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Revitalizing Annacis Island : A landscape approach to Canada’s first employment land Fang, Tian 2020-05

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REVITALIZING ANNACIS ISLAND:A Landscape Approach to Canada’s First Employment LandTian FangMaster of Landscape ArchitectureGraduate Project Part I & IIThe University of British ColumbiaFaculty Advisor: Cynthia GirlingGP I Supervisor: Kees LokmanGP II Supervisor: Susan HerringtonSubmitted in partial fulfilment for the Master of Landscape Architecture,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,The University of British ColumbiaRELEASE FORMLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureThe University of British Columbia Name: Tian FangUBC Student Number: Graduate Project Title: Revitalizing Annacis Island: A landscape approach to Canada’s first employment landIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements forthe Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia,I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference orstudy. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposesin accordance with copyright laws.Name    Signature    Date   iiiABSTRACTThis graduate project analyses and reconsiders the built environment, along with current social-environmental challenges and pressures on Annacis Island from a long-term perspective; through seeking alternatives and developing frameworks for future coastal industrial landscape with design solutions and implementations. The intent of this research aims to discover how landscape design and planning can contribute to the intensity of industrial development, sea level rises concerns, and improved working environment across the region.CONTENTS Abstract Contents Figures List1 Project Statement2 Literature Reviews2.1 Shrinking and Shifting of Employment Land2.2 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise to Coastal Industrial Development2.3 Eco-Industrial Park as One Possible Future Region Builder3 Design Strategies3.1 New Form of Industrial Development – Densifying and Intensifying Use of Industrial Land3.2 Flood-Risk Prevention and Strategies of Coastal and River Resilience3.3 Priorities for Industrial Land in the City4 Precedent Studies 4.1 Prologis Park Tokyo-Shinkiba4.2 Menomonee River Valley Community Park 4.3 Wusong Riverfront 5 Annacis Island5.1 Site Selection5.2 Background and History5.3 Main Facilities and Activities on Site5.4 Island Context0iiiiiv3710172123252931333537394143454749iii6 Site Proposal and Framework6.1 Island Interventions6.2 River Inlet Wetland Extension 6.3 Constructed Wetland and AISWWTP6.4 Riverfront and Water Boulevard7 Annacis Industrial Centre 7.1 Site Interventions7.2 Constructed Revetment and Campus7.3 Water Boulevard and Habitat Island7.4 Terraced Riverfront 8 References5759657381899197101107113ivFIGURES LISTFig. 1 Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975Fig. 2 RoRos at Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics (WWL) Terminal on Annacis IslandFig. 3 Timeline of North American Industrial DevelopmentFig. 4 Port of VancouverFig. 5 Olympic Village 1941Fig. 6 Olympic Village 2019Fig. 7 Developed and Vacant Industrial Lands by Sub-Region (ha), 2015Fig. 8 Developed Land Distribution by Sub-Region Fig. 9 Developed Land Distribution Consolidated Land Use Classification Fig. 10 Metro Vancouver Major Municipalities and Sensitive Ecosystem HotspotsFig. 11 Metro Vancouver Major Industrial FacilitiesFig. 12 Industrial Land Development Shifts in Metro VancouverFig. 13 Current Sea Level ConditionFig. 14 Future Sea Level Rise +2.1 m (7 ft) with Global Temperature Rise +1°CFig. 15 Future Sea Level Rise +4.7 m (15 ft) with Global Temperature Rise +2°CFig. 16 Rescue During 1948 FloodFig. 17 Fraser River Historic Flood Hydrographs Fig. 18 Aerial of Fraser River Flood 1948Fig. 19 2018 Kalundborg EIP System DiagramFig. 20 Typical Industrial Building Types in Metro VancouverFig. 21 Georgetown Crossroads Floor Plans013591111111111131415181818192020222628vFig. 22 Types of Industrial EcosystemsFig. 23 Green RoofFig. 24 Prologis Park Tokyo-ShinkibaFig. 25 Stormwater Treatment WetlandFig. 26 Airline YardsFig. 27 Menomonee Green Networks PlanFig. 28 Tree PlantingFig. 29 BikewayFig. 30 Waterfront Pedestrian PathwayFig. 31 Wusong Site PlansFig. 32 Annacis Island Site ContextFig. 33 Annacis Island Historical PhotosFig. 34 Annacis Island 2018Fig. 35 Main Facilities on Annacis IslandFig. 36 AISWWTP SignFig. 37 Dredging Pier on Fraser River, 1902Fig. 38 Existing Business Types and Industrial Practices with PhotosFig. 39 Existing Building Height with PhotosFig. 40 Existing Hardscape and Softscape with PhotosFig. 41 Impacted Area Under Global Temperature RisesFig. 42 Proposed Annacis Island Master Plan0323536373738393940404345464747484951535559viFIGURES LISTFig. 43 Annacis Island Interventions IFig. 44 Annacis Island Interventions IIFig. 45 Area A Site PhotosFig. 46 Area A Aerial ImageFig. 47 Area A Existing ConditionFig. 48 Area A Design Framework Phase 1Fig. 49 Area A Design Framework Phase 2Fig. 50 Area A Design Framework Phase 3Fig. 51 Area A Design Framework Phase 4Fig. 52 Area B Site PhotosFig. 53 Area B Aerial ImageFig. 54 Area B Existing ConditionFig. 55 Area B Design Framework Phase 1Fig. 56 Area B Design Framework Phase 2Fig. 57 Area B Design Framework Phase 3Fig. 58 Area B Design Framework Phase 4Fig. 59 Area C Site PhotosFig. 60 Area C Aerial ImageFig. 61 Area C Existing ConditionFig. 62 Area C Design Framework Phase 1Fig. 63 Area C Design Framework Phase 20616365676869707172737576777879808183848586viiFig. 64 Area C Design Framework Phase 3Fig. 65 Area C Design Framework Phase 4Fig. 66 Annacis Industrial Centre Enlargement PlanFig. 67 Annacis Industrial Centre Circulation RoutesFig. 68 Annacis Industrial Centre Building TypesFig. 69 Annacis Industrial Centre Green Space and Plant SelectionFig. 70 Long Section (AA’)Fig. 71 Constructed Revetment Waterfront Section (BB’)Fig. 72 Water Boulevard and Habitat Islands Section (CC’)Fig. 73 Planting Islands and Floating Vegetation BedsFig. 74 Wetland Boardwalk PerspectiveFig. 75 Terraced Riverfront Section (DD’)Fig. 76 Terraced Riverfront Site PlanFig. 77 Terraced Riverfront at Current Sea LevelFig. 78 Terraced Riverfront While Global Temperature Rises 1°CFig. 79 Terraced Riverfront While Global Temperature Rises 2°C08788919394959799101103105107109110111112viiiFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)Since the mid-18th century, the first industrial revolution occurred in Great Britain and rapidly followed by the rest of Europe. The industrialization has reshaped the manufacturing, consumption, work styles, and most importantly, the urban landscape, which profoundly changed across the North American regions over numerous periods in the past. In the present-day, many North American cities and suburbs have shown signs directly and indirectly from the impacts of deindustrialization and changing nature of the industry. Annacis Island and its surrounding landscapes in the Lower Mainland perfectly demonstrate the cycle of historical shifts and trends toward stratification delivered across the entire Metro Vancouver, which is one of the essential Canadian economic Project StatementFigure 2. RoRos at Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics (WWL) Terminal on Annacis Island (image: Port of Vancouver)3centers in terms of annual GDP growth and numbers of job provided, due to modern real estate perspective and social drivers of the fast-changing market. Previous mill sites and heavy polluting factories have been replaced across the region and rezoned into premium residential and multi-use commercial centers at most of the waterfront land. The shrinking space and aging infrastructure of light industrial and commercial business limited the growth and survival of this region, which also affects the port’s economy significantly. In 2011, about 23% (275,000) of the region’s jobs were accommodated on industrial lands. (Metro Vancouver, 2017) Due to the low industrial vacancy rate and policies made in the ’70s, densifying and intensifying of industrial land uses had been applied across the Metro area. The necessity in today’s society is not creating new industrial parks, but to revitalize the existing ones, providing balance and clarity to communities’ demands.While the global issues associated with climate change and extreme weather events affecting many communities, Annacis Island shows many potential risks in the complex social-ecological system. Nearly 600 million people (about 10 percent of the world’s population) live in coastal areas that are less than 10 meters above sea level. (United Nations, 2017) Impacts consideration and educational knowledge of landscape architecture are crucial between societies. Additionally, Annacis Island has many characteristics that offer it as a stepping-stone to connect the surrounding ecological hotspots and further growth of natural resiliency in the urban fabric.This project will be exploring and rethinking the built environment from a long-term perspective through seeking alternatives for the future and developing new forms and design strategies for coastal industrial landscapes through innovative design solutions and implementations on Annacis Island and its surrounding features. By introducing the new regional economic centre and reframe the definition of employment lands, in order to enhance and maintain the social and economic resiliency and public health awareness between all communities. Then, revisioning the industrial landscape while addressing approaches to sea level rise, climate change concerns, and social-environmental needs throughout this island simultaneously. 