UBC Graduate Research

At Sea Level Lai, Karen Yuen Nga 2020-05

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AT SEA LEVELKAREN (YUEN NGA) LAI3byKaren (Yuen Nga) LaiB.E.S. University of Waterloo 2015Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARCHITECTUREin THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureArchitecture ProgramWe accept this report as conforming to the required standardGP 2 Chair, Bill Pechet         Program Chair, Blair Satterfield     Committee:      Bill Pechet (Chair)     Kees Lokman     Daniel IrvineTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Karen (Yuen Nga) Lai© May 2020AT SEA LEVELii iiiAt Sea Level delves into the impacts of rising sea levels and resultant architectural responses. Countries like Vietnam, the Netherlands, Bangladesh and cities like Hamburg, New Orleans, Miami and Vancouver have been seeking to manage rising water levels and protect its residents from its potential impacts. This rise coupled with stronger storms create the perfect formula to sea level rise destruction. The first portion of this graduate project explores current flood mitigation construction categorized into 5 typologies: Elevated, Dryproofed, Floodable, Amphibious and Floating. It also delves into the phenomenology of water as a an architectural medium for hygiene, for play, and for relaxation. Five precedents were selected to investigate these methodologies and phenomenologies.The second portion of the project is presented as a story of the Vancouver Aquatic Centre located in Vancouver, Canada. Through a collection of real and mythic historical evidence, a narrative loop traversing through both a family’s history and that of greater culture is set against the context of an aging piece of civic infrastructure. Under siege from rising sea levels, the building transforms in response to environmental and social conditions over a 180 year period to allow for water to be perceived as something beautiful; reinforcing architecture’s capability to re-frame something that is feared into something that is valued. Water was used to enhance experiences as opposed to abandoning them. Water was the protagonist. abstractiv vabstractlist of figureslist of tablesacknowledgementschapter ONE Sea Level Rise climate trends sea level rise flood construction typologieschapter TWO Water and Architecture chapter THREE Precedent Studies  chapter FOUR Water: The Protagonistbibliographyiiviixx12614283880166contentsvi viiVarious images of Vancouver Aquatic Centre in 2019 and 2020Newspaper article from 2030Building Plans of existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre 1974Building Sections of existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre 1974Details of Existing Building ShellNewspaper article from 2046Annotations on section of greenhouse effect within the buildingNewspaper article from 2048Sketch over section of curtainwall replacementDetail of curtainwall replacementNewspaper article from 2049Postcard image of skateboarders in front of new Vancouver Aquatic Centre entranceSketch over sections of concrete panel interventions - low vs high tideApril 19th, 2070 Diary EntryThe Pit Boys Debut Show PosterPolaroid image of The Pit as a performance spaceSketch over section of The Pit and Community Garden interventionsJune 26th, 2070 Diary EntrySketch over section of Community Garden replacing old lap poolSeptember 10th, 2070 Diary EntryDecember 26th, 2070 Diary Entry991031041051061091111131141151171171191231241251271291311331354.54.64.74.84.94.104.114.124.134.144.154.164.174.184.194.204.214.224.234.244.25list of figuresClimate Emergency has been declared on UBC campusPhoto from the Vancouver Climate Strike in October 2019Global News article showing flood extents for Metro VancouverNon-flexible infrastructure will become inundated over time as sea levels riseCauses of sea level risePart of a 49km dike system in the City of Richmond, CanadaMap of HafenCity showing the three different typologies of flood proofing: elevated, floodable and floatingPhotograph of the Chand Baori Indian StepwellsPlan and Section of the Chand Baori in Rajasthan with different ground water levelsA group of women descending down the stepwells to retrieve waterSite Plan of Fondazione Querini StampaliaStairs to Canal and Elevated Walkway that Allows Water to Flow BeneathGallery of Fondazione Querini StampaliaLeça swimming pool blends naturally with the surrounding ocean and rock formsLeça swimming pool situated at the edge of the Atlantic ocean blurs the edge condition between land and seaTherme Vals Floor Plan showing the 7 pools in grayIndoor bath with play of light and shadow to create a unique multi-sensory atmosphereTidal Fluctuations, Precipitation and Wind PatternsTimeline History of Vancouver’s SeawallSite Location: Vancouver Aquatic CentreVarious images of Vancouver Aquatic Centre under construction (1970s)22689104454565862646670727678909295971.11.21.31.41.51.63.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.83.93.103.114.14.24.34.4viii ixTimeline of climate trends Globally and Vancouver from 1930 to present and projected (hypothetical)Timeline of climate trends overlayed with global projects built alongside or on the waterTable summarizing characteristics of each flood proof typology412271.11.21.3list of tablesAll figures and tables by author unless otherwise noted. Sketch over section of groundwater rising into the Pit allowing for swimmingPolaroid image of kids playing and swimming in the PitSeries of Plans throughout the year showing the annual water fluctuations and resultant activities in the PitSketches of potential interventions to the Vancouver Aquatic Centre as water levels riseConcrete models of existing building with rising water levelsConcrete models of potential landscape interventions and resultant impacts from rising water levelsPhotographs of concrete models being madeHologram images and videos taken from “Portal” in the 2100-2150sPlan showing Aquabus dock moved to the terrace of the building as water rises (2120)Section showing building shell removal and new Aquabus dock as water rises (2120)Holographic pamphlet showing new Aquabus Dock locations in 2120Animated holographic pamphlet showing new Aquabus Dock locations in 2120 Axonometric holograms of view towers accessible by boatAnimated axonometric holograms of view towers accessible by boatPlan of Aquabus access to view towers and flooded landscape below (2140)Section of diving tower/view tower (2140)Plan of The Platform as Aquabus Dock and providing pedestrian access to view towers (2150)Section of The Platform/Aquabus Dock and guiding postsDetail Axonometric of Platform CompositionAxonometric holograms of floating platform adjusting to varying water levelsAnimated axonometric holograms of floating platform adjusting to varying water levels1361371381431441451461511521531541571581611621631641651661671694.264.274.284.294.304.314.324.334.344.354.364.374.384.394.404.414.424.434.444.454.46x xiFor those reading this book in the years to follow, you’ll remember 2020 as the unprecedented year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Everything was turned upside-down halfway through the school term. From new policies, restrictions and announcements on a daily basis, being forced to work from home hoping to be productive, inaccessibility to the woodshop and other fabrication devices, virtual zoom calls to the eventual virtual thesis presentations, this term has been about adaptation to new environments. Given these turbulent times, I would like to give a huge THANK YOU to my committee Bill, Daniel and Kees for their continued support, enthusiasm and guidance in the past term.  I would also like to thank my fellow peers for their motivation, feedback and support, Firetruck Dragon Boat for keeping me productive and sane with online work sessions and home workouts as we all navigate through this new world, and the two construction workers banging and drilling away as they renovate the opposing building’s balcony for the consistent 9am reminders.   Finally thank you to my family and friends for their physical and virtual support throughout the years.acknowledgements1chapter ONESea Level Rise2 3climate trendsGlobal Warming has been a hot topic around the world; not just within the architectural discourse. The climate around the world has been changing at a rate faster than anticipated and global warming trends observed since the mid-20th century show this is mainly caused by human expansion through the “Greenhouse effect” (WWF Study 2009; NASA 2019b). NASA defines this as warming resulting from particulate matter in the atmosphere trapping heat that is radiating from the surface of the Earth to space (NASA 2019b). We are living in an age of global climate change that is triggered by excessive release of carbon in the form of CO2 into the atmosphere as a result of human activity (Jones 2017). Climate change has resulted in rising concerns regarding warming temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, stronger weather events, and rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps (NASA 2019b). Scientists have warned that the acceleration of ice loss and other climate change effects have brought the world close to a tipping point (Fountain 2019). Being at the verge had led to the announcement of a climate emergency that has recently led to worldwide protests and climate strikes to mitigate our impact and hopefully be able to prevent irreversible change.Figure 1.2- Vancouver Climate Strike in October 2019Figure 1.1 - Climate Emergency has been declared on UBC campus. 4 5The general climate trends both globally and within Vancouver has been rising. The analyzed trends in this table include population, sea levels, temperatures, and CO2 Emissions. 19401930195019601970198019901995200020052010201520202050210021502200Vancouver Mean Sea Level Rise(Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level 2019)Vancouver Monthly Mean Temperature(Government of Canada 2019)Sea Level & Climate Change Timeline100002000030000Global GHG Emissions (Teragrams CO2)Global CO2 Emissions(Boden, Marland and Andres 2010)-40-2020040-50-3010-10305060Global Sea Level Variation (mm)Global Sea Level Variation Compared to 20 Year Mean Reference(NASA 2019a)Global Temperture Change (C)12-0.30369Global Surface Temperature Relative to 1951-1980 Average TemperaturesNASA 2019b).1015202505Global Population (Billion)505254565860626466687072British Columbia GHG Emissions (Mt CO2E)British Columbia CO2 Emissions(Government of B.C. 2019)Vancouver Population(Arundel 2008) Global Population(Henning 2011)702070007040706070807100712071407160718072007220Vancouver Sea Level (mm)9101112 Vancouver Temperture (C)0 0123 Vancouver CMA Population (Million)1917-1980 - Vancouver’s seawall constructed around Stanley Park to prevent erosion of the park’s foreshore.(City of Vancouver 2019) 1988 - Global warming attracts worldwide headlines after scientists  blame major US drought on its influence. Meeting of climate scientists subsequently calls for 20% cuts in global CO2 emissions by the year 2005.(Marshall 2006) 1990 - The first report of the IPCC finds that the planet has warmed by 0.5°C in the past century. IPCC warns that only strong measures to halt rising greenhouse gas emissions will prevent serious global warming.(Marshall 2006) 1993 - Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood lasted from April to October and was one of the most costly and devastating floods in US history. (Larson 1996)1994 - The Alliance of Small Island States – many of whom fear they will disappear beneath the waves as sea levels rise – adopt a demand for 20% cuts in emissions by the year 2005. This, they say, will cap sea-level rise at 20 centimetres.