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Alleys for the Pedestrian : Redefining the Alley in Vancouver's Downtown Ratzlaff, Jenna 2020-05

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Alleys for the PedestrianRedefining the Alley in Vancouver’s DowntownJenna RatzlaffIIIIITable of ConentsAbstractList of FiguresAcknowledgmentsDedicationIntroductionThe PastThe StoryThe PresentThe Present: Case StudiesThe ProposalBibliographyvviixixiii151939455985141VIVAbstractThis thesis looks to explore the role of the alley which has become the small, dirty and forgotten space of the urban city. Alleys and streets used to be for pedestrians to walk and children to play; however, over the years they have transitioned into spaces to hide the utilitarian and less attractive functions in the city. They have become spaces for the automobile and garbage. As cities grow every inch of land will become even more important and spaces that are not being used to their fullest potential will need to be rethought. Currently, the pandemic that we are all experiencing has revealed, more now then ever, how important it is for our cities to have public space that pedestrians can walk and bike through and exercise and relax in. The world has seen a significant shift in how we use space in cities, how important public space is (especially for those who don’t have a private back yard) and the idea that fewer personal vehicles are needed in our cities. Realizing that our new “normal” of living may include social distancing guidelines and an increase in remote jobs it is imperative that we consider a new “normal” for our streets and alleys. If a greater importance is given to the health and mobility of pedestrians what does this mean for our streets and alleys? Could they be re-imagined and given back to the pedestrian? This thesis looks to analyze the opportunities urban alleys in downtown Vancouver hold and the ways in which they could give the pedestrian more public and green spaces that provide connections across downtown Vancouver.VIIVIFigure 15: Picture of alley 1 looking SouthFigure 16: Picture of alley 1 looking NorthFigure 17: Diagram of alley 1  featuresFigure 18: Alley 1 locationFigure 19: Picture of alley 2 (start looking North) Figure 20: Picture of alley 2 (middle looking South)Figure 21: Picture of alley 2 (end looking North)Figure 22: Diagram of alley 2  featuresFigure 23: Alley 2 locationFigure 24: Picture of alley 3 (garbage strewn on the                 ground)Figure 25: Picture of alley 3 (revitalized section of alley                looking South)Figure 26: Picture of alley 3 (end looking South)Figure 27: Diagram of alley 3  featuresFigure 28: Alley 3 locationFigure 29: Picture of alley 4 (looking North)Figure 30: Picture of alley 4 (middle looking North)Figure 31: Picture of alley 4 (revitalized section of alley                 looking South)Figure 32: Diagram of alley 4  featuresFigure 33: Alley 4 locationFigure 34: Picture of alley 5 (looking North towards List of FiguresFigure 1: Rigid grid layout of urban centersFigure 2: Progression of Transportation  Figure 3: Diagram of sprawl of cities in North AmericaFigure 4: Sketch of  Gastown Alley, Vancouver,              CanadaFigure 5: Comparing area of alleys in Vancouver to              popular public spacesFigure 6: The Vancouver road grid structure gradually              given back to the pedestrianFigure 7: Map of study area and alley locationFigure 8: Map of empty lots/surface parking lots within                the study areaFigure 9: Map of bikeways within Vancouver’s                peninsulaFigure 10: Map of the proximity to green space (parks                and  beaches) within Vancouver’s peninsulaFigure 11: Map of transit routes and stops/stations                within Vancouver’s peninsulaFigure 12: Map of the preliminary network proposalFigure 13: Map of alleys and lanes, Vancouver, CanadaFigure 14: Picture of alley 1 entrance20222426284046485052545660636363646567676768697171717273757575767779IXVIII               studio and plazaFigure 52: Plans and elevations of  the pottery                studio and plazaFigure 53: Axonometric render of the bakery and                bike repair shopFigure 54: Plans and elevations of  the bakery and                bike repair shopFigure 55: Axonometric render of the farmers                market and restaurantFigure 56: Plans and elevations of  the farmers                market and restaurantFigure 57: Axonometric render of the antique                shopFigure 58: Plans and elevations of  the antique                shopFigure 59: Render, Dunsmuir Street entrance,                looking northFigure 60: Render, plaza and farmer’s market,                looking northFigure 61: Render, alley intersection, looking                     southFigure 62: Render, Hornby Street entrance,                looking east               Cathedral Square)Figure 35: Picture of alley 5 (looking South                towards Cathedral Square)Figure 36: Picture of alley 5 (middle looking North)Figure 37: Diagram of alley 5  featuresFigure 38: Alley 5 locationFigure 39: Design categories sketchFigure 40: Map of site locationFigure 41: Original plan of siteFigure 42: New plan of siteFigure 43: Axonometric of alley - morningFigure 44: Axonometric of alley - noonFigure 45: Axonometric of alley - afternoonFigure 46: Axonometric of alley - eveningFigure 47: Axonometric render of the bakery and                book storeFigure 48: Plans and elevations of  the bakery and                book storeFigure 49: Axonometric render of the cocktail                lounge and flower shopFigure 50: Plans and elevations of  the cocktail                lounge and flower shopFigure 51: Axonometric render of the pottery 7979808186889193959799101106107108,114,128109,115,129112113118119120,126121,127124125131133135137XIXAcknowledgmentsI wish to express my sincere thanks to my thesis Chair, Christopher MacDonald for supporting me and guiding me through my thesis.I am also grateful to Blair Satterfield and John Grottenberg for sharing their expertise, and sincere and valuable guidance and encouragement extended to me.XIIIXIIDedicationThis thesis is dedicated to my parentsfor their unconditional love, endless supportand encouragement.1514Introduction1716IntroductionFor centuries streets have been the primary factor for how we plan our cities. Today we view the street as a thoroughfare for vehicles and we often believe it has always been this way. The invention of the automobile has greatly impacted the way we move through the city, develop and experience it. Cities revolve around access for vehicles and where they can be parked. However, it hasn’t always been like this. Prior to the 1920’s the streets were for pedestrians to walk and children to play. Cities have gone from no vehicles to millions and now, because of the current pandemic, vehicle use has decreased significantly. In addition, public space has become more in demand then ever before as it has become the only other place people can reside other than their own homes. Realizing that our new “normal” of living may include social distancing guidelines and an increase in remote jobs it is imperative that we consider a new “normal” for our streets and alleys. If personal vehicles continue to be used less, due to the shift in how we live, what does this mean for the street network of cities? Less cars means that fewer roads will be needed. Currently, urban alleys in North America are used for access to underground parkades, surface parking lots, and utilities. If some of these uses disappear how can streets and alleys be redefined and given new uses? Due to current circumstances and an unforeseen shift in how we live, we have a unique opportunity to reclaim the street for the pedestrian in a world that is centered around vehicles.My proposal suggests that in the next five years streets will be rethought and alleys will be transformed into a pedestrian network across downtown Vancouver. This thesis will address the importance of providing more public space for pedestrians and how this will aid the City of Vancouver in meeting their goals of becoming a green and pedestrian oriented city. To accomplish this my proposal looks at the urban alley and explores ways in which alleys can be connected to create a network of green and public spaces for the pedestrian in downtown Vancouver.1918The Past2120IntroductionThis thesis looks to transform alleys and streets into a variety of spaces for the public however, it is imperative to understand how North American cities, in this case Vancouver, have developed into the cities they are today. There are several factors from the past that have influenced the way cities have been planned, constructed and layed out. The following information goes through time selecting key points that have truly impacted the way we design and plan cities.SettlementsAreas in Europe and Asia were the first to form small permanent settlements in roughly 10,000 BCE.1 Small villages were formed as no one lived outside of the water supply. In addition, cities were constantly being attacked so many were walled which didn’t allow for growth.2 However, as agriculture and transportation improved and the invention of the wheel more people moved from the countryside to the city center.3 This caused the people to consider how they wanted their city to grow and function. City PlanningMany people have attributed the invention of city planning to Hippodamus (or Hippodamos) of Miletus. 