, housing the Cruise Terminal and the Convention Centre. The Waterfront Station to the southwest of the site is the transit hub that transports passengers to and from inner areas of BC via railways and is the terminal station of both Canada Line and Expo Line Skytrains. It is also connected with the Seabus Ferry Terminal, transporting passengers to and from the North Shore. It’s worth noting that the footbridge connection no longer exists today.The axonometric drawing in 1933 shows that the site was historically used as the Union Steam Ship (UNION S.S.) Pier along with many other steam ship piers in the area. There was also a footbridge connection (highlighted in red) from Carrall Street in Gastown to the piers over the CP railways. The piers speak of the rich maritime history of the site and Vancouver’s port and trade hub identity.4.1 SITE SELECTION 40Fig. 48 Future Context Fig. 49 Shoreline ComparisonThe CRAB Park will remain while the Centerm Terminal will be expanded to accommodate larger container ships in the future. According to the Central Waterfront Hub Framework adopted by Council in 200974, the Waterfront Station and the Seabus Terminal will be transformed into a larger scale transit hub with a portion of the railways covered by a new street network and mixed use buildings. The Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement in 1994 also indicates a downtown oriented business district to the west of the site with building height stepping down from the transit hub to a scale that matches the existing fabric in Gastown.75 The project proposal will re-introduce the connection (highlighted in red) of the site with Gastown at the foot of Carrall Street where the original 1933 footbridge was.Canada Place was built on top of the CPR Pier while the rest of the shoreline witnessed the demolition of piers and had been filled up to accommodate the container ship terminal and other port activities. The orientation of the repurposed ship is intended to align with the original orientation of the pier (North-South). This orientation also minimizes the impact of view obstruction to the North Shore mountains.4.1 SITE SELECTION41Fig. 50 Zones Fig. 51 Vancouver starts here.John ‘Gassy Jack’ Deighton was the first settler on the site in 1867 from which Vancouver has evolved. Carrall St was the first street laid out in the survey for the Granville townsite in 1870 and became the zero point in the street numbering system for east and west. By placing the ship close to and on the axis of the origin of Vancouver, it reminds people that Vancouver has been playing the role of the seaport and the centre of trade since 1860s.The site positions itself as a transition zone between the downtown oriented area to the west and community oriented area to the east. Gastown heritage district is to the immediate south. Downtown Business District and Gastown are usually crowded with tourists and office workers while the area to the east is populated by low to moderate income locals and artists.4.1 SITE SELECTION 42Fig. 52 Transportation Fig. 53 Industries & Public SpacesTourists and people who live outside downtown or the city usually arrive by tour bus, ferry or train within the transit hub. The current Carrall St Greenway takes a detour to the east via the overpass to the CRAB Park. The fact that the cyclists have to share the road with cars on Waterfront Road and they have to take a detour has turned them away from taking this route. By re-introducing the direct connection from Carrall St through the site and continuing the path along the future seawall promenade, the new greenway completes the loop (see key plan) and provides smooth and integrated access to the site for the public.Gastown and its surrounding neighbourhoods have a concentration of businesses and institutions in the creative and arts and culture industries. The existing artist studios are scattered in the local community to the east of the site (see key plan). The majority of the public spaces in the area are located to the west of the site.4.1 SITE SELECTION43CURRENT PARCEL ZONING REGULATIONS - 1999The parcel of the site is zoned CD-1 (401) with the permitted uses as follows:(a) Cultural and Recreational Uses,(b) Dwelling Uses,(c) Institutional Uses,(d) Marine Uses,(e) Office Uses,(f ) Park and Open Space,(g) Parking Uses,(h) Port Uses,(i) Public Uses and Facilities,(j) Retail Uses,(k) Service Uses, including but not limited to, Hotel and Restaurant,(l) Trade and Convention Facilities and similar Commercial Uses,(m) Transportation and Storage Uses,(n) Utility and Communication Uses,(o) Interim Uses and Accessory Uses, and (p) Uses existing as of 30 November 1999.76The programs proposed (section 4.3) to achieve the goals of the project align with the wide range of uses allowed on site.4.1 SITE SELECTIONCity of Vancouver February 1994Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement Page 3Figure 1. Central Area Context 44The Policy Statement aims to foster urban development of the Central Waterfront Port Lands “in a way that will reinforce key port, regional, civic and community functions and requirements.“77The Western PortionAdjacent to the central business district and Gastown, this portion of the port lands would become “a preeminent civic destination on the waterfront,” with extended and expanded downtown-related functions, particularly transportation and tourism activities. New developments in this area will “augment and reinforce the business core, Gastown, existing tourism in downtown Vancouver, and continuous public access along the waterfront.”78The Eastern PortionComprised of Portside Park and adjacent to Gastown and the Downtown Eastside, this area is envisioned to become an attractive and comfortable place serving people in the adjacent neighbourhoods. The developements on this portion of the lands need to maintain and enhance the community atmosphere with uses that are compatible with the park and neighbourhood activities.The Transition Area - The SiteThe Policy Statement proposes a “transition area” between the “downtown-oriented area” to the west and the “community-oriented area” to the east. “This will enable both the transportation/tourism uses and the community uses to develop their own identity and synergy, while allowing them to co-exist side by side on the Central Waterfront.”79CENTRAL WATERFRONT PORT LANDS POLICY STATEMENT - 1994Fig. 54 Page 6 from Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement - Central Area Context4.1 SITE SELECTION45In the transition area, the statement suggests uses compatible with the park, including public facilities and housing. It also considers special retail possibilities come with the site’s port character - for example, a festival market. The policy encourages mixed-use buildings and permit live-work arrangements to promote diversity and activity.80The document defines public open space as “parks, civic public spaces, publicly-accessible private open spaces, and the waterfront walkway and bikeway.” It states that each new development should provide public open space equivalent to at least 40 percent of the development area.81The statement also mentions that the existing community/recreation facilities in the region are generally used to capacity. Except for Portside Park, there are no adjacent existing community facilities. It is noteworthy that the city envisions the site to be one of the few remaining inner city sites appropriate for a public institution of a maritime nature.It also suggests to cluster activities, buildings and open space to create an important civic place and significant destination. 82Movement and AccessThe document identifies the site’s physical proximity to downtown, emphasizing walking, cycling and public transit as the preferred means of getting to and moving around the site. However, it points out that access to the site is very limited currently, primarily due to the railyards which act as a barrier. C.P. Rail requires a minimum clearance of 8 m (26 ft.) for any structure over their railyards.834.1 SITE SELECTION 46 4.1 SITE SELECTIONFig. 55 An artistic presentation of a proposed redevelopment of the central downtown waterfront, 1977PROPOSED REDEVELOPMENT - 1977PROJECT 200 - 1968Project 200 drew its name from the $200 million that was supposed to be invested in the scheme by Canadian Pacific, Woodward’s and other investors in 1968. The ambitious plan includes a series of highrises for office and residential uses, a hotel, a department store, weather protected malls and a waterfront freeway.84“The site would have demolished practically everything from Howe to Abbott Streets, north of Cordova, and covered over the rail tracks on the CPR yards, with a southern extension to Woodwards on the east side.”85Other plans have been proposed for the Central Waterfront site, including the illustration in 1977 on page 35 of the Vancouver Central Waterfront published by the National Harbours Board. The illustration depicts an array of buildings in cascading forms at a scale akin to the existing Gastown fabric. Rows of piers and docks populate the harbour with ships and boats for both commercial and leisure uses.47The railyard in the Waterfront area was purchased in 2005 by the Whitecaps Football Club (WFC) in an attempt to build a soccer stadium over the railyard. Local architects argued that the stadium would deny waterfront access and would negatively affect the historical theme of the Gastown area. They urged city hall to delay approval until a comprehensive plan had been submitted. In 2007, WFC filed a new proposal shifting the site to the current location of the SeaBus terminal. In the same year, an alternative siting was proposed to address the technical constraints of the SeaBus terminal site.86 The alternative site fell within the Port Lands specified in the Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement - 1994. In 2009, Major League Soccer (MLS) announced an expansion franchise to the city to begin play in 2011at BC Place Stadium. SInce 2011, the team has been committed to BC Place, and the plan for the Waterfront Stadium was put on hold.87 Fig. 56 Map showing proposed siting of Whitecaps stadiumWHITECAPS WATERFRONT STADIUM PROPOSAL - 20064.1 SITE SELECTION 4890 students, teachers and practitioners of architecture, planning, landscape architecture, industrial design, community development and international relations from over 15 countries attended the Global Studio Vancouver (GSV) in 2006. The workshop focused on participatory design and planning approaches to engage the public in a dialogue on possible futures.88The Global Studio group worked with the Central Waterfront Coalition to explore the potential of the Central Waterfront site. The goal of the participatory design process was to engage the public to develop concepts for the site by means of offering postcards that people can draw and write on to express their imagination and ideas.89 Below are some of the responses from the public:“I see this waterfront should first be friendly to the environment, and that make it friendly to the people. If we spent our tax $$ more wisely and became the true caretakers of our land people would come from all parts of the world to visit.”“Every place has two or more rows of trees on its sides, and a walkway area or nightmarket place in the middle.”“Public access to the waterfront, increase pedestrian & cycling access, green space, linking corridor, maintaining historical context, space for learning/education, preserving history, maintain railway, public art, shops/light industrial (Granville Island idea).”“Waterslides”“Move the track over to the land by Home Depot yard and build environmental greenspace and a swimming pool and fi shery village.”“Big community garden... for a more sustainable Vancouver.”“Provide ample transportation network, Mutimodal integration, Community living.”GLOBAL STUDIO - 20064.1 SITE SELECTION49“No stadium. Condensed, affordable housing... stopping gentrifi cation and dealing with poverty, addiction, mental illness in the community!”“Beach & walking path.”“This is my vision... live in the green... city of the future.”“Free homeless shelter for men, only if not under the infl uence. More food banks and place to help people get off the streets.”“Keep the tracks. No stadium (doesn’t work in a proactive Vancouver). Expand portside park. Keep the heritage look of Gastown. The harbor front is the last waterfront area in downtown Vancouver and we only have one chance to do it right!”“Considering nothing is in this space now I think whatever goes there will make this space extra special. It’s a very inventive idea and I’m excited to see what this will be. The stadium is a good idea. Just as long as it’s not towering condos!”“Public seawall, public swimming pool.”“Make it a campground, for tents, like a nice park that you can camp at.”