430%25%20%15%ORGANIZATIONSSOCIALECONOMIC/PROGRAM/EVENTSECOLOGICALgraduation project part 1 / larc 595assignment 03_timelineTian Fang First Industrial Revolution, Great Britain (till 1860’s)mechanization, steam power and weaving loom1760 1840Economy ChangesShifting from agriculture to large-scale cottage industries in weaving and textilesCanada’s First Industrial Revolutionfundamentally altered the human existences in North AmericaEconomic ActivitiesShifting from agriculture and natural resource extraction to manufacturing and servicesSocial ActivitiesShifting from rural cottage industries to urban industrial pursuitsEnd of MercantilismBritish North America (Canada) settles the early industrializationEarly Industrial LocationOntario, Quebec, Maritime Provinces, and East U. S.Second Industrial Revolution (till 1950’s)Mass automation, moving assembly line, large scale factories, and time management of workers1860ReshapingManufacturing, consumption, work, and urban landscape, which profoundly changed North America, especially the U. S.Industrial wage economics drew immigrants and other Canadians to cities, industrial activity was centered and urbanization was formedCanada ConfederationNational PolicyCreate and nurture industry in Canada, which will be levying tax up to 20% of imported goodsWorld War IWWI accelerated the entire path of Second Industrial Revolution“Report of the Royal Commission on the Relations of Labor and Capital in Canada”Working condition and wages are less than ideal, workplaces are dangerous, unsanitary, and cramped; industrial accidents and child labor.Winnipeg General StrikeLabor movement for working condition, environment, and bene—tsLabor movement, organized labor emerged to challenge the expolitation of working classLabor OrganizationBy trade, by industry, by region, by ideologyEconomy ShiftingThe growth of mass manufacturing reshaped work in North America, which placed the means of production in the hands of a small group of wealthiness.Industrial became the primary form of work in North AmericaThe Great DepressionCaused by a number of serious weaknesses in the economy. America's "Great Depression" began with the dramatic crash of the stock market on "Black Thursday"Majority of Canada’s population already became urban across the nation and regionsWWIIEnds the Great Depression Achieved full employment across Canada by the end of the war186718791889 1914-1918 1919 1920 1929 1939-1945Post Industrial AgeReaching the peak of industrial in Canada (cars, aircrafts, steel, chemical, and appliances)Annacis IslandSettled as one of the —rst Canada’s industrial parksDe-industrialization began to occur in North America, at the same time, nearly 30% of Canada’s working population was in industrial unionsComputing RevolutionDigital technologies have transformed the workplaceRobotic Process & ComputerizationManufacturing works become less segment; shifting the modern economy into service sectors (retail, banking, —nancing, and communications)Automation for greater dependence on technologies and worker ežciency; newly industrialized or re-industrialized countries in Europe and AsiaA signi—cant time in Canada’s economic discourse due to the global organizations and agreements that have been signedCanada-U. S. Free Trade North America Free Trade Agreement (1994)World Trade Organization (WTO)Agreement on Tarišs and TradeCity of Kalundborg, DenmarkOne of the early models of eco-industrial park in North American regionsEco-Industrial Development (EID)International community ožcially connected development co-op to sustainable environmental protectionRio Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil180 states, 27 principlesUnited Nation Conference on Environmental and Development (UNCED)Eco-Industrial Park (EIP)International community ožcially connected development co-op to sustainable environmental protectionEnvironmental Quality and Climate Changes ConcernsEconomic ZonesIndustrial Parks (IP)Special Economic Zones (SEZ)Eco-Industrial Parks (EIP)Technology Parks (TP)Innovation Districts (ID)United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)Consultants and professors from the US designed frameworks and introduce the concept of EIPUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)The members have thus adopted di£erent economic zones’ strategies tostrengthen their competitivenessEstablishment of ASEAN CommunityMore than 1,000 economic zones in theASEAN (893 industrial parks, 84 special economic zones, 2 eco-industrial parks, 25technology parks, and 1 innovation district)China’s Special Economic ZonesThe timeline is intended to investigate and research the North American industrial development through the history, and the shifting elements in social, economic, political, ecological perspective over the time between late 18th Century to present time. My graduate project was trying to focus on the existing pattern of North American (later will focus on the metro Vancouver’s suburbs) light industrial campuses and ožce land use and how these parcels —t in our society and the existing urban fabrics environmentally and ecologically, as well as social well-being and public health concerns in today. According to the research, I was able to understand some the general development in North America while the entire western world was under the in¦uence of Great Britain’s First Industrial Revolution. The basic form of work was shifting from farm-based agricultural subjects into the early stages of the industrial development, when North America quickly responded the revolution from Europe. Several highlights were captured between the —rst and second industrial revolution, which e£ected by Canada’s confederation, world wars, the great depression, and policy changes. At the same time, voices from the labor group and working-class were risen to reevaluating an ideal work condition in turns of health issues, wages, and facilities applied. Later several decades when the time Canada reached its peak in industrial development around 1950’s, new technology revolution of computerization reshaped the industrial world in North America, between the US and Canada, once again in order to achieve automation, innovation and productivity increase, that shifted the economy into service sectors. Newly industrialized or re-industrialized countries across Europe and Asia took over the market of product manufacturing, —rst in Japan, South Korea, Singapore, then China, and now in southeastern Asia. This movement basically explain most of the industrial development and conditions in today’s urban landscape and planning. At the beginning of 1990’s, new concept of eco-industrial development was mentioned in North America, which brought up the public awareness in topics like climate change, decreasing ecology, and public health issues. Most developing countries —rst and soon responded this with a series of design projects and development of ecological industrial parks to —t back to their city fabric. A variety of public services and infrastructures and technologies can be designed in many existing site to apply revitalization in the fabric.INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH AMERICA AND THE SHIFTING OF URBAN FABIRC 195019551960-19701970’s 1970’s1980’s 19891990’s 1992 2015TerminateAccelerateIn£uenceManufacturingFinance, insurance, real estate, rentalProfessional & business servicesIndustrial park bussiness corperate with local communities in sustainable development in information, materials, water, energy, infrasturectures, and natural resources1997Annacis Island Secondary WWTPFigure 3. Timeline of North American Industrial Development530%25%20%15%ORGANIZATIONSSOCIALECONOMIC/PROGRAM/EVENTSECOLOGICALgraduation project part 1 / larc 595assignment 03_timelineTian Fang First Industrial Revolution, Great Britain (till 1860’s)mechanization, steam power and weaving loom1760 1840Economy ChangesShifting from agriculture to large-scale cottage industries in weaving and textilesCanada’s First Industrial Revolutionfundamentally altered the human existences in North AmericaEconomic ActivitiesShifting from agriculture and natural resource extraction to manufacturing and servicesSocial ActivitiesShifting from rural cottage industries to urban industrial pursuitsEnd of MercantilismBritish North America (Canada) settles the early industrializationEarly Industrial LocationOntario, Quebec, Maritime Provinces, and East U. S.Second Industrial Revolution (till 1950’s)Mass automation, moving assembly line, large scale factories, and time management of workers1860ReshapingManufacturing, consumption, work, and urban landscape, which profoundly changed North America, especially the U. S.Industrial wage economics drew immigrants and other Canadians to cities, industrial activity was centered and urbanization was formedCanada ConfederationNational PolicyCreate and nurture industry in Canada, which will be levying tax up to 20% of imported goodsWorld War IWWI accelerated the entire path of Second Industrial Revolution“Report of the Royal Commission on the Relations of Labor and Capital in Canada”Working condition and wages are less than ideal, workplaces are dangerous, unsanitary, and cramped; industrial accidents and child labor.Winnipeg General StrikeLabor movement for working condition, environment, and bene—tsLabor movement, organized labor emerged to challenge the expolitation of working classLabor OrganizationBy trade, by industry, by region, by ideologyEconomy ShiftingThe growth of mass manufacturing reshaped work in North America, which placed the means of production in the hands of a small group of wealthiness.Industrial became the primary form of work in North AmericaThe Great DepressionCaused by a number of serious weaknesses in the economy. America's "Great Depression" began with the dramatic crash of the stock market on "Black Thursday"Majority of Canada’s population already became urban across the nation and regionsWWIIEnds the Great Depression Achieved full employment across Canada by the end of the war186718791889 1914-1918 1919 1920 1929 1939-1945Post Industrial AgeReaching the peak of industrial in Canada (cars, aircrafts, steel, chemical, and appliances)Annacis IslandSettled as one of the —rst Canada’s industrial parksDe-industrialization began to occur in North America, at the same time, nearly 30% of Canada’s working population was in industrial unionsComputing RevolutionDigital technologies have transformed the workplaceRobotic Process & ComputerizationManufacturing works become less segment; shifting the modern economy into service sectors (retail, banking, —nancing, and communications)Automation for greater dependence on technologies and worker ežciency; newly industrialized or re-industrialized countries in Europe and AsiaA signi—cant time in Canada’s economic discourse due to the global organizations and agreements that have been signedCanada-U. S. Free Trade North America Free Trade Agreement (1994)World Trade Organization (WTO)Agreement on Tarišs and TradeCity of Kalundborg, DenmarkOne of the early models of eco-industrial park in North American regionsEco-Industrial Development (EID)International community ožcially connected development co-op to sustainable environmental protectionRio Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil180 states, 27 principlesUnited Nation Conference on Environmental and Development (UNCED)Eco-Industrial Park (EIP)International community ožcially connected development co-op to sustainable environmental protectionEnvironmental Quality and Climate Changes ConcernsEconomic ZonesIndustrial Parks (IP)Special Economic Zones (SEZ)Eco-Industrial Parks (EIP)Technology Parks (TP)Innovation Districts (ID)United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)Consultants and professors from the US designed frameworks and introduce the concept of EIPUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)The members have thus adopted di£erent economic zones’ strategies tostrengthen their competitivenessEstablishment of ASEAN