4 He helped design Piraeus, Greece, in 500 BCE, which became one of the first grid planned cities.5 Hippodamus also applied this grid system to his hometown Miletus that “comprises houses on blocks created by streets and side streets crossing at right angles, with public buildings in the city center.”6 Although cities tested a variety of ways to layout a city and explored what was most efficient, many settled on the rigid grid structure to plan their city.  Finer details like having a hierarchy of streets was also introduced. It was found that having a series of road widths depending on the use, helped organize the city. At the time streets were “scaled for walking and sometimes for horse and carriage”.7 Therefore, wide roadways were used for horse and carriage as they had higher traveling speeds and were defined as streets. Narrow road ways were primarily for the pedestrian as they have slow traveling speeds and were often defined as secondary streets, lanes or alleys.8 Around this time definitions were given to the words ‘street’ and ‘alley’. “The term ‘alley’ is a contraction of the Image Left. Figure 1: Rigid grid layout of urban centers2322Latin word ambulare meaning to walk, while street is believed to stem from stemere, to pave.”9When settlers began building cities in the United States they took the idea of the organized grid structure seen in many Medieval city plans. Many were also highly influenced by the rigid grid plan of Philadelphia, designed in 1682 by William Penn.10 Philadelphia is also home to America’s first alley, Elfreth’s Alley, which was founded in 1702.11 Canada followed the US and primarily used the rigid grid plan when developing cities. The grid plan allowed for efficient and quick transportation, via walking, cycling and horse and carriage, in and out of cities. AutomobilesIn the early 1800’s the first steam powered automobile was invented and began to change the way we thought about streets and transportation. By the 1900’s the first gas powered automobile was invented and by 1916 Henry Ford had introduced mass production of automobiles making the car available to most people.12 In the early 1900’s only 8000 vehicles were on American roads however by 1916 the number of vehicles on the road increased to 2 million and then to 8 million by 1920 and then again to 23 million by the end of the 1920’s. “Within the [span] of 20 years automobiles went from almost non-existent to a product available to every consumer and adopted at a ferocious pace.”13 With the boom in the number of vehicles purchased and driven on the road, an increase in the number, width and quality of streets was demanded. Paved roads became a necessity in every city and arterial roads were widened to provide direct roots to the city center, industrial land, etc.14 Some streets were not widened and these can be seen as residential roads or alleys today. Vehicles not only altered the roads cross section and network but it also affected housing and where people choose to live. The invention of the automobile allowed people to move outside of the city and it was no longer required to live close to where you worked. The automobile provided quick transportation in and out of the city and allowed for the city to sprawl.15 The sprawl of cities created a new space, the suburb, which became residential subdivisions with single family homes.16 It became a space between the dense urban city and the rural farm land. Today most cities take Pre 1900’s Post 1920’s | Mass Production of Vehicles Future Figure 2: Progression of Transportation 2524this format and consist of dense urban centers, surrounding residential neighborhoods, and rural agricultural land beyond.AlleysAlleys have been a part of cities for centuries and “have been a key architectural component of urban areas since at least 432 BC,” however over the years their use and definitions have changed.17 In the 1500’s they were defined as a “passage between buildings” and were meant for walking and public space.18 When the automobile was introduced streets and alleys became for the car and pedestrians were pushed to the sides on raised sidewalks. In the early 1800’s the definition of alley changed in America to mean “back alley, street for the poor” and were used to hide utilitarian and less attractive functions.19 Later perceptions of the alley began to change and “exposés linked alleys with stigmas of race and class, helping to forge negative perceptions of alleys as dangerous and unhealthy places.”20In the 1900’s American alleys began to disappear for several reasons. As cities appointed urban planning departments regulations like zoning land were introduced. This caused many alleys to disappear as zoning caused lanes to become part of the properties (standard property sizes were used that eliminated the lane). As well, the automobile became a status symbol where everyone parked them in the front yard causing the garage access to change and be off the main road rather than the lane. Remaining alleys/lanes became places for utilities, drugs, and the homeless. Then, in the 1930’s, the US Federal Housing Policy officially disallowed alleys and “targeted to eliminate poor African-American alley neighborhoods...”.21 In addition, alley paving became a nationwide trend to “clean up” alleys.22 Since then alleys have been perceived as ways to hide utilitarian and less attractive functions in the city. However, recently alleys have been at the center of many conversations for cities and urban design professionals. Over the years people have realized that streets and alleys take up a large portion of land within our cities. In Vancouver, streets cover approximately 30% of the land area.23 Therefore, this has been seen as a problem and many have looked at ways streets can become places for the pedestrian rather than the car. Alleys have been Figure 3: Diagram of sprawl of cities in North America2726seen as a starting point and many have seen the benefits of revitalizing alleys and the results it has on enriching the urban fabric. Cities around the world have started alley revitalization programs and green alley initiatives to re-envision what alleys are in their cities. This is not a new concept, as “the late Jane Jacobs (1961) recognized the value of alleys as network connectors, claiming they would make for healthier urban tissue.”24VancouverVancouver has had a similar history to many cities across the United States however, it is much younger and wasn’t founded until the late 1850’s. In 1858, during the gold rush in British Columbia, New Westminster was founded and placed under the control of Sir James Douglas.25 The land was surveyed and sites were chosen to start building a city around. Similarly to many American cities, New Westminster (Vancouver) adopted the rigid grid structure for the layout of the city. Vancouver also acquired a hierarchy of roads consisting of streets and alleys and its first alley, Trounce Alley, was founded in 1860.26Due to the inlets and the Fraser River surrounding the area, mills were erected and Burrard Inlet became the scene of logging operations. The original town of Granville, now Vancouver, was registered in 1870 and was comprised of 6 blocks.27 In 1886, Granville was conveyed to trustees for the Canadian Pacific Railway and later that year on May 6th Vancouver was incorporated as a city. With the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) opening in 1887, Vancouver became a place of trade and welcomed many new residents. Due to the location of the logging industry and the CPR the city began to grow up around it.28Later in 1890 the first street car was introduced and then shortly after the automobile appeared which quickly influenced the cities planning and use of streets like many other cities.29 This allowed people to move outside of the city and into smaller towns. In 1929, the Municipalities of Point Grey + South Vancouver amalgamated and became the new city.30 Urban planning departments were created, regulations and zoning bylaws were introduced. Vancouver continued to follow the lead of many American