“Restaurants [on waterfront], community centre & library, affordable housing, light rail for transport.”“Permanent Indy Track will not mess up mountain views and will continue to bring big $$ into economy no less than annually. Also could be used for huge outdoor events in infi eld and or used as another parking lot.”“Beach.”“I envisage public open space, such as a beach or park; which is safe, family-friendly and accessible o people of all ages.”“Let’s keep BC green. No more developments please!! No stadium, Period. Thank you.”4.1 SITE SELECTION 50“Green spaces. City parks - complements Stanley Park. Extend sea wall.”“Parkland: expand and increase wetland for wildlife - becomes a learning resource. More beach. A safe waterfront for our diverse community. Public art. Community centre/house. Community based market - no chain stores! Reconnect Gastown with the waterfront via walkways, greenways, bike paths. And... NO STADIUM!!”“I imagine this area with lots of gardens, trees and benches.”“Parks, pools, bike lanes, walkways, community gardens. No stadium!”“Marina & park. Grand Walk [along current rail track location]”“Public swimming pool.”“Should get rid of most of the water pollution, which comes from the docks, etc, and make a cleaner and healthier environment for all humans and all kinds of nature. Get rid of all the drugs.”“Go green! Green space!”“No to the stadium. Urban diversity, mixed use development, accommodate industry and residential.”“Tracks ripped up - multipurpose - green space - access - layered housing - assisted living for alcohol/crack addicts - coop - low-income housing - alcohol/addiction treatment beds - health centers drop-in – high-end condos - multigenerational condos.”4.1 SITE SELECTION514.2 SHIP SELECTIONFig. 57 Anna Maersk loaded with containersAfter extensive search, the focus has been brought to the ships that dock at the Centerm Container Terminal to the east of the site to articulate the historical and economic significance. Among all the vessels on the list, Anna Maersk has been chosen based on the criteria.Aesthetically, Anna Maersk’s expressive hull form has the potential to be transformed into a landmark. The size of the ship is reasonable to house multiple programs. The container ship type has all the characters that can help the public to learn about how they are connected to the port and trade.ANNA MAERSKFig. 58 Anna Maersk docked at Centerm TerminalShips vary in size and type. Ideally, the ship would have certain connection to Vancouver, whether historically or economically and applicable to achieve the goals of the project. Thus, the criteria are:• Vancouver is or was one of its ports of call.• Reasonable size for future uses and aesthetically pleasing to function as a landmark.• With characters to help the public learn about trade and the shipping industry.In addition, the container ship type has been chosen in that it allows greater flexibility to utilize both above and below deck spaces. 52 4.2 SHIP SELECTIONSCALE COMPARISON - THE CAPACITY GROWTH OF CONTAINER SHIPSFig. 59 The Evolution of Container Ships534.2 SHIP SELECTIONVESSEL INFORMATION - ANNA MAERSKTEU* (Nominal) 8272Built  May 27, 2003Length O.A.* 352.25m (1,156 ft)Breadth  42.80m (140 ft)Depth  24.10m (79 ft)Draught* 15.00m (49 ft)Built by  Odense Steel Shipyard - Odense, Denmark*TEU stands for Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit, which is a unit to measure cargo capacity. The 20-foot-long (6.1 m) standard size containers can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains and trucks, and is usually 8 ft (2.44 m) wide. The most common size of shipping containers is 2 TEU - 40 ft long.*Length O.A. stands for Length Overall. It is the maximum length of a vessel’s hull measured parallel to the waterline.*Draught is the depth of water needed for a vessel to be able to float. 54Fig. 60 Anna Maersk General Arrangement4.2 SHIP SELECTION554.2 SHIP SELECTIONSCALE COMPARISON - REPURPOSED CRUISE SHIPSFig. 61 Size Comparison with QE2 & QM 56SCALE COMPARISON - LANDMARK BUILDINGSFig. 62 Comparison with Landmark Buildings4.2 SHIP SELECTION574.2 SHIP SELECTIONSCALE COMPARISON - CITY BLOCKFig. 63 Comparison with city block 584.3 PROGRAMSThe programs proposed in the project are intended to help deal with the social, cultural, and economic challenges that Vancouver is facing (Fig. 64). Identity + LandmarkThe ship itself serves as a landmark and a manifestation of Vancouver’s port and trade hub identity.  The museum program takes advantage of the ship itself as a living museum, educating both locals and tourists about Vancouver’s maritime history. Public Space + Cultural InfrastructureAs outlined in the Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement, 40% of the development area should be dedicated to public open space. The ship strives to provide ample spaces for the public to wander around and socialize. The museum component helps to address the pressing need for more cultural infrastrcuture in the city.Social IsolationThe market and community amenities help combat loneliness by fostering and stimulating impromptu social interactions. Not only will there be increased chance to meet neighbours who come to the year-round market, but also there will be workshops, either hobby-oriented or event/community-oriented, catering to all tastes.IDENTITY + LANDMARK• Lack of distinct visual identity.• No new landmarks have been built since Expo 86.• Civic pride needs to be promoted.• Need to benet both locals and touristsPUBLIC SPACE + CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE• The majority of public spaces and cultural institutions are outdated and are in dire need of renovation and expansion.• The rate of population growth and the densication of private spaces in the city has outpaced the provision of new public spaces.• The projects on the drawing board are not  sucient to meet demand.SOCIAL ISOLATION• Vancouver Foundation found Vancouver residents feel increasingly estranged from their friends, their neighbours and their communities.• People really don't think Vancouver is the friendliest city in the world.• Need to create an environment to promote social interactions.CREATIVE INDUSTRIES• Record breaking growth of motion picture productions outpaced available studio space.• Film schools are running at full capacity and are in need of more facilities. • Large production stages are located on the outskirts while most lm schools are clustered downtown. There is a need to create synergy and stronger ties between the professional industry and educational institutions.TOURISM• Constant growth of visitors each year with decreasing hotel room supply due to sky-rocketing land values.