UBC Graduate Research

Entangled : Enhancing Salmon Kinship Networks Tomkins, Karen 2020-05

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iiiRelease FormMaster’s of Landscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaKaren TomkinsEntangled: Enhancing Salmon Kinship NetworksSupervisor: Kees LockmanIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Land-scape Architec-ture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for education¬al purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Name      Signature    DateiiiiiEntangledTo cause to become twisted together or caught in a snarl or entwining mass. iv“What matters is the potency of a belief, the manner in which a con-viction plays out in the day-to-day lives of a people, for in a very real sense this determines the ecological footprint of a culture, the impact that any society has on its environment. A child raised to believe that a mountain is an abode of a protective spirit will be a profoundly differ-ent human being from a youth brought up to believe that a mountain is an inert mass of rock ready to be mined.”    Wade Davisv AbstractOur beliefs and stories about our place within the natural world have potent, profound and direct implications for the ways we individu-ally and collectively impact the planet.  Dominant cultural norms tell us that nature is subordinate to human and created explicitly for us. Human supe-riority goes largely unquestioned, allowing us to treat non-humans as “its,” mere resources to be exploited. As professor and botanist Robin Kimmer-er writes, “land is not a machine but a community of respected non-human persons to whom we hu-mans have a responsibility.” Part One of this thesis is in essay format and argues Kimmerer’s point that we have a responsi-bility to our places and our non-human kin upon whom we depend. It seeks to challenge the separa-tion between human – animal and nature – culture through discussion on kinship, agency, animacy and other ways of knowing. I conclude with a discussion on the discipline of landscape architecture and its role as disseminator of Imperial agendas and ask how we can instead be advocates for place-cen-tered social, ecological, and cultural justice.  Part Two contains the narrative and accom-panying illustrations of my design proposal Entan-gled: Enhancing Salmon Kinship Networks. Entan-gled explores ways of designing for interspecies co-authorship that fosters respect for and connec-tion to our non-human kin through the relational networks of Pacific Salmon. Salmon are the iconic being that ties seascapes to landscapes and whose bodies serve as a foundation for the evolution of our temperate rainforests. Salmon impact many kin through their decaying bodies which rest in streams and forests along the coast. Entangled is a process by which human action is deployed as vector, offer-ing Salmon’s carcass to the forests and streams in order to nourish tangled connections of kin. viviiContentsFront Matter Abstract       v Figures + Illustrations      ix Gratitude       xi Intent + Position      xiiPart One: research       2 Field of Inquiry      3 Modern Western Inheritance     5 Kinship + Relationality      7 Agency        9 Animism       13 Place-Thought + Dwelling     15 Respect + Reciprocity      19 On Stolen Land      21 Conclusion       25 Endnotes       27Part Two: proposal       30End Matter Bibliography       83 Image Credits       87viiiixFigures + IllustrationsComparison of Western +  Native American Politics + Ethics  4Humanity’s Place Within Creation 8The Hierarchy of Animacy  10The Nature - Culture Nexus  14Epistemological +  Ontological Comparison   16Entanglements    33Salmon Home Range   36Who’s Who?    37Salmon Anatomy and Perception 38Before Time ...    40Dip-net fishing    41Fence weir    42Salmon ceremony - Swinomish  42Stone traps - Squamish   42Gill netting - Lheidli T’enneh  42Salmon’s Journey   45The Agency of Salmon   46Riverine Entanglements   47Estuarine Entanglements  50Oceanic Entanglements   51Riverine Entanglements   54Fish waste - cannery   56Effluent discharge - fish farm waste  56‘Fish frames” - Industrial processor 56Bear + Salmon    57Vectors     59Lower Mainland Waterways + Parks 62Carcass Connections   63Location Key    65Musqueam Creek Watershed  66Trailside Offering   67Existing trail network    68Potential offering plantform areas  69Designated Offering   70Streamside Offering   71Existing bridges    72Existing Infrastructure   73Potential Infrastructure   76Unfolding Entanglements - GIF  78Unfolding Entanglements - stills  79+xxi   For SalmonThanks to Kees Lockman for all the encour-agment and enthusiastically guiding me towards an unconventional project. And for all your patience and support when I was lost in so much research. Thank you Nyn Tomkins + Marcus Reyner-son for generously offering your support, encour-agement, excitment and reflections throughout the whole process.Gratitude to Mark Kang-O’Higgins, Ellen Haas, and David Moskowitz for your keen editing eyes and thoughtful questions regarding my re-search essay.Thanks to Celia Winters for your epic col-lage skills, hilarity and encouragement, and to Scott Archer for your willingness to support, especially with data and GIS wrangling. GratitudexiiIntent + PositionDecolonizationto release from a status of colony. The active re-sistance to the forces of colonialism. Colonizationthe formal and informal methods that maintain the subjugation and/or exploitation of Indigenous peoples and lands.Decolonization is a frame for applying a critical lens to the systems of power set in place through colonization. While it has become a buzz word and thus is often watered-down, there are still meaningful and active ways we can engage in this process. I believe we all have a responsibility to en-gage with this in our own individual and collective ways. Part of this is examining and making visible our own positionality and power. In an ongoing ef-fort to do so I have included, as the author, a sec-tion about my own positionality and identity. Ad-ditionally, I have included some guiding questions and inquiries that I’ve engaged with over several years and throughout this thesis.  I am a sixth generation Canadian of European ancestry. I was born and raised on Anishi-nabek and Haudenosaunee traditional territory in what is now called Ontario. Both my maternal and paternal lines are largely from Ireland and England with some French and German as well. I identify as a cis-gender caucasian woman. In choosing to train as a landscape archi-tect it is vital to challenge dominate narratives and constructions of power. This is especially true, given how much of British Columbia is situated on sto-len or unceded lands. I believe it is irresponsible for me to begin a career designing landscapes without engaging in the ongoing process of becoming more aware of this history, its impacts and its legacy in our lives today. I am committed to the ongoing process of decolonization and that means embracing discom-fort and not having all the answers. Checking in with my motivations on a continual basis and being engaged in a self-reflective and self-critical process xiiiis necessary in order to become aware of internal colonial oppressive structures that are operating unconsciously. I make no claim to be an expert in this process nor to have even accomplished much more than scratching the surface.Some questions that I think are valuable to reflect on in this process: 1. How can I use this new information in my everyday life?2. What steps can I personally take to amplify marginalized voices that are too often silenced?3. What privileges do I have and how can they be leveraged? 4. How can I use my position and privileges to listen, shift power dynamics, and take steps towards taking action? 112PART ONE3Field of InquiryAgencyThe ability to make choices and act upon them.WesternOf or relating to the west-ern part of the world, in particular Europe and North AmericaImperialismThe principle of policy of empires; the advocacy of holding political dominion or control over dependent territoriesIndigenousbelonging to a particular place and having a histor-ical existence and identity prior to and separate from any colonial occupationOntologythe science of study of being; the branch of meta-physics concerned with the nature or essence of being or existenceIn March of 2017, Aotearoa’s (New Zea-land) Whanganui River was granted human status in the courts after centuries of Maori efforts to have their relationship with the river acknowledged.2 The first of its kind in the world, this legal precedent has led many to question the way we define ‘human’, and the ways we grant agency to the natural world. Since then, several countries have followed suit; with India declaring the Ganges and Yamuna rivers as legal ‘living entities,’ and Columbia doing some-thing similar for the Rio Atrato.3 Aotearoa has since extended this legal protection to Mount Taranaki as well, diversifying the types of landscape features deemed worthy of such protection. Chris Finlayson, New Zealand’s Treaty Ne-gotiations Minister, acknowledged that many peo-ple might find it “pretty strange to give a natural resource a legal personality,”4 yet this same attribu-tion of ‘legal personality’ has been unquestioned in its application to family trusts, companies and incorporated societies for decades.  