and older Canadian cities and now has become one of Canada’s best cities.31Figure 4: Sketch of  Gastown alley, Vancouver, Canada2928Future CitiesAs we look towards the future, many cities have been developing new regulations in hopes to reach goals and targets of cleaner and more environmentally sustainable cities. Vancouver is well known for their goal of becoming the greenest city in the world by 2020.32 However, 2020 is here and Vancouver is not where they need to be to meet this goal. Vancouver, like many other cities have also set other goals like decreasing the amount of cars that are driven and encouraging people to “make at least two thirds of all trips by foot, bike and public transit.”33 Goals like this will start a movement in rethinking how we design cities today and how we can transform them into our dreams for the future.Another factor that will and already is shaping our cities is the possibility that we may have to deal with world wide viruses, like COVID-19, that will alter how we function in our day to day lives. If social distancing and self quarantining become the new “normal” our cities will undergo many changes in order to accommodate this. Many cities around the world have seen vastly reduced use of roads and public transit and “are taking advantage by closing streets to cars, opening others to bicycles and widening sidewalks...”.34 Places like Paris see these changes as long term, calling the return “to a car-dominated status quo ‘out of the question’...”.35 Vancouver’s closest large city comparison is Seattle, and even they are “permanently clos[ing] 20 miles of streets to most vehicular traffic”. Due to the pandemic they have “witnessed a 57% drop in vehicle traffic volumes accessing downtown Seattle”.36  This is incredible to see and is something that wouldn’t have occurred in normal circumstances.Therefore, I believe Vancouver is in a unique position to reassess its street network in its downtown. Vancouver’s downtown peninsula is well served by public transit and has the ability to re-imagine its streets, in particular its alleys. Vancouver may not be in the position to shut down entire streets like Seattle and Paris, but Vancouver could close down sections of alleys for pedestrian use only. The City of Vancouver consists of 1007 acres of alleys which means Vancouver’s alleys have a footprint similar to Stanley Park or Central Park in New York.37 These alleys are only being Image Left. Figure 5: Comparing area of alleys in Vancouver to popular public spaces Alleys + Lanes Vancouver, Canada1007 AcresTiananmenBeijing, China109 AcresRockerfeller PlazaNew York, USA22 AcresSaint Peters SquareRome, Italy19 AcresRed SquareMoscow, Russia6 AcresPiazza San MarcoVenice, Italy3 AcresPlaza MayorMadrid, Spain2.5 AcresStanley Park Vancouver, Canada1000 AcresCentral ParkNew York, USA840 Acres3130used for garbage, deliveries and access to parking lots, which often leave them only being used for short durations during the day. It is clear that alleys are spaces within the city that can be used more efficiently. I believe alleys are an underrated space that can help our cities achieve these goals of having a healthy, environmentally friendly and pedestrian oriented city.3332Notes1     “Urbanization | Definition, History, Examples, & Facts.”        Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/       topic/urbanization. Accessed 11 Dec. 2019.2     Ibid.3     Ibid.4     Town/City Planning in Ancient Greece. http://www.       hellenicaworld.com/Greece/Technology/en/CityPlan.html.        Accessed 25 Oct. 2019.5     Ibid.6     Ibid.7     Meyboom, A. and Vass, L. (2019). Driverless Urban        Futures: A Speculative Atlas for Autonomous Vehicles.        New York: Routledge, pp.95.8     “Roads and Highways | Transportation.” Encyclopedia        Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/technology/road.        Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.9     Wolch, J., Newell, J., Seymour, M., Huang, H.,        Reynolds, K. and Mapes, J. (2010). The Forgotten and        the Future: Reclaiming Back Alleys for a Sustainable        City. 42nd ed. [ebook] pp.2875. Available at: https://       nacto.org/docs/usdg/the_forgotten_and_the_future_       wolch.pdf [Accessed 12 Dec. 2019].10   “Urban Planning | Definition, History, Examples,        Importance, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://       www.britannica.com/topic/urban-planning. Accessed 12        Dec. 2019.11   Philadelphia Walking Tour: Historic North of Market:        Elfreth’s Alley. https://www.ushistory.org/districts/       marketstreet/elfre.htm. Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.12   Meyboom, A. and Vass, L. (2019). Driverless Urban        Futures: A Speculative Atlas for Autonomous Vehicles.          New York: Routledge, pp.91.13   Ibid, 9114   Association, Historic Vehicle. “How the Automobile        Shaped America: The ’Burbs - Historic Vehicle        Association (HVA).” Historic Vehicle Association (HVA),        14 May 2013, https://www.historicvehicle.org/how-the-       automobile-shaped-america-the-burbs/.15   Ibid.16   Ibid.17   Wolch, J., Newell, J., Seymour, M., Huang, H.,        Reynolds, K. and Mapes, J. (2010). The Forgotten and        the Future: Reclaiming Back Alleys for a Sustainable        City. 42nd ed. [ebook] pp.2875. Available at: https://       nacto.org/docs/usdg/the_forgotten_and_the_future_       wolch.pdf [Accessed 12 Dec. 2019].353418   Ibid, 287519   Ibid, 287620   Ibid, 287621   Ibid, 287622   Ibid, 287623   Bergmann, Jens von. Vancouver Streets and        Lanes. 4 June 2018, https://doodles.mountainmath.ca/       blog/2018/06/04/vancouver-streets-and-lanes/.24   Wolch, J., Newell, J., Seymour, M., Huang, H.,        Reynolds, K. and Mapes, J. (2010). The Forgotten and        the Future: Reclaiming Back Alleys for a Sustainable        City. 42nd ed. [ebook] pp.2876. Available at: https://       nacto.org/docs/usdg/the_forgotten_and_the_future_       wolch.pdf [Accessed 12 Dec. 2019].25   Vancouver Planning Chronology. http://www.tiki-toki.com/       timeline/entry/473727/Vancouver-Planning-Chronology/#       vars!date=2018-04-27_18:34:23! Accessed 16 Oct.        2019.26   Ibid.27   Ibid.28   Vancouver Town Planning Commission, and Harland        Bartholomew and Associates. A Plan for the City of        Vancouver, British Columbia, Including a General Plan of        the Region. 1928. Internet Archive, http://archive.org/       details/vancplanincgen00vanc.29   Vancouver Planning Chronology. http://www.tiki-toki.com/       timeline/entry/473727/Vancouver-Planning-Chronology/#       vars!date=2018-04-27_18:34:23! Accessed 16 Oct.        2019.30   Ibid.31   “The Top 5 Cities in Canada.” Travel + Leisure, https://       www.travelandleisure.com/worlds-best/cities-in-canada.        Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.32   Greenest-City-2020-Action-Plan-2015-2020.       pdf. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/greenest-city-       2020-action-plan-2015-2020.pdf. Accessed 28        Nov. 2019.33   Ibid.34   Holland, Oscar. “Our Cities May Never Look the Same        Again after the Pandemic.” Our Cities May Never Look the        Same Again after the Pandemic, 9 May 2020, https://       www.cnn.com/style/article/cities-design-coronavirus/       index.html.35   Ibid.36   Jackson, Amanda. “Seattle to Permanently Close 20        Miles of Streets to Traffic so Residents Can Exercise 3736       and Bike on Them.” Seattle to Permanently Close 20        Miles of Streets to Traffic so Residents Can Exercise and        Bike on Them, 7 May 2020, https://www.cnn.com/       travel/article/seattle-streets-closed-stay-healthy-trnd/index.       html.37   Bergmann, Jens von. Vancouver Streets and        Lanes. 