(Marshall 2006)1953 - Netherland was struck by the North Sea Flood, resulting in the development of the Delta Works(McDowell 2016) 1957 - US oceanographer Roger Revelle warns that humanity is conducting a “large-scale geophysical experiment” on the planet by releasing greenhouse gases. David Keeling sets up first continuous monitoring of CO2 levels in the atmosphere and soon finds a regular year-on-year rise.(Marshall 2006) 1963 - First meeting of experts concerned with global warming warns that a rise in sea level is likely, with "immense flooding" of shorelines(Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) 1979- First World Climate Conference adopts climate change as major issue and calls on governments “to foresee and prevent potential man-made changes in climate”.(Marshall 2006) 1997 - Red River Flood known to be one of the more severe flooding of the river since 1826 affected North Dakota, Minnesota and Manitoba (McDowell 2016) 1997 - Kyoto Protocol agrees legally binding emissions cuts for industrialised nations, averaging 5.4%, to be met by 2010.(Marshall 2006) 1998 - Over 75% of Dhaka, Bangladesh was flooded with millions of people affected and hundreds killed.(Reuters - Thomson Reuters Foundation 1998) 2005 - Hurricane Katrina recognized as one fo the most expensive U.S. storms left as much as 80% of New Orleans underwater.(Grant 2017) 2005 - At a pivotal climate meeting held in Exeter, UK, scientists warn that the west Antarctic ice sheet is starting to collapse.(Marshall 2006) 2005 - Kyoto Treaty goes into effect(Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) 2007 - The fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC places the blame for global warming firmly on humankind, warning of “abrupt and irreversible” climate change.(Marshall 2006) 2008 - High tidal waters in Venice, Italy were pushed into the city by strong winds causing the fourth highest flood level since recording in 1872.(Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 2019) 2008 - Four tropical systems strike Haiti within a month triggering flooding that kills at least 425 people adn wipes out teh island’s crops. Over 600,000 people required international assistance. (Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 2019) 2009 - Many experts warn that global warming is arriving at a faster and more dangerous pace than anticipated just a few years earlier.(Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) 2009 - Eric Steig and colleagues show that Antarctica is warming. A thin strip of ice protecting the Wilkins ice sheet from collapse breaks apart, hastening the sheet’s demise – while the Arctic continues to warm much faster than expected.(Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 2019) 2002 - World experiences the second hottest year on record and Antarctica’s Larsen B ice sheet breaks up(Marshall 2006) 2003 - Numerous observations raise concern that collapse of ice sheets (West Antarctica, Greenland) can raise sea level faster than most had believed.(Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) 2000 - IPCC scientists re-assess likely future emissions and warn that, if things go badly, the world could warm by 6°C within a century. A series of major floods around the world reinforce public concerns that global warming is raising the risk of extreme weather events.(Marshall 2006) 2010-2011 - Two portions of Vancouver’s seawall were renewed with deeper foundations and renewed surfacing.(City of Vancouver 2019) 2012 - Hurricane Sandy rampaged across 24 states in the United States resulting in 147 direct deaths.(CNN Library 2019) 2014- Low Pressure System named “Yvette” brought multiple floods to Bosnia, Servia, and Romania, leaving several cities without fresh water or food.(Sito-Sucic and Sekularac 2014) 2019- Worldwide strikes bring millions onto the streets to demand an end to the age of fossil fuels. 2014- Alberta Floods caused state of emergencies to be declared in many southern Alberta areas. (The Huffington Post Alberta 2014) 2015- Researchers find collapse of West Antarctic ice sheet is irreversible, will bring meters of sea-level rise over future centuries (Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) 2015- Paris agreement signed (Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics 2019) Table  1.1 - Timeline of climate trends Globally and Vancouver from 1930 to present and projected (hypothetical). 6 7sea level riseLiving by the water had traditionally been a primary means of transportation and access to goods. In the modern day, people still continue to live by the water for its panoramic views, natural landscapes and opportunities for water-based activities. However, more and more news articles on sea level rise have been popping up within the last decade and even within the last few months, highlighting the urgency of the problem. At the time of writing this, articles about researchers who had found a more accurate way of calculating land elevations published that sea levels are expected to be three times worse than previously expected, with an estimated 150 million people around the world potentially below high-tide lines by 2050 (Little 2019; Lu & Flavelle 2019).As greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, the window to limit global warming below the 2 °C tipping point appears to be closing. This temperature rise would result in a sea-level rise of roughly 1m by 2100 but paleontological and modeling evidence indicates a potential for this estimate to be an order of magnitude higher. An analysis based on previously published relationships linking greenhouse gas emissions to warming and warming to sea level rise indicates that unabated carbon emissions up to the year 2100 would result in an eventual global sea-level rise of 4.3–9.9 m (Strauss, Kulp and Levermann 2015). Figure 1.3 - Global News Article showing flood extents for Metro Vancouver (Little 2019)Image Removed for Copyright8 9Nation scale impacts of sea level rise include loss of agricultural and non-agricultural lands, flooding damage, accelerated erosion of shorelines, increased salination of surfaces and ground waters, increased insurance rates, loss of biodiversity, stronger climate events, etc (McDowell 2016; Roaf, Crichton and Nicol 2009). Sea level rise is caused from the expansion of the warmer waters, and from the melting of permanent ice caps due to global warming (Roaf, Crichton and Nicol 2009). This coupled with storms create the perfect formula to sea level rise destruction. When designing for sea level rise, increasing and encroaching tidal activity from storms cannot be ignored (McDowell 2016). Current flood mitigation construction can be categorized into 5 typologies: Elevated, Dryproofed, Floodable, Amphibious and Floating. Figure 1.5 - Causes of Sea Level Rise (City of Vancouver 2018). Figure 1.4 -  Non-flexible infrastructure will become inundated over time as sea levels rise.Image Removed for Copyright10 11Within Metro Vancouver, the Fraser Basin Council produced a report in 2016 warning of “significant risk” of a major flood event in the Vancouver Region with a more than $20-billion price tag, and is currently working on a regional strategy to reduce that risk. Tamsin Lyle, a flood management specialist suggests that “the bigger challenge is recognizing that some of the old ways we’ve dealt with flooding — like dikes — may no longer be cost effective in the future” (Little 2019). Not only are dikes limited to the height they were originally built to until extensions are built over it, but they also physically cut off connections between land and water.The City of Vancouver has constructed the seawall around Stanley Park (1980) and extended it around False Creek. The City of Richmond has constructed a 49km dike system along its perimeter and also has mobile generators and pump stations that keep groundwater from flooding up. Historically, water has been seen as an enemy and was always protected from. However, is there the potential to restore connection with the water while not cutting them off from their surroundings? Could this be integrated with the public realm, be nature based and sensitive to the local community? Can “future water” be designed for in a beneficial way?Figure 1.6 - Part of a 49km dike system in the City of Richmond, Canada12 13Construction methodologies for building on water have existed since 450AD when wood piles were used to hold Venice up above water levels. However, buildings responding to sea level rise only really started booming since the early 2000s, when global warming and climate change became more frequently discussed in public discourse. Since then, there have been many projects that have sought to respond to the challenges of rising sea levels through different construction methodologies and materiality. 19401930195019601970198019901995200020052010201520202050210021502200Vancouver Mean Sea Level RiseGlobal Surface Temperature Relative to 1951-1980 Average Temperatures.Vancouver Monthly Mean TemperatureSea Level & Climate Change Timeline100002000030000Global GHG Emissions (Teragrams CO2)Global CO2 Emissions-40-2020040-50-3010-10305060Global Sea Level Variation (mm)Global Sea Level Variation Compared to 20 Year Mean ReferenceGlobal Temperture Change (C)12-0.303691015202505Global Population (Billion)505254565860626466687072British Columbia GHG Emissions (Mt CO2E)British Columbia CO2 EmissionsVancouver Population Global Population702070007040706070807100712071407160718072007220Vancouver Sea Level (mm)9101112 Vancouver Temperture (C)0 0123 Vancouver CMA Population (Million)Construction MethodologyMaterialGP1 - Karen (Yuen Nga) Laiassignment 03_timelineElevated Flood-ProofFloodable AmphibiousFloatingConcrete WoodSteel LandscapeMürotzeum Museum of Natural HistoryWaren Germany, 2007The AfsluitdijkThe Netherlands, 2006Marina Bay BarrageSingapore, 2008The OossterscheldekeringThe Netherlands, 1953Slump sound shorelineNorth Carolina, 2005Benthemplein Water SquareRotterdam The Netherlands, 2013HafencityHamburg Germany, 2000-2030The Float HouseNew Orleans USA, 2009Perez Art MuseumMiami USA, 2013Aluminium ForestUtrecht Netherlands, 2002Royal Docks/The CrownLondon UK, CompetitionYokohama International Port TerminalYokohama Japan, 2002Floating HouseLake Huron Canada, 2007SilodamAmsterdam Netherlands, 2002Maison FlottanteLos Angeles USA, 2006Science CentreHamburg Germany, CompetitionInstitute of Contemporary ArtBoston USA, 2006National Opera HouseOslo Norway, 2007Opera HouseCopenhagen Denmark, 2006Makoko HouseLagos Nigeria, 2013Pier 40Manhatten USA, CompetitionLift HouseBangladesh, 2010Ijburg Floating HomesAmsterdam The Netherlands, 2011Chong Kneas Cambodia, n.d.Galveston SeawallGalveston USA, 1904West PierBrighton England, circa 1866VeniceVenice Italy, 450Exbury EggHampshire United Kingdom 2013Ark HotelSochi Russia, FutureRussell ResidencePortland Oregon, 2005The Float HouseNew Orleans USA, 2009EcolodgeDordrecht Netherlands, 2012Harvest Dome 2.0New York City USA, 2013ArchipelagoKudu Island Thailand, 2012Blooming Bamboo HouseHa Noi Vietnam, 2013Table 1.2 - Timeline of climate trends overlayed with global projects built alongside or on the water 14 15Many flood and sea level rise mitigation strategies are at the large scale of planning and landscaping, with limited focus on how the smaller architecture and