These debates highlight the vast ontological divide that exists be-tween Western Imperial and Indigenous notions of agency. How a society defines and assigns agency is fundamental to their ontological positioning and impacts how these beings can exist within the so-cial, ecological or spiritual domains of that society.5 We are at a crossroads, where the superiority and universality of the Western Imperial cultural my-thologies are being questioned and dismantled. We have not just an opportunity, but I believe, a re-sponsibility as human beings to bring about an on-tological shift in how we relate to the natural world and our place within it. Leading the way are Indigenous communi-ties across the globe who have witnessed their cos-mologies, lands, and lifeways devalued, stolen, and/or destroyed and who have been resisting and sub-verting Western Imperial dominance for centuries. While care must be taken not to generalize across cultures and nations, similar themes appear again and again across the globe within cultures that are deeply connected to place. As stated by Rojas from his perspective on place-based cultures:…the land, understood as a living and pow-erful being, is inhabited also by a community that is formed by a plethora of living beings, of which humans are just one part, while at the same time, the land has continuities in the hu-man body; the conviction that all living beings 4Comparison of Western + Native American Politics + Ethicsadapted from Deloria 2001are relatives and the extent to which life is to be realized and reproduced depends on the recognition and reverence of this ‘family’ of relationships. Finally, the principle of general-ized reciprocity… and the required balance of the relationships among humans, other living creatures, and the land as a whole permeate all aspects of daily life.6The bulk of this thesis humbly attempts to expand on these global themes and propose them as a framework to begin to shift the practice of land-scape architecture. We cannot shift the trajectory of global crises from within the same ontology that got us here to being with. Technological innovation and solutions can only help us if they are generated from a place where nature and culture, human and non-human are an intertwined, ever changing or-ganism of which we are just one small part. 5Modern Western InheritanceColonialismThe policy of practice of a nation to maintain or ex-tend its control over other countries, especially in es-tabilishing settlements of exploiting resourcesEpistemologythe theory of knowledge and understandingThe separation between nature - culture and human - animal have been central to the suc-cessful spread of Western Imperial power systems across the globe. Pinning these as opposites, has enabled us to live in a worldview where we need not consider the moral or ethical implications of our actions towards the natural world. The global crisis today has more to do with how we view the world and our place within it than in our failure to find technological solutions to rising atmospheric carbon, mass starvation, myriad health crises, ex-tinctions and toxic overload to name just a few. Cartesian dualism is widely cited as a main influence for many Western philosophies, most notably the reign of rationalism which states that reason, through deduction and the intellect, is the ultimate source of knowledge. This is in direct op-position to empiricism which centers experience and the senses as the means to attain knowledge. Western Imperialism is founded in reductionism that supports the Cartesian notion that mind and body are distinct from one another. This has given rise to an epidemic of belief that one’s perception (which is thought to occurs solely in the mind) is distinct from the world itself and the physical body that contains it.7 This dualistic worldview, combined with imperial colonialism has resulted in the domi-nance and objectification of the natural world and an “…assumed divide between nature and society—and the accompanying focus on deanimate, disem-bodied, undisputed reason—has led directly into the current ecological crisis.”8  There are of course, other epistemologies that stand in stark contrast to the overculture.  As Daniel Wildcat, renowned scholar, professor and member of the Muscogee Nation puts it:The dualisms or dichotomies between the spiritual and material, culture and nature, sub-jective and objective, sacred and profane that operate so deeply in the Western worldview appear largely absent from the American In-dian and Alaska Native worldviews of which I am familiar. Indigenous traditions recognize the sacred in a world simultaneously spiritual and physical.9Indigenous architect Chris Cornelius sums this is up as Western minds think nature is mine whereas Indigenous minds think nature is me.10  6Anthropocentrismthe belief that humans are more important than any-thing or anyone elseOverculturethe dominant culture in a soceity, whose mores, traditions and customs are those normally followed in publicRooted culturea cultural group whose sense of place is central to their way of being, ideas, beliefs, practices and who repect the natural world and maintain a sense of spiritual reverence and connectivity with all of CreationThe roots of modern western thinking are themselves more nuanced than simple Cartesian dichotomies. In Aristotle’s time, distinctions were made between various qualities of place. The term topos first coined by Aristotle, describes a place as an inert container that has no influence on the ob-jects or creatures within its sphere. Chora, by con-trast, a Platonic term, sees place as the mother of all things that resonate with the human experience, a choreographer for all of life.11 The modern western psyche is predominantly one trapped in the world of topos - a world full of objects that one moves around in, but to which one never fully belongs. Within the dominant systems of Western academia, we find various disciplines that have attempted to offer alternative approaches.  Zoe Todd, Metis scholar and professor of anthropology, acknowledges that much work has been done in anthropology on human-animal relations and Indig-enous epistemologies and scholarship that “chal-lenge the accepted anthropocentrism of contem-porary Euro-Western political discourses and offer an alternate view of humans and animals engaged in relationships that transcend dualistic notions of nature/culture and human/animal.“12  Absolutes are of course rarely true and pin-ning ‘Western vs Indigenous’ is yet another dualism that is best used carefully and thoughtfully. What is meant by Western? This term becomes even more problematic when we acknowledge that Western merely denotes a relative place on the globe that contains and supports diverse rooted cultures that have been and continue to resist Imperial and co-lonial domination.13 The term leaves a lot to be de-sired and while I’ve continued to use it throughout this essay, I’m holding questions around its effica-cy and looking for suitable replacements that offer more specific and nuanced definitions.  Over the course of this essay I will refer to the complex system created by Western Imperial Colonialism and Capitalism as the overculture, not because it is superior to other cultures but because of its dominating and homogenizing tendency to spread around the globe. Alternative worldviews are of course, everywhere, and speak to the cultural diversity that is beautifully etched across the globe. I refer to these cultures as Indigenous or as root-ed cultures, because they are of their places and are therefore by necessity smaller in spatial scale and do not seek to replicate themselves across the world.  A full history of the overculture and how we got here is beyond the scope of this thesis, yet some brief context is important. 7Kinship + RelationalityKinship RelationsPluralities of FishKina group of persons de-scended from a common ancestorKinshipthe systems of relation-ships traditionally ac-cepted in a culture and the right and obligations which they involveWho or what is considered kin is a question with huge implications.  The overculture defines kin as those of the same blood family or race.  Yet many of the world’s 6000 or more human cultures have expanded notions of who they consider re-lated and within their family networks, extending them across species divides and abiotic systems. The boundaries we draw around who is included or excluded in our kinship circle has drastic impacts on how we interact with and imagine the world and our place within it. Expanded kinship notions necessitate a keen awareness of the aliveness of the world around us and our place of belonging within a vast web of life in which we are all dependent.14 From a Nuu-chah-nulth perspective, Richard Atleo speaks of family being applied across species boundaries, to all beings who have families. This includes salmon, deer, bear, and eagle and ultimately all the world is made up of family relationships.15 This extension of kinship to all life acknowledges our similarity with and dependence upon and across species divides. It allows us to live in a world where nature includes human culture as well as the familial cultures of our other-than-human kin.The fish-human relations in Paulatuuq, Northwest Territories are embodiments of these truths of relationality forged into networks of reli-ance with kin over time. Fish are treated at once pragmatically but also with great respect. They are not separate from community but woven into all as-pects of the lives of the people and afforded agency of their own. There is a dependence on kin for sur-vival in the very real sense of the word but along-side this, and inseparable from it, is an acknowl-edgement and reverence for the fish as part of our circle of kin.16 Seeing a fish merely as a source of food denies the pluralities that Todd describes as critical for the people in Paulatuuq; not only do fish ensure human survival as a plentiful food source, they do so because hu-man-fish relationships represent a whole host of social, cultural, and legal-governance prin-ciples that underpin life in Paulatuuq. Humans and fish, together, share complex and nuanced political and social landscapes that shape life in the community. 