CommunityMore than 1,000 economic zones in theASEAN (893 industrial parks, 84 special economic zones, 2 eco-industrial parks, 25technology parks, and 1 innovation district)China’s Special Economic ZonesThe timeline is intended to investigate and research the North American industrial development through the history, and the shifting elements in social, economic, political, ecological perspective over the time between late 18th Century to present time. My graduate project was trying to focus on the existing pattern of North American (later will focus on the metro Vancouver’s suburbs) light industrial campuses and ožce land use and how these parcels —t in our society and the existing urban fabrics environmentally and ecologically, as well as social well-being and public health concerns in today. According to the research, I was able to understand some the general development in North America while the entire western world was under the in¦uence of Great Britain’s First Industrial Revolution. The basic form of work was shifting from farm-based agricultural subjects into the early stages of the industrial development, when North America quickly responded the revolution from Europe. Several highlights were captured between the —rst and second industrial revolution, which e£ected by Canada’s confederation, world wars, the great depression, and policy changes. At the same time, voices from the labor group and working-class were risen to reevaluating an ideal work condition in turns of health issues, wages, and facilities applied. Later several decades when the time Canada reached its peak in industrial development around 1950’s, new technology revolution of computerization reshaped the industrial world in North America, between the US and Canada, once again in order to achieve automation, innovation and productivity increase, that shifted the economy into service sectors. Newly industrialized or re-industrialized countries across Europe and Asia took over the market of product manufacturing, —rst in Japan, South Korea, Singapore, then China, and now in southeastern Asia. This movement basically explain most of the industrial development and conditions in today’s urban landscape and planning. At the beginning of 1990’s, new concept of eco-industrial development was mentioned in North America, which brought up the public awareness in topics like climate change, decreasing ecology, and public health issues. Most developing countries —rst and soon responded this with a series of design projects and development of ecological industrial parks to —t back to their city fabric. A variety of public services and infrastructures and technologies can be designed in many existing site to apply revitalization in the fabric.INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH AMERICA AND THE SHIFTING OF URBAN FABIRC 195019551960-19701970’s 1970’s1980’s 19891990’s 1992 2015TerminateAccelerateIn£uenceManufacturingFinance, insurance, real estate, rentalProfessional & business servicesIndustrial park bussiness corperate with local communities in sustainable development in information, materials, water, energy, infrasturectures, and natural resources1997Annacis Island Secondary WWTP6Literature ReviewsShrinking and Shifting of Employment LandClimate Change and Sea Level Rise to Coastal Industrial DevelopmentEco-Industrial Park as One Possible Future Region BuilderFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)78Figure 4. Port of Vancouver (image: Port of Vancouver)As an attractive and one of the most livable regions in the world, Metro Vancouver is currently one of the most essential metropolitan bodies and economic hotspots in Canada. The region also carries a significantly vibrant economy itself due to the unique geographical features in the country and major facilities which have been established over years, such as the fourth largest tonnage port in North America. Because of the diversity of Metro Vancouver’s economy, there are no dominant industries that drive the regional economy (Eric Vance & Associates, 2011). Many data and facts have shown the Metro Vancouver already became one of the nation’s fastest-growing economy and represented a successful model of transitioning between resource-based economy to the diverse knowledge-based economy across the entire region. According to the Conference Board of Canada, with a GDP growth rate of 4.5%, Vancouver brought its GDP up to 137 billion dollars in 2017, which also taken 7.5% of Canada’s overall economy (Arcand et al., 2018). A potential concern of the region’s economy has been raised across the whole Metro Vancouver in recent years due to the changing and shifting development of industrial and employment lands between different member of jurisdictions.The industrial properties and lands within the Metro Vancouver are homes for thousands of job positions in the communities. Of the 23 jurisdictions in the lower mainland of British Columbia, there are 16 have industrial lands and related practices. In early 2010, approximately 310,000 jobs, nearly a quarter of Metro Vancouver’s estimated 1,250,000 total employment was located within the industrial land inventory (Metro Vancouver, 2013). Without these lands, business and industries cannot grow or even get settled. Major industrial economy sectors in the region, including global trades, manufacturing, transportation, warehousing, and professional technical services, depend on these industrial lands to respond the continually increasing annual population growth in the Metro Vancouver. In addition, these lands are required to support a prosperous, growing regional economy and workforce, as well as trade and transportation functions that serve in Western Canada (Metro Vancouver, 2015). However, affected by movement of de-industrialization and transformed economic types, many industrial practices have disappeared and moved away from the center of the region.Shrinking and Shifting of Employment Land10Figure 5. Olympic Village 1941 (image: Vancouver Archives) Figure 6. Olympic Village 2019 (image: by author)Figure 7. Developed and Vacant Industrial Lands by Sub-Region (ha), 2015 (redrawnfrom the 2015 Industrial Lands Inventory, 16)Burnaby/New West050010001500200025003000Delta/TFNLanglysNorthShoreNortheastSectorRichmondRidge-MeadowsSurrey/White RockVancouver7613603261932836307857419171360 1360 1360 1360 1360 1360 1360 1360vacantdevelopedFigure 8. Developed Land Distribution by Sub-Region (redrawnfrom the 2015 Industrial Lands Inventory, 18)Figure 9. Developed Land Distribution Consolidated Land Use Classification (redrawnfrom the 2015 Industrial Lands Inventory, 18)building industrialland industrial lage-scale infrst. / tranpt.other commerical retailtrasportation-parking / other58%27%6%4%4% 1%7%19%4%16%13%4%8%14%15%VancouverSurrey/White RockNorthShoreNortheastSectorRidge-MeadowsRichmondLanglysDelta/TFNBurnaby/New West11Due to the unexpected increase in population over the last ten years, the rate of urbanization and residential development have increased across the entire Metro Vancouver, but the region is still now under pressure with high demand in residential land use and development. Heather McNell, the director of Regional Planning for Metro Vancouver, claims that many conversions of industrial lands and job bases in the region were noticed and caught their attention between different jurisdictions in the early 2000s. Begin at 2005, Metro Vancouver has conducted three major inventories of industrial lands in the region, in order to determine the situation and the trends of impact on the region’s economy, particularly the port economy. As a result, three key findings came up after the investigation. 1) The conversion is ongoing from industrial purposes to residential mixed-use, 2) growing use of industrial land for non-industrial land use purpose, and 3) stratification in some industrial land can displace more substantial industrial activities in the region. Between 2010 and 2015, there was a net reduction of 350 ha of industrial land in the region (Metro Vancouver, 2015), and approximately 3,000 ha of industrial land in the region has been redesignated for other uses such as residential and commercial in the last three decades (Port Metro Vancouver, 2014). While residential land gets all the headlines and attention in public, the shrinking and shifting of industrial lands have slowly reformed the Metro Vancouver’s urban fabric and kept adding pressure to the region’s future development growth, and reduce business opportunities between communities for the residents.According to current pressures from land use conversion, industrial land limitation, and the low vacancy rate within the Metro Vancouver region, it is necessary to protect and maintain the region’s industrial land supply in order to accommodate the future economic growth and employment needs. Limited site options and high land prices are challenges for industrial businesses wishing to expand or move into the region (Metro Vancouver, 2013). Supporting further actions to advance current industrial land, protection and potential of intensification will become the leading principles in design projects, which will drive the economy and sustain the communities under constrained land base.12Figure 10. Metro Vancouver Major Municipalities and Sensitive Ecosystem HotspotsUrban CentreLower Seymour Conservation ReserveSensitive EcosystemWatershedUrban ContainmentDELTARICHMONDSURREYBURNABYVANCOUVERCOQUITLAMNEW WESTMINSTERMAPLE RIDGELANGLEYNORTH VANCOUVERBURRARD INLETBOUNDARY BAYTSAWWASSEN520,000+71,000+233,000+634,000+199,000+103,000+800+26,000+83,000+140,000+142,000+Cypress Provincial ParkLSCRPinecone Burke Provincial ParkBelcarraRegional ParkBurnaby LakeRegional ParkPacific SpiritRegional ParkBurns BogSurrey BendRegional ParkStanleyPark13Figure 11. Metro Vancouver Major Industrial FacilitiesLiquid Waste FacilitySolid Waste Facility (Public)Solid Waste Facility (Private)Off-dock FacilityMarine TerminalIndustrial DevelopmentBurrard Inlet Port TerminalAnnacisIslandYVRAirportRobertsBankBURRARD INLETBOUNDARY BAY141968Industrial DevelopmentNearly 35% of Annacis Island was developedSmall amount of industrial land in suburbs, mainly in Vancouver, BurnabyIndustrial developmet mainly settle at waterfronts:Burrard Inlet, False Creek, Fraser River1123232011Industrial Development1234124Figure 12. Industrial Land Development Shifts in Metro Vancouver15Annacis Island was fully developedMajor shift of industrial land from cities to southern suburbsGrowing industrial development in suburbs Expanding development of waterfront industrial land:North and South Arm of Fraser River 2011Annacis Island was fully developedMajor shift of industrial land from cities to southern suburbsGrowing industrial development in suburbs Expanding development of waterfront industrial land:North and South Arm of Fraser River 2040Industrial