buildings scale can also contribute. There is also the potential of a breech of large scale flood defense systems such as levees. While researching construction methodologies that would protect occupants’ lives and properties from floods and rising water levels, solutions can be grouped into 5 distinct categories: Elevated, Dryproofed, Floodable, Amphibious, and Floating. The following section describes each of these methodologies and provides some insight as to when it is appropriate to use each solution. By understanding their benefits and limitations, architects have managed to enabled occupants to continue with live within close proximity to the water instead of retreating from it. These solutions can improve the quality of life of those living with water by reducing physical, social and financial losses associated with flooding and allow architecture to engage with water just as buildings have engaged with landscape. (Barker and Coutts 2016)5 flood construction typologiesDryproofedElevated Floodable Amphibious Floating16 17description Of the five types of flood mitigation typologies, elevated buildings are the most common and have been used for centuries. Elevated buildings raise either the floor or the entire building above the predicted flood level using either structural posts or raising the entire ground. Most commonly, elevated buildings use masonry or stone to raise the ground, while structural posts are constructed using concrete, aluminum, or wood. This solution can be constructed for different water depths, given that higher flood depths require stronger structural solutions. appropriateness Factors that may affect whether elevated buildings are appropriate include ground conditions, the flood hazard (depth, velocity and risk of debris), foundations and the integrity of the columns or structure. To access the building, steps or ramps are typically required. benefits If elevation is raised above one story, the ground level may be used for floodable or flexible activities or programs such as parking lots, playgrounds, walkways or boat storage if it is above the water. A raised building also prevents termites and intrusion of vermin. If designed properly, there is also a cooling potential offered by raising the buildingcons Elevated buildings are usually designed at a fixed height over the existing water levels and are typically not adaptable unless designed to be raised. Therefore, it is best to use this solution only when an accurate prediction of projected flood heights can be determined. Additionally, the raised floor levels risk cutting occupants off from potential social interaction with the street, causing social impacts such as reduced surveillance of the street and hindered accessibility for wheelchair users.(Barker and Coutts 2016)elevatedHet BoschJagerJanssen architecten + Dreissen ArchitectenVeniceAluminum ForestMicha de HaasElevated18 19description One of the easier solutions to implement, dryproofing is the process of making a building resistant to flood damage through preventing water from coming in contact with the building or making the building resistant to flood water damage. This is the easiest for existing buildings through renovation.appropriateness Generally not the preferred solution for new buildings (which would typically be built above flood levels), dryproofing is applied to existing buildings that are at risk of flooding. Factors that may affect whether dryproofing of buildings are appropriate include whether structural information for existing buildings is available (as buildings under deep water need to withstand immense water pressure on the exterior walls, and potential debris impact), the depth and period of time of the potential flood, and the material of the building (i.e. only used where flood depths are below 0.6m to avoid structural implications to the building).  benefits This solution can be easily combined with the other solutions and is a simple and viable solution for existing buildings. cons As this solution is generally used with existing buildings that may not have accurate structural survey information available , dryproofing is recommended only for shallow flood depths and is seen as a short term solution where floods may only last a few hours. Products that are specified to block out water are typically more expensive and harder to find (i.e. flood resistant doors and windows, waterproof junctions to services). (Barker and Coutts 2016)floodproofedScience CenterOMAOosterscheldekeringFloodproofed20 21description This solution is unique from the other solutions as it does not aim to keep water out of the building. It seeks to work with the implications of flooding by reducing the damage and designing the building to cope with and recover from flooding. Since water is not being held back, there is no build up of water pressure, causing less strain on the building structure when flooded as long as building materials can be exposed to flood water. This solution can also be used for existing buildings.appropriateness As the building interior needs to be able to be exposed to flood water, careful consideration of the construction and material selection is required. Materials such as waterproof magnesium oxide boards, solid wall and floor materials, impervious polyurethane. Drains need to have non-return valves to prevent sewage from back-flowing through the drains. Electric outlets should be raised above the anticipated flood levels and ventilation systems may be considered to decrease drying times. This solution is most appropriate for programs right at ground level and store products that are raised or can be flooded such as shops, warehouses, parking garages, parks where the flood depths exceed 0.6m.benefits Floodable methods can be used in combination with floodproofing methods to keep water out during shallow floods but allow water in during higher flood levels. Internal planning of different elevations can allow sensitive items to be stored above flood levels or provide refuge during a flood. This solution can be used strategically to direct water away from vulnerable spaces, and make space for water where it can be accommodated. Since there is no pressure difference between the outside and inside, this solution can withstand greater flood depths compared to a flood-proofed building. cons Careful consideration of waterproof materials, non-return valve drains and placement of electrical and HVAC systems will be required. Consideration as to whether and how quickly flooded areas can dry should also be considered. During a flood and potentially during the aftermath, the flooded space would be rendered unusable and may require cleanup efforts to restore it to its previous state. Access during flood events should also be considered.  (Barker and Coutts 2016)floodableOslo Opera HouseSnøhettaPier 40 DFAFloodablePerez Art MuseumHerzog & De Meuron22 23description Amphibious buildings are those that can rest on land and float on water when it floods. When it is not flooded, amphibious buildings generally don’t look much different than other land-based buildings (with the exception of some guideposts or an anchoring system). They are typically designed with a concrete, steel or plastic float base anchored or guided by posts to be able to return back to its original position on land after a flood event. appropriateness The flexibility to be on land or on water allows amphibious buildings to tolerate high variations in water levels and is therefore appealing to areas that see big fluctuations of dry and wet conditions. Generally, this solution is feasible for sites with water depths exceeding 1m and relatively flat waters that rise and fall gently. benefits This solution provides the dry and protected benefits of land-based buildings while also including the flexibility of floating buildings. If hinged walkways are attached to the building, this solution can consistently provide accessible entrances as the building rises along with the water levels. When the building rests on land (when it is not flooded), the building’s height blend in with its surroundings. cons Careful calibration of the structure will need to be considered to ensure stability during floods and requires land that is relatively flat where flood waters would generally rise and fall slowly. Locations with storm surges, hurricanes or tsunamis that would cause wave action would not be suitable for this solution.  (Barker and Coutts 2016)amphibiousFloat HouseMorphosis ArchitectsLift HousePrithula Prosun, UWaterlooAmphibious24 25description Typically light weight structures built on a buoyant base or foundation, floating buildings are designed to exist on the water and will rise and fall with the water levels. Based on Archimedes’ principle, an object floats when buoyancy exceeds its weight. To prevent the building from floating away, it is typically tethered to mooring posts that still enable it to rise and fall with the water. appropriateness As the building requires to rest on water, it can only be built on water levels over 1m deep and is recommended to be built in static bodies of water. If the building is taller, it will require deeper water to provide sufficient buoyancy. It can tolerate high variations in water levels as long as access to the entrance can be provided. The weight of the building in this case is very important it relates directly to the building’s buoyancy. Therefore, this can limit the type of construction material used for the project. Historically, wood, bamboo and straw were the primary building material for floating buildings. Timber, fiberglass, steel and aluminum hulls have also been used. But more recently, floating buildings are more commonly constructed out of polystyrene or concrete rafts for its stability and durability. benefits With rising water levels taking away land, floating buildings are an opportunity to take back developable area. Being directly in contact with the water allows the building to use the water as a potential heat exchanger, saving energy to heat or cool the building. Building right on the water can also allow occupants to have direct interaction with the water.cons Stability is a major concern with floating buildings. They require careful consideration of the anticipated flood velocity because if they become detached from their moor, they could damage to surrounding buildings or infrastructure. Therefore, they can only be constructed in static bodies of water with predictable water level variations and low flows. As the building is constructed over water, occupants may feel isolated from land, therefore it is important to consider how supporting amenities may also be incorporated within the project.  (Barker and Coutts 2016)floatingFloat HouseMOS ArchitectsMakoko Floating SchoolNLÉ ArchitectsIjburg Floating HomeArchitectenbureau Marlies RohmerFloating26 27Table 1.3 - Table summarizing characteristics of each flood proof typology. (Barker and Coutts 2016). Elevated property on structural wallsElevated property supported on posts or columnsDryproofing/ ResistanceF loodable/ Resilience Floating AmphibiousShallow (<0.3m)Fairly shallow (0.3m-0.6m) *Moderate (0.6-2m) ** *Deep (>2m) *Slow (<1m/s)Moderate (1-2m/s)Fast (2m/s)Subject to rapid/ flash floodingSubject to ice and debris flowCoastal Floodplain **** **Riverie Floodplain **PermeableImpermeable* subject to site conditions/details** flood depths above 0.6m can damage the structural integrity of buildings*** only in protected areas where sudden fluctuations in levels are controlledDepthFlood CharacteristicsVelocityCharacterLocationSoil TypeSite Characteristics28 29chapter TWO Water and Architecture30 31water’s role in architectureWater has always been imperative for life and the genesis of settlement. Traditionally, its role has been defensive (i.e. a moat) to protected its occupants from enemies. But the force of the dynamic potential of water has also led to the need for the use of architecture to protect  its occupants from water itself. This had led to the human’s default response of controlling water (Toy 1995).  