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The Human-Rainforest Gradient : Reclaiming Local Nature in Brazilian Amazon Culture. Nozaki, Tatiana 2020-05

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the human-rainforestgradient reclaiming local nature in Brazillian Amazon cultureGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakithe human-rainforest gradient reclaiming local nature in Brazillian Amazon culture 2019 - 2020 Graduate Project submitted in partial fulfilment of Master’s of Landscape Architecture Degree at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Student: Tatiana NozakiAdvisor: Susan HerringtonGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 20203I would like to thank my advisor, Susan Herrington, for her continued support and guidance throughout this journey. GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakitable of contents1. statement of thesis...........................................................................................................22. context.............................................................................................................................9 2.1 environmental....................................................................................................10  the forest and its canopy..............................................................................10   biodiversity.........................................................................................10   hydrology...........................................................................................10  threats of climate change and deforestation...............................................11   desertification ..................................................................................11   tipping point.....................................................................................11   becoming carbon positive.................................................................12 2.2 economical.......................................................................................................14  reasons of deforestation..............................................................................14   cattle.................................................................................................14   soy.....................................................................................................15  impacts of deforestation..............................................................................16   fires and more fires............................................................................16   higher temperatures and inhibited water cycle................................ 16 2.3 political.............................................................................................................18  policy and incentives....................................................................................18  presidential support.....................................................................................18  Equator Bank initiative..................................................................................19 2.4 socio-cultural.....................................................................................................20  climate change on developing nations........................................................20   food security..................................................................................... 20    growing populations.........................................................................20  perceptions of nature.................................................................................. 20  tool-kit of local and indigenous knowledge................................................21   the ancient Amazon..........................................................................21   farming within the canopy.................................................................21GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 20205   agroforestry.......................................................................................22   hunting within the canopy.................................................................22   terra preta.........................................................................................223. role of landscape architecture........................................................................................27  ‘landscape machines’ and the nature-culture divide ...................................28  the nature-culture divide in the Amazon......................................................294. precedent studies..........................................................................................................32  With or Without Water.................................................................................34  Off the Reservation......................................................................................38  Productive Conservation..............................................................................42  Forests on the Edge.................................................................................... 48  Petrochemical America................................................................................545. design proposal..............................................................................................................60  the divide.....................................................................................................62  how did this come to be?............................................................................68  threats of the divide.....................................................................................74  schools in areas of conflict...........................................................................80  interventions.................................................................................................946. reference list................................................................................................................112GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakistatement of thesis1.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 20207A divide prevails in the Brazilian Amazon’s most deforested area known as the “Deforestation Arc”. It separates humans from nature, wild from civilized. This divide, expressed as a single spatial manifestation, an edge between rainforest and human inhabited spaces, is perpetuated by attitudes towards local ecologies, local and global economies, and political governance. The divide grows sharper and more defined with deforestation, fires, and agriculture, continuing to threaten biodiversity, fuel armed conflicts between stakeholders, and exacerbate desertification and land degradation.The Human-Rainforest Gradient seeks to reclaim the presence of local ecologies in this contested landscape. By carving away at binary relationships with the rainforest that still frame it as uncivilized and wild, this thesis proposes a wider gradient of human-rainforest interface. The absence of local ecologies in public schools throughout the “Deforestation Arc” is a microcosm of the nature-culture divide. As such, it provides an opportunity to disrupt the divide during young Brazilians’ formative developmental years. In this project, children are agents of bottom-up change by upcycling new relationships with local ecologies and interrelated social practices with their surroundings.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiBRAZILIANAMAZON FORESTDEFORESTATIONFIRESENVIRONMENTALTHREATSEthnobotanyEXTINCTIONRed-Listed SpeciesUndiscovered SpeciesSeed BanksWater PollutionINDUSTRYLoggingMiningAgricultureBeefSoyCONSERVATIONEFFORTSEcotourism Anthropocentric VS. Natural FiresGlobal EffortsNational EffortsFirefighters Richard Evans SchulesRoberto Burle MarxGlobal Carbon SinkGlobal Climate PatternsBlack Rains and SmokeFood SecurityPRESIDENTIALSUPPORTENVIRONMENTALREGULATIONSRight-wing AgendaINFRASTRUCTURELawEnforcementMEDIA INFLUENCEData ScienceCorruptionIllegal Industry PracticesBecoming a SavannaDystopiaINDIGENOUSRESERVESThreats of ExtinctionDepedency on the ForestSovereignityBoycott of Brazillianproducts/servicesTainted InternationalImage/RelationsMedicinal FoodCeremonial/SpiritualShelterTerritory DisputesExport of Meatand SoyJobsIrrigationRoad NetworkNational ParksDecolonizationDemocracyBRAZILIANIDENTITYCaretakers of the LandFolkloreNationalismMob MentalityConservation VS. PreservationClimate ChangeEnergyEnvironmental StewardshipBread and Circuses - Carnaval and SoccerPOLITICALPOLITICAL SOCIO-CULTURALSOCIO-CULTURALECOLOGICALECOLOGICALECONOMICALECONOMICALErosion DroughtFloodingGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 20209context2.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakito approximately 15 years of current global, annual, human-induced carbon emissions (Soares-Filho et al., 520).hydrologyWhile the Amazon is commonly known for its biodiversity, its hydrological cycle is the source of all life in the region. Approximately eight trillion tons of water evaporate from Amazon forests each year, with important influences on global atmospheric circulation (IPCC). The remainder of the rainfall in this enormous basin flows into the Atlantic Ocean, contributing to 15–20% of the worldwide continental freshwater run-off to the oceans, influencing the circulation of ocean currents (WWF).This works as a feedback mechanism, as the process also sustains the regional climate on which it depends, tropical plants depend on constant rainfall but also are actively responsible for such rainfall. The Amazon generates approximately half of its own rainfall by recycling as air-masses move from the Atlantic across the basin to the west (Thomas and Nobre). Some water vapor escapes to the Pacific, especially in the northwest corner of the basin in Colombia, and a substantial amount is transported to south and south-central Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina, while some moisture continues across the 2.1 environmentalthe forest and its canopyThe Amazon Basin is one of the world’s most important bioregions, harbouring a rich array of plant and animal species and offering a wealth of goods and services to society.biodiversityThe Amazon Basin is home to half of the world’s tropical forests (WWF). It is habitat to at least one out of every ten mammal, fish, bird and tree species in the world (Nedstad, Stickler, Soares-Filho, and Merry). These numbers translate to 80000 known species of plants, 427 mammal species, 1,300 bird species, 378 species of reptiles, and more than 400 species of amphibians which are constantly threatened by agricultural and extractive industries (WWF). If the rainforest is removed, 99 percent of all species within the Amazon would be lost (Daly).The regions’ richness in flora in fauna is significant to global biodiversity but it also provides ecosystem services to global populations that, for instance, benefit from the medicinal uses of its many plants, including anti-cancer drugs (Nunez). In addition, Amazonian trees contain 90–140 billion tons of carbon, which equates GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202011Atlantic to southern Africa (Fernside, 5).In this bioregion, the canopy cover is of significant importance as it helps regulate temperature and humidity, and is intricately linked to regional climate patterns through hydrological cycles that depend on the forests (WWF).threats of climate change and deforestationAs climate change is coupled with deforastation, the Amazon will be exposed to increasingly more threats including desertification, the tipping point, and the possibility of becoming carbon positive.desertificationDesertification is defined as the transformation of arable land to desert and drylands. It has a number of natural causes, including climate variation and soil erosion, but also arises as a result of human activities including over-grazing, over-cultivation, deforestation, and climate change (Hillel & Rosenzweig, 382).