Development Annacis Island remains industrial Industrial land will be concentrated in certain locationsDecreased number of small industrial landsFull growth of Fraser River South Arm industrial land, barrier between         ecological hotspots1234123416While the region of Metro Vancouver is facing the significant challenge and pressure from the shrinking and shifting industrial land, and limitation of space to pair with the fast-growing population and employment rates; a more challenging and influential pressure has been parallel within the lower mainland of British Columbia – climate change and sea level rise. The rising sea level is one of the most noticeable issues following by the global climate change. The public awareness and attention have been brought to the front-line in the whole human history. According to the United Nations, there are more than 600 million people, which is around 10% of the world’s population living in coastal areas that are less than 10 meters above the current sea level (United Nations, 2017), and almost all metropolises have settled with a “watery boundary”. Situated in the lower mainland, Metro Vancouver is sharing many similarities and characteristics as a region to the rest of the world. Most people think that climate change tends to be an abstract and distant problem, but many North American coastal cities and neighborhood communities already are impacted and suffered from multiple events in the past several years. When water pouring into the streets and underground infrastructures at a regular basis during the high tides, climate migration will become a reality to many societies. Sea level rise can push the average annual coastal floods higher, which will result in more and more frequent flooding events and other related potential risks to the coastal industrial lands across Metro Vancouver, also where almost half a million people are living in potentially flood-prone areas.In order to evaluate the vulnerability of the commercial and industrial properties, transportation networks in Metro Vancouver’s coastal industrial lands, and possible direct and indirect economic losses; two major scenarios of flood hazards were addressed in Fraser Basin Council’s report: 1) Coastal flooding due to high winter storms combined with high tides, and 2) Fraser River freshet flooding, which typically occurs in May to June during periods of high runoff generated from snow-melt and rainfall in the basin (Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, 2016).Climate Change and Sea Level Rise to Coastal Industrial Development17DELTARICHMONDBURNABYNEW WESTMINSTERNEW WESTMINSTERSURREY BOUNDARY BAYFRASER RIVERFRASER RIVERnDELTARICHMONDBURNABYNEW WESTMINSTERNEW WESTMINSTERSURREY BOUNDARY BAYFRASER RIVERFRASER RIVERnDELTARICHMONDBURNABYNEW WESTMINSTERNEW WESTMINSTERSURREY BOUNDARY BAYFRASER RIVERFRASER RIVERnFigure 15. Future Sea Level Rise +4.7 m (15 ft) with Global Temperature Rise +2°CFigure 13. Current Sea Level ConditionFigure 14. Future Sea Level Rise +2.1 m (7 ft) with Global Temperature Rise +1°C18Historically, these flooding hazard types were captured and recorded in the Lower Mainland. In December 1982, the ocean water volumes were increased significantly to its maximum due to the warmer and unusual ocean temperatures caused by the more extensive low-pressure system. Another notable event was the February 2006 Boundary Bay storm in Delta, which caused broader flooding events in the area, as well as following damages and debris deposition to the site (Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, 2016). Between the two adopted coastal flood scenarios of present and future conditions, the result shows a total loss of 5.3 billion dollars with only one-meter rise of ocean level, especially in building, infrastructure and institutional losses. Under the unexpected weather events, this will result in a higher incidence of flooding along with the coastal industrial lands in the future and affecting the proper industrial practices and infrastructures on site. The Fraser River is the largest river on the Canadian west coast, which draining through almost one-quarter of British Columbia. Sustained temperature increases from the global climate change and large precipitation events have caused in higher flow rates in the river. In 1894 and 1948, two major floods since the European settlement were recorded. Northwest Hydraulic Consultants estimated that these floods roughly correspond to return periods of 500 and 200 years respectively (Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, 2016). With the increased peak flow and sea level rise in the future, the two adopted Fraser River flood scenarios have showed a significant loss in built structures within the coastal floodplain, and dramatic influence to both local, provincial and federal governments’ economy with following reductions from industrial, business commercial operations and activities. Figure 16. Rescue During 1948 Flood (image: Vancouver Public Library)19Figure 18. Aerial of Fraser River Flood 1948 (image: Vancouver Archives)Water Level (m) GSC 876543214/28 5/8 5/18 5/28 6/7 6/17 6/27 7/7 7/17 7/2720021950197219481894Figure 17. Fraser River Historic Flood Hydrographs (redrawn from the 2016 Lower Mainlan Flood Management Strategy, 14)“An advanced industrial society offers a wealth of possibilities for an active popular participation in the control of the main institutions and in the reconstruction of social life.” Noam Chomsky, professor emeritus, Massachussets Insitute of TechnologyRegarding a series of potential pressures under global climate change concerns and limited land space for future development and extension, Metro Vancouver’s urban industries need to play an essential role in order to contribute and sustain the economic and environmental resilience between different communities and municipalities across the region.Since 1992,  after the concept of eco-industrial development (EID) was raised from the Rio Earth Summit, a series of new industrial activities and practices were associated with the new form of modern economy, which will not only maintain the current productivity but also bring the self-sufficiency to the communities and reconnect with its surrounding natural and built features. This new perspective states that industrial complexes should be designed to resemble the natural ecosystem as closely as possible (Heeres et al., 2004). Along with the sustainable strategies and implementations, eco-industrial parks (EIP) represent “communities of manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property, where members seek enhanced environmental, economic, and social performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues” (Lowe, 2001). As the result, these business communities shall benefit greater than the sum of individual performance through regular industrial models. The development of eco-industrial park has the capability in bringing definite advantages to the region, also significant potentials to support numerous economy activities and system development for the public across multiple fields, such as energy, transportation, health, education, and substantial environmental pressure relief.Eco-Industrial Park as One Possible Future Region Builder21In the early 1970s, Kalundborg in Denmark became a well-functioning example of an industrial ecosystem and eco-industrial network (Knight, 1990). Then, the public attention to eco-industrial park (EIP) development projects has grown across the entire world between countries and regions. This project was later becoming one of the earliest models for North American regions due to its adaptabilities in between different sustainability dimensions. Fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources were reduced to the minimum, and the use of clean and sustainable energy was stimulated widely. In the eco-industrial projects, businesses and practices are encouraged to interact with others and form networks of relationships in an attempt to mimic natural ecosystems (Leblanc et al., 2016). Because of the rapid economic growth and national development in the past 30 years, many developing countries in Asia soon adopted the concept and launched the framework and strategy for eco-industrial parks in many built projects. China was one of these countries that also released a National Eco-Industrial Parks Criteria in turns of guiding its future development and economic investment while facing the complex challenges and opportunities. Furthermore, a new international standard in industry ecology and eco-industrial development can be established as part of the movement. As one of the early pioneers, many North American regions and industrial land bases are now appeared with a disparity in eco-industrial project development, where these types of industrial development can be applied as a resilience indicator in the urban fabric. 22Figure 19. 2018 Kalundborg EIP System Diagram (image: Kalundborg Symbiosis)ArgoLake TissøGyprocEquinorInbiconBiogas plantNovo NordiskKalundborg UtilityNovo Nordisk & NovozymesLand Owner’s Association Kalundborg UtilityHeat pumpNovozymesNovozymesWastewater & BiogasØrstedEnergyWaterMaterialsDesign StrategiesNew Form of Industrial Development – Densifying and Intensifying Use of Industrial LandFlood-Risk Prevention and Strategies of Coastal and River ResiliencePriorities for Coastal Eco-Industrial ZonesFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)2324Under the ongoing pressures of shrinking and shifting patterns of industrial development in the Metro Vancouver region, many industrial businesses have shown desires in enlarging parcels of lands to support their industrial practice and maintain growth. The horizontal buildings and industrial facilities, along with ample space for vehicle parking, storage, and loading are commonly used in most recent industrial developments across the lower mainland. According to the case studies of industrial building by Metro Vancouver, the types of buildings vary by its geography; it appears that the higher intensity in use of buildings is commonly located within the region’s higher value lands. Additionally, businesses will typically acquire more land than they initially require, in order to accommodate potential future business expansions (Metro Vancouver, 2013). It is necessary and urgent to search the balance between potential increased industrial productivities and job position needs, as well as the increased density and regional economic growth. In the past years, global economy hotspots like Hong Kong and San Francisco already had many industrial buildings and spaces converted into mixed non-industrial uses, which resulted in significant loss of the vibrant forms from their local industry due to this condition, also the limited land supply with high real estate values in these regions. Based on