We hear it, play with it, smell it, walk next to it, paint it, surf and swim and fish in it, photograph it. It can be described as a point, a line, a pool or an edge. As a point; depending on the interaction with water and the quality of the water, it can become a place of gathering, place of retrospect, a source of power or a place of limitation and imagination. As a line; a river of water running through a landscape or a line of sewage pipes running below the ground. As a pool; a volume of water controlled and defined by an edge, whether man made or natural. As an edge; where water, land and sky meet. It is a place of danger and possibilities, the transition from one experience to another. Water is repetitive, complex and ever changing and the role of water in architecture means something different to each individual.The following section groups water into 3 different sections: Water as Utilitarian, Water as Play and Water as Well-being.32 33water as hygieneCovering 70% of our Earth, water is an essential element to supporting life and is necessary for survival, either through drinking water for ourselves and other animals and irrigation for crops. It is essential to grow our food to keep us alive. Water is also used for cleansing by washing away dirt through bathes, washrooms and sinks. The origins of the clean water and disposal of contaminated water are often hidden from view behind walls through sewers and pipes where we only see the water outlet and the drains. Finally, water is used in religious rituals that are often linked to cleansing and purification. Instead of keeping water hidden, projects such as the Indian Stepwells or the Erbil Citadel Hammam aimed to incorporate these processes into its architecture . 34 35water as playWater in nature is tranquil, dramatic, ever changing. It’s qualities are captivating and stimulate our emotions and imagination, encouraging movement and play (Nichols 2014). Water’s potential to create a sense of awe contributes to our happiness and desire for play (Marchal, 2019). When near water, our brains switch off from a busy to relaxed state. It opens up the brain from stress and anxiety to more inspired and creative thoughts. Water can have the potential for performance as demonstrated in Shoei Yoh’s Prospecta 92 and Arashiyama Golf Club (Yoh 1995) or the potential for wonder through magic and excitement (Moore 1995). The audiovisual effects of moving water creates a sensual response that creates energy and space that is not just seen by the eyes as experienced in Álvaro Siza’s Leça  Swimming Pools in Porto situated at the edge of the water.36 37water as relaxationWater can also be therapeutic and contribute to our mental calmness and well being. This feeling can be stimulated through multiple senses. The rhythmic sensations of seeing and hearing waves lapping on a shore puts our overloaded minds into a relaxed and hypnotic like state (Marchal 2019). The smell of the ocean brings a sense of refreshness to our minds. The immersion of the body into the water restores body and mind. Immersion in cold water is found to be a soothing treatment to nerves and can refresh the body mentally and physically while  immersion in warm water serves to relax muscles and tensions. These seductive and mesmerizing qualities of water results in lower depression, stress, anxiety and promotes better mental clarify and sleep patterns (Marchal 2019). 38 39chapter THREEPrecedent Studies40 41This section includes in-depth precedent studies of five projects that contain qualities that may be sought after in the design stage of this graduate project.  Hafencity - Different solutions are appropriate for different levels of flooding and situations; and in some cases the best solution may be to combine several different measures together to tackle the challenges of sea level rise. Chand Baori Stepwell - Although was not original built in response to rising sea levels, is an innovative and architecturally successful project that turned a utilitarian use into a successful place of gathering for the community with a unique architecture-human relationship.Fondazione Querini Stampalia - A renovation project that focuses on inviting flood waters into the building as opposed to keeping the water out. This project creates a unique relationship between the visitors and the waterline. Leça  Swimming Pools - Located at the edge of the northern coastline, this project plays with this edge condition, straddling between ocean and land to create an intricate connection to nature. Therme Vals - This project serves to portray how water can be used for wellbeing and hygiene, playing on its qualities to bring peace. 42 43hafencityKees Christiaanse | ASTOC200044 45hafencityLocated on River Elbe, HafenCity was previously a big port/harbour and significant industrial district, the land that Hafencity sits on is historically closely tied to Hamburg. In 1962 a huge storm tide from the North Sea surprised the city, destroyed 60,000 houses and killed about 315 people. After this event, flood mitigation measures such as dikes were constructed around Hamburg. The HafenCity area, however, is located outside the area protected by these dikes. During the conceptual phase of this project, dikes were considered but due to the area’s proximity to large expanses of water and what gives the area much of its charm, dikes would have deprived it of the many exciting sight lines down to the water. The area would suffer from daily tidal changes and storm surges in the winter months. Instead a master plan was developed that would elevate the buildings on plinths made of mounds, connecting Hafencity to the old town through bridges and streets. The result is a 3 level public space: the raised warften, the promenade and the floating docks.  21365489 1011121314151617187Elevated "Warften"Buildings were constructed on 8- to 9-m. plinths made of compacted dirt – warften, in German, and is safe for the most extreme flooding. By elevating the buildings on plinths made of mounds, HafenCity is connected with the existing city.Elevated EntrancesEntryways on upper levels are common throughout HafenCity. This allows buildings to be accessible and safe from floods even during high water levels. Elevated Streets, Bridges and Escape RoutesRoads and bridges are also being built above the flood-line at least 7.5meters above sea level and are not affected by the neighbourhood’s annual flood. Residential levels above the ground floor have alternative access and escapee routes at different heights to guarantee a safe evacuation up to 7.5m.Non-Residential Ground FloorThe first floor of every building on the promenade is dedicated to retail outlets, car parks, restaurants, offices, and exhibition spaces, that are sealed off in times of flooding. Promenade-facing lower levels employing aquarium-grade glass and watertight windows and doors. FloodgatesIn cases of high water, a few underground parking garage entrances along Am Sandtorkai and Brooktorkai (directly opposite the Speicherstadt) do have to close their flood gates.  Floating DockA floating dock allows access to water transportation via hinged bridges that connect the static street level to the changing water levels.   Warften (Elevated) Promenade (Flooadable) Floating Dock (Floating)12Floodable PromenadeA broad strip up to 15 meters wide along the edges of the restored historic quays is down at the existing 4.00 to 5.50 meter level of the HafenCity area and provides 10.5 kilometers of waterside walks. Only the promenades are vacated in case of flooding. 1574 98131115 1014 1762 183HafencityPreviously a big port/harbour and significant industrial district, the land that Hafencity sits on is historically closely tied to Ham-burg. In 1962 a huge storm tide from the North Sea surprised the city, destroyed 60,000 houses and killed about 315 people. After this event, flood mitigation measures such as dikes were constructed around Hamburg. The HafenCity area, however, is located outside the area protected by these dikes. During the conceptual phase of this project, dikes were considered but due to the area’s proximity to large expanses of water and what gives the area much of its charm, dikes would have deprived it of the many exciting sight lines down to the water. Instead a master plan was developed that would elevate the buildings on plinths made of mounds, connecting Hafencity to the old town through bridges and streets.The result is a 3 level public space: the raised warften, the promenade and the floating docks.   GP_01 Karen (Yuen Nga) Laiassignment_6_wildcard16Figure 3.1 - Map of HafenCity showing the three different typologies of flood proofing: elevated, floodable and floating. 46 47The street level within HafenCity has been elevated 8 to 9m above existing sea levels onto plinths made of compacted fill mounds. Roads, pedestrian pathways and bridges are elevated to ensure safe egress during high water levels. Main entrances to buildings are also elevated to upper levels. By elevating with plinths, underground parking can be fit underneath, allowing for private vehicles to be hidden away from the surface level. Residential uses require alternative access and escape routes at different heights to guarantee a safe evacuation. waften (elevated)21365489 1011121314151617187Elevated "Warften"Buildings were constructed on 8- to 9-m. plinths made of compacted dirt – warften, in German, and is safe for the most extreme flooding. By elevating the buildings on plinths made of mounds, HafenCity is connected with the existing city.Elevated EntrancesEntryways on upper levels are common throughout HafenCity. This allows buildings to be accessible and safe from floods even during high water levels. Elevated Streets, Bridges and Escape RoutesRoads and bridges are also being built above the flood-line at least 7.5meters above sea level and are not affected by the neighbourhood’s annual flood. Residential levels above the ground floor have alternative access and escapee routes at different heights to guarantee a safe evacuation up to 7.5m.Non-Residential Ground FloorThe first floor of every building on the promenade is dedicated to retail outlets, car parks, restaurants, offices, and exhibition spaces, that are sealed off in times of flooding. Promenade-facing lower levels e ploying aquarium-grade glass and watertight windows and doors. FloodgatesIn cas s of high water, a few underground parking garage entrances along Am Sand orkai and Brooktorkai (directly opposite the Speicherstadt) do have to close their flood gates.  Floating DockA floating dock allows access to water transportation via hinged bridges that connect the static street level to the changing water levels.   Warften (Elevated) Promenade (Flooadable) Floating Dock (Floating)12Floodable PromenadeA broad strip up to 15 meters wide along the edges of the restored historic quays is down at the existing 4.00 to 5.50 meter level of the HafenCity area and provides 10.5 kilometers of waterside walks. Only the promenades are vacated in case of flooding. 