“Desertification, caused by land degradation […], is of prime concern in the 21st century. As a result of human activities and climate change, the land loses its proper hydrologic function and biological productivity. Desertification affects 33% of the earth’s surface and over a billion people.” (Neary).In the Amazon, the humus layer is minimal nearly everywhere. The humus is the dark, organic layer in the soil that develops when plants or animal matter decomposes. The soil in the Amazon rainforest is the poorest and most infertile in the world (Hartl). If one cuts down the forest, it is irretrievably lost. The humus layer is quickly washed out with the rains. At the latest, it takes three years after clearing the forest for the soil to reach a level of degradation where nothing will grow there. Since just a few centimetres below the top layer of soil, there is nothing more than sand or clay, what remains is washed out, worthless soil. (Hartl). tipping point As deforestation interacts with climate change, the Amazon will be caught up in a set of feedback loops that could dramatically speed up the pace of forest lost and degradation and bring the Amazon Biome to a point of no return. This threshold, also referred to as a tipping point, may occur when Amazonian forests die and are progressively replaced by fireprone brush and savanna, and rainfall is inhibited on a regional scale (Thomas and Nobre).Model simulations including changing precipitation and/or ongoing anthropogenic deforestation in the Amazon show reduced evapotranspiration and hence lower amounts of water recycled for regional precipitation (e.g. Cox et al, 152). Such an altered hydrological cycle may lead to further tree mortality and GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakireduces forest resilience to recover from fire and drought. Repeated occurrences of strong drought/fire years, for example in the context of El Nino events, could drive the Amazon past a tipping point into a savanna like state (Sampaio et al.). Studies suggest that at 40% deforestation, such a regime shift could occur in the Amazon basin and the south eastern parts of the Amazon, where the “Deforestation Arc” is located, are the least resilient and most likely to turn into savanna or a treeless state (Hirota et al, 234).The trend of rising temperatures in the Amazon (0.25°C per decade) measured over recent decades (Malhi & Wright, 311) is likely to continue, with a projected increase of 3.3°C this century under mid-range greenhouse gas emission scenarios, although this could be much higher (up to 8°C) under scenarios of widespread forest dieback (Christensen). Thus, as drier deforested areas cause temperatures to increase, surrounding forests more likely to dieback due to hydrological and climatic changes. Part of the feedback loop also includes the higher propensity for fires that arises from the removal of the tree canopy through deforestation. Since trees deflect the intense tropical sun and keep the forest floor moist, exposed vegetation is more likely to catch and spread fire (Lindsey).becoming carbon positiveDeforestation also contributes to the release of fossil fuels. Slash-and-burn is the practice most common after deforestation to momentarily increase nutrients in the soil. According to scientists, if 60 percent of the forest were to degrade to a savanna that could unleash the equivalent of five or six years’ worth of global fossil-fuel emissions (Welch).What most distinguishes the global warming implications of Amazonian deforestation from those of other tropical forests is the huge potential for future emissions. In 1990, net committed emissions from Brazilian deforestation represented 5% of the global total from all sources, including both land-use change and fossil fuels, at that time (Fearnside, 6).The predicted loss and degradation of the forest’s canopy as result of anthropocentric climate change and deforestation would further exacerbate global rising temperatures through the release of stored carbon, influence the circulation of ocean currents, threaten biodiversity, as well as the world-wide ecosystem services derived from it.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020131550150016001650170017501800181018201830184018501860187018801890190019101920193019401950196019701980199020002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016 2017201820191494 Treaty of Tordesillas divides South America between Spain and Portugal 1664 Governor of Para ordered the burning of 300 indigenous long-houses1750 Indigenous slave labour intensifies1541 first Spanish expedition through the Amazon1822 Brazilian independence from Portugal1888 slavery is abolished1920 Southeast Asia undercuts rubber prices1942 WWII fuels rubber demand1964 military coup1970 construction of Trans-Amazonia Highway1988 Constitution recognizes Indigenous Land and Cultural Rights 2005 worst drought in 50 years2007 construction of Belo Monte Dam2018 Jair Bolsonaro gets elected8000 BCE Earliest estimated start of farming9000 BCE Earliest estimated occupationRUBBER BOOMCACAU AND SUGARCANE CATTLE RANCHING BOOM20M15M   10M      5M30M25MSAVANNAAVERAGE TEMPERATUREaverage surface-air tempraturedeviation from 2019FOREST2030204020502060 2070208020902100100%80%60%40%20%0INDIGENOUSPOPULATIONOTHERSDEFORESTATIONsavanna tipping point1. BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki2.2 economicalreasons of deforestationIn Brazil, 20% of the Amazon forest has been deforested to support extractive and agricultural industries (O’Connor, Santos, Rekel, Dekker, 3917). Particularly, cattle ranching and soy farming drive at least 90% of deforestation (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa, 2). While international markets play an increasingly big role in the demand of beef produced in the Amazon, according to the Brazillian Ministry of Agriculture, about 90% of this commodity is consumed domestically (Ingraham).“The main market is for meat, mostly consumed within the Amazon. Indeed, the area is barely self sufficient in beef and sometimes resorts to bringing in cattle or meat from other parts of Brazil or abroad” (Smith, 97).cattleCattle ranching is the largest driver of deforestation in every Amazon country, accounting for 80% of current deforestation rates (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa, 2). The Brazilian Amazon is home to approximately 200 million head of cattle, and Brazil is the largest exporter in the world, supplying about one quarter of the global market (Nepstad, Stickler, and Almeida). Although what is produced the Amazon supplies mostly beef consumed domestically, recent change in policies have opened the commodity sale to international markets. Low input cost and easy transportation in rural areas make ranching an attractive economic activity in the forest frontier; low yields and cheap land encourage expansion and deforestation (Durning and Brough). Approximately 450,000 square kilometers of deforested land in the Brazilian Amazon is now in cattle pasture. Cattle ranching and soy cultivation are often linked as cattle pasture replaces soy farms when they become unproductive, pushing farmers further into the Amazon (Smith, 96).Cattle was introduced by Portuguese colonizers in the 16th century but it only truly became a significant source of deforestation in 1960’s and 1970’s when the federal government provided fiscal incentives for agricultural occupation (Smith, 97). Incentives were intended to integrate the region with the Brazilian national economy and to defend it from international intervention (Hecht and Cockburn).Between 1997 and 2004, cattle within the Amazon increased 200% getting to 33 million heads (Nepstad, Stickler, and Almeida). “The rapid growth of [Amazonian] towns and cities, particularly in the last few decades, is driving dramatic expansion of cattle ranching throughout the Amazon”. (Smith, 83).GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202015Converting forest to pasture was for a long period until recently the most recognizable way of legally laying claim to land, gaining title to it, and increasing its value (Fearnside; Hecht).As cattle cannot survive within the rainforest, deforestation is necessary for the establishment of a ranch (Smith, 96). Over-grazing is linked to desertification meaning that lands will no longer be arable for food cultivation after prolonged cattle occupation (Hillel & Rosenzweig, 382).In areas where cattle is raised in the floodplain, which is the most productive for grazing, another area upland must be deforested to house cattle during the months the floodplain property is flooded (Smith). “In the Amazon alone, the deforestation caused by cattle ranching is responsible for the release of 340 million tons of carbon to the atmosphere every year, equivalent to 3.4% of global CO2 emissions. Once the trees have been removed and replaced with grass (which rapidly dries out during periods of limited rain), cattle pastures significantly increase the risk of fire. Frequent fires further reduce the nutrient content of the soils and expose the soil surface to the heavy rains. This results in high levels of soil erosion, and the degradation of watercourses through sedimentation and contamination with organic matter.Often, as the soil nutrients are quickly depleted and productivity rapidly declines, the land is sold on to larger landholders who are able to maintain profits by economies of scale and the massive use of artificial fertilizers and toxic pesticides, while the original settlers move further into the rainforest” (Berardi).soySoy accounts for an estimated 13-18% of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa, 1). Originally from southeast Asia, the soy plant (Glycine max) is a nitrogen fixing legume planted in temperate regions throughout the world. It is used globally primarily for animal feed.  