178Humanity’s Place Within CreationOther-than-humanthe vast community of beings that exist who are not human. This includes animals, fish, birds as well as those deemed to be ob-jects such as rocksEmbodying kinship as a worldview means that other-than-humans are relatives too; intrinsi-cally valued and respected as members of an ex-tended family that have multiple important ways they engage in the world, many of which do not directly involve humans. Chris Cornelius, architect and citizen of the Oneida Nation, believes that if we begin to engage with the natural world as if it were full of familial relationships it will fundamentally change the way we are in the world as human beings.  We would have no need for sustainability because everything we do would be from a place that honours the fact that we are related to all of Creation.18 In order to truly elevate other-than-human-beings to kin we must discuss the concept of agency and how we, as a culture, define who has it and who doesn’t. 9AgencyActor-Network TheoryActor-Network Theorya theoretical and method-ological approach to social theory that treats every-thing in the social and natural worlds as a contin-uously generated effect of the webs of relationsAgency is defined within social science as the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices. All societies assign agency, and this has significant implications. Agency within the overculture has largely been re-served solely for humans and at various times in history, not even extended to include all humans. This anthropocentric view elevates the human spe-cies above all others and separates us from the relational networks within which we are evolution-arily entwined. It relegates the rest of Creation to mere automatons that function on instinct alone. Thankfully, numerous theories and epistemologies within multiple dominant scientific disciplines have offered alternatives. One of the most widely known theories around agency within the field of anthropology and social sciences is Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Cre-ated by anthropologist and philosopher Bruno La-tour, ANT is a theoretical framework that attempts to tie everything that exists into a web of relation-ships. These webs consist of both tangible and conceptual actors. They are themselves constantly being made and remade, as relationships are seen to be akin to performances. This theory seeks to de-centralize our anthropocentric assumptions by highlighting the ability of non-human agents to act and participate in the network i.e. by giving them agency. This has been and continues to be a contro-versial way of approaching the world.Academically, there are those who are un-comfortable with the notion of attributing agency to non-human beings and thus debates over the definition and location of agency itself have be-come commonplace.  Some will only accept that animals and ‘things’ have agency if we distinguish that from intentionality or will which are qualities reserved only for humans. Others go so far as to separate agency from consciousness itself and place it solely within the relations between two in-dividuals. 19 Vanessa Watts, Mohawk/Anishinaabe and professor of Sociology, offers a critique of these debates: “we can see how Euro-Western thought is beginning to embrace the contributions of the non-human world; however, the controversial ele-ment of agency is often redesigned when applied to non-humans, thereby keeping this epistemo-logical-ontological divide intact.”20  Even though ANT emphasizes a plane of action that is equalized amongst all elements, agency itself is redefined so that one maintains some ‘special’ attribute that only humans possess. This framing allows us to con-10The Hierarchy of Animacyadapted from Schapper 2010Homo sapiensThe Agency of FIshtinue to relate to other-than-human kin as ‘its’ and maintain some sense of superiority. What then does it mean to be human? Overculture science has sought to find a criterion with which we can forever elevate ourselves above the animal world. This obsession with specialness has led to the redefinition of concepts such as agency and points to our discomfort in considering ourselves as just another animal on planet earth. Whether it is through language, an ability to use tools, the ability to recognize one’s self in a mir-ror etc we have continued to come up with new ways of separating ourselves from mere beasts. But there are also scientists who show again and again that these special human qualities are in fact shared with many other animals, whether it be that Raven uses tools, or Orca has a sophisticated lan-guage system, we continue to be confronted by the humanness of our animal kin. 21Creation stories around the world speak of a time when humans first arrived on earth after it had already been created. Some interpretations of the Abrahamic religions see this late arrival as ev-idence for the fact that it was created for us and therefore, we have dominion and right over it. An-other possibility that Watts writes about from her cultural perspective, is that we humans arrived ‘in a state of dependence on an already-functioning so-ciety with particular values, ethics, etc.”22 She goes on to say that it was only through the help and the agreements we made with our non-human kin that we were able to survive on earth. The relationship between fish and humans in the northern community of Paulatuuq is one in which their agency and autonomy is recognized. A fish can discern whether a fisherperson is being respectful and can decide for itself if it will allow itself to be caught. “To be a successful fisherman in Paulatuuq, one must understand the behaviour and agency of fish, and must be cognizant of their abil-ity to “know” when someone acts with or without respect.”23  The diversity of beings that inhabit the world have their own abilities to make decisions, agreements, and collaborative efforts in ways that are unique to who they are. They are each differ-ent in ways that reflect the ‘is-ness’ of the species as well as the individual. These agreements can be made with other non-humans of course but also with human beings. We are directly influenced and impacted by these other-than-human kin, whom Watts refers to as ‘societies.’ Habitats and ecosys-tems, from and Indigenous perspective are societ-ies that have ethical structures, inter-species trea-11ties and agreements and can interpret, understand and implement on their own accord. These societ-ies directly influence how we as humans interact with and organize ourselves within that society.24 Watts attributes agency itself to the spirit and in-tentionality to the land: …if we think of agency as being tied to spir-it, and spirit exists in all things, then all things possess agency…Our ability to have sophisti-cated governance systems is directly related to not only the animals’ ability to communicate with us, but their willingness to communicate with us... Spirit is contained within all elements of nature and therefore, we, as humans, know our actions are intrinsically and inseparably tied to land’s intentionality – quite a counter position from notions of diluted formulations of agency.25  The concept of agency is important to consider as we begin to think about how we can decentralize notions of human superiority and begin to respect the world in which we live. The human-made division that sets us apart from the animal world is thinning and rightfully so, it seems we are being called to recognize the vast similarities and connections we share with our non-human kin.1213AnimismNature-culture NexusLand as Aliveterms as dwelling within the world, the notion that we are both products of and producers in the world in which we live.27 The modern mind, argues Sheridan and Longboat, is the product of a culture long gutted of its mythological ethos that connects the human mind and spirit to landscape.28 Wildcat describes these connections as the nature-culture nexus: “… a symbiotic relationship that recognizes the fundamental connectedness and relatedness of human communities and societies to the natural environment and the other-than-human relatives they interact with daily.”  This is not a New Age notion or a romantic ideal, it is, according to Wild-cat, “existential fact – the closest thing we can call objective fact.” 29  This symbiotic relationship is en-twined in myriad rooted cultures around the world.Seeing the land as alive and sentient was once commonplace and is embedded in the coso-mological roots of the overculture, such as from no-tions mentioned earlier like chora and genius loci. There are incredibly diverse ways of imagining the world, that grants life and agency to what is now so often seen as lifeless and inert. Examples abound around the globe and are as diverse as the land-scapes they inhabit. To the Barasana of the Ama-zon, the landscape is alive and humans are part of this web of aliveness: Human beings, plants, and animals share the same cosmic origins, and in a profound sense are seen as essentially identical, responsive to the same principles, obligated by the same To be animate is to possess or be charac-terized by life. Yet animism is something more: it recognizes the inherent life within beings in the nat-ural world and the phenomena of nature. Western science sorts things as either ‘alive’ or ‘dead’ and so has divided the natural world into stark categories that deny most of the living world its life force. Be-yond just agency’s notion of free will, to be animate is not only to possess life but also consciousness and soul. Animism is thought to be the oldest and most widespread belief-system, central to many In-digenous cosmologies worldwide.  It posits that all the material world has agency and is without stark distinctions between spiritual and physical reality. It attributes spirit or sentience to animals, plants, rocks, and landscape features like mountains and rivers. 