• Need to balance tourists and locals.SOCIAL + CULTURAL CHALLENGESTHE SHIP• Enhance the identity of Vancouver as a port city and trade hub.PUBLIC SPACE & POOL• Public space connects programs together.• The pool encourages people to walk to the bow.MARKET + WORKSHOPS• A platform for artists to showcase/sell their works.• Promote local businesses and cultural interactions.• Provide an opportunity for artists to show the public how they make art.FILM OFFICE & SOUNDSTAGES• Provide space for the lm industry.COMMUNITY AMENITIES• Provide space for people to socialize.ARTIST LIVE+WORK UNITS• Help relieve the displacement situation.• Leverage the ship’s terraced hold structure.HOTEL• Maritime themed to showcase Vancouver’s identity as port and trade hub.• Help ease the hotel crunch.• Provide an opportunity for people to experience what it feels like living inside containers.MUSEUM• Maritime Museum as a new cultural amenity. (parts of the ship as the exhibits).PROGRAMSARTS + CULTURE• Promote health and community values.• Displacement of artists due to rising property values.• Need more permanent infrastructure for year round participation of the public and a platform for artists to showcase and sell their works.ECONOMICCHALLENGES59Fig. 64 Program Proposal Rationale4.4 PROGRAMS 60 4.4 PROGRAMSMUSEUMThe spatial modules are defined by the dimensions of shipping containers. Each hold has its own capacity to hold a certain number of containers, determined by the form of the hull. In general, the project attempts to preserve the outer hull structure of the ship with new constructions on the inside (combining/compartmentalizing bulkheads and introducing/deleting floors). Due to its cargo ship nature, the existing main circulation is provided only on the periphery of the deck and within the tower that houses the operation and living quaters. The project investigate new means of circulation to facilitate the connection of the new programs within the ship.Since all the equipments and functional spaces are concentrated in the tower and the engine room below, this portion of the ship will be dedicated to museum use for educational purposes.THE SHIPFig. 65 Existing CirculationFig. 66 Museum Component614.4 PROGRAMSFILM OFFICE & SOUNDSTAGESThe most ideal condition for film studios and soundstages is a column-free and dark space where the crew can have full control over set layout and lighting. The space under the deck and hatch covers naturally becomes the perfect location on the ship to place the studios and stages. The most common soundstage dimensions at Vancouver Film Studios are 100’X150’X40’ (H). Their smallest stage is 100’X125’ while the largest being 140’X150’.90 The net breadth of a typical hold on Anna Maersk is 125’ and the depth from the hatch cover to the top of hull structure is 75’. The spacing of the holds is 48’. In order to accommodate soundstages, two (96’) or three (144’) holds need to be combined.Ancillary programs like mill spaces, offices, and work spaces will also be provided. There is a visual connection from the public space to the soundstages and office so that when people visit the ship they are prompted to learn about one of the most prominent industries in Vancouver.Fig. 67 Critical dimensions to fit soundstagesFig. 68 A Typical Soundstage 62 4.4 PROGRAMSFig. 69 Containers on deckHOTELHotel rooms are located inside shipping containers stacked on deck. Each container has a footprint of 320 sq.ft. which can be transformed into one guest room. Multiple containers are combined into 1-3 guest suites to meet the various needs of the visitors.COMMUNITY AMENITIES & ARTIST LIVE+WORK UNITSThe various container combinations create different room sizes for all kinds of activities. They take advantage of the shipping containers on deck for light, view, and ventilation considerations. The artist units are located right above the market to create a direct connection.Fig. 70 Container holds below deckPUBLIC SPACE & POOLThe diving pool occupies the entire 2nd container hold which goes 8 storeys down. The shallow pool utilize the bow area of the ship to provide a panoramic view of the port. MARKET + WORKSHOPSThe market takes place in the holds below deck. It operates at a scale similar to the public market on Granville Island which spreads 42,000 sq.ft. People can also come here to use the workshops right above the market and sign up for classes taught by the artists.635. DESIGN 64A short film has been made to summarize the thesis project:https://youtu.be/ci-PrOEkP2kIn the following sections, keyframes, along with other renderings and diagrams, are shown to further explain the design rationale. 5.1 SHORT FILMFig. 71 Keyframes655.2 SHIP PLACEMENTFig. 72 Facing GastownThe ship offers more viewing opportunities for the public to observe various port activities when the bow (the forward part) of the ship is facing Burrard Inlet.Fig. 73 Facing Burrard Inlet 66Fig. 74 Affecting view extensivelyWhen the ship is parked parallel to the city grid (East-West), it has siginificant view impact on buildings in Gastown. The ship has minimal view impact when it is oriented North-South. Fig. 75 Minimal view impact67Fig. 76 Concourse I5.3 SITE ACCESS & CONCOURSESConcourse I is an opening cut through the hull next to the gigantic main engine of the ship. The intention is to allow the public to view the engine and other key parts of the ship’s machinery without entering other programs on the ship.Seawall GreenwayConcourse IICrabParkGastownConcourse I 68Fig. 77 Aerial view of the shipConcourse II connects the future seawall greenway on the port side (to the left of an observer facing the bow) with the Crab Park on the starboard side (to the right of an observer facing the bow). The greenway continues along the starboard side of the ship and down to the tunnel that leads to Gastown.69Fig. 78 Greenway Tunnel - towards the ship 70Fig. 79 View at the end of tunnelFrom here, people can either take the stairs to the bottom of the dry dock and take a closer look at the rudder and propeller and the underside of the ship, or continue up to Concourse I/II.71Fig. 80 Dock Plaza 72Fig. 81 Seawall Greenway on the port side, leading to Concourse II73Fig. 82 Section Perspective - Long5.4 SECTION PERSPECTIVE - LONGThe ship serves as a new form of social infrastructure. The public can live, learn, socialize, experience, and work in unique environments that are created by inherent spatial qualities of the ship and shipping containers. 