Soy was first planted in southern Brazil at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and it expanded during the 1960s from the south to the north of Paraná in the Atlantic Forest. This expansion was fueld by military government (1964-1984) policies of the time titled, ‘Integrar para não entregar’ - Integrate to not lose. These policies aimed to open up Central Brazil, including the south Brazilian Amazon. As roads were built, waves of migrants from southern and southeastern regions of the country arrived, attracted by the low price of land, the government policy of donating land to individuals, and the assistance of large corporations. New agribusinesses, particularly meat and logging industries, brought hundreds of thousands of new farmers to the region. In the 1980s and 1990s, soy production expanded rapidly, particularly in the Savanna zone (Myers et al. 2000, Amaral et al. 2005). From 1990, soy began to encroach upon the transition zone between the Savanna and the Amazon biome to the north, reaching the Amazon river itself around 2000. (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa,4).Continued demand into the 1990s and early 2000’s created a soy-cattle pasture-deforestation dynamic. Meanwhile, road improvements, especially the BR-163 “soy highway” in Mato Grosso reduced transport costs and world economic growth increased demand for agricultural products. (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa, 5).As mentioned before, Amazonian soils are the most infertile soils in the world (Hartl). Forests survive on the efficient recycling of organic matter that fall from canopies (Glaser and Birk). When rainforests are deforested for soy farming, nutrient and moisture recycling is interrupted (O’Connor, Santos, Rekel, Dekker, 3917). The nutrients in the soil are washed away within approximately 3 years, after which the land is deemed as no longer arable (Fearside, 28).GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakiimpacts of deforestationAs noted in the environmental chapter, massive deforestation might alter water supplies as far away as Africa or California. But rainfall in the Amazon also helps supply water to the very soy farmers and beef ranchers who are clearing the forest. Brazilian agriculture, it seems, actually needs the Amazon.”We need to have forest in order to have the rain necessary to plant crops,” Esquivel-Muelbert says (Welch).fires and more firesDeforestation is often linked to anthropocentric fires. Due to the infertile soil that is not well suited to farming, when the forest is cleared to make way for farms, farmers face the dilemma of how to enrich the soil. Expensive soil additives and fertilizer are not options due the lower income of most farmers. Instead, they clear cut the forest and set it on fire in order to turn the nutrients locked up in the forest biomass into a soil-fertilizing ash. This practice is known as slash-and -burn (Simmon).This slash-and-burn method of agriculture is never more than a short-term solution. When the soil fails, farmers move on to a new patch of forest. The old patch may be abandoned or turned into cattle pasture, which must be re-burned frequently to encourage grasses rather than trees or shrubs.” (Simmon).“In the Amazon, nothing is adapted to fire, including the 10 percent of Earth’s animal species that live there” (Daly).As soy farming is primarily intended to serve as feed stock for cattle, the more soy farms transition to cattle ranches, the more cattle to feed, which incentivizes more deforestation for soy feed stock production (Lima, Skutsch, and Costa, 3). The potential is much greater, in terms of both monetary value and sustainability, for pursuing a radically different land use strategies for long-term support: finding ways to tap the environmental services of the forest as a means of both sustaining the human population and maintaining the forest (Fearnside, 9).higher temperatures and inhibited water cycleForest vegetation has deep roots which facilitate access to deep soil moisture, maintaining their supply of water necessary for photosynthesis even during the dry season. Therefore, forest evapotranspiration remains high throughout the year, unaffected by periods of low rainfall (Maeda et al., 2017; Staal et al., 2018). Following from forest or savanna to agriculture, the new vegetation cover lacks deep roots and therefore no longer accesses deeper soil moisture.Studies in the Amazon have shown that temperatures increase on average by 1.4C, with a maximum of 7C following conversion to crop (O’Connor, Santos, Rekel, Dekker, 3918).GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202017THE SAVANNA DYSTOPIACarbon and Water CyclesCO2CO2CO2The Amazon creates 50%of its own rain.Rainfall will decline between 20 - 25%if deforestation, fires, and climate change continue at current rate.Slash + burnClimate changeForest to savanna More fires Exacerbates climate change+SAVANNAFORESTWATER CYCLECO2CO2CO2GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakipolicy and incentivesTax incentives were a strong driver of deforestation in the 1970s and 1980s, when cattle ranching intensified (Smith, 97). Other incentives, such as government-subsidized credit at rates well below inflation, became much scarcer after 1984 (Fernside, 3). Deforestation enabled claims to land, and cutting down trees for cattle pasture was the cheapest and most effective land claiming tactic (Fearnside, 3).  Land claim was important until around 1987, but there was a subsequent increase in the role of pasture profit from beef production in promoting deforestation (Fernside, 3).In Brazil, deforestation control is mainly by repression through clearing licenses, inspections and fines.  The first major effort to repress deforestation was in 1989 under the “Our Nature” (Nossa Natureza) program.  Since then a series of crackdowns has been unsuccessful. Clearing rates in the region seem to rise and fall independent of these programs. Repression, while undoubtedly necessary, needs to be rethought, and underlying causes addressed (Fernside, 7). In the Amazon deforestation debate, little attention is paid to mechanisms for attracting investors into the Amazon region to sustainably develop its forests, fisheries, and agricultural potential. Advances in frontier governance, law enforcement, and mechanisms for punishing deforesters through restrictions on access to markets and finance succeeded in decelerating deforestation but failed to address the region’s need for private investment, innovation, and enterprise (Nepstad, et al., 1123).In addition, the manner in which governmental authorities map and monitor the landscape to enforce deforestation regulations has in some ways re-asserted the nature–culture divide through its emphasis on “forest” and “non-forest” (Hoelle, 58).presidential support There had been a 70% decline in deforestation from 2005 to 2013, result of a combination of tighter punitive enforcement, expansion of protected areas, stalled highway projects, devaluation of soy, and intensification of cattle on already cleared lands (Nepstad, 1118).The recent change in political power, with the election of current president Jair Bolsonaro showcases how fragile environmental progress through governmental policies and enforcement is under varying leadership. For instance, the government’s command-and-control measures to fine and embargo illegal deforesters, and cut entire counties 2.3 politicalGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202019off from public agricultural credit, is precariously dependent upon the political will of government to impose these measures, which may be weakening in the face of a stagnant national economy (Nepstad, 1121).As demand for new deforestation increases, as supply chain interventions to discourage deforestation weaken, and if deforestation policies and programs lose political support, positive incentives for farmers, counties, and states that are forgoing or reducing deforestation will grow in importance (Nepstad, 1121).The current right wings’ agenda to open up Amazon for agricultural development has resulted in a 35% increase of fires compared to the average of the last eight years (Lai, Lu, and Migliozzi) and a 77% increase from 2018 (Sanchez, McCarthy, Gralki). Some immediate and simple positive incentives for farmers who forgo deforestation and invest in more intensive, sustainable production systems could be established without major new policies or markets for ecosystem services (Nepstad, 1123).equator bank initiative“Perhaps the most far-reaching driver of the reform of agroindustrial commodity producers is the Equator Bank initiative, in which finance institutions representing environmental and social standards that will debunk the nature-culture divide and advocate for local and indigenous knowledge.more than 80% of project finance worldwide, including [now five] Brazilian banks, are developing environmental and social standards and beginning to apply these standards as conditions to loans extended to the private sector (BankTrack 2004). In one of the most dramatic examples of how this trend can influence the land management decisions made by large numbers of producers, a $30 million loan from the International Finance Corporation (Stickler et al. 2004; Stickler & Almeida 2006) was used by the Grupo A. Maggi soy company to prefinance 510 soybean farmers in the Brazilian cerrado woodland and adjoining Amazon forest. As a condition of this prefinancing, participating producers were required to comply with environmental and labor legislation, use only certified agrochemicals, employ no-till cultivation techniques, and prohibit hunting, among other practices (Grupo A. Maggi 2006)” (Nepstad, Stickler, and Almeida).Brazilian banks’ financing of projects that comply with a mission to combat climate change and improve the livelihoods of indigenous communities, have the potential to create positive incentives that operate in spite of political support. I believe landscape architects should be operating within these organizations along with the already involved environmental, human rights and indigenous peoples’ organizations to illustrate complex systems and help develop GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki2.4 socio-culturalclimate change and developing nationsThe risk of desertification is widespread and spans more than 100 countries hitting some of the poorest and most vulnerable populations the hardest, since subsistence farming is common across many of the affected regions. Food shortages are likely to affect poorer parts of the world far more than richer ones. Developing countries are the most impacted by climate change and the least able to afford its consequences. Their vulnerability is due to multiple factors that can limit their ability to prevent and respond to the impacts of climate change (Nunez).food securityThe UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts demand for food will increase 60% by 2050 (FAO, 4). As climate change threatens the world’s food supplies, cultivation and conservation need to work in tandem. Without a drastic overhaul of agricultural practices and the way we eat, rising temperatures, extreme weather events, water scarcity, soil erosion, and desertification driven by climate change will threaten the stability of the global food supply (FAO, 8).growing populationsAs Brazilian Amazon populations are predicted to grow from 25,000,000 to 35,000,000 by 2060, food security will become an increasing issue (Povos Indígenas no Brasil). If agriculture continues to operate how it does currently, farms and ranches will contribute to the tipping point between forest to savanna and further intensify the desertification process of the Amazonian landscape (WWF).perceptions of natureWhile environmental preservationists are concerned with protecting the pristine landscape from the ravages of human activities, those who subscribe to cattle culture want cows and the pasture at the center of an idyllic rural life that is clearly separated from the forest (Hoelle, 58). In fact, a study shows that ranchers consider the pasture the most beautiful landscape when compared the forest and agricultural plots (Hoelle, 60). Some said that a uniform pasture gave them great satisfaction because it illustrated their hard work, claiming also that it would not be appropriate to find beauty in the forest because “it is not worth anything” (Hoelle, 60). Although many find the forest to be beautiful, it is also widely seen as a threat to human-modified spaces (Hoelle, 61). Grass, fruit trees, and other individual plants are considered safe, for the most part, but excessive vegetation, GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202021especially “wild” forest species, is thought to provide a haven for mosquitoes, rats, and other disease vectors. These functional considerations are also reflected in aesthetic preferences. Most rural homesteads are surrounded by a clearing of hard-packed dirt that is weeded and swept regularly. Therefore, the challenge is as much about a culture change as it is about policies promoting sustainable development (Hoelle, 70).tool-kit of local and indigenous knowledgeAgricultural practices that include indigenous and local knowledge can contribute to overcoming the combined challenges of climate change, food security, biodiversity conservation, and combating desertification and land degradation. the ancient AmazonThe myth of the Amazon as untouched wilderness has long been debunked. Archeologists have been able to estimate that Amazonian populations were in fact, quite dense and a significant fraction of the region was and remains anthropocentric forest. “The Amazon as whole, was probably 15 million in 1500” (Smith, 28).