26Handcock I assert that our very survival depends on us acknowledging and living from what Ingold Animateendowed with life, living, aliveAnimismthe belief that all natural beings and things such as plants, animals, rocks and thunder are alive, have a soul, and move with intent 14The Nature - Culture NexusDeep Ecologyduties, responsible for the collective well-be-ing of creation. There is no separation be-tween nature and culture…Thus the norms that drive social behavior also define the manner in which human beings interact with the wild, the plants and animals, the multiple phenomena of the natural world, lighting and thunder, the sun and the moon, the scent of a blossom, the sour odour of death. Everything is related, everything is connected, a single in-tegrated whole. Mythology infuses land and life with meaning, encoding expectations and behaviours essential to survival in the forest, anchoring each community, every maloca, to a profound spirit of place. 30Joe Sheridan and Dan Longboat, write about Haudenosaunee cosmology as ‘a planet where everything is alive and sentient.’31 They as-sert that in an animate world, we are in a life-long conversation in which we belong not to ourselves but to all of Creation. Reciprocity becomes a re-sponsibility and ‘relationships to landscape and cul-ture become ongoing, self-supporting processes.’32 Western scientific disciplines have begun to recognize the aliveness and spirit within cre-ation. Deep ecologists believe in the intrinsic value of all living beings regardless of how useful they are to humans. It attempts to separate itself from what is deemed to be anthropocentric environmental-ism that focuses on conservation of lands that have some value to humans. This branch of ecology val-ues holistic and non-reductive approaches to the earth in which it is seen to function as a whole and humans as just one part. There has been a critique of some deep ecologists who have demonized hu-manity and branded us all parasites that would do the earth and all of life a favor by dying out. This of course, is an oversimplification of the issue and fails to recognize the myriad instances in which rooted cultures have thrived materially, culturally, spiritu-ally and ecologically by living well in place. Humans are capable of being life-enhancers who, like the beaver, build structures that provide habitat and strengthen ecosystems in ways that benefit many species. 15Place-Thought + DwellingDwellingPlace-Thoughtedge the agency in which nature and land operate. Place is not a tabula rasa that people simply proj-ect myths and memory onto, but it is a living eco-system of entities, able to co-create place-worlds along-side human and other-than-human kin.34 Hu-man culture is not a tool to control, mediate and reengineer nature to fit our limited human notions of what life on earth should be but rather as one of many possible expressions of how humans ‘inte-grate their lives into the landscapes and ecosystems of the Earth’s biosphere.’35 Watts takes the notion of animacy even fur-ther by suggesting that places themselves are inti-mately linked to the very thoughts that we think and therefore are co-creators in what we believe to be our autonomy and agency as human beings. “Place-Thought is the non-distinctive space where place and thought were never separated because they never could or can be separated. Place-Thought is based upon the premise that land is alive and think-ing and that humans and non-humans derive agen-cy through the extensions of these thoughts.”36 Through place-thought the boundaries between nature and culture cannot be maintained and the objective perspective of a scientist becomes im-possible. If the very places we dwell influence and impact our thoughts and minds, then Cartesian dualism which asserts that mind and thought are separate from the body and the environment, be-comes a fallacy. Human culture becomes a direct extension of the place in which it forms, and the agency of the human mind comes into question. Anthropologist Tim ngold’s term dwelling embeds humans within a network of relations that reframes our actions as being of the world and thus inseparable from its continual unfolding: The world itself takes on the character of an organism, and the movements of animals - in-cluding those of us human beings - are parts or aspects of its life-process. This means that in dwelling in the world, we do not act upon it, or do things to it; rather we move along with it. Our actions do not transform the world, they are part and parcel of the world’s transforming itself.33 Landscape is a social construction in part because the social-cultural dimensions of our lives cannot be separated from the place in which they occur. The overculture so often fails to acknowl-16Epistemological + Ontological Comparisonfrom Watts 2013Technol-ogies of Entangle-mentThe ability to communicate with place is a foreign concept to many people within the over-culture. The very technologies that rooted cultures have developed over time have been devalued and dismissed by the overculture as superstitious, prim-itive, and unscientific. Richard Atleo, Nuu-chah-nulth hereditary chief, speaks about the vision quest (one of these technologies) as a time when one is in a four-day ceremony and where nature and her creatures speak directly to you. This type of com-munication, says Atleo, is usual and is in fact em-pirically verified through paying attention to signs and events that unfold to corroborate the commu-nications that took place. This extends not only to one’s living relatives, but into the deep past through a long line of ancestral knowledge holders. In this way, speaking to the other-than-human world isn’t just verified, it is normalized and valued as an im-portant and reliable way of uncovering truths about the world.37 With such a singular focus on a narrow way of knowing, the overculture misses the multi-ple dimensions and truths about what it means to be human and dwelling in the world. Indigenous cultures around the world have complex mythologies and stories that speak to the agency and spirit of place and the sacred connections between all life. The tendency within the overculture is to categorize these as mere met-aphor and symbology, which essentially dismisses them as fable and maintains the superiority of the overculture as sole truth holder. Their literal inter-pretation is critical to social justice, self-determina-tion, and the dismantling of destructive and hege-monic worldviews.3817Colonization has disrupted the agency and ability of Indigenous peoples to communicate with their homelands and to honour the critical respon-sibilities they have upheld since time immemorial. As extensions of the land, Watts asserts that they have an obligation to maintain communications. Di-rect human to non-human reciprocal networks are damaged or lost in their entirety when communi-cation fails and thus they lose who they are as a people,39 and I would argue, the place itself and the non-human kin also suffer huge loss. 1819Respect + ReciprocityGrounded NormativityKwakwa-ka’wakw Clam GardensThe implications of living within a world full of relatives are stark. How we treat animals and plants within the overculture would have to drasti-cally change. Within Anishinaabe ontology, all be-ings are considered part of a social order that is in-teracted with through moral frameworks that treat humans and non-humans alike. “… elders acknowl-edged that power may be differentially distributed among beings. They pointed out that this does not create an ethical hierarchy that privileges one set of beings, e.g., humans, over another. None can be denied the right to exist or to be treated casually.”40 Indeed, one is held accountable for one’s actions as elders experience their boreal home not just as landscape but also a social space where lapses in behavior will have negative consequences. It is no wonder that so many rooted cul-tures have developed intricate and sophisticated protocols and traditions that help to ensure re-spectful and reciprocal relationship is maintained between kin. Sharing is deemed a natural law that helps all of creation co-exist and requires effort to-wards mutual understanding, recognition, consent and respect.41 Glen Coulthard’s term grounded nor-mativity describes these as ‘land-connected prac-tices’ that are rooted in deep spatial experience with place and are the backbone for moral engage-ment with the living world and our kin.42  The Kwakwaka’wakw, a First Nation whose traditional territory is located on the northern end of Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland, have a specific word qwaqwala’owkw, which translates as ‘keeping it living’. The term describes “… purposive behaviours in multiple arenas in order to achieve the biological, social and spiritual conditions re-quired for enduring, respectful and mutualistic relationships between human communities and particular biota or landscapes.”43  Clam gardens, deliberately constructed intertidal rock-walled ter-races, are monumental landscape features that can stretch for kilometers along the coast. Their specific design in the landscape serves to enhance and mul-tiply ideal habitat for edible clam species. Protocols for maintenance, land tenure and harvest were fol-lowed to the benefit of both human and clam. Pro-ductivity of these human-made gardens are 150-300 percent higher than naturally occurring clam beds and lose vigour and begin to decline when hu-mans are not maintaining and harvesting from them over time. The continued health of the relationship between human and clam is dependent upon these protocols of qwaqwala’owkw specific to clams and 20people being respected and enacted through time, each gaining benefit and mutual prosperity from re-lationship with the other.44   Our Cartesian inheritance of seeing the world as objects and groups of objects acting and reacting together, conveniently removes us from needing to even consider the ethical and mor-al implications of our impact on place and oth-er-than-human kin. The colonial imposition of a destructive overculture has damaged ancestral connections and made it difficult, if not impossible, for Indigenous people to maintain sovereignty over their lands, preventing them from maintaining as-pects of these ancestral obligations to place. Ecological diversity is interwoven with hu-man cultural diversity, as the sacred knowledge held by the 6000 human cultures around the world, is embedded in their own unique place-thought. Being in right relationship with place and becoming familiar with its personality and rhythms is central to learning to dwell within our places and live sus-tainably. Knowledge of these right relationships and rhythms, says Wildcat, is known best by the people who have lived well in these places since time im-memorial.45 21On Stolen LandTerra NulliusDenial of CoevalTerra Nulliusa Latin term meaning no-body’s land or empty land. Used in international law to justify illegal acquisition of landCoevalof the same generation or ageFrantz Fanon, an Algerian psychologist and well-known writer on decolonization spoke of the mind as ‘the most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor.’  