4 June 2018, https://doodles.mountainmath.ca/       blog/2018/06/04/vancouver-streets-and-lanes/.3938The Story4140Vancouver 2025The design proposal  for this thesis will take place in 2025 where Vancouver has experienced a shift in how the public lives due to a pandemic that affected the world in 2020. This has caused many cities around the world to experience a significant decrease in vehicle and transit use in order to stay healthy and follow social distancing guidelines. Therefore, most people have chosen to bike or walk places. This has resulted in a demand for more public space and bikeways. Amongst this new way of life, the City of Vancouver has continued to look for ways to meet their goals of being the greenest city in the world and reducing vehicle use and pollution. For the City of Vancouver 2040 and 2050 are years to meet several targets such as: - Make at least two thirds of all trips by foot, bike and public transit. (Greenest City Action Plan)1 - Enhancing public open spaces, parks, and green linkage (Renewable City Strategy)2 - For 22% of trips to be made on foot (Transportation 2040)3 - For 12% of trips to be made by bike (Transportation 2040)4 - For 33% of trips to be made by transit (Transportation 2040)5Currently, streets take up 30% of Vancouver however, with this demand for more public, pedestrian space, by not only the municipality but by the public as well, there is an opportunity to reimagine how these streets are used. I am proposing that 1/3 or 10% of the current streets and alleys be shut down and transformed into other uses. This will not only provide ease in meeting the goals of 2040 and 2050 but will also aid with the goals for the future years where public space, the pedestrian and environmental actions can be focused on. Therefore, the design proposal looks at these street spaces and gives them back to the pedestrian. I will be focusing on the urban alley and exploring ways in which the alleys can be connected to create a network of green and public spaces for the pedestrian in downtown Vancouver.30% of the and in the City of Vancouver is streets and alleysWhat the grid structure would look like if 50% of the roads and alleys were taken back for the pedestrian and were transformed into public and green space30% of the land in the City of Vancouver is streets and alleysWhat the grid structure would look like if 1/3 of the roads and alleys were taken back for the pedestrian and were transformed into public and green spaceWhat the grid structure would look like if 1/2 of the roads and alleys were taken back for the pedestrian and were transformed into public and green spaceFigure 6: The Vancouver road grid structure gradually given back to the pedestrian4342Notes1     Greenest-City-2020-Action-Plan-2015-2020. pdf. https://       vancouver.ca/files/cov/greenest-city-2020-action-       plan-2015-2020.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov. 2019.2     Renewable-City-Strategy-Booklet-2015.pdf. https://vancouver.       ca/files/cov/renewable-city-strategy-booklet-2015.pdf. Accessed        28 Nov. 2019.3     Infrastructure, Ministry of Transportation and. British Columbia        Active Transportation Design Guide - Province of British        Columbia. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/transportation/       funding-engagement-permits/funding-grants/active-       transportation-infrastructure-funding/forms-resources/active-       transportation-design-guide. Accessed 3 Dec. 2019.4     Ibid.5     Ibid.4544The Present4746Study AreaWest End AlleysStudy Alleys1:40,000Study AreaI began by selecting a 600 acre study area in Vancouver’s downtown to explore the present conditions and analyze where gaps may be in the city. I will be focusing on the urban alleys within this study area and  will be exploring how other uses can be introduced into these spaces. I will be focusing on the ways in which select alleys could be connected to create a network of green and public spaces for the pedestrian in downtown Vancouver. The following maps analyze the circulation (via walking, cycling, and transit), the amount of green space, and the amount of surface parking lots within the study area. Based on this mapping exercise and the information gathered a preliminary network design is proposed and a site, for the design proposal, is chosen.Figure 7: Map of study area and alley location 4948Study AreaEmpty LotsNEmpty LotsSeveral parcels of land within the study are currently empty and being used as surface parking lots. Some will be redeveloped into housing or commercial uses but others can be used as pocket parks, plazas and pedestrian connections across blocks. These empty lots would become opportunities to create connections between alleys and strengthen the functionality of the proposed alley network for pedestrians.Figure 8: Map of empty lots/surface parking lots within the study area5150Study AreaBikewaysNBikewaysOverall the bikeways throughout the study area are abundant however, there is a four by eight block section in the center where there are no designated bikeways. Creating an alley network would allow for the bikeways around Vancouver’s downtown core to be connected and provide more efficient routes for cyclists to move across the city.Figure 9: Map of bikeways within Vancouver’s peninsula5352Study Area100m Radius (1 minute walk)400m Radius (5 minute walk)NGreen Space | Parks + BeachesThe peninsula of Downtown Vancouver is well served with parks, sports fields and beaches however, aside from the connected waterfront there are little connections from waterfront to inner parks and park to park. This map looks at access to green space by creating a radius of 100m (one minute walk) and 400m (five minute walk) around each green space. The map shows that almost all residents living in downtown Vancouver are within a five minute walk to green space. However, there are one and half blocks in the center that are not within a five minute walk. By using the alleys to create a network in the study area the green spaces could become linked and provide quicker access to green space for everyone. The alley network would not only connect people to the green spaces but the network could also serve as a greenway connection between the parks and waterfront to allow for increased animal habitats and a network for animals to be able to use and get from one park to another.Figure 10: Map of the proximity to green space (parks and beaches) within Vancouver’s peninsula5554Study AreaBus RoutesSkytrain RoutesTransit NodesNTransit Routes + NodesOverall the transit options throughout the study area are efficient and frequent. The area is serviced primarily by bus but also has two skytrain lines that travel underground. Most routes travel along Granville Street, Burrard Street, Hastings and W Pender Street. There are a sparse few blocks in the center that are not serviced by bus or train however, the walking distance to a station or bus stop is quite short. These routes and nodes will be of high importance when designing an optimal alley network. Providing pedestrians better access to these nodes and providing those coming from the nodes easy access to the alley network created will be targeted. This proposed network could also provide pedestrians an alternate route via walking or cycling to get across downtown rather than using the bus or train.Figure 11: Map of transit routes and stops/stations within Vancouver’s peninsula5756Study AreaEmpty Lots (Used As Surface Paring Lots)Green Space (Parks)Public Space (Plazas)BikewaysProposed Alley NetworkExisting AlleysNPreliminary Network ProposalBased on the information collected a preliminary network is proposed. This network considers the areas that are poorly served by bikeways or transit stops and considers ways of connecting the existing ones. It also looks to the ways in which green spaces could be connected. These connections are proposed to occur in the existing alleys and empty lots as these spaces are underutilized and can be given new uses for the pedestrian. The following drawings illustrate some initial ideas on how to introduce public and green space in Vancouver’s urban alley.Figure 12: Map of the preliminary network proposal5958The Presentcase studies6160ScopeThis section will be examining the present through a series of case studies on alleys within my study area. These case studies look at five different alleys to understand the variety of uses, building form, and potential for interventions. The five alleys are located in Vancouver’s downtown center. Although my primary interest is in alleys it is necessary to touch on the difference between an alley and a lane as the words are often interchanged. Through this thesis the two words are used however, “alley” and “lane”, although similar, will be considered to have slightly different definitions.Alley: a narrow road between buildings in an urban city centerLane: narrow road or back street typically in a suburban or rural neighborhood In the peninsula of Vancouver, alleys and lanes are treated differently. The major differences are their location, direction they run, and their width.  The West End consists of lanes and Downtown Vancouver consists of alleys. Burrard Street divides the West End and Downtown Vancouver which effectively divides the lanes from the alleys as well as acts as the moment where they change directions. In the West End, south-west of Burrard Street, the lanes run towards Stanley park. However, in Downtown Vancouver, north-east of Burrard Street, the alleys change direction and run from Vancouver Harbor to False Creek. In this area of Vancouver lanes are wider than the alleys. Lanes are approximately 10 meters wide and alleys are approximately 6 meters wide. The City of Vancouver has completed intensive research and consultation of the future of Vancouver’s West End lanes and has written a plan for the development of the lanes in this area called Laneways 2.0. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the urban alley and the opportunities for increased green and public space to be introduced as a new function of the alley.Figure 13: Map of alleys and lanes, Vancouver, CanadaBurrard StreetStanley ParkFalse Creek0102 030405Vancouver HarbourN63621Image close right. Figure 14: Picture of alley 1 (entrance)Image center. Figure 15: Picture of alley 1 (looking South)Image far right. Figure 16: Picture of alley 1 (looking North)6564Alley OneLocation: Width:Total Length:Between (parallel to) Hornby Street and Howe St6m779m (runs from Pacific Street to Nelson Street)Observations:This area is primarily multi-family residential towers. The alley is used for access to underground parkades and deliveries as well as garbage and recycling pick up however, the bins seem to be located within the parkades and are not seen in the alley. The common building typology along this alley were buildings with a podium and tower above. The podium consisted of two storey (6-8 meters) commercial units or two storey townhomes with a rooftop garden and apartment tower above. The tower stepped back to allow for ample outdoor community space for the residents living in the building. This set up a specific rhythm along the alley and the feeling of ownership of the alley as it was clean and taken care of. The many rooftop gardens provide an opportunity in my design proposal where these natural garden spaces could be connected via the alley to provide a larger park space between the buildings and connect the buildings to a pedestrian oriented network throughout the downtown of Vancouver.Granville StSmithe StBurrard StFigure 17:  Diagram of alley 1  featuresImage right. Figure 18: Alley 1 locationHowe StHornby St67662Image close right. Figure 19: Picture of alley 2 (start looking North) Image center. Figure 20: Picture of alley 2 (middle looking South)Image far right. Figure 21: Picture of alley 2 (end looking North)6968Alley TwoLocation: Width:Total Length:Between (parallel to) Howe Street and Granville St 6m799m (runs from Drake Street to Robson Street)Observations:This area is primarily commercial businesses and residential buildings. Many of the buildings along this alley are two storeys however, some have multi-family residential towers above. The alley is used primarily for deliveries, garbage and recycling. The secondary use is access to parkades or surface parking. This alley was in poor condition. This may be due to the abundance of businesses that back onto the alley rather than residential buildings. Alleys with more residential buildings were found to be cleaner as the residents often entered their buildings through the alley and probably felt a sense of ownership and pride in keeping the space tidy and welcome to pedestrians passing through.As the building typology is two storey commercial buildings this alley has an opportunity to take advantage of the rear facade at ground level and perhaps have dual entrances to the existing businesses or the possibility of additional small stores being attached to the rear of the buildings to allow for secondary shopping streets along the alley.Granville StSmithe StBurrard StFigure 22:  Diagram of alley 2  featuresImage right. Figure 23: Alley 2 locationGranville StHowe St71703Image close right. Figure 24: Picture of alley 3 (garbage strewn on the ground)Image center. Figure 25: Picture of alley 3 (revitalized section of alley looking South)Image far right. Figure 26: Picture of alley 3 (end looking South)7372Alley ThreeLocation: Width:Total Length:Between (parallel to) Granville Street and Seymour St 6m969m (runs from Drake Street to W Georgia Street)Observations:This area is primarily commercial businesses, office space and residential buildings. Many of the buildings along this alley are four storeys or higher and create steep walls on either side of the alley. Where there are residential buildings they typically take the form of podium and tower. The alley is used primarily for deliveries, garbage and recycling. The secondary use would be for access to parkades or surface parking (however very few surface parking lots).  Garbage bins are located in the alley causing dirty alleys. A section of the alley was revitalized by HCMA. The paint is still in good condition however, its use seems to mostly the same (for garbage bins and delivery trucks). Only one other person was seen using the alley at the time it was visited.Like the previous alley there are opportunities to take advantage of the rear facade at ground level and perhaps have dual entrances to the existing businesses or the possibility of additional small stores being attached to the rear of the buildings to allow for secondary shopping streets along the alley.Granville StSmithe StBurrard StFigure 27:  Diagram of alley 3  featuresImage right. Figure 28: Alley 3 locationSeymour StGranville St75744Image close right. Figure 29: Picture of alley 4 (looking North)Image center. Figure 30: Picture of alley 4 (middle looking North)Image far right. Figure 31: Picture of alley 4 (revitalized section of alley looking South)7776Alley FourLocation: Width:Total Length:Between (parallel to) Seymour Street and Richards St6m4302m (runs from Pacific Street to W Pender Street)Observations:This area is primarily residential buildings or office buildings with commercial on the ground floor. This alley is very similar to Alley One. The alley is used for garbage and recycling pick up however, the bins seem to be located within the parkades and are not seen in the alley. This alley consisted of a number of buildings with podiums and towers on top. This resulted in rooftop gardens lining the alley at 6-8 meters high. There is a higher number of people that walk along this alley. There is also a section of the alley that was revitalized as well however, it was completed differently then the section in Alley Three. This alley wasn’t painted, instead decorative paving and lighting were installed. As well vehicle access was completely removed (barriers were installed).The many rooftop gardens provide an opportunity in my design proposal where these natural garden spaces could be connected via the alley to provide a larger park space between the buildings and connect the buildings to a pedestrian oriented network throughout the downtown of Vancouver.Granville StSmithe StBurrard StFigure 32:  Diagram of alley 4  featuresImage right. Figure 33: Alley 4 locationRichards StSeymour St79785Image close right. Figure 34: Picture of alley 5 (looking North towards Cathedral Square)Image center. Figure 35: Picture of alley 5 (looking South towards Cathedral Square)Image far right. Figure 36: Picture of alley 5 (middle looking North)8180Alley FiveLocation: Width:Total Length:Between (parallel to) Richards Street and Homer St 6m4760m (runs from Pacific Street to W Pender Street)Observations:This area is primarily commercial businesses, office space and residential buildings. This alley is similar to Alley Three. Many of the buildings along this alley are four storeys or higher and create steep walls on either side of the alley. Where there are residential buildings they typically take the form of podium and tower. The alley is used primarily for deliveries, garbage and recycling. The secondary use is for access to parkades or surface parking (however very few surface parking lots).  Garbage bins are located in the alley causing dirty alleys. At the end of this alley there is a unique condition where the alley is adjacent to a park/plaza space. Largely due to the elevation change and vehicle access there is no connection between the alley and the plaza. The alley also runs perpendicular into another alley that has two to eight storey buildings along it as well as pockets of surface parking lots.The surface parking lots provide an opportunity to become additional park and public space that could be connected through the alley to other parks and public spaces in the area.Granville StSmithe StBurrard StFigure 37: Diagram of alley 5  featuresImage right. Figure 38: Alley 5 locationHomer StW Pender StRichards St8382Urban ConditionsThrough these case studies I was able to understand the variety of uses and building forms along the alley. I found that alleys have at least one, if not more, of the following 5 urban conditions. When selecting my site I ensured that it had several of these urban conditions in order to represent the majority of alleys within downtown Vancouver (the site selected contains the first three conditions). The urban conditions are:01.  Used for garbage and recycling bin storage and removal 02.  Used for access to underground parkades03.  