1574 98131115 1014 1762 183H fencityPreviously a big port/harbour and significant industrial district, the land that Hafencity sits on is historically closely tied to Ham-burg. In 1962 a huge storm tide from the North Sea surprised the city, destroyed 60,000 houses and killed about 315 people. After this ev nt, flood mitigation measures such as dikes were constructed around Hamburg. The HafenCity area, however, is located outside the area protected by these dikes. During the conceptual phase of this project, dikes were considered but due to the area’s proximity to large expanses of water and what gives the area much of its charm, dikes would have deprived it of the many exciting sight lines down to the water. Instead a master plan was developed that would elevate the buildings on plinths made of mounds, connecting Hafencity to the old town through bridges and streets.The result is a 3 level public space: the raised warften, the promenade and the floating docks.   GP_01 Karen (Yuen Nga) Laiassignment_6_wildcard1648 49In order to maintain connection with the water, the promenade level of HafenCity is built at the existing 4 to 5.5m above sea level along the edge of the restored historic district. This promenade level extends up to 15m wide and spans over 10.5 kilometers along the waterside. During high water levels, the promenade is closed off and vacated. Residential uses are not allowed on the first floor of buildings. Instead, first floors are dedicated to restaurants, offices, and exhibition spaces that are sealed off during high water levels. Windows on the lower level facing the promenade use aquarium grade glass and watertight windows and doors to keep water out. Some entrances to parking garages and windows also employ flood gates that close during high water levels. promenade (floodable)21365489 1011121314151617187Elevated "Warften"Buildings were constructed on 8- to 9-m. plinths made of compacted dirt – warften, in German, and is safe for the most extreme flooding. By elevating the buildings on plinths made of mounds, HafenCity is connected with the existing city.Elevated EntrancesEntryways on upper levels are common throughout HafenCity. This allows buildings to be accessible and safe from floods even during high water levels. Elevated Streets, Bridges and Escape RoutesRoads and bridges are also being built above the flood-line at least 7.5meters above sea level and are not affected by the neighbourhood’s annual flood. Residential levels above the ground floor have alternative access and escapee routes at different heights to guarantee a safe evacuation up to 7.5m.Non-Residential Ground FloorThe first floor of every building on the promenade is dedicated to retail outlets, car parks, restaurants, offices, and exhibition spaces, that are sealed off in times of flooding. Promenade-facing lower levels employing aquarium-grade glass and watertight windows and doors. FloodgatesIn cases of high water, a few underground parking garage entrances along Am Sandtorkai and Brooktorkai (directly opposite the Speicherstadt) do have to close their flood gates.  Floating DockA floating dock allows access to water transportation via hinged bridges that connect the static street level to the changing water levels.   Warften (Elevated) Promenade (Flooadable) Floating Dock (Floating)12Floodable PromenadeA broad strip up to 15 meters wide along the edges of the restored historic quays is down at the existing 4.00 to 5.50 meter level of the HafenCity area and provides 10.5 kilometers of waterside walks. Only the promenades are vacated in case of flooding. 1574 98131115 1014 1762 183HafencityPreviously a big port/harbour and significant industrial district, the land that Hafencity sits on is historically closely tied to Ham-burg. In 1962 a huge storm tide from the North Sea surprised the city, destroyed 60,000 houses and killed about 315 people. After this event, flood mitigation measures such as dikes were constructed around Hamburg. The HafenCity area, however, is located outside the area protected by these dikes. During the conceptual phase of this project, dikes wer  considered but due to the area’s proximity to large expanses of water and what gives the area much of its charm, dikes would have deprived it of the many exciting sight lines down to the water. Instead a master plan was developed that would elevate the buildings on plinths made of mounds, connecting Hafencity to the old town through bridges and streets.The result is a 3 l vel public space: the raised warften, the promenade and the floating docks.   GP_01 Karen (Yuen Nga) Laiassignment_6_wildcard1650 51In order to maintain connection with ferry services, a floating dock exists on the water level. Hinged bridges connect the dock to the promenade and will rise and fall dependent on the dock. dock (floating)21365489 1011121314151617187Elevated "Warften"Buildings were constructed on 8- to 9-m. plinths made of compacted dirt – warften, in German, and is safe for the most extreme flooding. By elevating the buildings on plinths made of mounds, HafenCity is connected with the existing city.Elevated EntrancesEntryways on upper levels are common throughout HafenCity. This allows buildings to be accessible and safe from floods even during high water levels. Elevated Streets, Bridges and Escape RoutesRoads and bridges are also being built above the flood-line at least 7.5meters above sea level and are not affected by the neighbourhood’s annual flood. Residential levels above the ground floor have alternative access and escapee routes at different heights to guarantee a safe evacuation up to 7.5m.Non-Residential Ground FloorThe first floor of every building on the promenade is dedicated to retail outlets, car parks, restaurants, offices, and exhibition spaces, that are sealed off in times of flooding. Promenade-facing lower levels employing aquarium-grade glass and watertight windows and doors. FloodgatesIn cases of high water, a few underground parking garage entrances along Am Sandtorkai and Brooktorkai (directly opposite the Speicherstadt) do have to close their flood gates.  Floating DockA floating dock allows access to water transportation via hinged bridges that connect the static street level to the changing water levels.   Warften (Elevated) Promenade (Flooadable) Floating Dock (Floating)12Floodable PromenadeA broad strip up to 15 meters wide along the edges of the restored historic quays is down at the existing 4.00 to 5.50 meter level of the HafenCity area and provides 10.5 kilometers of waterside walks. Only the promenades are vacated in case of flooding. 1574 98131115 1014 1762 183HafencityPreviously a big port/harbour and significant industrial district, the land that Hafencity sits on is historically closely tied to Ham-burg. In 1962 a huge storm tide from the North Sea surprised the city, destroyed 60,000 houses and killed about 315 people. After this event, flood mitigation measures such as dikes were constructed around Hamburg. The HafenCity area, however, is located outside the area protected by these dikes. During the conceptual phase of this project, dikes were considered but due to the area’s proximity to large expanses of water and what gives the area much of its charm, dikes would have deprived it of the many exciting sight lines down to the water. Instead a master plan was developed that would elevate the buildings on plinths made of mounds, connecting Hafencity to the old town through bridges and streets.The result is a 3 level public space: the raised warften, the promenade and the floating docks.   GP_01 Karen (Yuen Nga) Laiassignment_6_wildcard1652 53chand baoriArchictect Unknown (Locals)180054 55indian stepwellsStepwells are historical marvels of engineering, architecture and art, that were left abandoned since the British regime. Lautman describes these structures as having married practicality with grandeur (Lautman 2017). They served as wells or ponds that were accessed by descending a series of steps to get to the water level. Originated and most common in western India but can also be found in other arid regions of India and Pakistan, they were developed as a form of water storage to cope with seasonal fluctuations in water availability, providing communities with water all year long for drinking, irrigating fields and religious ceremonies. Compared to traditional wells or tanks, stepwells make it easier to access the groundwater and easier to maintain and manage. Many stepwells in addition to its utilitarian use, also served a leisure purpose as well. They served as civic centers, places of refuge from the hot sun, remote oases and in many cases, places of worship as well (Indo Asian News Service 2018; Lautman 2017). Stepwells consist of two parts: the well, typically circular or octagonal vertical shafts where water is drawn and the surrounding subterranean galleries consisting of passageways, chambers and steps that provide access to the well. Figure 3.2- Photograph of the Chand Baori Indian Stepwells (Globetrouper 2017)Image Removed for Copyright56 57Situated in the village of Abhaneri in the Indian state Rajasthan, the Chand Baori is the deepest and largest stepwell in India. As Rajasthan is extremely arid, the stepwell was designed to conserve as much water as possible. It measures 13 stories deep and goes down 30m below the surface. Built by King Chandra who ruled during the 8th and 9th century AD, this stepwell is a square share with an entrance from the north with 3500 steps flanked on three sides extending down to the well.  The northern side has a multi-story corridor supported on pillars and two projecting balconies. The bottom of the well’s air is 5-6 degrees cooler than at the surface (Voudouris, et al. 2017).chand baoriFigure 3.3 - Plan and Section of the Chand Baori in Rajasthan with different ground water levels. (Adapted from K. Barker n.d.)58 59architectural subversionThe subversion of architecture below grade is unexpected because we have been conditioned to look up at architecture. Instead the stepwells have flipped this relationship and the experience of descending into the subterranean edifice was described as one of the most powerful experiences of moving through architecture (Lautman 2017). connection to waterThe design of the stepwells required users to descend down to the groundwater in order to retrieve water, contrasting with a traditional well where water was pumped up to the surface. This provides users with a direct connection with water, where they not only see where their water source is coming from and where the water levels are throughout the year, but also can step right up to the water. In India, the connection between architecture and water is generally regarded as a connection between the secular and the sacred, between earth and heaven, making this direct connection an even stronger phenomenon (Lautman 2017).accommodationThe stepwells with its multiple stories and flights of steps are designed to accommodate fluctuations in water levels which were part of the water cycle in such an arid part of the country. The design allows for access to the water whether the groundwater table is low or high. Additionally, the stepwells had also accommodated a variety of functions in addition to its utilitarian use. It was also used as a place of refuge from the hot sun and in many cases as a place of worship. The design’s accommodation of these additional uses served to bring the community together and became common spots for festivals