Forms of internalized colonialism have embedded themselves into what has become normalized in the overculture and within our own psyches. Working towards uprooting these inter-nalizations helps us ensure we are not perpetuat-ing colonialism. This is a challenging and ultimately never-ending process, and, I would argue, it is the task of our times. While much can be said about the individual’s process to decolonize, it also must include, “epistemological decolonization; that is, decolonizing the ways that disciplines operate and the ways in which these disciplines condition how practitioners think.”46  We must acknowledge that the discipline of design has been a pivotal player in the advance-ment of colonization and the subjugation of both Indigenous people and their homelands. And it continues to do so today; landscape architecture is no exception. Its history is deeply rooted within colonial Euro-centric Imperial values, ideologies and epistemologies that have been, and continue to be, exported across the world. Landscape ar-chitect, Julian Raxworthy, conducted a survey of landscape architectural history books and found it evident that they emphasized projects with ar-chitectural elements that endured through time. The agency of other-than-human kin are ignored, focusing more on form than process, and there-by rendering invisible the many processes critical to landscape practices. This bias was evident in the past as well with the convenient inability and outright refusal of colonial-settler nations to rec-ognize Indigenous landscape-based practices. This fed the myth of terra nullius that legitimized the theft of lands around the globe.47  Many of the practices that are widely used in landscape man-agement and design today have their origins with-in Indigenous technologies, a history that remains largely unacknowledged.48  Indigenous contemporaries know the sep-aration of modern from traditional all too well as they are often spoken of as if they were from a stagnant culture from the past. The conceptual-ization of time is deployed, in this instance, as a colonial strategy in what anthropologist Johanne Fabian coined the ‘denial of coeval.’ Coeval is when one views one’s contemporaries as having 22Relegated to the PastHuman vs Non-humanthe same freedoms to evolve, adapt and change over time as one would attribute to oneself.  The denial of coeval occurs when we use language to place contemporary Indigenous people in the past while referring to ourselves in the present.49 We see this in statements that deny the use of modern technology during traditional practices of harvest-ing animals. Or in the more subtle use of past tense language when referring to cultures and people who are still very much alive today. The overculture is unable to conceive of the ability of an Indigenous culture being modern and innovative, these are words used only to describe the project of progress and modernity itself. The denial of coeval is alive and present within landscape architecture. If Indigenous prac-tices are acknowledged at all, they are framed as a method from the past, a prehistory at the very beginning of the timeline of landscape architectur-al history.50 It often fails to recognize contemporary Indigenous peoples as present and their cultures as vibrant and ongoing. This further emphasizes the division between nature/culture and traditional/modern. When we do speak of Indigenous practic-es it is often to speak about their subtle and in-di-rect landscape design practices that, as Raxworthy terms it, “indirectly fosters conditions rather than creating forms.” Indirect interventions are charac-terized as relatively small or requiring little effort. This renders Indigenous people as ‘accidental’ de-signers that saw a simple cause and effect relation-ship and iterated it over time. It ignores the myri-ad examples around the world of rooted cultures deliberately creating monumental forms over vast spatial and temporal scales.  As mentioned above, on the Pacific coast of North America kilometers of clam garden terraces and shell midden accumu-lations are used to create ecological niches, coast-al spit formations, housing terraces, and burial mounds.51 Analagous, equally sophisticated exam-ples of design from other indigenous cultures can be found around the globe. While observation of place and iterative learning certainly occurred, it’s not the only means by which these landscape practices were devel-oped. If there is no divide between nature and culture, and communication is possible between a people and the living world, then couldn’t those communications contain practices that would ben-efit them and the landscape as a whole? Further, if as Watts suggests, place is itself also thought, then the very landscape itself is able to reach out and influence a human to engage in practices to its benefit and to the benefit of the non-humans as well. Could not the whale then communicate with the Nuu-chan-nulth whaler? Or the clam to the Kwakwaka’wakw clam harvester?Laura Forlano, professor of design, cau-tions our engagement as designers with projects that center non-humans on the grounds that this can decenter what is arguably more important, 23the inclusion of communities of people of color, LGBTQ2S, migrants and Indigenous peoples within design.52  While I would certainly agree that it is imperative for design to be more inclusive of the human diversity within our communities, this does not negate the importance of considering non-hu-man societies. In fact, once again it seems this argument strengthens the nature/culture divide, assuming that the inclusion of diverse non-human communities would necessitate a poorer design for marginalized human communities. If we are serious about working towards creating a just and regenerative future we can no longer afford to separate these responsibilities. The survival of In-digenous cultures is directly linked to the survival of non-human kin and I would argue the survival of all of humanity depends bridging the separa-tion between human and nature and respecting the natural world as an animate system. 2425ConclusionI believe we have a responsibility to begin to see land, as Coulthard suggests, as a system of reciprocal relations and obligations, and to honour the knowledge and science of the land’s original inhabitants. Indigenous scholars like Wildcat, Todd, Atleo and Watts are working to have their technol-ogies and ways of knowing recognized not as met-aphor or myth, but as literal ways of knowing and being in the world. If that is to happen, we can’t just apply this piecemeal to whatever aspects of specif-ic Indigenous ontologies suit the narrow frame of our overculture. The use of Indigenous Knowledge is too often divorced from its cultural-spiritual, and in many cases, ecological context in service to maintaining Imperial systems of power. As a profession dealing directly with the de-sign of place and the social constructs and stories about what constitutes nature, we as landscape architects have a responsibility to the landscapes where we work and to the people who are their original human kin. We need to ask ourselves:• How can the work we do as landscape architects and citizens of an animate world, contribute to the deconstruc-tion of colonial knowledge systems? • How can we help reinstate agency and self-determina-tion for the rooted cultures who have responsibilities to place? • How can designs serve to embed peo-ple in the uniqueness of a place and its biorhythms? • How can we consid-er place-thought in design? 26• How can we acknowledge and respect the ways in which place is alive and thinking and calling us towards hon-ouring the systems of reciprocal rela-tions we are embedded within?27Endnotes1    Swiftwolfe, Dakota. “Indigenous Allyship Toolkit.” Montreal Urban Aboriginal Community Strategy Network. Accessed October 16, 2019.  http://reseaumtlnetwork.com/wp-content/up-loads/2019/04/Ally_March.pdf2    “New Zealand River First in the World to Be given Legal Human Status.” BBC, March 15, 2017. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-39282918.3    Suri, Manveena. “India Becomes Second Country to Give Rivers Human Status.” CNN World, March 22, 2017. https://www.cnn.com/2017/03/22/asia/india-river-human/index.html.4   See  BBC, March 15, 20175    Miller, Andrew M., and Iain Davidson-Hunt. “Agency and Resil-ience: Teachings of Pikangikum First Nation Elders, Northwestern Ontario.” Ecology and Society 18, no. 3 (2013): art9. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-05665-180309.6    Rojas, Alejandro. “Polycultures of the Mind: The ‘End’ of the Peasant and the Birth of Agroecology.” In Global Capitalism and the Future of Agrarian Society, 255–78, 2012.7    Watts, Vanessa. “Indigenous Place-Thought & Agency amongst Humans and Non-Humans (First Woman and Sky Woman Go on a European World Tour!)” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Vol 2, No. 1 (2013): 20-34.8    Ghosn, Rania, and El Hadi Jazairy. “Leviathan in the Aquarium.” Journal of Architectural Education 71, no. 2 (July 3, 2017): 271–79.