CBRE’s market report, the rental rates of industrial lands and properties in Metro Vancouver have increased 16% during all seasons in 2018 (CBRE, 2019), and there is still more potential for industrial market rate to grow on the West Coast in the future. In order to protect industrial lands from the continuous encroachment of non-industrial shifts, there are multiple challenges and limitations followed by the development through industrial intensification and densification. For instance, the type of businesses and industrial practices can be very different from its location and other circumstances. The industrial sectors in practice are often able to form different levels of economy and employment in the region as well. Theoretically, a multi-level office or industrial building design allows accommodation between conventional industrial practice and light industrial or office uses located in different floor levels, which provide the opportunity for greater efficiencies in building space, business activities, and positions for New Form of Industrial Development – Densifying and Intensifying Use of Industrial Land25Figure 20. Typical Industrial Building Types in Metro Vancouver (image: Metro Vancouver)26increasing employment. Space for surface parking and loading can be moved to upper level parking zones, allowing more space for vegetation coverage and landscape designs at the ground level. But still, these vertical industrial buildings can cost up to three times as much to build as a conventional warehouse (Lewington, 2020).While facing new challenges in the modern industrial business and development, there are numerous successful examples and installations have been applied to regions in different countries globally. For many in Asia, such as Japan, China, Singapore, and Hong Kong, the rapidly growing economy and population within the limited land base, pushed developer’s innovations and investments in term of mixed-use and multi-story industrial projects for different economic sectors in local industry. Hong Kong has a 22-story industrial building in the urban centre, and Prologis has built 53 multi-story distribution centers in Asia, some as high as twelve stories (McLean, 2019). European cities have accommodated the multi-level industrial projects design with both environmental and sustainability concerns, as well as adopting modern facilities and equipment in the industrial practice. “How are we going to accommodate all these businesses in Metro Vancouver where has generally no land? The only way to do that is by going vertical.” claimed by Brent Sawchyn, the chief executive officer from PC Urban (Lewington, 2020).In general, encouraging industrial intensification and introducing multi-level and mixed-use building facilities as industrial development alternatives will lead to positive benefits for the region: supporting and maintaining a more stable economic growth, land use efficiency, improvement in employment position and work condition, also reduction of future industrial land consumption across the region. Metro Vancouver’s goals will be achieved with the site intensification permitted under the city zoning codes. New building typology allows more flexible spaces for desired shop services and recreational amenities to the local employees and other individuals that support the wellbeing both physically and mentally.2728Figure 21. Georgetown Crossroads Floor Plans (image: Prologis)Level Three: Maker’s Space - 180,255 sfLevel Two: Fulfillment - 170,331 sfLevel One: Fulfillment - 239,029 sf“Todd Shallat’s authoritative analysis of the early history of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Structures in the Stream: Water, Science, and the Rise of the US Army Corps of Engineers (1994), illustrates the ordering of the landscape and its waterways not merely as the result of physical structure but as part of an ongoing process of defining and shaping institutional structures. (Nordenson et al., 2018)” Since the 60s and 70s, most commonly applied flood protection infrastructures in the region were dikes along the river, developed by the Fraser River Flood Control Program. The area includes a total of 74 dikes, as managed by 35 diking authorities, that extend for over 500 km, comprising about half of the total length of dikes in British Columbia (Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, 2016). With increasing concerns about the sea level rise across the Metro Vancouver region, the transition from coastal flood control to regional floodplain management was adopted between different levels of government and the general public. Although It is important to understand the influences in the past about flood control and management, but under today’s social-economic pressures and the speed of climate change, these dikes will no longer meet the standards for more extensive sea level rise and future flooding events, as well as the fast eroding coast condition. “Reinforcing it would not only be very costly,” professor Lokman from the University of British Columbia (UBC) claims, “it would also not help to increase the city’s adaptive capacity (Lokman, 2016).”The waterfront industrial land condition in the region has its unique complexities and combinations of urban, structural, and natural infrastructures, such as building blocks, streets, barrier islands, beaches, and wetland riparian. According to a previous report, nearly 127 km of dikes in the Fraser River Delta are not built with sea level rise factored into the designs (Sea Level Rise Adaptation Primer, 2013), the responsibility has now laid on landscape Flood-Risk Prevention and Strategies of Coastal and River Resilience29architects, architects, and urban planners which will step into the situation and play an essential role in reconsidering and revitalizing the current built environment with more resilient methods and adaptations while facing multiple pressures for the future development. For many pilot design projects for floodplain management in the past, designers and planners successfully combined the ecological enhancement and use of natural systems to reduce the impact from climate change and potential risks on coastal area.Floodplains do not respect jurisdictional boundaries; therefore, coastal risk management must engage multiple partners (Nordenson et al., 2018). It is essential to understand the relationship between these regions, the surrounding water condition and hydrological features as part of the resilience in coastal land. Simply apply new infrastructural strategies might not be the best solution. Coastal resilience goes beyond accepting change; it actively encourages transformation, creating places that embody shared visions for the city, where citizens should be able to see, hear, and smell the water (Nordenson et al., 2018). In order to optimize the use and improve the quality of existing industrial lands along the Fraser River, climate change and sea level rise could be treated not as a potential risk, but as opportunity for re-envisioning a new pattern of work and lifestyle to the coastal industrial environment in Metro Vancouver. Moreover, a healthier, more vibrant and improved urban condition can be applied between the coastal communities, providing amenities and resources beyond only flood and sea level rise preventions.30As part of Canada’s Pacific Gateway, the growth between each business sector is expected for the next several decades in Metro Vancouver. In order to provide and implement a new framework of industrial practice and development to the existing industrial and business land bases across the region, effective planning and innovative design in these employment lands are crucial. While various land uses within the region – such as commercial, industrial, residential, and agricultural, are interdepended, they also compete with one another for the very land needed to sustain them (Port Metro Vancouver, 2014). Similar to many other developed countries, Canadian cities and regions continue to expand and consume its land at a fast pace, especially between suburban communities from the lower mainland in British Columbia. With more than one century of industrial development history in the past, Metro Vancouver had its most industrial practices settled along the Fraser River and other coastal fronts, where also home and resting area for millions of migration wildlife along the North American Pacific Flyway and other sensitive natural ecosystem. Nowadays, many of these areas are facing issues of over-consumption of resources, inadequate strategies for waste management, declining air quality, pressures on water supplies, and increasing concerns about the health consequences of contemporary living (Grant, 2006).Throughout the Metro Vancouver region, each municipal government have promoted the concept of livability in urban condition and the Livable Region Strategic Plan was first adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District Board of Directors in early 1996. Around the same time, the movement of new urbanism and topics related to industry ecology were developing around the world, which influenced on decision making when dealing with urban environmental issues across Canada, practically in regional industry development and planning.Industrial ecology is essentially about connectedness and interdependence, which focuses on identifying and quantifying flows of materials and energy, ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness in practice (Cote et al., 2006). There are two main types of ecosystems in industrial ecology (Type 1 and Type 2). The first type demonstrates a model of linear, traditional industrial system Priorities for Industrial Land in the City3132with less concerns of quantification for both input and output processes. Usually, this type of industrial ecosystems is not as effective as expected. The second type of model demonstrates a closed, interdepend system that allows exchange between multiple ecosystem components to maximize the efficiency under limited resources.With the second concept of industry ecology, coastal eco-industrial zones can be established across the whole Metro Vancouver’s industrial lands. The new industrial ecosystem type allows to protect the existing industrial land base, improve the quality and optimize the future industrial activities and water resources on site. From the regional economic perspective, it will guide the surrounding municipalities and urban communities to evaluate and respond the further trends and opportunities through industrial practices, ensuring recreational purpose and waterfront access to the general public, as well as future protection by reducing the industrial impacts to the near natural ecosystems.Figure 22. Types of Industrial EcosystemsUrban or Industrial EcosystemsEcosystemcomponentEcosystemcomponentEcosystemcomponentUnlimited ResourcesUnlimited WasteEnergy and LimitedResourcesLimited WasteType 1:Type 2:Precedent Studies Prologis Park Tokyo-Shinkiba     Koto-ku, JapanMenomonee River Valley Community Park   Milwaukee, WI, USAWusong Riverfront       Kunshan, ChinaFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)3334The first precedent study project is one of the many warehouses and industrial facilities owned by Prologis, a global leader in the development of industrial facilities, located in Tokyo’s waterfront industrial and economic development zones. This four-story building facility with a total span of 31,000 sqm was designed to suit Tokyo’s limited industrial land base and from the environmental perspective, especially in one of the world’s busiest economic hotspots and platforms. This project was also evaluated as one of the many CASBEE certified buildings across the coastal industrial and mixed-use commercial lands. Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) is a system for evaluating and rating the environmental performance of buildings, first adopted in 2001 and soon become an industry standard in Japan (Prologis, 2019). In order to design and improve the quality of future living and working conditions, as well as to limit resource consumptions and environmental loads from different industrial practices, innovative design and exploration have already taken place in many practices and developments.Prologis Park Tokyo-ShinkibaLocation: Koto-ku, JapanCompleted: 2007Size: 31,000 sqm (334,000 sf)Client: Prologis, Inc.Project Team: Obayashi CorporationFigure 23. Green Roof (image: Nippon Prologis REIT)35Figure 24. Prologis Park Tokyo-Shinkiba (image: Nippon Prologis REIT)As a successful example and practice of industrial land intensification, Prologis Park Tokyo-Shinkiba is designated with a series of sustainable features for its interior, as well as a green roof system on the upper level, which is functioning for urban heat island mitigations, also to cool down the building temperature for more efficient electrical energy demands. The building equipped with spiral ramps for vehicle traffic access and over 100 parking spaces are included for higher capacity comparing with the traditional one-story industrial buildings. Meanwhile, many cities in North America sought to improve and maximize a site’s potential, especially in industrial and business commercial practices, intensive use of industrial lands will allow more flexibility to the site, and support and maintain regional economic growth and development in the future.36The second precedent study is a former industrial yard and developed on the wetland marsh from Menomonee River Valley in the late 19th century. The City of Milwaukee has a deep industrial history in both commercial, manufacturing, and railway metropolis of the American Midwest; soon the 140-acre site attracted a series of industrial settlements. After over 100 years of industrial contamination and the movement of deindustrialization in North America, the site was left behind and suffered a substantial industrial decline and inactivity to the region.In order to provide a more accessible and ecologically diverse industrial river valley to the urban fabric, the revitalization and redevelopment are now reestablishing a job-rich and more sustainable industrial center to the adjacent communities. The irreversibly altered land and hydrologic conditions were transformed into a mosaic of bio-diverse landscapes with numerous open spaces, parks, and trails (ASLA Professional Awards, 2011). Menomonee River Valley Community ParkLocation: Milwaukee, WI, USACompleted: 2012Size: 56 ha (140 ac)Client: City of Milwaukee, and Menomonee Valley Partners, Inc.Project Team: Wenk AssociatesFigure 25. Stormwater Treatment Wetland (image: Wenk Associates) Figure 26. Airline Yards (image: Wenk Associates)37Native vegetation was introduced back to the stormwater treatment areas of the community park; also the new development is associated with multiple landscape typologies and major ecosystems within the region. A more vibrant industrial and commercial work environment maximizes and supports public engagements between employees and residents from communities nearby, which also presenting more excellent sustainability through social, ecological, and economic perspectives.Key goals and objectives as following:1) ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION,2) LEARNING,3) INTRINSIC VALUE OF NATURE,4) WILDNESS,5) DELIGHT.Figure 27. Menomonee Green Networks Plan (image: Wenk Associates)38The third precedent study represented a successful synergy between environment and development through building the project upon a major Chinese water transportation corridor of the Northern Yangtze River Delta. Geographically, Wusong River has many advantages for industrial uses and development on its waterfront as part of economic chain to metropolitan Shanghai. Business growth in recent year attracts large group of industrial and commercial settlements and increased population in surrounding communities. In order to improve and restore the previous environmental degradation, a highly detailed infrastructure systems were integrated along the river with treatment wetlands, inner bay business industrial campus, and recreational waterfront space. Wusong Riverfront was also served as a model for landscape architectural infrastructure supporting wild-life habitat, public education, spatial values, and economic growth across the hydrological network, that is flexible to accommodate both flood and drought conditions, (ASLA Professional Wusong RiverfrontLocation: Kunshan, ChinaCompleted: 2012Size: 95 ha (235 ac)Client: Kunshan Huaqiao Economical Development Project Team: SWA GroupFigure 28. Tree Planting (image: SWA Group) Figure 29. Bikeway (image: SWA Group)39Awards, 2012). By introducing each complex new system to the site, the project provides opportunities not only reconnecting the residents and the river with diverse outdoor microclimate and eco-friendly amenities but also layers of experience and sense of belonging to the site. Figure 30. Waterfront Pedestrian Pathway (image: SWA Group)Figure 31. Wusong Site Plans (image: Hui-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, and Mandana Parvinian)40Annacis IslandSite SelectionBackground and HistoryMain Facilities and Activities on SiteIsland ContextFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)4142Figure 32. Annacis Island Site Context43NEWTONWHALLEYQUEENSBOROUGHMETROTOWNNEW WESTMINSTERRICHMONDDELTA & TSAWWASSENBOUNDARY BAYFRASER RIVERFRASER RIVERDON IS.LION IS.POPLAR IS. BURNS BOGnNEWTONWHALLEYQUEENSBOROUGHMETROTOWNNEW WESTMINSTERRICHMONDDELTA & TSAWWASSENBOUNDARY BAYFRASER RIVERFRASER RIVERDON IS.LION IS.POPLAR IS. BURNS BOGnSite SelectionThe proposed site, Annaics Island, is located in the industrial zone of Delta, British Columbia, and on the south arm of the Fraser River with three nearby habitat islands. Annacis island is adjacent with Queensborough community of New Westminster on the north and City of Delta on the south, connecting both riverbanks through the highway BC-91 and Alex Fraser Bridge.44Background and History Annacis Island, the name is originally derived from Annance’s Island, after François Noel Annance, a former Hudson’s Bay Company clerk in the early 19th century (Akrigg, 2009). Annacis is a unique place for its surrounding communities, which appears as a working destination in the modern urban life. Within less than 25 km away from the center of Vancouver, the island is adjacent to four major municipalities in the Metro Vancouver, also located directly on the South Arm of the Fraser River. Due to the shrinking and shifting industrial development and land base in Vancouver, the riverfront of the Lower Mainland Delta became a thriving community that offers a compelling opportunity to manage and maintain industrial growth and practice, in order to support western Canada’s competitiveness and trade objectives in its economy from the past half-century.Before Development 19551959 1962Figure 33. Annacis Island Historical Photos (images: Richmond Archives)45Area located in the northern Delta was changed dramatically as part of the industrial estates development after World War II. The first large scale industrial development was announced in 1953 (Luxton, 2002). Because of the deep layer of clay under the whole island, it was soon been conducted and determined with nearly 500 usable hectares which are suitable for industrial development. Annacis Island was to be Canada’s first true industrial estate, dedicated specifically to manufacturing and warehouse, then the opening ceremony was held on July 22, 1955 (Luxton, 2002). While the suburban area in Delta offers an outstanding quality of resources from its sceneries, wide opening spaces, convenient accesses to the water bodies, and mild climate, this Delta island was rapidly growing into one of the top four business parks in Metro Vancouver region. Following with several zoning expansions and development, Annacis was planned with extended road and railway networks to improved industrial activities and accesses. Nowadays, over 400 companies and business institutions decided to base themselves on this site, with more than 10,000 employment positions provided (Delta Chamber of Commerce, 2019).Figure 34. Annacis Island 2018 (image: Javad Banani)46Main Facilities and Activities on SiteWallenius Wihelmsen Logistics (WWL)As one of the port facilities and terminals in the Metro Vancouver, Wallenius Wihelmsen Logistic (WWL) specializes in the automobile industry of trading and vehicle services. The facility is located in the northeastern end of Annacis Island in Delta and facing directly to the Fraser Surrey Docks on the other side of the riverbank in Surrey. As the most efficient Gateway for vehicle transshipment from Asia that are designed for Canada, Port Metro Vancouver handles approximately 400,000 vehicles annually between China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore (Port Metro Vancouver, 2014).Annacis Island Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant (AISWWTP)This wastewater treatment plant was commissioned on Annacis Island, Delta in 1997 and has provided secondary treatment to the Fraser River Valley since then. This existing treatment plant on site is now one of five wastewater treatment facilities owned and operated by Metro Vancouver across the region, and one of three treatment plants along the south arm of Fraser River. The Annacis Island wastewater treatment plant is capable of treating approximately 175 billion liters of wastewater from over 1 million residents between 14 municipalities of Metro Vancouver annually before discharging into the Fraser River (Metro Vancouver, 2018). In order to ensure and maintain the protection for the local public health and environment under the dramatic number in population