“Although appreciable forest remained standing at any one time in pre-contact times, little of it was virgin. At various times virtually all of the forest on the higher parts of the floodplain was likely cleared, farmed, and then allowed to revert back to forest, perhaps as managed fallow for a decade or more” (Smith, 31).William Balée, an anthropologist who worked with the indigenous communities, views the Amazon as a cultural forest. He estimates that at least 12% of the Amazon consists of an anthropogenic forest, one where the human imprint is clear, and this is likely an underestimate (Churchman and Landa, 240).As in many other parts of Latin America, the indigenous population plummeted in Amazonia after contact with Europeans. Introduced diseases such as smallpox, tuberculosis, and influenza spread quickly after contact with Orellana’s expedition in 1542. In some parts of Latin America and the Caribbean, as many as 90 percent of the Indians died within decades after the Spanish and Portuguese arrived, and a similar fate befell many of the indigenous groups along the Amazon. (Smith, 35)However, we have a lot to learn from these large indigenous populations, which only recently in the 1970s-1980s have been surpassed in numbers by modern civilizations. Their food practices were deeply rooted in their territory and they survived harmoniously cultivating and hunting this landscape. farming within the canopy“Tree farming is one of the most overlooked avenues for promoting agricultural development on the Amazon floodplain and for helping to restore some of the ecological balance to current land use” (Smith, 139).A study by Dr Maezumi from the University of Exeter shows how early Amazon farmers used the land intensively and expanded the types of crops grown, without continuously clearing new areas of the forest for farming when soil nutrients became depleted (University of Exeter). Dr Maezumi says: “Ancient communities likely did clear some understory trees and weeds for farming, but they maintained a closed canopy forest, enriched in edible plants which could bring them food” (Maezumi study concluded that, through closed-canopy forest enrichment, limited clearing for crop cultivation and low-severity fire management, long-term food security was attained despite climate and social changes (Maezumi et al.).GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki“It is ironic that one of the most fertile area in the Amazon for crop production is largely unutilized for that purpose. The area of the Amazon floodplain in crops is a fraction of that devoted to pasture for cattle and water buffalo. The growing cities in the Amazon are being fed largely from farms in other parts of Brazil and abroad” (Smith, 111).agroforestryA list of at least 138 species of plants has been identified that were under cultivation or management at the time of European arrival in Amazonia, of which 68% are trees or woody perennials (Miller and Nair, 156). This cultivation has and still includes: abiu, annato avocado, banana, cacao, calabash tree, cashew, coca, coconut, cocoyam, cotton, cupuacu, guava, hog plum, ice-cream bean, lime, malay apple, mango, mountain soursop, orange, papaya, peach palm, plantain, tobacco, uvilla, velvet tamarind, West Indian cedar, wild cacao, wild sweetsop, yage, among many others (Miller and Nair, 158).Today, systems of agroforestry involve one or more of the following practices by locals:  • Useful tree species are spared when forest and old fallows are cleared for agriculture;  • Seedlings of useful forest species that regenerate in agricultural plots are spared during weeding;  • Seeds of fruit trees are interplanted with staple crops, dispersed haphazardly around houses, or planted along trails in old swiddens and forest clearings. (Miller and Nair, 156). “These various practices may result in several configurations of fruit tree establishment, such as the homegarden of fruit trees and other useful condiments and medicinal plants grown in close proximity to the house, a belt of fruit trees surrounding a village, fruit trees interspersed with field crops, orchards of mixed fruit trees, and fallows of forest species enriched with fruit trees” (Miller and Nair, 151).livestock within the canopy“While room exists for improving the productivity and management of cattle and water buffalo on the floodplain, a parallel effort should be directed toward finding viable alternatives for small and large operators alike. Alternatives would include fostering the adoption of small livestock that require little if any deforestation, and the domestication of native animals for meat production” (Smith, 101).For instance, “the meat of the capybara, which resembles a giant aquatic guinea pig, is savoured along the Amazon and other rivers in the northern South America” (Smith, 108). Many local communities also rely on game meat such as that of white-lipped peccaries, tapir, and brocket deer, which live within the forest (Smith, 38). Game meat is mainly threatened by the expansion of cattle ranching that destroys the forest habitat (Smith, 38).terra pretaAs mentioned previously, the Amazon soils are nutrient-poor. “Surprisingly, within these ecosystems are small patches of highly fertile soils which are known as Anthropogenic Dark Earths or Terra Preta de Índio (terra preta). These soils exhibit high nutrient and soil organic matter stocks and allow sustainable agriculture. Terra preta is the product of inorganic [e.g. ash, bones (esp. fish)] and organic (e.g. biomass wastes, manure, excrements, urine, and biochar) amendments to infertile Ferralsols. These ingredients were microbially metabolized and stabilized by humification in soil, fungi playing a bigger role in this process compared to bacteria in surrounding ecosystems. Biochar is a key component for this process due to its stability and its enrichment in terra preta” GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202023(Glaser and Birk).Johannes Lehmann, assistant professor of biogeochemistry in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at Cornell University, at the 2006 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science noted: ”The knowledge that we can gain from studying the Amazonian dark earths, found throughout the Amazon River region, not only teaches us how to restore degraded soils, triple crop yields and support a wide array of crops in regions with agriculturally poor soils, but also can lead to technologies to sequester carbon in soil and prevent critical changes in world climate.”Slash-and-burn, which is commonly used in many parts of the world as well as in the Amazon to prepare fields for crops, releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Slash-and-char or terra preta, on the other hand, actually reduces greenhouse gases, Lehmann says, by sequestering huge amounts of carbon for thousands of years and substantially reducing methane and nitrous oxide emissions from soils.In other words, producing and applying bio-char to soil would not only dramatically improve soil and increase crop production, but also could provide a novel approach to establishing a significant, long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide, says Lehmann (Cornell University). He noted that what is being learned from terra preta also can help farmers prevent agricultural runoff, promote sustained fertility and reduce input costs. (Cornell University)The charcoal is stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years, binding and retaining minerals and nutrients. Agricultural techniques leading to terra preta formation have the potential to stop increasing land degradation from recently employed intensive agriculture in these regions and to reclaim degraded areas (Glaser and Birk). Additionally, the high stability of terra preta and experimental data show that in principle, carbon can be sequestered for millennia in soils (Glaser and Birk). So regeneration of terra preta has the potential to combine sustainable agriculture with long-term CO2 sequestration (Glaser and Birk).GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiTERRA PRETACO2CO2CO2TERRA PRETAPRACTICESOIL PROFILESGEOGRAPHYAverage 40-50cmcan regenerate itselfat rate of 1cm per yearusually found inconcentric circlesalong riversdirt and strawpartially exclude oxygendirt and strawpartially exclude oxygenAverage 40-50cmMax 2m1:50terra pretaregular Amazonian soil1000 years100km=1cmEstimated cumulativeterra preta area =size of France64.3801 million haLeaf litter zonesand or clayGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202025GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202027role of landscape architecture3.