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10464883.2017.1340777.9    Wildcat, Daniel R. Red Alert! Saving the Planet with Indigenous Knowledge. Speaker’s Corner. Golden, Colo: Fulcrum, 2009.10  Cornelius, Chris. Decolonizing Design. University of Minnesota College of Design. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNw8h5wRaoU.11  Lane, Belden C. Landscapes of the Sacred: Geography and Narra-tive in American Spirituality. Expanded ed. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.12 Todd, Zoe. “Fish Pluralities: Human-Animal Relations and Sites of Engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada.” Études/Inuit/Studies 38, no. 1–2 (February 25, 2015): 217–38. 13 Klein, Naomi. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate.  Knopf Canada, 2014.14  Rojas, Alejandro. “Polycultures of the Mind: The ‘End’ of the Peasant and the Birth of Agroecology.” In Global Capitalism and the Future of Agrarian Society, 255–78, n.d.15  Atleo, Richard. Tsawalk A Nuu-Chah-Nulth Worldview. Univ of British Columbia Pr, 2005.16  See Todd, “Fish Pluralities”17  See Todd, “Fish Pluralities.”18  See Cornelius. Decolonizing Design19  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought”20  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”21  Korsgaard, Christine M. Fellow Creatures: our obligations to other animals. Oxford, United Kingdom, 2018.22  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”23  See Todd, “Fish Pluralities”24  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”25  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”26  Harvey, Graham. Animism: Respecting the Living World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.27  Ingold, Tim. “The Temporality of the Landscape.” World Archaeol-ogy 25, no. 2, (1993): 152–74.28  Sheridan, Joe, and Roronhiakewen “He Clears the Sky” D Long-boat. “The Haudenosaunee Imagination and the Ecology of the Sacred.” Space and Culture 9, no. 4 (November 2006): 365–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1206331206292503.29  See Wildcat, Red Alert!.30  Davis, Wade. The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. CBC Massey Lectures Series. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2009.31  See Sheridan,”The Haudenosaunee Imagination.”32  See Sheridan,”The Haudenosaunee Imagination.”33  See Ingold, “The Temporality of the Landscape”34  See Lane, Landscapes of the Sacred.35  See Wildcat, Red Alert!.36  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”37  See Atleo, Tsawalk.38  See Todd, “Fish Pluralities”39  See Watts, “Indigenous Place-Thought.”40  See Miller “Agency and Resilience.”41  See Atleo, Tsawalk.42  Coulthard, Glen Sean. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Co-lonial Politics of Recognition. Indigenous Americas. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.43 Groesbeck, Amy S., Kirsten Rowell, Dana Lepofsky, and Anne K. 28Salomon. “Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today.” Edited by Simon Thrush. PLoS ONE 9, no. 3 (March 11, 2014): e91235. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091235.44  Lepofsky, Dana, and Megan Caldwell. “Indigenous Marine Re-source Management on the Northwest Coast of North America.” Ecological Processes 2, no. 1 (December 2013): 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/2192-1709-2-12.45  See Wildcat, Red Alert!.46  Raxworthy, Julian. “The Landscape of Practices: Decolonizing Landscape Architecture.” In The Routledge Companion to Criti-cality in Art, Architecture, and Design, 1st ed. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, n.d.47  Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake. “Land as Pedagogy: Nishnaabeg Intelligence and Rebellious Transformation.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3, no. 3 (2014): 25.48  See Raxworthy, “The Landscape of Practices/”49  See Raxworthy, “The Landscape of Practices.”50  See Raxworthy, “The Landscape of Practices.”51  Grier, Colin, Bill Angelbeck, and Eric McLay. “Terraforming and Monumentality as Long-Term Social Practice in the Salish Sea Region of the Northwest Coast of North America.” Hunter Gath-erer Research 3, no. 1 (December 2017): 107–32. https://doi.org/10.3828/hgr.2017.7.52  Forlano, Laura. “Decentering the Human in the Design of Collab-orative Cities.” Design Issues 32, no. 3 (July 2016): 42–54. https://doi.org/10.1162/DESI_a_00398.2930PART TWO313233Entanglements        On the Pacific coast, Salmon are at the center of a complex, interconnected web of entan-glements34The objectives I set our for my proposal were to:  •  design a collaborative, interspecies process that decentralizes Human superiority•  design a process that strengthens Salmon kinship networks•  re-connect Humans with an ethic of care for place and kin     The ultimate aim is to evoke in Humans… •  connection•  empathy + understanding •  respect + awe    … for our non-human KinIn exploring points of entry for this complex task, it became clear that Pacific Salmon uniquely embody webs of connection. Entangled explores ways of disrupting often unquestioned Human superiority by designing for interspecies co-authorship that fosters respect for and connec-tion to our non-human kin through the relational networks of Pacific Salmon.  3536       Range map + photograph of male spawning phase for each of the five species of Pacific Salmon. Spawning times calendars are estimates for the Fraser River.Salmon Home RangeIn the North Pacific, we share our wa-tersheds with 5 main species of Salmon that also inhabit the coastlines of Russia and Asia. They go by many names. They are commonly referred to as Chinook; Chum; Coho; Sockeye and Pink. They share a general life cycle, but each species varies in behaviour, time and location of spawning, migra-tion patterns, size, and diet.   The focus of this project is on the west-ern coast of North America and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. With over 80,000 kilometers of coastline, the unique land and seascapes of this coast have evolved in large part thanks to the abundance of Salmon over millennia. Who are Salmon?37       Key identification features + seasonal spawning routes + times (estimates for Fraser River)Who’s Who?38Salmon Anatomy and Perception       Salmons unique perceptual abilities allows them to navigate their home waters with expertise3940       Phylogenetic tree of salmonid species with approximate age of modern ancestors for key kin speciesBefore Time ...Before there was temperate rainforest here, there were Salmon. Before the mountains were as they stand today, there were Salmon. Before there was Bear, or any of our earliest Human ancestors, there were Salmon. The evolution of Human, for-est and Bear on the Pacific Coast have always been entangled with and dependent on Salmon. They’ve survived glaciation, atmospheric shifts, volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, and fluctuating ocean chemis-try to name just a few. Before Time...41This is reflected in the histories of many of the Indigenous Nations who have lived here for millennia. The gift of Salmon’s body is one that is given freely to feed the people and has been just as central to Human evolution as it has been for Bear or Cedar. For at least the last 7,000 years [and prob-ably for far longer] Humans on this coast have relied upon Salmon intensively, creating agreements and protocols to ensure reciprocity, respect and care is taken in their harvest. This connection has been and continues to be disrupted by systems of settler-colonial power. Where settlers saw a mere species to be classified and exploited, Indigenous cultures along the coast saw a relative giving the gift of their flesh to sustain them (and their many other kin). After millions of years of thriving despite many challenges, Salmon numbers have been re-duced by up to 90% in just a few short centuries. The full breadth and depth of this is complex and beyond the scope of this thesis but is none the less critical to acknowledge. Dip-net fishing42Fence weirGill netting - Lheidli T’ennehStone traps - SquamishSalmon ceremony - SwinomishRemoved due to copyright. Removed due to copyright. Removed due to copyright. 434445       Salmon’s lifecycle transect + habitat types. Circular icons illustrate the 4Hs, ways that hu-mans hinder Salmon’s lifecycle.Salmon’s JourneyAll Salmon begin their life as an egg that is deposited in the gravel bottom of a stream by a mother they will never meet and who won’t live much past the laying of her eggs. Once hatched, they become alevin who stay within the confines of their gravel home and live off the remainder of the yolk sack. Once the yolk sac has been con-sumed, they venture out into the river as fry and need to defend and feed themselves. Some species (like Pinks) head straight to the ocean at this young stage while others (like Sockeye) spend a year or more in freshwater. At the mouth of their home rivers, estuaries and tidal habitats play an import-ant role in the mixing of brackish and freshwater, allowing them to gradually undergo physical chang-es as they adapt to life in saltwater. Depending on their species, they spend one to four years in the ocean growing to full size and travelling thousands of kilometers, before migrating back to their home streams. As they enter their home river systems, they stop eating and their bodies once again under-go physical changes to re-adapt to freshwater. They must then swim upstream against strong currents, leaping obstacles and avoiding predators in time to spawn before their bodies, already having begun to decay, cease to function. These four circular icons represent the 4 main ways that humans have come to hinder Salm-on’s life cycle. These are often referred to as the 4Hs - harvest – such as with commercial fishing; habitatdestruction – from things like development + log-ging; hydro electric infrastructure and hatchery im-pacts related to poor genetics + rearing infrastruc-ture.  