Is a “T” shaped alley (where two alleys perpendicular to each other meet)04.  Contains empty lots or surface parking lots (access to these lots are via the alley)05.  Section of the alley has attempted to be “revitalized”8584The Proposal8786Design ProposalI am proposing to redesign a block along the alley network. Along the alley network each section or block of alley would be redesigned differently as each block has different urban conditions, such as surrounding building height, uses, and building program. Therefore, I am suggesting that there would be three general design categories that each block of alley would fall under. From there each block would be designed based on its unique features. The three design categories are:Each category also suggests what the new use could be for the alley. An alley that falls under ‘Urban’ could be designed into a local shopping area with plazas. ‘Urban Forest’ could be designed into a greenway with plants and trees filling the space. Lastly, an alley that falls under ‘Play’ could be designed into a play space for both children and adults. For this thesis I will be focusing on one type of design category in order to complete an in depth design for the space. I have chosen the ‘Urban’ category as many of the alleys in downtown Vancouver would fall under this section and have selected a site (a block along the alley network) that would meet the criteria for this category. Urban Urban Forest PlayFigure 39: Design categories sketch01. Urban | blocks of alleys that are located in dense, busy,       commercial areas of the city02. Urban Forest | blocks of alleys that currently have some       vegetation along them or are located near parks or other       green spaces (typically residential areas)03. Play | blocks of alleys that are located in residential       neighbourhoods or are areas without playgrounds or fields       near by8988Burrard StreetSiteMMMStanley ParkFalse CreekVancouver HarbourNSiteBased on my previous research and the five urban conditions, I selected a site that is located along the proposed alley network and contains several of these urban conditions. The site is a block located between Hornby and Howe Street and West Pender and Dunsmuir Street. This block is located near transportation hubs and can expect large numbers of pedestrians walking by or through the alley. Figure 40: Map of site location9190Original Plan1: 500NThis plan illustrates the current state of the alley and the following plan illustrates the proposed design for the alley. Image Right. Figure 41: Original plan of site9392New Plan1: 500NAntique ShopPottery StudioRestaurant  + PatioFarmersMarketSeating / Green SpaceBakery(Yoga Studio Above)Restaurant (Yoga Studio Above)Vertical GardenPassagewayBook ShopBike Repair ShopFlower ShopCocktail Lounge(above)PassagewayThe design looks at introducing 10 interventions throughout the alley. These interventions use carved out spaces between and under buildings that are currently being used for service vehicle parking or garbage bins. With fewer vehicles on the streets parking structures will become empty, therefore, uses such as service vehicle parking, garbage bins and deliveries will be relocated to the parking structures. A section of the alley has been blocked off for pedestrian access only. All entries to underground parkades are still accessible. Doing this leaves pockets of empty space able to be designed for the pedestrian. Most pockets have been transformed into shops, an art studio, and plaza space. One pocket has allowed for a restaurant to have a back patio looking onto the alley which creates a connection between the two streets by allowing pedestrians to enter the restaurant from the high street and then exit into the alley and vice versa. Since the alley has several parking structures the one above ground parkade has been turned into a vertical garden space for residents in the area. The pocket below the vertical garden has become a farmers market for food grown above to be sold. Narrow passageways between buildings have been introduced mid block to provide more access points to the alley off the high street. To make use of the limited space alleys have to offer I have designed a cocktail lounge above an entrance to one of the underground parkades that looks down onto the large plaza space. Lastly, a three storey building at the end of the alley has been redesigned into a restaurant, a bakery and yoga studio that open up onto the alley. Image Right. Figure 42: New plan of site9594Howe StreetHornby StreetW Pender StreetDunsmuir StreetAxonometric of Alley1: 800MorningNIn the early morning, when most of the shops are closed and people are on their way to work, the alley is empty and garbage trucks pass through and collect the garbage. At the same time delivery vehicles are dropping off packages to shops and restaurants.The following axonometric drawings look at four times of day to illustrate how the alley changes throughout the day. Image Right. Figure 43: Axonometric of alley - morning9796Howe StreetHornby StreetW Pender StreetDunsmuir StreetAxonometric of Alley1: 800NNoonAt noon the alley becomes busy and the plaza fills with food trucks. People come to get food and sit outside during their lunch breaks. Image Right. Figure 44: Axonometric of alley - noon9998Howe StreetHornby StreetW Pender StreetDunsmuir StreetAxonometric of Alley1: 800NAfternoonDuring the afternoon people begin to finish their work days and fill the alley as they get dinner at the restaurant or pick up fruits and vegetables at the farmer’s market. Image Right. Figure 45: Axonometric of alley - afternoon101100Howe StreetHornby StreetW Pender StreetDunsmuir StreetAxonometric of Alley1: 800NEveningAs it begins to get dark the string lights above and the lights in the pavers turn on. A group gathers in the plaza to listen and dance to a band that is performing. Image Right. Figure 46: Axonometric of alley - evening103102To best illustrate the experience one would have in the alley I will be describing a day in the life of my proposal through 4 different characters (circled in red). Each intervention will be looked at in closer detail through these characters and a series of “Guidelines” are included throughout the drawings to highlight some of the key policies that would be needed to redesign an alley.A Day in the Alley105104ErikaBusiness WomenErika, a young woman, is on her way to work and pushes through the groups of people walking on the street. As she turns the corner she reaches her favourite part of her walk which is strolling through the alley that is just starting to open up. She heads down the alley to a bakery on the corner to grab a coffee. She realizes she is early to work and stops by the book store and browses their selection. After a few minutes it’s time for her to go and she heads to work. At the end of the day her coworkers invite her out for a drink at the cocktail lounge in the alley. As they sit sipping their drinks Erika watches groups of people relaxing and walking through the alley below. As a group they remark on the beautiful transformation that has occurred in this area.107106Recessed Pockets | Guideline 02Pockets under buildings that are used for service vehicle parking and garbage and recycling bins will become spaces for interventions and new uses such as shops, restaurants and cafes. This will bring life to the once forgotten alleys.Bakery + Architecture Book StoreDeliveries | Guideline 01Deliveries and garbage and recycling pickups are to occur early in the morning when the alley is not being used. These uses will be relocated to underground parkades to better utilize the spaces along the alley. See Guideline 06.Image Left. Figure 47: Axonometric render of the bakery and book storeImage Right. Figure 48: Plans and elevations of  the bakery and book storeFarmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10SOUTH ELEVATION1:450GROUND FLOOR PLAN +WEST  ELEVATIONGROUND FLOOR PLAN +NORTH  ELEVATIONSECOND FLOOR PLAN THIRD FLOOR PLAN109108SHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mFloral Shop + Cocktail LoungeFarmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10 GROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATIONSECOND FLOOR PLANImage Left. Figure 49: Axonometric render of the cocktail lounge and flower shopImage Right. Figure 50: Plans and elevations of  the cocktail lounge and flower shopSHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mSigns | Guideline 03Along the alley, signs for stores and shops are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alleys and explore the new spaces. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Neon or illuminated signs are supported as th y will bring life and vibrance throughout the alleys, especially at night.111110CelesteArtistCeleste is a local artist and just started teaching pottery classes at the artist studio off the alley. She loves working in this area as she gets to watch all the people that pass through the alley and see the events that take place on certain days. Today she decides to grab a piece of pizza from the food trucks in the plaza for lunch. Celeste sits at the edge of the water feature enjoying her pizza and people watching. She heads back to the studio to teach her last class, feeling refreshed and invigorated. Once Celeste has finished cleaning up she begins to walk home and notices a stand full of flowers in the distance. Celeste stops at the flower shop on the corner of the alley to pick up some flowers for her sister and then strolls slowly through the alley taking in the evening ambience of soft lighting and music floating through the air.113112Pedestrian Oriented PavingStandard PavingAlleyPottery Studio + PlazaPedestrian Oriented PavingStandard PavingAlleyBreaks in Street Block | Guideline 04Where possible, breaks through the blocks are encouraged to allow greater access and fluidity between main streets and alleys.Paving | Guideline 05Visually stimulating and tactile pavers are to be used in pedestrian only areas of the alley. This will create a warmer space that brings the scale down and allows the space to become pedestrian oriented rather than vehicle oriented.Pedestrian Oriented PavingStandard PavingAlleyFarmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10GROUND FLOOR PLAN +WEST  ELEVATIONImage Left. Figure 51: Axonometric render of the pottery studio and plazaImage Right. Figure 52: Plans and elevations of  the pottery studio and plaza115114SHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mFloral Shop + Cocktail LoungeFarmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10 GROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATIONSECOND FLOOR PLANImage Left. Figure 49: Axonometric render of the cocktail lounge and flower shopImage Right. Figure 50: Plans and elevations of  the cocktail lounge and flower shopSHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mSigns | Guideline 03Along the alley, signs for stores and shops are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alleys and explore the new spaces. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Neon or illuminated signs are supported as th y will bring life and vibrance throughout the alleys, especially at night.117116TyBusiness ManTy is a young local who loves to bike everywhere he goes. Every morning he weaves through the streets on his way to work. Unfortunately, this morning he gets a flat tire and has to walk the rest of the way to work. As he walks he sees a sign for a bike repair shop in the alley behind the building he works in. the shop is so small he had never noticed it before. On his lunch break Ty heads to the bike shop to have his tire replaced. While he waits he strolls down the alley that has been blocked off for pedestrians only. He grabs a coffee and a snack at the bakery nearby. As he sips his coffee Ty decides to continue exploring the alley. He comes across a farmers market which pleases him as he needed to pick up some vegetables for dinner that night. Looking at his watch he realizes his tire should be repaired. Ty weaves through the lunch time crowds, picks up his bike and heads back to finish off the work day.119118Guideline #3Bollards are to be used in areas of the alley to restrict vehicle access. They are able to be folded down to allow for delivery trucks and garbage trucks to pass through in the early morning while the alley is not being used.Guideline #4In areas of the alley that are not restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and resturants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosty and the ability to explore these small local shops.1.5 mBakery, Bike Repair Shop + CourtyardBollards | Guideline 06Bollards are to be used in areas of the alley to restrict vehicle access. They are able to be folded down to allow for delivery trucks and garbage trucks to pass through in the early morning while the alley is not being used.Guideline #3Bollards are to be used in areas of the alley to restrict vehicle access. They are able to be folded down to allow for delivery trucks and garbage trucks to pass through in the early morning while the alley is not being used.Guideline #4In areas of the alley that are not restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and resturants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosty and the ability to explore these small local shops.1.5 mAdditional Space | Guideline 07In areas of the alley that are not restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and restaurants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosity and the ability to explore these small local shops.Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10Guideline #3Bollards are to be used in areas of the alley to restrict vehicle access. They are able to be folded down to allow for delivery trucks and garbage trucks to pass through in the early morning while the alley is not being used.Guideline #4In areas of the alley that are ot restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and resturants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosty and the ability to explore these small local shops.1.5 mGROUND FLOOR PLAN +NORTH  ELEVATIONGROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATIONImage Left. Figure 53: Axonometric render of the bakery and bike repair shopImage Right. Figure 54: Plans and elevations of  the bakery and bike repair shop121120Guideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Farmer’s Market + RestaurantImage Left. Figure 55: Axonometric render of the farmers market and restaurantImage Right. Figure 56: Plans and elevations of  the farmers market and restaurantFarmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10GROUND FLOOR PLAN +WEST  ELEVATIONGROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATIONGuideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.String Lights | Guideline 08String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Guideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Lit Paving | Guideline 09Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorporated into the paving design to add a level of int igue to the alley. L hting should be use  in cr ative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. 123122GeorgeElderly ManGeorge is an elderly man who collects antiques. While he is out for a daily stroll he walks by the entrance to the alley and notices a large sign that says antique shop on it. He stops and turns back and walks down the alley to the antique shop. After spending several minutes in the shop he leaves and continues to walk down the alley. He is surprised at all the signs, shops and activities happening in the alley. He wonders how he never noticed all of this before. He comes across a restaurant patio that protrudes into the alley and sees an old friend sitting there. His friend is thrilled to see him and invites him to sit with him for an early dinner. They talk, eat, and watch as the people shop in the farmers market across the alley. They finish their meals and go their separate ways. 125124Antique Shop + Floral ShopUnderground Parkades | Guideline 10With decreased numbers of cars being driven on the roads this will free up space in parking lots, above ground and underground parkades. Deliveries, garbage and recycling pickup, and other services will be housed in these underground parkades to allow for the spaces off the alleys to be repurposed into shops, restaurants, and public spaceAdditional Space | Guideline 07In areas of the alley that are not restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and restaurants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosity and the ability to explore these small local shops.Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10Guideline #3Bollards are to be used in areas of the alley to restrict vehicle access. They are able to be folded down to allow for delivery trucks and garbage trucks to pass through in the early morning while the alley is not being used.Guideline #4In areas of the alley that are not restricted to pedestrian only traffic, stores may extend into the alley 1.5m. This allows stores, cafes, and resturants to have an outdoor patio or additional space to put items that are for sale out so those walking by can get a closer look. This will add visual stimulation throughout the alley and provide hints of curiosty and the ability to explore these small local shops.1.5 mImage Left. Figure 57: Axonometric render of the antique shopImage Right. Figure 58: Plans and elevations of  the antique shop127126Guideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Farmer’s Market + RestaurantImage Left. Figure 55: Axonometric render of the farmers market and restaurantImage Right. Figure 56: Plans and elevations of  the farmers market and restaurantGuideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.String Lights | Guideline 08String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Guideline #2Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorperated into the paving design to add a level of intrigue to the alley. Lighting should be used in creative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. String lighting from above or similar lighting methods should be used to create a warm and inviting feel to the space that otherwise would be dark.Lit Paving | Guideline 09Lighting throughout the alleys is the most important guideline as it creates the feeling of a safe and vibrant public space. Inset lighting strips are to be incorporated into the paving design to add a level of int igue to the alley. L hting should be use  in cr ative ways to draw pedestrians in as they walk by. Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10GROUND FLOOR PLAN +WEST  ELEVATIONGROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATION129128SHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mFloral Shop + Cocktail LoungeSHOP SHOPGuideline #1Along the alley signs for stores and shop are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alley and explore the new space. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Signs must be installed on storefront facade (not adjacent buildings) and must meet all other regulations outlined in the City of Vancouver Sign Bylaw.SHOP1m2mSigns | Guideline 03Along the alley, signs for stores and shops are encouraged as they will entice pedestrians to come into the alleys and explore the new spaces. Signs are permitted to extend a maximum of 1m into the alley and can be a maximum of 2m tall.  Neon or illuminated signs are supported as th y will bring life and vibrance throughout the alleys, especially at night.Farmers Market12 345 6 7 8 9 + 10 GROUND FLOOR PLAN +EAST  ELEVATIONSECOND FLOOR PLANImage Left. Figure 49: Axonometric render of the cocktail lounge and flower shopImage Right. Figure 50: Plans and elevations of  the cocktail lounge and flower shop131130 Image Right. Figure 59: Render, Dunsmuir Street entrance, looking northHere you can see George walking down the alley towards the antique shop. You can also see the flower shop that’s on the corner and the cocktail lounge that is above the entrance to an underground parkade.Dunsmuir Street Entrance | Looking NorthFloral ShopAntique ShopJoyeauxCafe133132 Image Right. Figure 60: Render, plaza and farmer’s market, looking northWalking further down the alley you would see the plaza area with the farmers market and restaurant patio poking out in the background. You can see George on his way to the restaurant and Erika on her way to the cocktail lounge.Plaza + Farmer’s Market | Looking North135134 Image Right. Figure 61: Render, alley intersection, looking southHaving walked to the end of the alley you have reached the “T” and are looking back down the alley. The bakery is shown here on the corner with the farmers market in the background. Alley Intersection | Looking South137136 Image Right. Figure 70: Render, Hornby Street entrance, looking eastThis view is looking into the alley off of Hornby Street, looking at the bakery down the alley and yoga studio above. You can see Erika getting her coffee and Ty walking away from the bike repair shop.Hornby Street Entrance | Looking East139138ConclusionThrough this thesis an in-depth exploration of Vancouver’s alleys took place. It was found that alleys have fallen by the wayside for many cities and are seen as the unattractive and service spaces of the city. However, through research and case studies it was determined that alleys have much more value and can be the key to creating a more connected and pedestrian friendly city. A network using alleys and empty lots was proposed to create these connections across the city and a block of an alley was redesigned into a space tailored to the pedestrian. In addition, guidelines were proposed in order to replicate the alley design throughout the other sections of alleys along the network. Each alley has unique conditions that give them the ability to become treasures woven throughout the city. As Jane Jacobs stated, alleys are network connectors for the city and reiamaging them can make for healthier cities. 141140Bibliography143142Association, Historic Vehicle. “How the Automobile Shaped America: The ’Burbs - Historic Vehicle Association (HVA).”      Historic Vehicle Association (HVA), 14 May 2013, https://www.historicvehicle.org/how-the-automobile-shaped-     america-the-burbs/.Bartholomew’s Vancouver Plan Goes Digital.” Vancouver City Planning Commission, 1 Aug. 2011, http://     vancouverplanning.ca/blog/batholomews-vancouver-plan-goes-digital/.Bergmann, Jens von. Vancouver Streets and Lanes. 4 June 2018, https://doodles.mountainmath.ca/blog/2018/06/04/     vancouver-streets-and-lanes/.Greenest-City-2020-Action-Plan-2015-2020.pdf. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/greenest-city-2020-action-     plan-2015-2020.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov. 2019.Holland, Oscar. “Our Cities May Never Look the Same Again after the Pandemic.” Our Cities May Never Look the Same      Again after the Pandemic, 9 May 2020, https://www.cnn.com/style/article/cities-design-coronavirus/index.html.“Infrastructure, Ministry of Transportation and. British Columbia Active Transportation Design Guide - Province of      British Columbia. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/transportation/funding-engagement-permits/funding-grants/     active-transportation-infrastructure-funding/forms-resources/active-transportation-design-guide. Accessed 3 Dec.      2019.Jackson, Amanda. “Seattle to Permanently Close 20 Miles of Streets to Traffic so Residents Can Exercise and Bike on Them.”      Seattle to Permanently Close 20 Miles of Streets to Traffic so Residents Can Exercise and Bike on Them, 7 May 2020,      https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/seattle-streets-closed-stay-healthy-trnd/index.html.“Laneways We Love.” The Laneway Project, https://www.thelanewayproject.ca/lanewayswelove. Accessed 9 Dec. 2019.145144Legacy Open Data Catalogue: City of Vancouver Open Data Catalogue. https://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/index.     htm. Accessed 25 Oct. 2019.Legacy VanMap | City of Vancouver. https://vanmapp.vancouver.ca/pubvanmap_net/default.aspx. Accessed 25 Oct. 2019.Meyboom, A. and Vass, L. (2019). Driverless Urban Futures: A Speculative Atlas for Autonomous Vehicles. New York:      Routledge.Philadelphia Walking Tour: Historic North of Market: Elfreth’s Alley. https://www.ushistory.org/districts/marketstreet/     elfre.htm. Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.Renewable-City-Strategy-Booklet-2015.pdf. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/renewable-city-strategy-booklet-2015.pdf.      Accessed 28 Nov. 2019.“Roads and Highways | Transportation.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/technology/road.      Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.“School of Historical Studies, Department of History Hardware Lane North - Entry - eMelbourne - The Encyclopedia of      Melbourne Online. http://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM01831b.htm. Accessed 9 Dec. 2019.“The Top 5 Cities in Canada.” Travel + Leisure, https://www.travelandleisure.com/worlds-best/cities-in-canada. Accessed      12 Dec. 2019.Town/City Planning in Ancient Greece. http://www.hellenicaworld.com/Greece/Technology/en/CityPlan.html. Accessed      25 Oct. 2019.147146“Urbanization | Definition, History, Examples, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/     urbanization. Accessed 11 Dec. 2019.“Urban Planning | Definition, History, Examples, Importance, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.     com/topic/uban-planning. Accessed 12 Dec. 2019.Vancouver Town Planning Commission, and Harland Bartholomew and Associates. A Plan for the City of Vancouver,      British Columbia, Including a General Plan of the Region. 1928. Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/     vancplanincgen00vanc.Vancouver Planning Chronology. http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/473727/Vancouver-Planning-Chronology/#va     rs!date=2018-04-27_18:34:23! Accessed 16 Oct. 2019.Wolch, J., Newell, J., Seymour, M., Huang, H., Reynolds, K. and Mapes, J. (2010). The Forgotten and the Future:      Reclaiming Back Alleys for a Sustainable City. 42nd ed. [ebook] pp.2875. 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