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki‘landscape machines’ and the nature-culture divideIn “Landscape machines: productive nature and the future sublime”, Paul A. Rocken, Steven Stremke, and Maurice P. C. P. Paulissen of Wageningen University, urge landscape architects to design productive landscapes that “not only can produce food and accumulate energy but also produce clean dredge, healthy soil and fresh water at the same time, resulting in unfamiliar types of ecological biotopes that will create the sprouts of new origins of life” (Rocken, Steven, and Maurice, 71). Diffrent from previous typologies characterized by a high emphasis on aesthetics and associated with the picturesque, this type of landscape is not mono-functional but it operates on socio-economic and environmental spheres to provide multi-faceted benefits to its users. John Jodd, James Corner, Ton Matton, Kate Orff are just some examples of designers who experiment with this typology of complex systems called ‘living machines’.The authors emphasize the need to stop separating nature from agriculture, the necessity for designers to explore the coexistence between human and environment in rural spaces (which have been neglected by the design profession), the potential for ‘landscape machines’ to tackle the combined issues of climate change and food production, the need for site-specific (not globalized) design machines along with the involvement of stakeholders such as livestock experts and ethnobotanists. Most notably, their paper states that designers should readjust our agricultural techniques to coexist with nature reserves (Rocken, Steven, and Maurice, 69).While the three experts recognize the role of culture in originating rituals of agrarian production, they place less emphasis on culture as the agent behind the depersonalization of socio-biological rituals through the introduction of agrarian machines, industrial fertilizers and large-scale greenhouses. These technologies and practices are extensions of societies anthropocentric values. Thus, by downplaying the role of culture in the introduction highly anthropocentric technologies and practices, they also overlook the nature-culture divide as a critical component to be actively addressed in landscapes as ‘living machines’. Instead, they argue new landscape typologies will indirectly shape culture. “Designers should design landscapes that challenge human beings and human collectives to allow them to redefine nature within and beyond themselves. Without experiential learning, we will only want what is human and exclude all the adaptive qualities that make us part of nature” (Rocken, Steven, and Maurice, 80). GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202029“The “nature–culture divide” refers to the conceptual separation between humans and the natural world in Western thought (Hoelle, 56). The dichotomy between nature and culture has been perpetuated by Western conservationists, who idealized the notion of ‘wilderness’ as uninhabited by humans (Cronon, 17). In fields such as anthropology and geography, efforts towards recognizing the network of reciprocity between humans and the landscape and humans and other beings as part of integrated systems are being made, generating terms like ‘cultural landscapes’ and ‘biocultural diversity’. These terms have influenced landscape architecture but operated mainly in the realm of conservation to allow for the addition and study of cultural sites as worthy of protection.Similarly, although there are many entities operating in the much needed realm of conservation of the Amazon to protect both biological and cultural diversity, significantly less efforts target what is the root of many threats to biocultural diversity itself. The dichotomy between culture and nature rooted in anthropocentric ideas of cultivation, harvest, and ranching, which promote the continued practices of deforestation and degradation that threaten human and more-than-human diversity. Thus, there is potential for rethinking ways through which landscape can help dilute the dichotomy between nature and culture to promote world-views that are more ecocentric in landscapes that function as ‘living machines’.As Corner notes, landscape has the potential to shape culture, which in turn will shape values held by landscape. “Changing ideas of nature, wilderness, and landscape continue to inform the physical practices of design and building, and these, in turn, further transform and enrich cultural ideas” (Corner, 7). “From a specifically landscape architectural point of view, it is crucial to understand how cultural ideas condition construction and how construction, in turn, conditions the play of landscape ideas in a larger cultural imagination” (Corner, 8).Thus, while I agree with the urge to redefine the role of landscape architecture to encompass complex multifaceted issues that aim to solve large-scale problems, I believe more emphasis should be placed on the role of culture as integral to realistic change. People who inhabit these landscapes need to be active participants in these ‘living machines’, not mere bystanders or visitors for an active diluting of the nature-culture divide to take place.the nature-culture divide in the AmazonFrom chapter 4: Ideologies of Nature and Human-Environment Interactions of Jeffrey Hoelle’s book Rainforest Cowboys. “In the initial encounters between Spanish and Portuguese conquistadores, settlers, and explorers and indigenous populations in the Amazon and other parts of the Americas, Western groups envisioned themselves as agents of culture and therefore more civilized than the “primitives” and “savages”. External visions of Amazonia continue to be imbued with exoticism and to privilege the cultural “other” dwelling beyond the reach of civilization. As they have throughout colonial history, these discourses position people and nature in such a way as to justify external intervention and action, from the height of the colonial era to the present.Throughout American history, the nature–culture divide was central to framing the Western occupation of “wilderness” and the displacement, subjugation, and conversion of the “uncivilized”. Those claiming “culture” actively created the cities and cultivated spaces where they lived, while the “savages” were thought to live in (but not actively cultivate) the wilderness, and were defined by their inability to overcome both nature and GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakihuman nature.These “savages” lived beyond the reach of civilization, and were encountered in the frontier, a zone of contact between contrasting ways of life. In the early nineteenth century, Domingo Sarmiento saw the struggle for the future of Argentina as a battle between “civilization and barbarism” taking place on the hinterland of the pampas, with mixed-race gauchos representing a form of savagery (1868). Frederick Jackson Turner saw the late nineteenth-century frontier of the United States as a site of “perennial rebirth” in which unique American identity was formed as settlers “won the wilderness,” by transforming the “primitive economic and political conditions of the frontier into the complexity of city life”.Speaking in 1940, decades before the opening of Amazonia to colonization, Brazilian president Getulio Vargas galvanized support for the mission by using familiar dichotomous imagery: “Nothing will stop us in this movement which is, in the 20th century, the highest task of civilizing man: to conquer and dominate the valleys of the great equatorial currents, transforming their blind force and their extraordinary fertility into disciplined energy”. Through the guiding hand of culture, Vargas continued, the Amazonian wilderness would become, “under the impact of our will and labor[,] . . . a chapter in the history of civilization.”When the colonization of the Amazon began in full in the 1970s, the nature–culture dichotomy, now in the guise of military developmentalism, was once again central to framing the contests that took place at the frontier. Migrants, under the banner of “Order and Progress,” were supported in their usurpation of the land of native groups and the transformation of the forest to pastures and fields in the name of “development”. The land conflicts along the frontier have diminished for the most part, but the conceptual divide between nature and culture continues to be asserted in contemporary Amazonia. Nowadays it is contested in an ideological sphere which seeks to define how people interact with the natural world.”New ideas are necessary for a unitary concept of nature and culture to replace the outdated, dualistic understanding” (Hoelle, 56 and 57).GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202031GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202033precedent studies4.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202035a resilient scaffold for future rural development—with or without water” (Milos).Evaluation: This project explores similar topics I aim to address in my thesis. It tackles how Lake Chad, as a result of climate change, growing populations and agricultural use, has shrunk through a process of desertification that now threatens the area’s food security. The work is strengthen by suggesting it is a cheaper alternative to undergoing expensive proposals or only temporary proposals being considered by the African countries involved.Conclusion: The proposals’ framework can inspire possible approaches for my thesis. Milos works with 3 scenarios of ‘without water’, ‘status quo’, and ‘with water’ ensures the proposal is responsive to any potential future. This methodology is especially effective under the context of a project that deals with future scenarios that cannot be easily predicted. In addition, the project acknowledges many ongoing local efforts to address the issue and includes local participation in the design phases, as well as 50/50 partnership schemes on agro-product proceeds between local populations and project implementing agencies. An important reminder that the stakeholders impacted by the project must be acknowledged and included in the process.With or Without Water: Building Resillient Livelihoods in the Lake Chad BasinDates: 2011Designers: Christina Milos (Harvard Graduate School of Design)Faculty Advisor: Christian WerthmannLocation: Lake Chad BasinSize: The extent of the basinGoal of Project (from the designer): “The rapid shrinking of Lake Chad — by over 90 percent in the past 40 years — is emblematic of increasing global water insecurity. With or Without Water considers how technologies used to prevent desertification and sustain livelihoods in the Lake Chad Basin can be designed to succeed where they have failed in the past.  Shelterbelt plantings are paired with transportation infrastructure and incrementally deployed as Lake Chad’s shoreline recedes.  