Each one of these is complex and importantto understand, but are not the focus of this thesis.The three main habitats associated with salmon are seen along the bottom bar; oceanic, estuarine and riverine. Though they are separat-ed into these three human-made habitat types for ease of understanding, they are ultimately insepa-rable and interdependent. 46The Agency of Salmon        The three main ways that Salmon act to influence their homes Salmon, with their sheer tenacity and num-bers are powerful agents for change in landscapes and seascapes. Their agency [as far as we know] occurs in three main ways. Through the building of their nests, called Redds in which they move sed-iments to lay their eggs; through their bodies be-ing caught and eaten by predators; and through their carcasses, left to decay in streams and forests across the coast. What for an individual Salmon is a small-scale action in both time and space, becomes monumental when repeated millions of times a year for millennia. The reliable annual pulse of Salmon spawn has ensured these small creatures leave a big legacy.  47Riverine Entanglements        A few of the known relation-al kinship connections between Salmon + their freshwater homes We begin at their birth place - the coastal river ecosystemEmbedded in each of the following ecosys-tem illustrations are layers of ecological processes [dotted and chalked lines], basic food webs [solid lines] and anthropological influences related to the 4Hs mentioned previously [black lines]. With so much information contained in these relational drawings, and with the little time I have, I will focus on a couple key connections that pertain most di-rectly to my design proposal.Salmon fry newly emerged from the gravel will find their home streams more abundant with insect prey when these prey have had an oppor-tunity to feed on the carcasses of Salmon’s dead parents. These carcasses also provide nutrients to the trees which grow faster and larger than they would in these nutrient poor soils. More trees and Riverine Entanglementsvegetation mean riparian vegetation stays plen-tiful, shading streams, lowering the water tem-perature and providing more habitat and food for insect prey. These large trees eventually fall and may lodge in the stream, creating pools and side channels where fry can rest and seek shelter from predators. Essentially, Salmon grow forests and the forests grow Salmon.These processes are disrupted from de-velopments that alter or remove vegetation like logging and shoreline hardening. Climate change is altering water temperatures and the dynamics of glacial melt water, critical for stream flow. 484950Estuarine Entanglements        A few of the known relation-al kinship connections between Salmon + their brackish water homesFrom here, some of these carcasses and their nutrients are swept downstream into estuar-ies and tidal wetlands. Providing nutrients for the growth of critical plant species that form underwa-ter forests to shelter baby Salmon from the intense ocean tides and currents as well as supporting the growth of critical prey species like zooplankton.  Re-cent studies suggest that the microbial creatures who live on these underwater forests inoculate ju-venile Salmon, aiding them in their adaptation to saltwater.Over 70% of the Fraser river’s estuaries and tidal habitats have been destroyed by coastal developments, dredging and fish farms to name a few.  Downstream impacts from industry and urban centers drastically alter water chemistry through pollution, nutrient blooms and turbidity. Estuarine Entanglements51Oceanic Entanglements        A few of the known relation-al kinship connections between Salmon + their saltwater homesOnce large enough to venture into the ocean, Salmon feed in the rich marine environ-ment and grow much faster than if they remained in freshwater systems. As they feed, their bodies become made up of what scientists call ‘marine de-rived nutrients,’ which are abundant in the ocean but hard to find on land.  Warming and acidifying oceans alter cur-rent and nutrient dynamics, creating massive im-pacts all the way up the food chain. Commercial fishing mismanagement of both Salmon and their prey species allows for catches that far exceed so called sustainable limits. Oceanic Entanglements525354Riverine Entanglements        A few of the known relation-al kinship connections between Salmon + their freshwater homesDespite all these challenges, once fully grown, Salmon head back to their home streams navigating back through these habitats by a mixture of scent, magnetic fields and memory. They carry with them the rare nutrients accumulated from years in the ocean.If Salmon are lucky enough to make it up-stream to suitable spawning grounds, this will be their last act. Many before them will be pulled out of the rivers by Bear and other kin who play a crit-ical role in spreading the nutrients of Salmon’s de-caying bodies widely across the forest floor. After Bear has eaten her fill [often just the brains and eggs], what’s left of Salmons’ body will stay on the forest floor where she will be feed on by hundreds of other kin. In a good Salmon year there will be on average 2.3 carcasses per meter. The sheer number of Flies alone [somewhere between 4,000-29,000 larvae per carcass] are vital in feeding the large flocks of migrating songbirds that fill the northern forests each spring. Hundreds of different insects and microbial species proliferate on and around a single carcass, creating islands of unique, ephemer-al micro-ecosystems that have a vital role in releas-ing nutrients for plants and trees. In areas where Bear is now absent, these critical forest processes of decay and nutrient cycling are severely dimin-ished. 55This ancient and entangled exchange be-tween life and death has been devastated. Con-temporary fisheries catch between 50-90% of re-turning Salmon before they reach their spawning grounds. With the majority of returning Salmon taken for Human consumption, little consideration is given to the needs of our non-human kin, often whose very survival is dependent on the reliability of the nutrient dense seasonal pulse of Salmon. After we fillet our prized Salmon, most of what isn’t eaten is considered waste. A portion may be made into fish meal, fish oil or pet food, but most is merely sent to landfills or dumped into the ocean or municipal sewers. This ‘waste‘ occurs at multiple scales from individuals purchasing a single fish at a market and thereby discarding a head and spine, to commercial canneries grinding and dump-ing vast quantities of off cuts. What if we no longer saw Salmon carcasses as waste? What if Humans became more connect-ed to this process of life and death? What if Hu-mans became agents invested in strengthening and care taking our forests and streams? 56‘Fish frames” - Industrial processorEffluent discharge - fish farm waste Fish waste - canneryRemoved due to copyright. Removed due to copyright. Removed due to copyright. 57        Relational networks of kin-ship connection between Bear + SalmonBear + SalmonWe could share this task with Bear who stills pulls what Salmon she can find from her home streams, catalysing the critical cycles of nutrients and decay. We too can pull Salmon from our waste streams and help enhance and nourish the living systems forged through deep-time. 5859        Potential relational net-works of kinship connection between Human + SalmonVectorsEntangled is a process designed to facil-itate Human interception of Salmon’s carcass-es deemed as ‘waste’. As powerful collaborators with the non-human world, Human vectors divert Salmon carcasses from a system that designates them merely as waste and brings them back to the streams and forests where they can once again sup-port the growth and continued health of thousands of creatures, including next year’s baby Salmon.  This of course is not a new idea. This is a very old idea. Not only has Bear been doing this since before Humans existed, but Indigenous prac-tices all along the coast contain diverse protocols and technologies to actively care for and help to perpetuate Salmon. While collaboration is not possible in such a short thesis timeline, it’s hoped that First Na-tions communities would be involved who wish to see it unfold in their traditional territory as one of the many ways their governments work towards sovereignty and Salmon recovery.  The specific cultural protocols, technologies and goals of the host Nation would direct the elements within the design and the ways in which it is implemented on the landscape.606162With vast networks of park trails + streams, the region offers potential for EntanglementLower Mainland Waterways + ParksVancouver boasts the greenest city in the world and is a highly sought-after place to live and visit due to easy access to greenspaces and hiking trails. With over 21.6 million visitors in 2019 many come to BC for a “west coast experience” which of-ten includes hiking forest trails, spending time on coastlines,  and eating Salmon. By connecting hik-ers with carcasses and utilizing BC’s already exten-sive trail network, this program could be deployed across much of the province and beyond. 