growth and climate change concerns, there are several upgrades have been applied to this treatment plant in recent years.Figure 36. AISWWTP Sign (images: by author)Figure 35. Main Facilities on Annacis Island47Fraser River Maintenance Dredging ProgramDue to the continuous water run-off from the Fraser River, the silt and other sediments in the river water have been carried and deposited to the Lower Mainland Delta from the upstream between May and July annually. In order to provide and secure safe navigation and applicable water depth for the Port of Vancouver, dredging practices and relocating the sediments are often required from the Fraser River seabed near Annacis Island. Without dredging, the lower reaches of the river bottom would rise and therefore require higher dikes for flood protection (Port of Vancouver, 2017).Figure 37. Dredging Pier on Fraser River, 1902 (images: Royal BC Museum Archives)48Figure 38. Existing Business Types and Industrial Practices with Photos (images: by author)Island Context - Existing Business Types and Industrial PracticesThere are four major business types and industrial practices across the island beside WWL and AISWWTP. Annacis Island shows a clear pattern of the business types where the west end are mainly industrial suppliers and mixed-use offices with smaller building footprints, and manufacturers and services providers are usually located on the east end with larger facilities.49S O M SP50Figure 39. Existing Building Height with Photos (images: by author)Island Context - Existing Building HeightSimilar to many other industrial and business commercial sites in Metro Vancouver, the majority of building facilities on Annacis Island are low in floor levels due to the business types and their industrial practices. Many is constructed with one to two floors, and only several can reach three.51WT 1 1-2 2-352Figure 40. Existing Hardscape and Softscape with Photos (images: by author)Island Context - Existing Hardscape and SoftscapeBecause of the limited green spaces and larger footprint of existing building and traffic network, the hardscape and softscape coverage on the island are unbalanced. As result, Annacis Island is vehicle orientated, unsafe for pedestrian use, and with almost no outdoor space for the workers.53GPLB54Figure 41. Impacted Area Under Global Temperature RisesIsland Context - Impacted Area Under Global Temperature RisesAccording to Climate Central’s sea level rise prediction and analysis, Annacis Island and its surrounding landscape show strong vulnerability when facing global temperature rise. With average elevation only four to five meters above current sea level, the impacted area can reach out the entire island from shoreline to island center, including many major industrial facilities.55*Sea Level Tools and Analysis by Climate Central56Site Proposal and Framework Island InterventionsRiver Inlet Wetland ExtensionConstructed Wetland and AISWWTPRiverfront and Water BoulevardFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)5758Figure 42. Proposed Annacis Island Master PlanIsland InterventionsThe main interventions cover the shoreline and habitat increasement across the entire Annacis Island, flood resiliency and prevention with improved stormwater management on site in the future, improved pedestrian and cycling routes, and increasing the intensity of industrial development to free up land for potential greenspaces that allows workers and visitors to relax and recreate. 5960EXISTING CONDITIONISLAND CONTEXT & FOCUS AREAS River Inlet Wetland Extension  Constructed Wetland and AISWWTP Riverfront and Water BoulevardCIRCULATIONS & ACCESSESAISWWTP UpgradeBUILDINGS & FACILITIESMulti-Story Building Elevated Building Solar EnergyWater Boulevard Absorbent Streetscape Pedestrian Bridge Increase Biking RouteWaterfront AccessMulti-FunctionalABC+++PABCFigure 43. Annacis Island Interventions I61PROPOSED CONDITIONISLAND CONTEXT & FOCUS AREAS River Inlet Wetland Extension  Constructed Wetland and AISWWTP Riverfront and Water BoulevardCIRCULATIONS & ACCESSESAISWWTP UpgradeBUILDINGS & FACILITIESMulti-Story Building Elevated Building Solar EnergyWater Boulevard Absorbent Streetscape Pedestrian Bridge Increase Biking RouteWaterfront AccessMulti-FunctionalABC+++PABCPROPOSED CONDITION62SHORELINE EDGE CONDITIONSNATURAL CONSERVATIONSGREEN SPACESWater Boulevard Lifted Revetment Terraced Riverfront Shoreline RestorationExpand Existings Native Species ConnectivityNatural Living ShorelineShoreline Restoration Habitats Island Floodable Park Constructed Wetland Green Roof & CourtyardStepping-StoneHabitat IslandBC-NFigure 44. Annacis Island Interventions IIEXISTING CONDITION63PROPOSED CONDITIONSHORELINE EDGE CONDITIONSNATURAL CONSERVATIONSGREEN SPACESWater Boulevard Lifted Revetment Terraced Riverfront Shoreline RestorationExpand Existings Native Species ConnectivityNatural Living ShorelineShoreline Restoration Habitats Island Floodable Park Constructed Wetland Green Roof & CourtyardStepping-StoneHabitat IslandBC-NPROPOSED CONDITION64River Inlet Wetland Extension - Area AThe waterfront area along Annacis Channel will be redeveloped as the extension of current habitat conservation to support social and ecological benefits with improved edge conditions, constructed islands, and proposed connections to the neighborhood in New Westminster. Elevated multi-story building types will be introduced to maintain different levels of industrial practice in the future sea level rise and flooding events.Major Facilities:- Wallenius Wihelmesen Logistics Major Industrial Practices:- Supplier- Service ProviderOwnership:- Private- City/Public- FederalUsage of Outdoor Space:- Driveway- Railway Track- Parking Lot- Truck Loading Yard- Bus Stop- Street Trees- Waterfront Vegetation Barrier- Stormwater Canal- Smoking Stand A65Figure 45. Area A Site Photos (image: by author)AERIAL IMAGEAFigure 46. Area A Aerial Image671234512345Wallenius Wihelmesen Logistics - Federal ownedHabitat conservation - City ownedAudley Boulevard - City ownedWaterfront vegetation barrier - City ownedIndustrial buildings and facilities - Private ownedEXISTING CONDITIONFigure 47. Area A Existing Condition681234Area within the 100 m setback from the waterfront will be rezoned to habitat wetland extensionArea behind the 100 m setback will be rezoned with new waterfront industrial building typologies1234PHASE 1: Proposed InterventionFederal owned land remains with the current industrial practicesThe rest of the area and facilities will continue with the industrial practice while the new developmentFigure 48. Area A Design Framework Phase 16912341234PHASE 2: Reforming LandscapeNew waterfront edge condition to create space and redirect hydrological pattern within the river inletFilled ground surface condition for future buildings and facilities development Constructed islands in the wetland habitat extension zone with filled material from (1) extractionProposed new connections to between Annacis Island and the New Westminster neighborhoodFigure 49. Area A Design Framework Phase 2701234123455PHASE 3: Densification and IntensificationSlower water flows in the wetland extension zone allowing less soil erosion and create potential freshwater life habitatsRemaining facilities will be rezoned with future development after the waterfront facilities completedIntensified multi-stories and multi-functional office and warehouse building types with elevated designNew connections between the constructed islands as part of the new circulation and social experience  Introducing vegetation along the waterfront edges as banks stabilization; use as potential habitat hot spotsFigure 50. Area A Design Framework Phase 3711234512345PHASE 4: Growth and MonitorFull growth of the new waterfront conservation zone and constructed island within the wetland extensionIntroduce the new pedestrian only circulation between the industrial land and the neighborhoodIntroduce green roofs to the new building types allowing storm water management on siteIntensified multi-stories and multi-functional office and warehouse building types with green spacesUtilizing the public open spaces into transformative urban parks and performative landscapesFigure 51. Area A Design Framework Phase 472Constructed Wetland and AISWWTP - Area BAdjacent to Annacis Highway, the regional owned wastewater treatment plant is currently in its upgrade program. Once completed in late 2021 with increased wastewater treatment capacity, a new constructed wetland will be introduced in the north, allowing processed water to be filtered naturally before the final discharge. Existing building facilities with large construction footprint will be equipped with solar panels for on-site energy saving management.Major Facilities:- Annacis Island Secondary Wastewater Treatment PlantMajor Industrial Practices:- Supplier- Mixed Use Corporation OfficeOwnership:- Private- City/Public- Regional- Provincial Usage of Outdoor Space:- Driveway/Highway- Railway Track- Parking Lot- Truck Loading Yard- Bus Stop - Street Trees- Waterfront Vegetation Barrier- Lagoon- Fast Food Outdoor DiningB73Figure 52. Area B Site Photos (image: by author)AERIAL IMAGEBFigure 53. Area B Aerial Image751234Annacis Island Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant (AISWWTP) - Region ownedAnnacis Island tracks and lagoon - City ownedAnnacis hwy (BC-91) - Province owned Waterfront vegetation barriers - City owned5 Industrial buildings and facilities - Private owned12345EXISTING CONDITIONFigure 54. Area B Existing Condition7612345132 54PHASE 1: Proposed InterventionArea within the 100 m setback from the waterfront and highway will be rezoned to constructed wetlandArea behind the 100 m setback will be rezoned with new waterfront industrial building typologiesSpace between the BC-91 ramps will be designed into retention basins and potential wetlandsFederal owned land remains with the current industrial practices and water treatmentThe rest of the area and facilities will continue with the industrial practice during the new development Figure 55. Area B Design Framework Phase 1771234PHASE 2: Reforming Landscape1234Ongoing water treatment facilities upgrades by the end of August 2021, increasing treatment capacityProposed outfall/discharge pipe for the increased volume of treatment which leads into the constructed wetlandConstructed wetlands that collect the chemical treated wastewater and filter through the natural process before discharging back to the Fraser RiverGreen space extension allows stormwater collecting from nearby building and streets, filtered with planted vegetationFigure 56. Area B Design Framework Phase 27854312PHASE 3: Densification and Intensification12345Introducing vegetation along the constructed wetland, provide potential habitat hot spots Intensified multi-stories and multi-functional office and warehouse building types with open green