The system provides GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202037GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202039Evaluation: This project aims to reintroduce indigenous practices beyond the reserve to allow for the return of cultural practices related to food, water, and mobility. It draws inspiration from indigenous reciprocal relationships with the landscape and recognizes the sustainable nature of locally developed indigenous practices. It also compares those practices with current agricultural ones in the region that are much more water intensive and wasteful. Conclusion: This project serves as precedent of incorporating native traditions to contemporary settings without just reverting back to the past. Additionally, when inspired by indigenous knowledge, understanding how the communities who developed these strategies fit in within the scheme is paramount. Meghan relates such knowledge directly to the benefit and sovereignty of the Quechan Indian tribe. This project serves as reminder that when inspired by indigenous practices, one should be aware of how colonization has impacted the culture and livelihood of indigenous communities.Off the Reservation: A Seed for Change Dates: 2012Designers: Meghan Storm (University of Pennsylvania)Faculty Advisor: Ellen NeisesLocation: Land surrounding the Fort Yuma reservation near Yuma Arizona at the Colorado and Gila River Confluence.Goal of Project (from the designer): “The significance of this project relies on the unique culture of the Quechan Indian tribe. Looking to indigenous cultural practices of food, water, and mobility can help revitalize cultures lost to the reservation system and inform wider issues of infrastructural and cultural stability. Located along the Colorado River near Yuma Arizona, this project challenges current landscape practices of agricultural water use, ecology and housing, and creates contemporary solutions based on native traditions” (Storm).GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202041GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202043box logistics and agricultural fields is designed as a testing ground for models of precision conservation. Our project addresses the following question: How might the combination of ecological principles such as agro-forestry, inter-cropping, successional dynamics and precision farming tools such as multi-spectral mapping, agricultural printing, and smart machines provide a template for a conservation strategy that is scalable and resilient as we enter the uncertain era of water-scarcity, climate change, and soil degradation?” (Biswas and Sciaraffia).Evaluation: This project works within a similar framework as my thesis by creating a tool-kit, based on land use, that then informs changes that integrate conservation and cultivation. Its goal is also similar, it introduces structural diversity within a network of agricultural fields to increase Mexico City’s resiliency to impacts of extended drought, soil degradation and water scarcity, while maintaining agricultural productivity and economies. However, its ‘Agro-conservation Tool-Kit’, that catalogues inter-cropping or agro-forestry practices that preserve soil, water quality and enhance biodiversity, focuses on improving existing cash crops not replacing them. The project works almost entirely on a larger scale and would have benefitted from closer engagement with famers themselves.Conclusion: Although my goal is to diversify and eventually replace cash crops for the sake of conservation, the methodology used by Sourav Kumar Biswas and Flavio Sciaraffia serves as precedent on how a tool-kit can be applied at a regional scale. Important in their scheme, is the singling out of areas of focus such as sites of conservation for water quality, and biodiversity that suggest special targeted interventions based on specific land-uses.Productive Conservation: Utilizing Landscape Ecology and Precision Agriculture Towards Land-Water ConservationDates: 2015Designers: Sourav Kumar Biswas and Flavio Sciaraffia (Harvard GSD)Faculty Advisor: Adriana ChavezLocation: Mexico City RegionGoal of Project (from the designers): “Agriculture today has evolved into the most resource consumptive and environmentally disruptive human activity. With the advent of precision farming, agriculture has also become a highly monitored and digitized activity. Our design strategy harnesses the potential of future agricultural tools to expand the ecological potential of productive landscapes on a regional scale and design precise planting / management patterns to design 4-dimensional spatial experiences. A site that sits at the intersection of big-GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202045GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202047GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202049portfolio of local, plant-based income generation.  In Haiti, 98% of native forests have been removed and 65% of the land is devoted to agricultural use, and where the majority of farms are delineated by a thin 0.5-5m wide live fence. A three phase system is proposed: building a foundation with training in soil conservation, followed by a strategic 3-5 year planting scheme, and culminating in a final phase of craftsman skills-building through the selective harvesting and processing of forest components (never fully removing a tree) into products for maximal financial output” (Facella).Evaluation: This project is clever in engaging with farmers as its direct audience, with all drawings being part of a visual manual of the phases and benefits of the proposed interventions, as well as instructions on how a farmer can analyze their site to choose catered interventions. The project does a great job identifying the benefits of the linear forest to subsistence farmers, which include wind break and hurricane protection, soil conservation and erosion control, and the forest as an income generator. Although some emphasis is given to the environmental benefits of this strategy, the focus is still more human-centric and economic. It would have been great to incorporate some non-human actors in this strategy beyond the farmer. Conclusion: The overall proposal resonates with my intentions to bring both environmental and economic benefits to agricultural communities that will create more resilient systems. Thus, it serves as precedent on how to engage directly an audience using a visually compelling and easy to understand manual as well as how to convincingly introduce strategies at both the individual farm to the agricultural regional scale.Forests on the Edge: Plant-Based Economies Driving Ecological Renewal in HaitiDate: 2017Designers: Christine Facella, (The City College of New York)Faculty Advisors: Catherine Seavitt Nordenson and Matthew SeibertLocation: HaitiGoal of Project (from the designer): “Using Haiti as a prototypical case-study, this project investigates the utilization of live fences as a catalyst for reforestation through the choreographed design of economically and environmentally beneficial linear forests. Specifically situated for subsistence farmers in developing nations, this supportive ‘fabric’ of forests is poly-functional: buffering neighboring crops from damaging winds, improving crop moisture retention, stabilizing and enriching soils, and critically providing the raw resources for a diverse GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202051GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202053GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202055of the region. A Glossary of Terms and Solutions for a Post–Petrochemical Culture brings together case studies, tools, and practices that offer models for change. Ultimately, this joint enterprise offers an expansion of both disciplines, a richly researched and concretely visualized study of the issues facing the petrochemical industry—and our society, which has become inextricably intertwined with its output” (Orff).Evaluation: The book represents complex multidimensional issues in a concise manner. Likewise, chapters based on the overarching topics of ‘Oil’, ‘Infrastructure’, ‘Waste’, ‘Displacement’, ‘Ecology/Economy’, ‘Food’, and ‘Landscape’, structure the legibility of an complex issue. The combination of diverse drawing types such as timelines, maps, multi-media sections incorporating drawing, collage, and annotation, as well as diagrams, help illustrate narratives from the perspective of different stakeholders.Although its focus remains mostly on research, the Glossary of Terms and Solutions for a Post–Petrochemical Culture offers some insight into the array of strategies that could be implemented to revert some of the damage the oil industry has ensued. Thus, it manages to provide enough options to tackle most, if not all of the diverse and numerous problems illustrated in the research stage. The glossary provides an alternative to the traditional landscape architecture project, which would have had difficulties in tackling all the issues identified.Conclusion: The book serves as a precedent for how landscape architects’ means of visual communication can aid the visualization of multifaceted interrelated issues. It also expands the role of landscape architects as key players in the initial stages of researching and identifying the interconnectedness of large issues.Petrochemical America Dates: 2014Designers: Kate Orff and Richard MisrachLocation: “Cancer Alley” Goal of Project (from the designers): “Petrochemical America represents a unique collaboration between photographer Richard Misrach and landscape architect Kate Orff. Presented in two parts, the first features Misrach’s photographs of the Mississippi River industrial corridor, stretching from Baton Rouge to New Orleans—one of America’s most industrialized places, and a region that first garnered public attention as “Cancer Alley” because of the unusual occurrences of cancer in the area. The second part of the book integrates these photographs into a series of visual narratives created by Kate Orff and her office, SCAPE, and unpacks the complex cultural, physical, and economic issues GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202057GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202059GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakidesign proposal5.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202061the human-rainforestgradientreclaiming local nature in Brazillian Amazon cultureI had the pleasure of visiting the Brazilian Amazon between GP1 and GP2. This project is based on my personal experience, and anecdotes from this trip, as well as experiences throughout my life in Brazil and of course literature on the nature-culture divide in the Brazilian Amazon.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiWhen I spoke to locals about visiting the Amazon rainforest and camping out there, they asked pretty sincerely: why? To them, they did not see the value in spending time in the forest. Much attuned to that sentiment, the cities I visited maintained the forest on their peripheries, the few times the forest was included in the urban fabric, it was in the form of isolated patches.the nature - culture divideGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202063UrbanGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki“The flower shops in Rio Branco are filled with plastic flowers and roses shipped in from São Paulo. When I asked the florist why he did not sell any native flowers, he told me that no one wanted flowers from the mato (forest), which were not considered beautiful by most consumers. His wife, who was in the back of the store working on an arrangement, chimed in: ‘They are ugly. No woman wants to receive such a gift. It does not express love.’” - Jeffrey HoelleRainforest Cowboys This degree of separation from the forest extends to rural areas. Ranchers feel pride in keeping the forest out of their property, its presence is associated with something unordered and uncivilized. Contrarily, beef has become associated with culture, development, civilization. And according to the Ministry of Agriculture 90% of the beef produced in the Amazon is consumed domestically.  As Amazonian populations increase, so does the demand for beef and with it deforestation. GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202065GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiAt the scale of the child, separation remains. Playgrounds are removed from the larger surrounding landscape. The presence of physical equipment is seem as ideal.