and social meetings.alliesthesiaIn such an arid region, a temperature change of 5-6 degrees makes a big difference. The experience of a sense of thermal alliesthesia (thermal delight) as you descend down from the hot surface to the cool subterranean creates a deeply poetic sense of place. architecture-human relationshipsFigure 3.4 - A group of women descending down the stepwells to retrieve water (Manglik 2017)Image Removed for Copyright60 61fondazione querini stampaliaCarlo Scarpa196162 63fondazione querini stampalia renovationEstablished in 1869 by Count Giovanni Querini, the Fondazione Querini Stampalia was a family home designed for the prominent Venetian Querini Stampalia family, one of the families that founded the city. In 1949, the director of the Foundation Manlio Dazzi commissioned Carlo Scarpa for the restoration of a part of the ground floor and the back garden in anticipation of future flooding, which were in bad conditions and already frequently flooded with seawater. (Fondazione Querini Stampalia n.d.) Scarpa’s design created different levels and internal channels to allow the water to run inside without damaging the building. A raised walkway was placed over the existing flood, allowing pedestrians to walk over the water and allowing water to flow throughout the building. He turned the water into an attraction instead of a burden (The Venice Insider 2017).Scarpa built a bridge connecting to the campiello (square) and designated a new entrance from a previous window. Within the building, he added a raised walkway, a sunken gallery space and a crystal door with a couple of steps leading up to the courtyard in the rear.Figure 3.5 - Site Plan of Fondazione Querini Stampalia(Barba 2016)Image Removed for Copyright64 65Carlo Scarpa restored the front entry area with a raised walkway and an irregular staircase made of stone covered cement. These elements were meant to regulate the water that floods the ground floor when there is high water in the lagoon. It allowed users to understand their relationship relative to the water, but also allowed water to flow underneath the walkway during floods. Visitors are thus able to compare the differing water levels around them over multiple visits.Scarpa took inspiration from flux of the adjacent canal, instead of blocking the flow of water, he allowed water to penetrate deep into the building, reminding visitors of water’s dominance in Venice’s daily life (Nickell 2016). This move emphasizes Scarpa’s respect for the natural elements by allowing water to flow into certain spaces instead of completely preventing water from entering the building, creating harmony with the building and considering water as a protagonist.invitation to floodFigure 3.6 - Stairs to Canal and Elevated Walkway that Allows Water to Flow Beneath66 67relationship with the waterlineThe entry bridge drops visitors below the building’s originally established ground line and brings visitors closer to the water below. Within the foyer is the raised walkway that leads visitors to the gallery space by descending steps, bringing the floor even further below the ground line outside. The floor is detailed for floods and the tiles wrap up the sides of the wall to define an imaginary waterline. By doing so, Scarpa indirectly places the visitor somewhere beneath the water, but it is unclear from within the space where below the water they stand. The gallery’s design anticipates water but the most unsettling part is the lack water and the lack of any reference to establish where that waterline actually lies. The grass outside in the courtyard is above this line. Water is absent, but its presence is felt throughout (Bardt 2007).Figure 3.7 - Gallery of Fondazione Querini Stampalia(Onniboni 2015)Image Removed for Copyright68 69leça swimming poolsÁlvaro Siza196670 71relationship with natureLocated in Porto, Portugal, the Leça Pools project was one of Siza’s first projects. Delicately placed within the natural landscape, the project is none other than site-specific. A fusion of man made and natural materials are carefully assembled into two sea-side pools built of the natural rock formations on site bordered with concrete walls. Due to a minimal budget and lack of topological survey information, Siza worked closely with the existing natural formations, resulting in minimal blasting and construction materials. The pool complex provides a close connection with the sea as the site is physically adjacent to the sea but separated from the town by a small cliff and coastal highway that is raised above the view of occupants in the pools. The building housing the change rooms and cafe is sunken down from the road, hidden from view from the highway. Upon descending the ramp parallel to the highway, the concrete walls rise and obscure the views of both the traffic on the highway behind and the panoramic ocean ahead. Along this path, visitors are left with an audible transition from traffic to ocean. They are not headed straight for the pool via the shortest distance, but along a long extended path down to the change rooms that serves to distort time as the occupant descends. After changing, occupants exit towards the panoramic view of the sea and the pools inset within the rocks. Only as they look back do they see the building emerge, set under the raised avenue above (Balters 2011).Figure 3.8 - Leça swimming pool blends naturally with the surrounding ocean and rock forms. (Balters 2011)Image Removed for Copyright72 73edge conditionThe kids pool is set back with a low bridge to encourage only children to pass below. The main adult pool is created between rock outcroppings, hovering just above the ocean that creates a visual link between the pool and the sea and seems to be set inside the Atlantic Ocean (Michler, 2011). The water levels of both the pool and the ocean seem to be equal, creating an intentional blurring between the ocean’s edge that leads to a feeling of expansiveness for the swimmer.Figure 3.9 - Leça swimming pool situated at the edge of the Atlantic ocean blurs the edge condition between land and sea. (Balters 2011)Image Removed for Copyright74 75therme valsPeter Zumthor199676 77therme valsLocated in a remote area in Switzerland over the only thermal spring in Graubunden Canton, this hotel and spa complex consists of 7 pools and 12 sweating stones with steam baths. The pools range from a 42°C fire pool to a 14°C ice pool. The project uses 1 main material, the local Valser Quartzite, which is used strategically for its thermal massing properties that store solar and geothermal heat during the day and slowly releases it throughout the night. In the design, Zumthor harmonized this material with water, light and shadow. Figure 3.10 - Therme Vals Floor Plan showing the 7 pools in gray. (Hauser, Zumthor and Binet 2007)Image Removed for Copyright78 79multi-sensorial atmosphereUsing water as a resource, the Therme Vals offers visitors a rewarding sensory experience. The creation of a unique atmosphere adds to the water’s calming nature. The unique atmospheres are reflective of the programs they serve. Zumthor describes the project through the water’s reflections   off the surface and on the walls, the shadows of the walls, the light on the water and the water on the stone (Karolina Zupan-Rupp 2009). Throughout the pools, different human senses are activated. smellThe flower pool activates the sense of smell. Flower petals are placed in this pool and acts as part of the water treatment. However, most of the fragrance doesn’t come from the water but from the small metal cover on the wall that filters in the smell of lavender into the air. (Hauser, Zumthor and Binet 2007)soundThe sound bath is a room measuring 2.6mx2.6m base with a 6m high ceiling. Sound is refracted at different angles from the irregular walls, with different frequencies amplified and as sound propagates upward to the ceiling a light singing, humming or ringing resounds. From this refraction, the sound of ones own voice may seem to belong to someone else. (Hauser, Zumthor and Binet 2007)touchWith the intention of mimicking varying climates, the differing temperatures of the pools stimulate the body’s sense of touch as the guests immerse into each pool. sightLight, both artificial and natural, comes from many sources including the walls, the windows and within the water. These light sources play on the surface of the water, and the textured and coloured walls creating brightness and shadows that contribute to serene, healing, and luminous atmospheres. The light brought into each room is dependent on the program being served. (Russell 2014)Figure 3.11 - Indoor bath with play of light and shadow to create a unique multi-sensory atmosphere (Vals n.d.)Image Removed for Copyright80 81chapter FOURWater: the ProtagonistInteractive Presentation Link: https://prezi.com/view/U6UFGbkHV81XZGfZGycz/If above is broken, use this: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/bmmesurqu65syxf/AAAXDxnQP-y7m4VXhUpnsd1fa?dl=082 83A few years ago, mom passed away and left me a box in her will. I finally had the courage to look through it today. Inside the box were some small trinkets and artifacts that seemed to have been sentimental throughout her life. Some of these seemed so old, they may have been passed along from my grandmother too. There were also a bunch of architectural drawings. My mother was trained as an architect after all. Maybe these were some of the drawings she had worked on or sketches of places that were significant to her.84 8586 87When I was a child, my grandma would tell me flood myths common among many cultures from Noah’s Ark in the Hebrew Bible, Gun-Yu in Chinese lore and Deucalion in Greek mythology. These were stories of fears against water and floods wiping out humanity since the beginning of history.88 8990 910m1m2m3m4m5m0m1m2m3m4m5m1.8m 5m4.3m0.1m8m10m00:0012:0006:0018:00Daily Tidal Fluctuation Monthly Tidal Fluctuation0m2m4m6mAnnual Tidal Fluctuation Future Tidal Fluctuation Annual Precipitation Patterns Annual Wind PatternsOctober  1, 2020December 16, 2020October 2020 Rainfall (mm)Annual Tide HeightStorm Surge SuperimposedCurrent Tide Height2m Sea Level Rise4m Sea Level Rise6m Sea Level Rise8m Sea Level RiseEquinoxSeptember 23EquinoxMarch 218mCurrent Water Level2m4m6mJANJULAPROCTJANWinter SolsticeDecember 22JULAPROCTSummer SolsticeJune 2112m30mm40mm50mm0mm10mm20mmJANJULAPROCTHours of Occurance210%20%NSEW 4 6 8 10 12 14 16MinAvgMax18 20Grandma would also tell me stories of the time in the 2020s when she was a child where rising sea levels and stronger storm events caused society to perceive water as uncontrollable, more severe than anticipated and something to be feared. The 2020s marked a shift in society’s relationship with the terrifying yet life-giving force of water.  Figure 4.1 - Tidal Fluctuations, Precipitation and Wind Patterns0m1m2m3m4m5m0m1m2m3m4m5m1.8m 5m4.3m0.1m8m10m00:0012:0006:0018:00Daily Tidal Fluctuation Monthly Tidal Fluctuation0m2m4m6mAnnual Tidal Fluctuation Future Tidal Fluctuation Annual Precipitation Patterns Annual Wind PatternsOctober  1, 2020December 16, 2020October 2020 Rainfall (mm)Annual Tide HeightStorm Surge SuperimposedCurrent Tide Height2m Sea Level Rise4m Sea Level Rise6m Sea Level Rise8m Sea Level RiseEquinoxSeptember 23EquinoxMarch 218mCurrent Water Level2m4m6mJANJULAPROCTJANWinter SolsticeDecember 22JULAPROCTSummer SolsticeJune 2112m30mm40mm50mm0mm10mm20mmJANJULAPROCTHours of Occurance210%20%NSEW 4 6 8 10 12 14 16MinAvgMax18 2092 936000-8000 BC Glaciers of last ice age disappears. Coast Salish First Nations inhabited the current Vancouver area. Arrival of Salmon, Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock and Cedar in Vancouver. 