74755.5 PUBLIC SPACE & THE POOLFig. 83 The bow of the shipViewpoint at the bow enables people to take in the north shore ountain view while observing various port activities. 76Fig. 84 The stern (the back or aft-most part) of the shipSame as the bow, most parts of the stern are preserved to offer an opportunity for the public to learn about marine machinery and outfittings. It also provides an unobstructed panoramic view of the CP railyard and Gastown. 77Fig. 85 Promenade meanders through container holdsThe ramped promenade meanders through container holds to offer changing views and various spatial experiences. 78Fig. 86 Promenade divergesThe promenade allows people to learn about the dimensions from another perspective.79Fig. 87 Upper DeckWalking on the upper deck is another way to get around the ship. It offers the same experience that a seafarer would get when working on the ship. 80Fig. 88 Amphitheatre w/ Open-air Cinema at nightThe amphitheatre is a “floating“ terraced garden that offers seating area for the public. During the day, it could be used as a performing stage. At night, people can enjoy movies with the port and city lights as the backdrop.81Fig. 89 Pools and amenities The shallow leisure pool and the deep diving pool are located at the bow of the ship to encourage people to walk all the way up to the front end of the ship. It not only promotes the walking experience through holds, but provides a panoramic view of the port and north shore mountains as well. 82Fig. 90 Leisure PoolThe leisure pool is one level higher than the diving pool to allow people to jump off the boards.83Fig. 91 Diving PoolThe diving pool exploited the maximum outer dimensions of the 2nd container hold. 84Fig. 92 Skylight over film office855.6 PROGRAMS ON BOARDFig. 93 Film OfficeThe film office takes advantage of the terraced structure. Normally this type of space is purpose-built, like the Gund Hall at Harvard GSD and the Library of Alexandra in Egypt. 86Fig. 94 Film OfficePeople walking on the promenade can see what’s happening in the office.87Fig. 95 Soundstage with water tank 88Fig. 96 Under-deck spaces89Fig. 97 Sound Recording Studios 90Fig. 98 The studios offer an open view to the port91Fig. 99 Hotel rooms 92Fig. 100 Hotel room interior93Fig. 101 Various hotel room types 94Fig. 102 Walking between shipping containersWalking between containers is a fun way to learn about the dimensions.95Fig. 103 Movie Theatre 96Fig. 104 Soundstage with high ceilingsThe 80’ ceiling makes the soundstage stand out.97Fig. 105 Community Amenities 98Fig. 106 Community GardenThe garden serves as a public “backyard”.99Fig. 107 Community amenities with a view 100Fig. 108 Maritime MuseumThe original parts of the ship machinery and the accommodation and bridge allow the curious minds to learn about the ship and the shipping industry in its original context.101Fig. 109 Main Engine and Funnel 102Fig. 110 Navigation and Flying BridgesThe navigation bridge (enclosed) and the flying bridge above (open deck) are the highest viewpoints on the ship. They offer a 360 ° view of the working port.103Fig. 111 Flying Bridge viewBy observing what’s happening around them, people get to learn how their lives are connected to the port. 104Fig. 112 Market, workshops & artist live+work units105Fig. 113 MarketThe market provides a platform for artists to showcase and sell their works year round. 106Fig. 114 WorkshopsThe workshops allow the artists to show those who are interested how they make things.107Fig. 115 Artist Live+Work UnitsThe artist live+work units offer unique environments for atists to make art while the ships, trains, seabuses and helijets move around. 108Fig. 116 Artist Live+Work Units in containersThe container units span the entire width of the ship. The various container combinations provide a wide range of options for artists.109Fig. 117 Unit with a deck 110Fig. 118 Other types of units111Fig. 119 Artist GardenArtists and visitors can make art in the courtyard. 112Fig. 120 Art classesThe public can sign up for arts and craft classes offered by the artists in the workshops.113Fig. 121 SkylightThe skylight creates a visual connection to the market below. 114115Fig. 122 shows the analysis of the structural, functional, spatial, and operational systems before and after adaptive reuse. The aim is not to recycle as many parts or containers as possible but to strategically preserve the components that are most characteristic and educational and capable of offering unique experiences. The accommodation and the navigation bridge are mostly kept intact as part of the maritime museum. The containers on deck are colour-coded so that the public can easily distinguish various programs on board the ship. The elimination of certain amount of containers help improve the inhabitability. Additional stairs and elevators are introduced for accessiblity and fire safety. Some hacth covers (the “lids“ that cover the container holds and the base of the containers on deck) are removed to make way for the ramped promenade which meanders through container holds from the seawall concourse to the pool and the bow. The container holds are combined in different ways to accommodate various program needs. Some parts of the hull have been ripped off to allow the pubic to observe the port activities from the promenade and to pass through the ship.5.7 ADAPTIVE REUSE STRATEGYFig. 122 Axonomatric drawing117Fig. 123 Cross Section I5.8 SECTION PERSPECTIVE - CROSSThe section shows the spatial relationship of the hotel rooms, sound recording studios, promenade, soundstage, and film office. 