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202067SchoolyardGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki“Throughout Brazilian history, the nature-culture divide was central to framing the Western occupation of “wilderness” and the displacement, and subjugation of the “uncivilized” Indigenous communities” (Hoelle, 56) who not surprisingly, had very sophisticated ways of coexisting with the forest. Although there is a fallacy in a nature-culture divide as nature is a cultural construct, these ideas of the forest as wild uncivilized to be conserved but with little human presence and pasture as emblematic of civilization have remained in parts of did this come to be?GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202069NATURE CULTUREʻwildʼuninhabiteduncivilizeda landscape to be conservedorderedinhabitedcivilizeda productive landscapeGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozaki9000 BCEEarliest estimated occupationTreaty of Tordesillas divides South America between Spain and Portugal Governor of Para ordered the burning of 300 indigenous long-housesIndigenous slave labour intensifiesslavery is abolished WWII fuels rubber demandBanner of ʻOrder andProgressʼconstruction of Trans-Amazonia Highwayworst drought in 50 yearsJair Bolsonaro is elected presidentBrazilian independence from PortugalSoutheast Asia undercuts rubber pricesmilitary coup Constitution recognizes Indigenous Land and Cultural RightsChico Mendes, a rubber tapper environmentalist, is assassinated for speaking up against cattle ranchingconstruction of Belo Monte DamEarliest estimated start of farming first Spanish expedition through the Amazon8000 BCE14941541166417501822188819201942196419701988200520072018GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020719000 BCEEarliest estimated occupationTreaty of Tordesillas divides South America between Spain and Portugal Governor of Para ordered the burning of 300 indigenous long-housesIndigenous slave labour intensifiesslavery is abolished WWII fuels rubber demandBanner of ʻOrder andProgressʼconstruction of Trans-Amazonia Highwayworst drought in 50 yearsJair Bolsonaro is elected presidentBrazilian independence from PortugalSoutheast Asia undercuts rubber pricesmilitary coup Constitution recognizes Indigenous Land and Cultural RightsChico Mendes, a rubber tapper environmentalist, is assassinated for speaking up against cattle ranchingconstruction of Belo Monte DamEarliest estimated start of farming first Spanish expedition through the Amazon8000 BCE14941541166417501822188819201942196419701988200520072018GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiFor instance, during the military gov’t of the 1960’s, under the banner of “Order and Progress”, migrants of other parts of Brazil as well as locals were supported in taking land converting it to pasture and through this they got the land for free. Legally. All in the name of “development”. Through this process, the cow which was introduced to Brazil earlier by colonials, was imported to the rainforest, where it made no contextual sense and has since driven a lot of the deforestation.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202073“…the Amazonian wilderness would become, under the impact of our will and labor, … a chapter in the history of civilization.” (Hoelle, 57).What is striking about this quote is that it easily could have been said by the current president, Jair Bolsonaro. In fact, just recently, the president is in the process of bringing back the policy that gave people who deforested and turned a plot into pasture, the right to that land. A policy that took place during the military government 60 years ago. The transformation of forest into pastures, the construction of roads and dams, the practice mining is still equivalent to progress.These ideologies were supported by policy, Brazilian president Getulio Vargas in 1940 stated: GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiBecause the ideologies and ways of engaging with forest are so different there are a lot of tensions between different stakeholders. This a spectrum to show a more realistic and nuanced version of the nature culture divide - which really is a range. However, indigenous communities and ranchers who stand at opposite ends of the spectrum, have had many land and ideology disputes and thousands have been murdered as a result.threats of a nature-culture dividestakeholder tensionsGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202075STAKEHOLDER TENSIONSrancherdepreciation/distancing from forestappreciation/co-existencewith forestNGO worker polyculture farmer/family farmer policy makers urban dwellerminermonoculturefarmerlogger/rubbertappereducators indigenous community memberGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThere are, of course, ecological threats as well. Desertification, the threat of a tipping point, becoming carbong positive.the loss of canopyGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202077CO2CO2CO2The Amazon creates 50%of its own rain.Rainfall will decline between 20 - 25%if deforestation, fires, and climate change continue at current rate.Soil nutrients lost within 3 yearsSlash + burnClimate changeForest to savanna More fires Exacerbates climate change+RANCHFARMFORESTTHE LOSS OF CANOPYCO2 CO2CO2H2OH2OH2OGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe Amazon Basin is one of the world’s most important bioregions, harbouring a rich array of plant and animal species and as a result of these practices, many have become endangered or at times extinct. threatened diversityGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202079THREATEN DIVERSITYHyacinth MacawAnodorhynchus hyacinthinusGiant River OtterPteronura brasiliensisHigh tideLow tideGiant armadilloPriodontes maximusBrazil Nut TreeBertholletia excelsaAmazon RosewoodAniba rosaeodora DuckeAndirobaCarapa guianensis Aubl.Uakari MonkeyCacajaoGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiI was particularly interested in schools in this area of conflict because of the potential they have in creating a different relationship with the forest in formative developmental years. They are also provide a more bottom-up approach to change.schools in areas of conflictGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202081- Disrupt the nature-culture divide in formative years of young Brazilians in the Deforestation Arc;- Present and train kids in more ecologically-responsible ways of feeding a growing population (such as polyculture farming of rainforest plants or raising local animals);- Create empathy between different stakeholders, human and non-human.goalsGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe area along the southern border of the Amazon rainforest, in the Brazilian states of Pará, Mato Grosso, and Rondônia, known as the “deforestation arc,” will be the focus of my thesis. In this area, wildfire is pushing the edge of the rainforest north, possibly changing the border forever (Daly).This region represents the longest dry season in the Amazon, it exhibits the largest deforestation rates; and, its vegetation is particularly sensitive to changes in dry season duration (Costa and Pires, 1977).The three major land cover classes identified in the area are: forest, savanna, and agriculture (O’Connor, Santos, Rekel, Dekker, 3918). I looked at 30 different schools along this arc and in specific nodes of descriptionGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202083DEFORESTATION ARCPERUBOLIVIACOLUMBIABRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIAN AMAZON FORESTSCHOOLS1- Escola Estadual Rural; 2 - Escola Betel; 3 - Professora Nilce Avilar; 4 - APP da Maria Casaroto; 5 - Eeefm Alkindar Brasil de Arouca; 6 - Pedro Mendes Cardoso; 7- EEEFM Ruth Rocha; 8- EM E F Rio Pardo ; 9 - EMEF Mario Covas; 10 - Magdalena Tagliaferro; 11 - Municipal 23 deMarço; 12 - Florizel Lamego Ferrari; 13 - Irmã Leonilda Pioveza; 14 - Sao Pedro- Vila Agrovila; 15 - Maria Da Glória Vargas Ochôa; 16 - Moacir Sennsato; 17 - Santo Antônio do Matupy; 18 - Amazonino Mendes; 19 - Pedro Alvares Cabral; 20 - Carmem Valente Da Silva; 21- Maria do Socorro Jacob Anexo II; 22 - Deputado João Carlos Batista; 23 - Cachoeira da Serra; 24 - E.M.E.F Instituto De Educação; 25 - Marechal D. Da fonseca; 26 - Globo Verde; 27 - Marechal Rondon; 28 - Professora Dairce Pedrosa Torres; 29 - Escola Pacajá; and 30 - Ee Portal Da AmazôniaFIRES OF AUGUST 2019DEFORESTED AREASVENEZUELABRAZILBRAZIL123456 7 1089111213 1415163017181920 212223242725 262829GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiI catalogued the schools based on the size of their open space as well as their larger context. For reference, the Vancouver Art Gallery is included for reference.cataloguing open space ofschools in the ‘Deforestation Arc‘GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202085SCHOOLS1- Escola Estadual Rural  2 - Escola Betel 3 - Professora Nilce Avilar 4 - APP da Maria Casaroto 5 - Alkindar Brasil de Arouca 6 - Pedro Mendes Cardoso7- EEEFM Ruth Rocha 8- EM E F Rio Pardo  9 - EMEF Mario Covas 10 - Magdalena Tagliaferro 11 - Municipal 23 de Março 12 - Florizel Lamego Ferrari 13 - Irmã Leonilda Piovezan14 - Sao Pedro- Vila Agrovila 15 - Maria Glória Vargas Ochôa 16 - Moacir Sennsato 17 - Santo Antônio do Matupy 18 - Amazonino Mendes19 - Pedro Alvares Cabral 20 - Carmem Valente Da Silva 21- Maria do Socorro Jacob Anexo II 22 - Deputado João Carlos Batista 23 - Cachoeira da Serra 24 - E.M.E.F Instituto De Educação25 - Marechal D. Da fonseca 26 - Globo Verde 27 - Marechal Rondon 28 - Professora Dairce Pedrosa Torres 29 - Escola Pacajá 30 - Ee Portal Da AmazôniaCATALOGUING OPEN SPACE OF SCHOOLS IN THE DEFORESTATION ARCurbantown1:5000>35,000,000 m²>600,000 m² >2,000,000 m² >4,000,000 m² >15,000,000 m²ruralPROXIMITY TO FOREST/FARMRURAL/URBANCONTEXTVancouver Art Gallery PlazaREFERENCES:>500m>900m>200m1234567 89101112131415161718192021222324252627282930GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe conclusion was that although these schools might have varied in context ranging from rural to urban, differing age groups, and landscape types, they all included very little local ecologies.