2000-3000 BCFirst European contact with Indigenous People.Land reclamation transforms landscape, extending into Burrard Inlet and False Creek for port and industrial uses. June 17921900Industrial sawmill and ports dominate the water’s edge, polluting the water 1920-1950to create land for the CN Railway’s 1917Construction of Seawall around Stanley Park.1917-1980Extension of seawall outside of Stanley Park to Kitsilano Beach. 1980 OnwardBurrard Bridge built to connect downtown Vancouver to Kitsilano.1932Crystal Pool Built located at the water's edge of English Bay at Sunset Beach at the foot of Nicola Street.1928Vancouver Aquatic Centre Built in its current location replaces Crystal Pool.1970Redevelopment team with public involvement to prioritize waterfront seawall. 1968Vancouver’s Seawall is now dominated by public recreational use including pedestrian and cycling trails and marinas. CurrentGrandma was fascinated with how cities are always changing all the time. As we walked along the Seawall of Vancouver’s False Creek, she would tell me about its history. From the creek’s transformation from natural to port and industrial uses, its infill to create more land, and eventual construction of the seawall for public use; the water’s edge was always changing. Figure 4.2 - Timeline History of Vancouver’s Seawall94 95She would also point out buildings that she used to frequent. One such building was once called the Vancouver Aquatic Centre located under the Burrard Bridge in Vancouver, Canada. Figure 4.3 - Site Location: Vancouver Aquatic Centre96 97The Vancouver Aquatic Centre had been built in 1974 to replace an older swimming pool called the Crystal Pool built in 1928.1970sImages sourced from City of Vancouver ArchivesFigure 4.4 - Various images of Vancouver Aquatic Centre under construction (1970s) (City of Vancouver Archives, 2020)Image Removed for Copyright98 99She told me stories of her first swim meet, of how ugly the building had looked from the outside yet there were still many great memories; especially on those spectacular summer days when the sun would shine through the skylights as she swam laps in the expansive interior of the building’s shell. 2020sFigure 4.5 - Various images of Vancouver Aquatic Centre in 2019 and 2020100 101102 103Inside mom’s box, are a stack of newspaper articles from the Vancouver Sun clipped to some architectural plans dated in the 2030s and 2040s, yellowing but still preserved quite well. These must have been passed down from grandma. Shortly after grandma graduated, they moved the Aquatic Centre (VAC) a few blocks east where they were able to provide more state of the art swim meet features. Attached to the article seems to be a set of architectural drawings including plans, sections, and details of the old Vancouver Aquatic Centre. THE VANCOUVER SUNTHE VANCOUVER SUN ENTERTAINMENT: JUSTIN BEIBER CONCERT POSTER >> E5SECTIONCompetitive swimming at VAC moved to new Granville Central PoolAfter 56 years, the Vancouver Aquatic Centre’s competitive swimming program has moved to the new Granville Central Pool located at Granville Street and Nelson Street. The new facility is located in the redevelopment that replaced the old Belmonth Hotel. This facility will include advanced state of the art swim meet features and spectator stands as the old VAC facility ages. The new pool features an olympic sized pool, underwater cameras... (continued on p3).  Relocation of competitive swimming program from Burrard to Granville. The climate around the world has been changing at a rate faster than anticipated and global warming trends observed since the mid-20th century show this is mainly caused by human expansion through the Greenhouse effect. NASA defines this as warming resulting from particulate matter in the atmosphere trapping heat that is radiating from the surface of the Earth to space. We are living in an age of global climate change that is triggered by excessive release of carbon in the form of CO2 into the atmosphere as a result of human activity. Climate change has resulted in rising concerns regarding warming temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, stronger weather events, and rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps Friday May 24, 2030Amidst rising temperatures and sea levels, BC Government looking into potential solutionsBy: Taylor EggertsonBy: Kate OsinFigure 4.6 -Newspaper article from 2030104 105Up UpDnCycling Seawall TrailPedestrian Seawall TrailAquabus DockGirls ChgrmBoys ChgrmUniversal ChgrmWeight RoomWhirlpoolSaunaEquip.First AidShowersShowersShowersJan.TerraceTerraceToddlers PoolMultipurposeStrgShowersPool Deck Pool Deck50 m Lap PoolDiving PoolLavsLavsLavsLavsLavsControlLG (F)LG(M)LaundryMens ChgrmWomensChgrmUpUpUpUpLower Level Plan20m0 105 15NMAY 3, 1974FRIMAY 3, 1974Up DnUpBeach AveDolphin Swim ClubKitchenetteMen’s WashroomOfficeSpectator SeatingPool BelowReception DeskDnWomen’sWashroomOfficeOfficeDnDn Dn Dn DnUpUpCycling Seawall TrailPedestrian Seawall TrailAquabus DockLower Level Plan20m0 105 15NFRIMAY 3, 1974MAY 3, 1974Figure 4.7 - Building Plans of existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre 1974012345678910111213Girls ChangeroomMain EntranceLavsSpectator SeatingPool DeckAquabus DockLower LevelGround LevelPedestrian Seawall Trail Cycling Seawall TrailDiving PoolLecture RoomLap PoolFRIMAY 3 197410m0 52.5 7.5East-West SectionFRIMAY 3 1974Lower LevelGround LevelSpectator SeatingTeaching Pool TerraceWeight Room TerraceParking LotBurrard Bridge8 Story Apartment Tower29 Story Apartment Tower32 Story Apartment TowerLap Pool10m0 52.5 7.5North-South SectionFRIMAY 3, 1974FRIMAY 3, 1974Figure 4.8 - Building Sections of existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre 1974106 107Figure 4.9 - Details of Existing Building Shell (City of Vancouver Archives, 2020)Image Removed for CopyrightImage Removed for CopyrightImage Removed for Copyright108 109A  news article  from 2046 describes a water polo match at the old site. The pool seems to have continued to operate for public recreational swimming as the pool equipment still functioned properly despite the limited maintenance. THE VANCOUVER SUNTHE VANCOUVER SUN ENTERTAINMENT: TOM HANKS STARS IN NEW IN NEW COMEDIC DRAMA >> E5SECTIONStinkrays takes water polo intramural finals against HarlequinsWith a 4-3 win over the Harlequins, the 2046 water polo intramurals was taken by the Stinkrays on Monday evening. The match was held at the old Vancouver Aquatic Centre which transitioned into a recreational low maintenance pool after the competitive swimming program was moved to an alternate facility in 2030. Since then, numerous recreational water activities have taken over the pool such as water polo, under water football, synchronized swimming, aquajogging, water basketball and water volleyball. Kevin Yenmer spoke with us after his team’s win stating “Although this was just an intramural competition, I wanted to thank all of our friends, family and coworkers that came out to our games to support us. It definitely made the season a lot more fun and we cannot wait to be back next year.” Stinkrays is a group of coworkers who had wanted to try something new last year. As most of them had been on their high school swim teams in the past, they decided to give water polo a try. For most of them, they had stopped competitive swimming once they moved onto focusing on their careers and families. Stinkrays score on the Harlequins in the last minute of the game.have been made to slow down this acceleration around the world. China has committed to a 30% reduction in overall Greenhouse Gas and Carbon emissions, but many feel that this is not  a strict enough target. Within Vancouver, all new developments are required to have net zero emissions but more needs to be done if we are to slow down the trend. Wednesday, January 3, 2046Rising temperatures 2x hotter than originally anticipated in 2020By: Max BonnimScientists and researchers from UBC looking at historical projections have found that temperatures in Vancouver were only expected to rise 4 degrees by 2050. However, we have seen more than double this amount. As temperatures rise, many areas in the region are no longer requiring heating in the winter. Instead, these buildings are able to rely on natural heating and the building’s insulation to keep them warm in the winter months. EffortsBy: Thomas UdirnFigure 4.10 -Newspaper article from 2046110 111Temperatures were 2x hotter than originally anticipated, and along with the concrete structure, skylights and pool allowed the building to function with limited heating needs. Girls ChangeroomLavsSpectator SeatingPool DeckDiving PoolLap Pool10m0 52.5 7.5East-West SectionTHURFEB 22 2046Figure 4.11 -Annotations on section of greenhouse effect within the building112 113An article from 2048 shows the interior of the swimming pool now featured exterior views out to False Creek. The building had previously not had any exterior windows to prevent glare to the competitive swimmers. THE VANCOUVER SUNTHE VANCOUVER SUN ENTERTAINMENT: MARVEL VS THE AVENGERS TOPS BOX OFFICE >> E3SECTIONVancouver Aquatic Centre now open from False Creek Seawall After a 3 month renovation, the Vancouver Aquatic Centre has reopened. The renovation was focused around the shell of the old aquatic centre. City of Vancouver engineer Jenny Poig reported that the sealant between the concrete panels making up the shell of the building had started to deterioriate on the southwest panels due to the more intense sun rays on that wall. The removed panels were Pedestrian access to the Vancouver Aquatic Centre now available from the Seawallinstead replaced with glass, allowing light and views out to the creek. Two new entrances have also been added where these new glass panels were installed, allowing for direct access from the seawall. When the aquatic centre was initially designed, the use of the pool as a competitive swimming facility drove the reasoning for the lack of exterior windows and only the provision of the rooftop skylight. As water levels around the world rise, Vancouver is not left out of the game. With waters having risen 3m compared to 2020 levels, we need to take on a different attitude towards solving this problem. It is time to explore creative solutions for how infrastructure and buildings by the water can be repurposed instead of demolished. The Friday July 17, 2048Water Levels Rise 3mBy: Samuel BigginsBy: Francis GremerFigure 4.12 -Newspaper article from 2048114 115012345678910111213Girls ChangeroomEntranceLavsSpectator SeatingPool DeckPedestrian Seawall Trail Cycling Seawall TrailDiving PoolLap Pool10m0 52.5 7.5East-West SectionFRIMAR 13 2048FRIMAR 13 2048Lower LevelGround LevelDue to deterioration of the sealant on the southwest side of the building from the sun, some of the concrete panels were removed and replaced with glass. This now allowed public access to the pool from the seawall. Figure 4.13 -Sketch over section of curtain wall replacementFigure 4.14 -Detail of curtain wall replacement116 117The last article dated in 2049 describes how skateboarders have taken over a portion of the seawall trail in front of the site. If you have walked by the old Vancouver Aquatic Centre recently, you may have noticed that the skateboarders have found a new site for their tricks. Although they have had a dedicated skatepark just