118Fig. 124 Cross Section IIThe section shows the spatial relationship of the artist live+work units, workshops, market, dock plaza, and the tunnel leading to Gastown.119Fig. 125 Dock Bottom5.9 PLANS 120Fig. 126 8th Deck121Fig. 127 6th Deck 122Fig. 128 4th Deck (Ground Level)123Fig. 129 2nd Deck 124Fig. 130 Upper Deck125Fig. 131 A Deck 126Fig. 132 Roof Plan127Vessels are like moving “city blocks“. The “after life” of ships has rarely been thought about architecturally. Adaptively reusing container ships could be an alternative to ship breaking. In this specific case, transforming the ship into a new form of social infrastructure not only allows people to learn about the port activities and connect with the city’s port identity, but also helps build a more vibrant and stronger community and facilitate the healthy growth of local economies. It activates the last undeveloped land on the waterfront in Vancouver.5.10 CONCLUSION 128Fig. 133 Overview129I have developed a lot of skills by doing this thesis project. I always believe that the graduate project should not be just another architectural project. I have always wanted to learn more about ships and this project has provided a perfect opportunity for me to do research on them. I had difficulty getting to learn the details of the ship but was helped by nice people on social media who were able to help answer my questions. Social media really played a huge part in my research. The pictures people posted and the discussions I had with them really helped and enlightened me.It was also not my initial intention to make a video. I was planning to make a physical model. While I was preparing the cut files, the school closed down due to COVID-19 pandemic. I had to adapt to the changes very quickly and I ended up producing standard digital architectural drawings and renderings. It was getting really repetitive and one day I thought maybe I should try to use Enscape (I had used it before but with a different modeling program). I was telling myself, just try it, it won’t take long. I was amazed by what Enscape was able to show me instantly on the screen. I felt like I was actually in the scene. I then tried to record short videos just to see if I can show some design ideas “animated“ in the end. The results were so amazing and I got even more ambitious and decided to make a video about the entire project. I also had to quickly learn how to use After Effects and wore my “director“ hat when editing the video. Overall, I am very satisfied with how everything turned out and how many new things I have learned, and I am glad I enjoyed the process of making it.EPILOGUE130ENDNOTES1 Christopher Gray, “Streetscapes: The West Side Improvement; On the Lower West Side, Fate Of Old Rail Line Is Undecided,” New York Times, January 3, 1988.2 James Taylor-Foster, “Heatherwick to Transform Cape Town’s Grain Silo into Contemporary Art Museum,” ArchDaily, March 15, 2014, https://www.archdaily.com/486742/heatherwick-to-reimagine-cape-town-s-grain-silo-complex-for-the-zeitz-museum-of-contemporary-art/.3 Hadley Keller, “Thomas Heatherwick Gives AD a Tour of the Zeitz MOCAA,” Architectural Digest, September 15, 2017, https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/thomas-heatherwick-cape-town-zeitz-mocaa-south-africa.4 Ibid.5 Ricardo Bofill, Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura, https://www.ricardobofill.com/la-fabrica/read/.6 “The Factory / Ricardo Bofill,” ArchDaily, November 15, 2012, https://www.archdaily.com/294077/the-factory-ricardo-bofill/.7 Ricardo Bofill, Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura, https://www.ricardobofill.com/la-fabrica/read/.8 “Westcoast Transmission Building,“ Historic Places, https://www.historicplaces.ca/en/rep-reg/place-lieu.aspx?id=8780. 9 “The Qube - Building Features - Architectural Coal Harbour Building,“ Albrighton Real Estate, June 24, 2014, https://www.albrighton.ca/the-qube-building-features-architectural-coal-harbour-building.10 Brent Pounds, “How long does a ship typically last before it is scrapped?,” Quora, May 21, 2017, https://www.quora.com/How-long-does-a-ship-typically-last-before-it-is-scrapped.11 Neill Conroy, “Why would a ship owner want to scrap a vessel?,” Quara, October 3, 2016, https://www.quora.com/Why-would-a-ship-owner-want-to-scrap-a-vessel.12 Shashank Bengali, “Adult and underage workers risk their lives in Bangladesh’s rising ship-breaking industry,“ Los Angeles Times, March 9, 2016, https://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-bangladesh-ships-20160309-story.html.13 NGO Shipbreaking Platform, https://www.shipbreakingplatform.org/.14 Vincent Mulchrone, “The World’s Finest Ship,“ https://www.roblightbody.com/qe2-in-1969.html. 15 Lucy Barnard, “Queen Elizabeth 2 bound for Asia to become a 500-room floating hotel,“ The National, January 17, 2013, https://www.thenational.ae/business/queen-elizabeth-2-bound-for-asia-to-become-a-500-room-floating-hotel-1.315293.16 “Ephemera QUEEN MARY,“ Sydney Heritage Fleet, https://www.shf.org.au/archives-research/ephemera/ephemera-queen-mary/.13117 “RMS Queen Mary,“ The Haunted Explorers, https://thehauntedexplorers.org/the-queen-mary.18 Andrew Malcolm, “The Queen Mary Takes on a New Life as a Hotel,” New York Times, November 3, 1974, https://www.nytimes.com/1974/11/03/archives/the-queen-mary-takes-on-a-new-life-a-a-hotel-in-calm-waters.html.19 “RMS Queen Mary,“ Blink Travel, https://www.blinktravel.guide/losangeles/rms-queen-mary-ship.20 Patricia Roy, The Canadian Encyclopedia, February 13, 2011, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/vancouver.21 Port of Vancouver, https://www.portvancouver.com/about-us/.22 Ash Kelly, “Vancouver port to see 30k cruise ship passengers this weekend,“ CityNews1130, September 20, 2019, https://www.citynews1130.com/2019/09/20/vancouver-port-to-see-30k-cruise-ship-passengers-this-weekend/.23 Danielle Jang, “Record cargo volumes through the Port of Vancouver in 2018,“ Port of Vancouver, February 28, 2019, https://www.portvancouver.com/news-and-media/news/record-cargo-volumes-through-the-port-of-vancouver-in-2018/24 Ibid.25 Cheryl Chan, “Expo 86: When Vancouver wooed the world — 30 photos, 30 years later,” Vancouver Sun, May 14, 2016, https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/expo-86-when-vancouver-wooed-the-world-30-photos-30-years-later.26 Tiffany Crawford, “Expo 86 McBarge to become deep-sea museum in Vancouver,“ Vancouver Sun, October 13, 2017, https://www.timescolonist.com/news/b-c/expo-86-mcbarge-to-become-deep-sea-museum-in-vancouver-1.23064613.27 Ibid.28 “Burrard Dry Dock, North Vancouver BC,“ Ship Building History, http://shipbuildinghistory.com/canadayards/burrard.htm.29 Kenneth Chan, “Two cruise ships parked at North Vancouver shipyards part of enormous refit project,” DailyHive, September 10, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/seaspan-north-vancouver-shipyards-ms-regatta.30 Every Frame a Painting, “Vancouver Never Plays Itself,“ Youtube, September 13, 2015, https://youtu.be/ojm74VGsZBU.31 Elana Shepert, “Science World voted most iconic building in Vancouver,“ Vancouver Is Awesome, September 8, 2019, https://www.vancouverisawesome.com/2019/09/08/science-world-iconic-building-vancouver/32 “Places for People Downtown,“ City of Vancouver, https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/places-for-people-downtown.aspx.33 Tara Carman, “Part One: Social isolation has far-reaching effects on us and our neighbours, survey says,” Vancouver Sun, June 22, 2012, http://www.vancouversun.com/news/whoarewe/Social+isolation+reaching+effects+neighbours+survey/6797280/story.html.34 Tara Carman, “Part Two: Vancouver a difficult social atmosphere for many newcomers,” Vancouver Sun, June 22, 2012, http://www.vancouversun.com/news/whoarewe/part+vancouver+difficult+social+atmosphere+many+newcomers/6802173/story.html.13235 Oodi, “What can I do at Oodi,“ https://www.oodihelsinki.fi/en/services-and-facilities/services/.36 “North Shore Revival,“ DIALOG, http://www.dialogdesign.ca/projects/the-shipyards/.37 Kenneth Chan, “The Shipyards opens as a landmark regional attraction on the Lonsdale waterfront,” DailyHive, July 22, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/the-shipyards-lonsdale-north-vancouver.38 “The Shipyards: one of the best public spaces in British Columbia,” DIALOG, July 23, 2019, http://www.dialogdesign.ca/open-dialog/shipyards-one-best-public-spaces-british-columbia/.39 “Creative Industry Sectors - Overview,“ Creative BC, https://www.creativebc.com/industry-sectors/index#creative-industries-overview.40 Vincent Plana, “British Columbia film and TV production brought in over $3.5B last year,“ DailyHive, April 1, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/british-columbia-leads-film-television-production-canada-2019.41 Jenny Peng, “Timeline: The B.C. film industry shoots to the forefront,“ BCBusiness, January 19, 2017, https://www.bcbusiness.ca/Timeline-The-BC-film-industry-shoots-to-the-forefront.42 Kenneth Chan, “Massive new 600,000 sq. ft. film studio to be built in Metro Vancouver,” DailyHive, September 7, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/martini-film-studios-216th-street-langley.43 Ibid.44 Ibid.45 Stuart Derdeyn, “Preparing the next generation for employment in Vancouver’s entertainment industries,” Vancouver Sun, September 6, 2019, https://vancouversun.com/entertainment/local-arts/preparing-the-next-generation-for-employment-in-vancouvers-entertainment-industries.46 Kenneth Chan, “Massive new 600,000 sq. ft. film studio to be built in Metro Vancouver,” DailyHive, September 7, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/martini-film-studios-216th-street-langley.47 Kenneth Chan, “Net loss of over 1,100 hotel rooms in Vancouver due to condo developments,” DailyHive, July 5, 2018, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/interim-hotel-rooms-development-policy-vancouver-shortage.48 Glen Korstrom, “Digital hotels could ease Vancouver’s hotel space shortage,” Business in Vancouver, May 8, 2019, https://biv.com/article/2019/05/digital-hotels-could-ease-vancouvers-hotel-space-shortage.49 Ibid.50 Evan Duggan, “Demand for Vancouver hotel rooms is outpacing supply,” Vancouver Sun, May 28, 2019, https://vancouversun.com/business/commercial-real-estate/demand-for-vancouver-hotel-rooms-is-outpacing-supply.51 Ibid.13352 Kenneth Chan, “Net loss of over 1,100 hotel rooms in Vancouver due to condo developments,” DailyHive, July 5, 2018, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/interim-hotel-rooms-development-policy-vancouver-shortage.53 Ibid.54 “Making Space for Arts & Culture - Cultural Infrastructure Plan,” City of Vancouver Council, July 10, 2018, https://council.vancouver.ca/20180710/documents/rr1bpresentation.pdf. 55 Richard Newirth, “Culture Plan Strategic Directions,” October 23, 2013, https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/presentation-culture-plan-strategic-directions-2013-oct.pdf.56 “Eastside Culture Crawl Society (ECCS),“ Eastside Culture Crawl, https://culturecrawl.ca/eccs.57 Ibid.58 Kenneth Chan, “400,000 sq. ft. of Vancouver artist studio space lost over last 10 years: report,“ DailyHive, November 1, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancouver-artist-studio-space.59 John Kurucz, “Eastside Culture Crawl focuses on Vancouver’s disappearing art spaces,” Vancouver is Awesome, October 23, 2019, https://www.vancouverisawesome.com/2019/10/23/eastside-culture-crawl-focuses-on-vancouvers-disappearing-art-spaces/.60 Kenneth Chan, “400,000 sq. ft. of Vancouver artist studio space lost over last 10 years: report,“ DailyHive, November 1, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancouver-artist-studio-space.61 Leah Sandals, “Studio Spaces Disappearing in Vancouver’s Eastside: Report,” Canadian Art, October 16, 2019, https://canadianart.ca/news/action-needed-now-on-disappearing-vancouver-studio-space-report/.62 Ibid.63 Ibid.64 “Vancouver amplifies support for arts and culture through new 10-year plan,“ City of Vancouver, September 11, 2019, https://vancouver.ca/news-calendar/vancouver-amplifies-support-for-arts-and-culture-through-new-10-year-plan.aspx.65 Kenneth Chan, “Vancouver plans to create new cultural spaces and 400 units of artist housing,” DailyHive, September 12, 2019, https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/vancouver-cultural-spaces-artist-housing-strategy.66 Ibid.67 Ibid.68 “Artist Studio Award Program,“ City of Vancouver, https://vancouver.ca/people-programs/artist-studio-award-program.aspx.69 Maansi Pandya, “Want Free Rent in Vancouver? Become an Artist!,” Vancouver Magazine, March 15, 2017, https://www.vanmag.com/city-of-134vancouvers-artist-live-work-studio-program.70 Ibid.71 “About Parker Street Studios,“ Parker Art Salon, http://www.parkerartsalon.com/about-parker-street-studios.72 David Kitai, “Meet the Makers of Parker Street Studio,” Vancouver Magazine, September 26, 2018, https://www.vanmag.com/meet-the-makers-of-parker-street-studio.73 Rebecca Blissett, “Artists bring body and soul to Parker Street Studios,” Vancouver Courier, November 24, 2015, https://www.vancourier.com/community/artists-bring-body-and-soul-to-parker-street-studios-1.2118643.74 Vancouver City Council, Central Waterfront Hub Framework, 2009.75 Vancouver CIty Council, Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement, 1994.76 City of Vancouver, CD-1 (401) 500-800 Canada Place Way By-law No. 8122, 1999.77 Vancouver CIty Council, Central Waterfront Port Lands Policy Statement, 1994.78 Ibid.79 Ibid.80 Ibid.81 Ibid.82 Ibid.83 Ibid.84 Gordon Price, “Revising the Revisions,“ Price Tags, January 29, 2008, https://pricetags.ca/2008/01/29/revising-the-revision/. 