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202087TYPOLOGIESGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiI choose to have a case study that would serve as an example of change for other schools. The school I choose is a rural one due to the more direct impact it has on practices like ranching and monoculture farming. It is an area in the state of Rondonia where fires have recently occurred, and in close proximity to farms and pastures, with kids ages 6-15.context plan30 km radius (average distance travelled by kids in rural areas)PERUBOLIVIACOLUMBIARO-205RO-455RO-452RO-455RO-140BRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIAN AMAZON RAINFORESTFIRES OF AUGUST 2019DEFORESTED AREASVENEZUELABRAZILBRAZILJAMARI NACIONALFORESTRO-205RO-205CUJUBIM23 DE MARÇOSCHOOLGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 20208930 km radius (average distance travelled by kids in rural areas)PERUBOLIVIACOLUMBIARO-205RO-455RO-452RO-455RO-140BRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIANAMAZONBRAZILIAN AMAZON RAINFORESTFIRES OF AUGUST 2019DEFORESTED AREASVENEZUELABRAZILBRAZILJAMARI NACIONALFORESTRO-205RO-205CUJUBIM23 DE MARÇOSCHOOLGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiWith this rural context, I propose the opportunity of partnering with nearby pastures to extend the school footprint. Pastures by law should have 50% of their plot as forest, however the great majority does not follow this rule. The Land Alliance NGO provides incentives for cattle ranchers to follow this law by connecting them to buyers who, due to their public image, will pay more for a commodity produced by law abiding ranchers. I propose partnering with this NGO so schools can extend the area for nature education, polyculture farming, and play space. The school program would challenge partner ranchers’ own relationship with the study - rural contextGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202091CASE STUDY - RURAL CONTEXTaverage area of open space:4550 m2reference: Vancouver Art Gallery Plaza4000 m2half of an averaged sized pasture (500,000 m2)1:50001:25000GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThis is the plan of the school including the partner rancher’s plot. Before the school only occupied the immediate area surrounding it. The concept for the spatial organization of the interventions is areas closest to the school are for younger kids and there is a gradient with programme for older kids as you radiate out from the school. There are 3 main interventions based on ecological ideas and learning objectives:01. The monkey garden (soil management and polyculture farming);02. The macaw free play forest (animal and plant biology);03. The peccary pools (wildlife raising and water scarcity).These interventions are intended to be as economical as possible and actually provide value so schools would to want to incorporate axoGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202093monkeygardenranchpartnerrancherʼshouseschoolrancherʼs propertymacaw freeplay forestpeccarypoolspatch of existingforestgradient to older kidsGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiSchool lunches do not nearly reflect the vast array of local foods in the Amazon. In fact, a law was passed in 2009 requiring at least 30% of school lunches to come from local agricultural families because most states were well below that number (Assessoria de Comunicação Social do FNDE). There is a huge potential to save money on food and produce it on school grounds. The produce would be shared between the kids and the partner rancher. The ecological idea is to learn about the impact of deforestation and farming on soil health. The benefit to the school is to decrease dependency on outsourced school lunches while providing a healthier diet for students. Due to the tropical nature of the region, harvesting is possible on an yearly basis. The plants chosen are based on the kids ages and their abilities to care and harvest these plants. The learning objectives are soil management and polyculture farming.The soil management is inspired by indigenous practices of biochar ot terra preta. Kids and monkeys transform existing site conditions to mature plants. Monkeys tend to eat fruits and drop seeds, helping to re-plant fruit trees, hence why the garden is titled monkey garden as monkeys would play a role as gardeners. And as the garden matures, there is potential for other uses - hammock - nap time.Kids teach new ideas to their parents in school events that celebrate food preparation and community celebration. A social up cycling of knowledge and ideologies would take place.monkey gardenGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202095GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiWild CashewAnacardium giganteumdecembernovemberoctoberseptemberaugustjuly junemayaprilmarchfebruaryjanuaryMONKEY GARDEN YEARLY HARVESTAraçáEugenia stipitata McVaughBrazil nutBertholletia excelsaBiribáRollinia mucosa (Jacq.) BaillGuaranáPaullinia cupanaCacaoTheobroma cacao L.ManiocManihot esculentaTapir guavaBellucia grossularioidesCupuaçuTheobroma grandiflorumJambinhoBellucia grossularioidesChico-magroGuazuma tomentosa Ingá-cipóInga edulisJurubebaSolanum paniculatumJatobáHymenaea courbarilAçaíEuterpe oleracea Mart.TucumãAstrocaryum vulgareBuritiMauritia flexuosa L.summer breakwinter breakWild Passion fruitPassiflora riparia Mart.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202097YEAR 1prepare soil with terra pretaYEAR 3 YEAR 5 YEAR 10 YEAR 20MONKEY GARDEN monkey asgardenerPHASINGsoil managementalternate monkeygarden usesyearly harvest + phasing diagramGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe ecological focus for this intervention is to learn about the impact of deforestation on habitat fragmentation. Kids would take part in habitat restoration, cohabitation with other species, and the school would extend the area of play spaces.The restoration focuses on the habitat of macaws and other birds which, due to deforestation, have to increasingly compete for nesting spots. The nesting towers vary in heights to mimic layers in the forest inhabited by different species. For instance, macaws tend to nest in the emergent layer, which is the top layer. While toucans are known to nest in the canopy layer which is the middle layer. The birds featured are all endangered or threaten in the state of Rondonia due to deforestation. Kids would plant the site with trees that will eventually surround the structures and create more nesting spaces for the birds as well.The base of the tower uses the surplus of acai seeds from the kitchen, mixes it with clay to make bricks - a sustainable building block just recently invented by Francielly Rodriguez Barbosa. This builds the base of the tower, which is climbable. Drawing inspiration from indigenous crafts and architecture, kids weave the upper parts of the towers with palm leaves, inserting woven nooks on the structure for nesting.Kids inhabit this world of extravagant bird calls and colourful feathers. As the forest begins to grow, new play props and climbing surfaces are introduced to this play space.macaw free play forestGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 202099GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakidecembernovemberoctoberseptemberaugustjuly junemayaprilmarchfebruaryjanuaryMACAW PLAY FOREST SEASONAL CALENDARsummer breakwinter breakYellow-ridged ToucanRamphastos culminatusAriel ToucanRamphastos arielYellow-tailed ParrotPionites xanthurusCrimson-bellied ParakeetPyrrhura perlataBlack-girdled BarbetCapito dayiMadeira ParakeetPyrrhura snethlageaeBlue-headed MacawPrimolius couloniGolden ParakeetGuaruba guaroubaRondonia AntwarblerHypocnemis ochrogynaemergent layer over 150ftcanopy layer 100-150ftunderstory layer up to 12ftGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020101MACAW FREE PLAY FOREST STRUCTURESYEAR 1 YEAR 3 YEAR 5 YEAR 10 YEAR 20palm leafweavingaçaí bricksFrancielly Rodrigues Barbosa inventionemergent layerover 150ftunderstory layerup to 12ftcanopy layer 100-150ftnesting seasons + bird towersGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe ecological idea for this intervention is to learn about the impact of deforestation and fires on the water cycle. Kids learn about the importance of reintroducing moisture in deforested areas and indicator species of moisture. As droughts intensify due to climate change, the benefit to schools is that this provides cooling during dry months, especially for schools that have no access to electricity which is common for rural schools in the area.The peccary is a wild pig who is an ecosystem engineer. By wallowing, it produces depressions with a water-resistant bottoms. These wallows accumulate water during the rainy season and keep it for much of the dry season. Thus, they become water holes for many species during a time when water is harder to find.In my intervention, the peccary would be raised by the partner rancher. This would increase the farmer and the kids familiarity with local animals that can be raised within the forest canopy. Peccary can be consumed by the kids in school events and lunches and sold by the farmer, so that its meat can become more known in the area.Older kids would be able to visit the feathered edge between ranch and peccary pool forest - kids can play with peccaries while cows and other animals drink from its pools. In here, the binary worlds of ranch and forest begin to blur.peccary poolsGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020103GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakidecembernovemberoctoberseptemberaugustjuly junemayaprilmarchfebruaryjanuarysummer breakwinter breakwet to dry transitionWALLOWINGpeccaries occupy thewhole site during school breakFROG POOLS ANDWATER HOLESdry to wettransitionWET SEASONDRY SEASONGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020105YEAR 1 YEAR 3 YEAR 5 YEAR 10 YEAR 20peccary raisingfrog pools/wildlife water holewallowingPECCARY POOLS PHASINGwet & dry seasons + ecosystem engineeringGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana Nozakisystems diagramGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020107SYSTEMS DIAGRAMmonkeygardenschool+ ranchmacaw freeplay forestpeccarypoolsfeedspeccariesfoodplay spaceaçaíseedsorganicwastefertilizercooling +moistureaçaíbrickstowerspalmleavesguanoclaywater formonkeyswaterfor birdsGP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiThe schoolyard expands beyond its physical confines. From this site, each child builds with them a new mental landscape of the world around them. They bring this mental landscape home and carry it through a lifetime. By increasing the gradient between binaries: ranch and forest, wild and civilized, production and conservation - common ground between stakeholders is increased.rainforest gradientGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020109GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiChildren are agents of bottom-up change by up cycling new relationships with local ecologies and interrelated social practices with their surroundings. This includes parents, the partner rancher and the school staff and educators.Zooming out to the larger scale, with tweaks to context and landscape type, this case study can be deployed to other areas within the ‘Deforestation Arc’ to continue to expand the human-rainforest gradient. In the face of food insecurity and climate change, the school program teaches kids alternative occupations that are more ecologically-responsible ways of feeding growing populations. With a combined social and environmental strategy, the human rainforest gradient rethinks traditional forms of reforestation and places locals as active agents in the rebuilding of this contested landscape. other actorsGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020111GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiGP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020113reference list6.GP BOOKLET // THE HUMAN-RAINFOREST GRADIENT // Tatiana NozakiAssessoria de Comunicação Social do FNDE com informações do Ministério da Educação. “Agricultura Familiar - Portal Do FNDE.” Desenvolvimento Da Educação,, Andrea. “Amazonian challenges: Cattle ranching and agriculture.” OpenLearn. 27 May 2014.Biswas, Sourav Kumar, and Flavio Sciaraffia. “2015 ASLA STUDENT AWARDS.” Productive Conservation: Utilizing Landscape Ecology  and Precision Agriculture Towards Land-Water Conservation | 2015 ASLA Student Awards, 2015, dentawards/102552.html.Christensen, J. H. et al. ”In Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. 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ScienceDaily,  23 July 2018. <>.Welch, Craig. “How Amazon forest loss may affect water - and climate - far away.” National Geographic. 27 August 2019WWF. “Climate Change in the Amazon.” WWF,  climate_change_amazon/.GP BOOKLET // 2019 - 2020119


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