metres away from the aquatic centre, lack of maintenance and flexibility there has led these boarders to look for alternatives. The concrete panels that were laid along the seawall trail were removed from the structure mid last year. Their original intent was to divert any water that may flow in from the creek during future storm surges from the entrance of the aquatic centre. Along with the use as a new play site for skateboarders, bypassers have also been found to sit/lay against the concrete panels and enjoy the view out to the mountains, the Burrard Bridge and Vanity Park across the creek. By: Christina YoungWEDSAPR 28 2049Vancouver Aquatic Centre  •  2049VANCOUVERFigure 4.15 - Newspaper Article from 2049Figure 4.16 -Postcard image of skateboarders in front of new Vancouver Aquatic Centre entrance118 119The removed concrete panels from the curtain wall renovation seemed to have been placed along the bicycle trail to divert False Creek’s storm surges from the entrance of the aquatic centre but skateboarders had found new uses for them when the tides are low.012345678910111213Girls ChangeroomEntranceEntranceLavsSpectator SeatingPool DeckPedestrian Seawall TrailDiving PoolLecture RoomLap Pool10m0 52.5 7.5East-West SectionLower LevelGround LevelTUESNOV 9, 2049TUESNOV 9, 2049012345678910111213Girls ChangeroomEntranceEntranceLavsSpectator SeatingPool DeckPedestrian Seawall TrailDiving PoolLecture RoomLap Pool10m0 52.5 7.5East-West SectionLower LevelGround LevelMAY 11, 2049TUESFigure 4.17 -Sketch over sections of concrete panel interventions - low vs high tide120 121122 123The stack from the 2070s includes a series of diary entries and drawings printed on “MiQ”, the paper of the 2070s. The first entry dated April 19th, 2070 spoke of how mom and Liz had been walking along the seawall under the Burrard Bridge when they saw lights shining through the glass slits on the side of the old aquatic centre and decided to check it out. The building seemed to have been transformed from the recreational pool that Grandma remembered. …        “”           ’“–”’’’’Figure 4.18 -April 19th, 2070 Diary Entry124 125Figure 4.19 -The Pit Boys Debut Show PosterAn attached poster and photo shows a concert by “The Pit Boys” being held in what is called “The Pit” where the most amazing voice was coming up from in-between the old diving towers. A ramp had been installed inside the Pit and people sat along it looking down at the band below. In the very centre was the lead singer with a black cap, a simple white t-shirt, black jeans, and red vans. Was this dad?Figure 4.20 -Polaroid image of The Pit as a performance space126 127There was also what seemed to be a Community Garden behind the pit but mom was too lovestruck and focused on the band in the pit that she didn’t pay much attention to it.Lower Level20m0 105 15East-West SectionEntranceEntrance FRIAPR 25, 2070Figure 4.21 -Sketch over section of The Pit and Community Garden interventions128 129In a second diary entry dated June 26th, she seemed to have returned to the old Vancouver Aquatic Centre during the day as she was interested in learning more about the community garden. She peeked into the pit to see kids playing down below, replacing the concert scene.  ’            Figure 4.22 -June 26th, 2070 Diary Entry130 131A volunteer assisted her with signing up and explained that the garden used to be the lap pool. After the mechanical equipment failed, it was drained and left vacant for many years. The volunteers lived in the nearby condos and were looking for a place to grow their own fruits and vegetables. So they pitched together and got truck loads of gardening soil brought to the empty lap pool. The skylights directly above the garden were removed as they deteriorated, allowing the garden to be naturally irrigated by the rain and pollinated by the wildlife.THURJUL 3, 2070Lower LevelParking LotBurrard Bridge8 Story Apartment Tower29 Story Apartment Tower32 Story Apartment Tower10m0 52.5 7.5North-South SectionFigure 4.23 - Sketch over section of Community Garden replacing old lap pool132 133Another entry on September 10th, Mom seemed to have been going back to the Pit regularly as her crush had not subsided. Her and Liz had finally found out his name is Brad, yup that’s dad alright. Liz told her to introduce herself to Brad after the next show since they are likely going to stop performing soon, at least for the year. The water levels were rising out in False Creek and there were already hints of the pit’s base starting to fill as groundwater seeps up through the cracked floors of the pit.’…’…’’’’Figure 4.24 - September 10th, 2070 Diary Entry134 135A final diary entry from December 26th was from mom and dad’s 1 month dating anniversary. Dad’s band had stopped by the end of September as the pit filled with water, but they decided to stop by for a visit. ’’… Figure 4.25 - December 26th, 2070 Diary Entry136 137Lower Level20m0 105 15East-West SectionEntranceEntrance FRIAPR 25, 2070MONMONDEC 29, 2070DEC 29, 2070The water level was almost halfway up from the base of the pit. Kids were playing in the water filled pit, some were even swimming in the calm lightly flowing water as opposed to the rough waters out in the Burrard Inlet. Figure 4.26 - Sketch over section of groundwater rising into the Pit allowing for swimmingFigure 4.27 -Polaroid image of kids playing and swimming in the Pit138 139TerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15TerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15TerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15Once the water levels subside in the Spring...Figure 4.28 - Series of Plans throughout the year showing the annual water fluctuations and resultant activities in the PitTerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15TerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15TerraceUpUpUpUpUp UpDnTerrace Deck DeckNLower Level Plan20m0 105 15...dad’s band would be back in the Pit performing. 140 141142 143There were also numerous undated but ephemeral objects in the box. Numerous sketches seemed to reveal potential interventions for the building...Figure 4.29 - Sketches of potential interventions to the Vancouver Aquatic Centre as water levels rise144 145...a few concrete models that tested these sketches and rising water patterns on the site...Figure 4.30 - Concrete models of existing building with rising water levels Figure 4.31 - Concrete models of potential landscape interventions and resultant impacts from rising water levels146 147...and photographs of the models being made.Figure 4.32 - Photographs of concrete models being made148 149150 151I think back at these artifacts in front of me. I never realized how important this site had been to my family. When I was a young child, I remember visiting the pit to watch dad’s band play and tending to our community garden plot. Grandma would join sometimes too before she passed. However, I no longer had the opportunity to bring my kids to the pit. By then, the water had risen high enough that the pit was never dry anymore. I’ve pulled up some holograms that I have found on “Portal” and added them to mom’s box. Figure 4.33 - Hologram images and videos taken from “Portal” in the 2100-2150s152 153DnTerraceTerraceDeck DeckCommunity GardenThe PitAquabus DockUpUpUp UpUpUpJAN 8, 2120Lower Level Plan20m0 105 15NMONJAN 8, 2120MONFigure 4.34 - Plan showing Aquabus dock moved to the terrace of the building as water rises (2120)EntranceThe PitCommunity GardenMONMONJAN 8, 2120JAN 8, 2120 East-West Section20m0 105 15012345678910111213Aquabus DockLower LevelAs False Creek’s water levels approached the old pool deck, the building’s walls were dismantled. Mom had been a part of that project and told me they were uncertain how it would hold up against salt water. The building now without its shell looked almost naked. Its remaining skeletons: the concrete diving towers, spectator stands and the steel truss. With the seawall trail flooded, the Aquabus dock took the opportunity to relocated inland to the building’s southwest terrace. Here, it could safely unload passengers right onto the pool deck. Figure 4.35 - Section showing building shell removal and new Aquabus dock as water rises (2120)154 155It wasn’t just this dock that was relocated, several others were shifted inland as well. I’ve included pamphlets highlighting these new locations. Figure 4.36 - Holographic Pamphlet showing new Aquabus Dock locations in 2120156 157Figure 4.37 - Animated Holographic Pamphlet showing new Aquabus Dock locations in 2120158 159At some point in the 2140s, the water had risen to above the deck level. One amazing aspect of the removal of the shell was the new viewpoint accessible by boat ...Figure 4.38 - Axonometric holograms of view towers accessible by boat...and was very popular on clear days for sunsets and yoga sessions. 160 161Figure 4.39 - Animated Axonometric holograms of view towers accessible by boat162 163DnThe Pit10m Board5m Board7.5m BoardUpUpUpUpDn UpDnLower Level Plan20m0 105 15NWEDSJUNE 15, 2140JUNE 15, 2140WEDSReaching the end of the board, you can peek over the edge to the landscape below. The entire deck was now flooded with water. I remember the pit that used to be there…that is still there. But you could barely make out the edge of it under the water from 10m high. Figure 4.40 - Plan of Aquabus access to view towers and flooded landscape below (2140)Diving TowerWEDSJUNE 15, 2140Looking out at the view of the setting sun behind the mountains, you sometimes hear a splash down below. There’s always someone who has the courage to jump off the platform into the pit. Figure 4.41 - Section of diving tower/view tower (2140)164 165Figure 4.42 - Plan of The Platform as Aquabus Dock and providing pedestrian access to view towers (2150)The Platform/Aquabus DockUpDnDn10m Lookout5m Lookout7.5m LookoutDnDnDnDnDn Dn Dn DnUp UpUpper Level Plan20m0 105 15NFRISEPT 25, 2150SEPT 25, 2150FRIThe Platform/ Aquabus DockFRIFRISEPT 25, 2150SEPT 25, 2150 East-West Section20m0 105 15012345678910111213 Ground Level EntranceYet even those moments were short-lived. By 2150, the water levels were much higher, almost reaching the spectator stands on certain days. A new floating platform had been constructed to allow pedestrian access to the viewing towers. I overheard the aquabus driver saying that the concrete panels from the building’s shell were placed on top of a layer of Styrofoam to create the floating platform. Guided by posts, the platform serves as the latest aquabus dock. A ramp connects the platform to the spectator stands to adjust for the water level fluctuations, while the platform also provides access to different levels of the diving tower over time.Figure 4.43 - Section of The Platform/Aquabus Dock and guiding posts166 167Steel Plate ConnectionBelow Concrete T PanelsEPS Foam Concrete T Panels from old building’s shellFigure 4.44 - Detail Axonometric of Platform Composition Figure 4.45 - Axonometric holograms of floating platform adjusting to varying water levels168 169Figure 4.46 - Animated axonometric holograms of floating platform adjusting to varying water levels170 171172 173Thinking back to the stories from grandma, the newspaper articles, artifacts and letters in mom’s box and my own lifetime of experiencing the site, I’ve seen the transformation of a building under siege from rising sea levels. Although the building as grandma had remembered it as a child no longer exists, its relationship with water has not disappeared. 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