85 Gordon Price, “Project 200: The Lost Vision of Our Waterfront,“ Price Tags, March 22, 2012, https://pricetags.ca/2012/03/22/project-200-the/.86 Kalpana, “Whitecaps Waterfront Stadium,” Alchetron, June 21, 2018, https://alchetron.com/Whitecaps-Waterfront-Stadium.87 Ibid.88 Global Studio Vancouver, Central Waterfront Report, 2006, http://theglobalstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/GSV2006_CWC-Report_July-7-2006_web.pdf89 Ibid.90 “Facility,“ Vancouver Film Studios, http://www.vancouverfilmstudios.com/facility/..135Barnard, Lucy. “Queen Elizabeth 2 bound for Asia to become a 500-room floating hotel.“ The National. 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Teenck | https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taller_d%E2%80%99Arquitectura_Sant_Just_Desvern.jpgFig. 11 Nicolás Boullosa | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/faircompanies/26152750093/in/photostream/Fig. 12 Dgst | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Qube_(Vancouver)/Fig. 13 Alexis Birkill | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Qube_(Vancouver)Fig. 14 slashvee | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/slashvee/27024524364Fig. 15 BreakingTravelNews | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/breakingtravelnews/48787268462/Fig. 16 BreakingTravelNews | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/breakingtravelnews/48786756443/Fig. 17 Stéphane M. Grueso | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/stephanemgrueso/5481374325/Fig. 18 Stéphane M. Grueso | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/stephanemgrueso/5481416453/IMAGE SOURCES141Fig. 19 Naquib Hossain | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/naq/4114723979/Fig. 20 Adam Cohn | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/adamcohn/4113575415/Fig. 21 Harry and Rowena Kennedy | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/harryandrowena/27513315731/Fig. 22 By AuthorFig. 23 By AuthorFig. 24 Andrew | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrew_ww/9232363797/Fig. 25 City of Vancouver Archives | https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/not-yet-described#.XeHduENE5uM.link Fig. 26 Ashley Fisher | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/18789396@N00/2562073850Fig. 27 Moodie, B. G. | Vancouver Archive | https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/aerial-view-of-vancouver-harbour-looking-east-from-lost-lagoonFig. 28 Moore, W.J. | Vancouver Archive | https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/west-coast-shipbuilders-limited-site-under-constructionFig. 29 Marco López | https://mixkit.co/free-stock-video/lake-full-of-boats-3423/Fig. 30 By Author | Information extracted from Port of Vancouver Safe Boating Guide | https://portvancouver.com/safeboatingFig. 31 Differense | https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Science_World_at_TELUS_World_of_Science.jpgFig. 32 City of Vancouver Archives | https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/city-of-vancouver-27Fig. 33 jan zeschky | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/worldofjan/3550927902/Fig. 34 Bahnfrend| https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Helsinki_Central_Library_Oodi,_2019_(01).jpgFig. 35 Georgina P | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/73648413@N00/48071945192/Fig. 36 Georgina P | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/73648413@N00/48071928427/Fig. 37 By AuthorFig. 38 Mark Klotz | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/markklotz/49410656501/142Fig. 39 City of Vancouver | Interim Hotel Development Policy and Related Amendments to the Downtown Official Development PlanFig. 40 By AuthorFig. 41 P28 of City Without Art Report | Eastside Culture Crawl Society | https://culturecrawl.ca/citywithoutartFig. 42 City of Vancouver | https://vancouver.ca/people-programs/about-the-artist-studios.aspxFig. 43 By AuthorFig. 44 City of Vancouver | https://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/2015orthoPhotos.htmFig. 45 Bobanny | https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PortOVan.jpgFig. 46 City of Vancouver Archives | https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/port-of-city-of-vancouver-july-1933-isometric-view-from-south-westFig. 47 By AuthorFig. 48 By AuthorFig. 49 By AuthorFig. 50 By AuthorFig. 51 By AuthorFig. 52 By AuthorFig. 53 By AuthorFig. 54 Vancouver City Council | https://guidelines.vancouver.ca/C021.pdfFig. 55 P35 of Vancouver central waterfront (National Harbours Board, 1977) | City of Vancouver Archives | https://www.vancouverarchives.ca/2019/05/09/over-1000-city-planning-library-reports-now-available/Fig. 56 City of Vancouver | http://former.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/currentplanning/whitecaps/stadium.htmFig. 57 By Author143Fig. 58 By AuthorFig. 59 By AuthorFig. 60 By Author Fig. 61 By AuthorFig. 62 By Author Fig. 63 By AuthorFig. 64 By AuthorFig. 65 By AuthorFig. 66 By AuthorFig. 67 By AuthorFig. 68 Jason Eppink | Flickr | https://www.flickr.com/photos/jasoneppink/7927654122Fig. 69 By AuthorFig. 70 By AuthorFig. 71 By AuthorFig. 72 By AuthorFig. 73 By AuthorFig. 74 By AuthorFig. 75 By AuthorFig. 76 By AuthorFig. 77 By Author144Fig. 78 By AuthorFig. 79 By AuthorFig. 80 By AuthorFig. 81 By AuthorFig. 82 By AuthorFig. 83 By AuthorFig. 84 By AuthorFig. 85 By AuthorFig. 86 By AuthorFig. 87 By AuthorFig. 88 By AuthorFig. 89 By AuthorFig. 90 By AuthorFig. 91 By AuthorFig. 92 By AuthorFig. 93 By AuthorFig. 94 By AuthorFig. 95 By AuthorFig. 96 By AuthorFig. 97 By Author145Fig. 98 By AuthorFig. 99 By AuthorFig. 100 By AuthorFig. 101 By AuthorFig. 102 By AuthorFig. 103 By AuthorFig. 104 By AuthorFig. 105 By AuthorFig. 106 By AuthorFig. 107 By AuthorFig. 108 By AuthorFig. 109 By AuthorFig. 110 By AuthorFig. 111 By AuthorFig. 112 By AuthorFig. 113 By AuthorFig. 114 By AuthorFig. 115 By AuthorFig. 116 By AuthorFig. 117 By Author146Fig. 118 By AuthorFig. 119 By AuthorFig. 120 By AuthorFig. 121 By AuthorFig. 122 By AuthorFig. 123 By AuthorFig. 124 By AuthorFig. 125 By AuthorFig. 126 By AuthorFig. 127 By AuthorFig. 128 By AuthorFig. 129 By AuthorFig. 130 By AuthorFig. 131 By AuthorFig. 132 By AuthorFig. 133 By Author

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