spaceRemaining facilities will be rezoned for future development after the waterfront facilities completedExisting facilities and warehouses with large building footprint will be installed with solar panels on the roof for renewable energy sourcesExtended green space functions as barriers from the wastewater treatment plantFigure 57. Area B Design Framework Phase 3791243PHASE 4: Growth and Monitor1234Intensified multi-stories and multi-functional office and warehouse building types with green spaceIntroduce green roofs to the new building types allowing storm water management on siteFull growth of the constructed wetland and retention basins; allowing higher ecological valuesUtilizing the public open spaces into transformative urban parks and performative landscapeFigure 58. Area B Design Framework Phase 480Riverfront and Water Boulevard - Area CWest end of Annacis Island has the highest density in building facilities and employment. The unbalanced low softscape coverage and limited outdoor programs can cause potential flooding with fast moving stormwater on the ground surface. A proposed water boulevard allows more effective stormwater management, also provides habitat connectivity and wildlife migration for surrounding ecosystem hotspots.Major Facilities:- Annacis Research Centre- Annacis Island Secondary Wastewater Treatment PlantMajor Industrial Practices:- Supplier- Mixed Use Corporation Office- Service ProviderOwnership:- Private- City/Public- RegionalUsage of Outdoor Space:- Driveway- Railway Track- Parking Lot- Truck Loading Yard- Storage Yard- Bus Stop - Street Trees- Waterfront Vegetation Barrier- Limited Access Beach- Food Truck DiningC81Figure 59. Area C Site Photos (image: by author)AERIAL IMAGECFigure 60. Area C Aerial Image8312345Annacis Research Centre - City ownedAnnacis Island Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant (AISWWTP) - Region ownedLimited access public beach - City ownedWaterfront vegetation barrier - City ownedIndustrial buildings and facilities - Private owned12453EXISTING CONDITIONFigure 61. Area C Existing Condition8413542PHASE 1: Proposed Intervention12345Area within the 100 m setback from the waterfront will be rezoned and allow direct public accessesArea within the 100 m setback from the west of Eaton Way will be rezoned to water retention boulevardBuildings with less footprint will be rezoned to public green space developmentMinimize the use of ground storages and open stocking yards on siteThe rest of the area and facilities will continue with the industrial practice while the new developmentFigure 62. Area C Design Framework Phase 1851423PHASE 2: Reforming Landscape1234Water boulevard provides rainwater treatment and retention in flood prevention and extreme storm events; new connections will be created along itUtilizing the public open spaces into transformative urban parks and performative landscapeOpen access to the waterfront allows various categorizes of user to experience the site as a shared urban spaceIntroduce more vegetation on island’s waterfront that stabilize and prevent soil erosionFigure 63. Area C Design Framework Phase 28612543PHASE 3: Densification and Intensification12345Habitat islands will be introduced to the waterfront and the water boulevard allowing vegetation growth Remaining facilities will be rezoned with future development after the water boulevard completedIntensified multi-stories and multi-functional office and warehouse building types with elevated designExisting facilities and warehouses with large building footprint will be installed with solar panels on the roof for renewable energy sources Purposed large scale of open public space can be design to floodable park that reduce the risk impactsFigure 64. Area C Design Framework Phase 3871234PHASE 4: Growth and Monitor1234Flooding proofing edge with vegetation planted as living shoreline, also allowing more space for public accessUtilizing the public open spaces into transformative urban parks and performative landscapeFull growth of the floodable park and other utilized public green space and urban plaza for social eventsWater retention boulevard can function as a stepping stone, provides a natural habitat corridor for Burns Bog and other ecological hot spotsFigure 65. Area C Design Framework Phase 488Annacis Industrial CentreSite InterventionsConstructed Revetment and CampusWater Boulevard and Habitat IslandTerraced RiverfrontFigure 1. Annacis Island Site Plan and Study Corridor 1975 (image: CBA Engineering Ltd)89900 50 150DBB’Site InterventionsLocated adjacent to the South Arm of the Fraser River, Annacis Industrial Centre represents the collaboration between urban development planning and landscape design. The enlarged site plan integrates with revitalized riverfront edge condition, improved stormwater management, and naturalized wildlife habitat in wetland and water boulevard canal. Multiple parklands and greenspaces were introduced across the site for local worker and visitor access, as part of the comprehensive development along with innovative form of industrial facility designs and network of public circulations.Figure 66. Annacis Industrial Centre Enlargement Plan91150Figure 66. Annacis Industrial Centre Enlargement PlanD’AA’CC’++0 50 150Driveway Bike Lane Pedestrian Pathway Railway Water TrafficDerwent WayEaton Way EDerwent WayCliveden AveCliveden AveHampstead CloseEaton Way WWater BoulevardFraser RiverEaton Way EFigure 67. Annacis Industrial Centre Circulation Routes93P0 50 150IIIIIIIIVIIIIVIIVIVIIVVIIVIIVIIIIIIIVIVVIVIVIIIIVIVIIIIVVIIVIVIVIIIIIIIIIIIIIVIIIIVIVIIIIIIElevated Buildings Multi-story Buildings Existing Buildings Water FeatureLight ManufacturingService CenterStorageStorageStorage/RetailStorageTechnicalInstitutionStorage/DistributionOffice/RetailShowroomOffice/RetailStorage/DistributionOfficeOfficeOfficeOfficeOfficeMixed Use FlexLight MfgIII, IV Number of FloorsLight MfgMixed Use FlexFigure 68. Annacis Industrial Centre Building Types94BC-N0 50 150Habitat Value - High Habitat Value - Medium Habitat Value - Low Green Rooftops Edible PlantingWaterfront ParkPlay FieldHabitatIslandStormwaterTreatmentWetlandPlanting IslandsPlants CommunityPlants CommunityTerraced RiverfrontOfficeCourtyardOfficeCourtyardOfficeCourtyardOffice CourtyardOfficeCourtyardGreenLawnPlants CommunityPlants CommunityFloodable ParkWaterfront ParkPerfromative Urban ParksEdible PlantingPlants CommunityPromenadeAlléeStormwaterTreatmentWetlandFigure 69. Annacis Industrial Centre Green Space and Plant Selection95Wetlands:Taxodium distichum var. distichum, Myrica gale,  Populus trichocarpa, Cornus sericeaHabitat Island:Arbutus menziesii, Nyssa sylvatica, Pseudotsuga menziesiiPlanting Islands:Salix ‘Chrysocoma’, Alnus glutinosa, Populus trichocarpaWaterfront Park:Prunus cerasifera, Cornus mas, Salix lucida subsp. LasiandraUrban Parks:Quercus palustris, Acer macrophyllum, Thuja plicataPlants CommunityAcer palmatum, Fraxinus nigra, Pinus nigraTerraced Riverfront:Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Zelkova serrata, Spiraea douglasii, Rhododendron groenlandicumPlay Field:Arbutus unedo, Acer rubrum, Betula nigraOffice Courtyard:Acer circinatum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Magnolia grandifloraGreen Rooftops:Polypodium vulgare, Carex elata ‘Aurea’, Armeria maritimaEdible Planting:Pyrus salicifolia ‘Pendula’, Pyrus communis, Pyrus pyrifolia, Pyrus calleryanaAllée:Acer burgerianum, Acer x freemanii ‘Armstorng’96BC-N2.1m4.7mLifted Revetment Waterfront Pathway Large Scale Dense VegetationLifted Revetment Waterfront Access Shoreline Restoration Expand Existings Native Species Floodable ParkConstructed Revetment and Campus - AA’The long section demonstrates a series of new conditions between the elevated waterfront and main driveway. Pedestrian pathways allow visitors to access the riverfront more convenient. Large scale vegetation planting and office courtyards will reduce water run off on site. Both elevated office buildings and warehouses will allow higher capacity of storages and more employment positions, while ground levels are designed for vehicle parking and loading, or hosting food trucks.Figure 70. Long Section (AA’)970 10 30PParking and LoadingCourtyard GardenFood Truck YardMulti-story Warehouse w/ Green RoofMulti-story Office w/ Green RoofDerwent WayGreen Roof & Courtyard Multi-Functional Elevated Building Multi-story Building982.1m4.7mFraser RiverLifted Revetment Waterfront Vegetated SwaleNatural Living Shoreline Lifted Revetment Waterfront Access Shoreline RestorationConstructed Revetment and Campus - BB’Figure 71. Constructed Revetment Waterfront Section (BB’)99Elevated Landscape0 5 15BC-NVegetated SwaleFountain PoolGathering SpaceElevated LandscapeExpand Existings Native Species100Wetland Floating Planting Bed2.1m4.7mNatural Living ShorelineConstructed Wetland Habitats IslandWater Boulevard and Habitat Island - CC’Figure 72. Water Boulevard and Habitat Islands Section (CC’)101Planting Island with Marine HabitatHabitats Island0 5 15PPlanting Island with Marine Habitat Water Boulevard Waterfront Walk Mixed Use OfficeWater Boulevard Green Roof & CourtyardElevated BuildingMulti-story Building102Figure 73. Planting Islands and Floating Vegetation Beds103104The pedestrian boardwalk at the riparian habitat and the canal front creates a unique atmosphere for local employees and the general public. The restored landscape elements allow visitors to observe the ongoing industrial development and experience the natural wildlife surrounding simultaneously.Figure 74. Wetland Boardwalk Perspective105106Habitat IslandFraser River2.1m4.7mHabitats Island Shoreline RestorationTerraced Riverfront - DD’Figure 75. Terraced Riverfront Section (DD’)1070 5 15BC-NTerraced Waterfront Vegetation Planter w/ Seating Vegetation PlanterWaterfront Access Terraced Riverfront Native SpeciesExpand ExistingsFocus Area1080 2 6Figure 76. Terraced Riverfront Site Plan109Figure 77. Terraced Riverfront at Current Sea Level110Figure 78. Terraced Riverfront While Global Temperature Rises 1°C111Figure 79. Terraced Riverfront While Global Temperature Rises 2°C112REFERENCESAkrigg, Philip, and Helen Akrigg. “Place Names of the Lower Mainland.” Discover Vancouver, 2009, pp. 1.“Annacis Island Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade.” Metro Vancouver, 2018, pp. 1.Arcand, Alan, Jane McIntyre, Robin Wiebe, Henry Diaz, Christopher Heschl, and Constantinos Bougas. “Metropolitan Outlook 1:            Economic Insights into 13 Canadian Metropolitan Economies-Autumn 2018.” The Conference Board of Canada, 2018, pp.            228. “Canada Market Outlook 2019.” CBRE, 2019. Retrieved from http://cbre.vo.llnwd.net/grgservices/secure/2019Canada-Market            Outlook_English_Final_l43R.pdfChomsky, Noam. “A Genuine Movement for Social Changes.” truthout.org, 2014. 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