63Carcass Connections       Decision-making flow dia-gram for Human vectors during EntanglementThis diagram shows a series of possible decisions made by a Human vector [aka hikers or recreationists] in the process from intercepting Salmon’s carcass to making the offering of the body during a hike. 6465       Location of Pacific Spirit Park + Musqueam creek watershedLocation KeyThis process could unfold at any site with-in Salmon’s home range and Human vectors are encouraged to determine where to make their of-fering. I’ve used Musqueam Creek, one of Vancou-ver’s last Salmon bearing streams, as an example of how the process of Entanglement could unfold. Musqueam Creek’s headwaters are located at the south end of Pacific Spirit Park, a protected area that spans the length of the peninsula on the way to UBC. It travels south through Musqueam Reservation where it discharges into the Fraser Riv-er. Through the following three micro-nar-ratives, we can start to imagine possible ways we can engage with Entanglement within Musqueam Creek Watershed.66        Musqueam creek water-shed trails and contextMusqueam Creek Watershed67Trailside Offering       From restuarant to trail68Existing trail network During a meal out you notice that the restaurant has chosen to enroll in the Entangle-ment program. Their menu insert provides some in-formation on the process and a website where you can find out more. You’ve ordered a Salmon dish and ask your server to box up some of the remains from the fillet processed earlier that day.  You spend some time during your dinner planning a hike with your friend for the following weekend. You put the carcass in your freezer when you get home. After exploring Pacific Spirit for several hours, you’re drawn to an old cedar tree. You and your friend sit at its base and spend a few moments laying out Salmon’s carcass and engaging in a small ceremony.  Once you leave, Mink smells the carcass and drags Salmon farther off trail, he helps himself to a meal.Narrative OneTrailside Offering69Potential offering plantform areas You’re visiting Vancouver for a week and have signed up for a Salmon fishing experience with a local fishing tour company. You don’t know much about fishing but want a more intense west coast ex-perience. With the help of your guide you learn a lot about Salmon and catch your first fish. Your guide guts and fillets it for you and tells you about the Entangle-ment program, offering you a brochure with a website you plan to visit later. Along with your fresh fillets, you decide to take the head and spine so that you can of-fer it on one of the many hikes you’ve planned during your visit to the region. You put the carcass box in the fridge when you get back to your hotel. The next day you decide to visit Pacific Spirit Park. You see online that there are several designated offering platforms installed in the park as a central and easy to access place for carcass offerings. Once you arrive you drop Salmon off the edge of the platform into the soft forest duff.  Winter Wren has been watching you and even before you’ve walked away he has flown down to check out Salmon. He eats Salmon’s flesh and catches the insects attracted to the carcass.Narrative TwoDesignated Offering70Designated Offering       From fishing to forest platform71Streamside Offering       From classroom to stream72Existing bridgesYou’re an 11-year-old child in a local Van-couver public school classroom. Last year you learned all about Salmon and got to take care of them in an aquarium. When spring came, you and your classmates went on a field trip to Musqueam Reservation and you got to release them into Musqueam Creek. Now that you’re in the next grade, you’re learning more about spawning adult Salmon and how their carcasses feed the baby Salmon. The fol-lowing week your class goes on a field trip back to Musqueam Creek were you released your little Salmon friends the year before. You’ve been given a Salmon carcass from the local hatchery and you gently place your Salmon offering into the stream. It will help feed the Salmon babies that will be released by this year’s younger class. You realize that the Salmon babies you released last year were helped along by the carcass offerings placed there by the children who were in the grade above you. Narrative ThreeStreamside Offering73Existing Infrastructure       Entanglement leverages existing extensive park system infrastructureThese narratives unfolding in Pacific Spirit Park and around Musqueam Creek, could have tak-en place in many areas in BC. Entangled leverages the already extensive trails system and infrastruc-ture available through provincial and regional park systems. In this way, Human vectors can visit places they already frequent and love and deepen their connection and ethic of care for these landscapes and their creatures. Some with mobility aids or a lack of time might choose to offer Salmon at one of the many designated offering areas across the parks system, or over an easy to access bridge. Others may hike for many hours to more remote areas before offer-ing Salmon to a small stream or a large Cedar. Some may choose to make the offering un-ceremoniously, literally throwing Salmon into the bushes or a stream, while others might do so cere-monially, constructing cedar wreaths and adorning Salmon with flowers. Kin connection is paramount and is not precluded by any particular mindset or spiritual belief, everyone is welcome to participate regardless of their approach to the process. Existing Infrastructure747576Potential Infrastructure       New infrastructure seeks to connect human to Salmon + enhance Salmon’s homePossible new infrastructure typologies could be deployed in areas where streams + rivers have already been impacted and where educational opportunities are already happening, like here, at Capilano Hatchery in North Vancouver. Here we see an observation pool built into the river. Glass panels provide Humans a visible connection to Salmon’s underwater world while also increasing light penetration into the river. The walls immersed in the river are covered in artificial habitat structures specially designed to shelter ju-venile Salmon.This habitat dock extends partially into the river, allowing people to sit immersed in Salmon’s home waters. The wooden slats allow some light penetration as the underside is lined with tree roots that are a favoured habitat for juvenile Salmon. These roots also provide habitat for terrestrial kin as the water levels drop seasonally.Infrastructure Potential77Unfolding Entanglements       GIF illustrating the potential unfolding kinship enhancements over time, catalysed by one Human vectorOnce offered by a Human vector, the pro-cess has just begun. Collaborative kin such as Otter, Eagle, Coyote and Racoon drag Salmon’s body from trail side, deeper into the forests and streams where insects and microbes consume it and in turn, feed more Kin. Like the Salmon themselves, the small ac-tion of one single Human vector may seem minute, but when thousands of Humans disperse across the landscape with thousands of carcasses, over many years, the impacts are immense. Relational design can help facilitate and en-courage a radical ethic of care for the landscapes and seascapes that we and our non-human kin call home.  It can encourage us to “think-with” other beings, to work on attunement so that we can help to enlarge the capacities of all the actors involved through supporting and strengthening relationships between Kin.Unfolding EntanglementsIn a time when dominant anthropogenic influences are primarily destructive and consump-tive, Entangled offers one way for people to start to embody a different story. One in which our ac-tions enhance and strengthen the tangled ancient connections beyond our own species and the tiny speck of time that we’ve existed here on Earth.7879Unfolding Entanglements Stills       GIF stills 0 3 680 1 4 7 2 5 88182Unfolding Entanglements       Final GIF still of kin entan-glementsReturnAt the turn of the tide when the great heron hunts and the sea is diluted by tears, we will turn and upstream swim to the altar of clear waters.The silver thieveries of the sleepless rain return  in prawn shell and herring scale seized in black-lipped bony mouths brought home the only way we know - as fleshOffered up to the ravenous trees, our part of the ancient pact; the lives we will not live to see will be cherished by a forest grown on salmon flesh and salmon bone.K.A. Wood83BibliographyPart One: Research Atleo, Richard. Tsawalk A Nuu-Chah-Nulth World-view. Univ of British Columbia Pr, 2005.Cornelius, Chris. Decolonizing Design. University of Minnesota College of Design. 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PLOS ONE 14, no. 2 (February 6, 2019): e0210031. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210031.87Image CreditsComparison of Western +  Native American Politics + Ethics  4 adapted from Deloria 2001, illustrated by authorHumanity’s Place Within Creation 8 illustrated by authorThe Hierarchy of Animacy  10 adapted from Schapper 2010, illustrated by authorThe Nature - Culture Nexus  14 concept from Wildcat 2009, illustrated by authorEpistemological + Ontological  Comparison 16 from Watts 2013, illustrated by authorEntanglements  33 illustrated by authorSalmon Home Range   36 illustrated by author; base map from Mapbox.com Who’s Who?    37 illustrated by author; base map from Mapbox.comSalmon Anatomy and Perception 38 illustrated by authorBefore Time ...    40 illustrated by author; thanks to Scott Archer for final touches + iconsDip-net fishing    41 credit: Royal BC Museaum Archives - Image D-06014Fence weir    42 credit: Royal BC Museaum Archives - Image G - 06604Salmon ceremony - Swinomish  42 credit: Saskia de Melker - https://www.opb.org/news/article/salmon-climate-change-video-envi-ronment/ Stone traps - Squamish   42 credit: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/coho-salmon-capilano-fish-ing-1.3752572 Gill netting - Lheidli T’enneh  42 credit: Richard Gagnon - https://www.princege-orgecitizen.com/salmon-shutdown-perplexes-ab-original-fisherman-1.1032889Salmon’s Journey 45 illustrated by authorThe Agency of Salmon 46 illustrated by authorRiverine Entanglements  47 + 54 illustrated by Celia Winters and authorEstuarine Entanglements 50 illustrated by Celia Winters and authorOceanic Entanglements  51 illustrated by Celia Winters and author Fish waste - cannery   56 credit: Julio Etchart - https://www.npr.org/sec-tions/thesalt/2017/12/12/569399249/waste-not-88want-not-drink-beer-to-feed-fish-and-help-save-the-planet Effluent discharge - fish farm waste  56 credit: https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/wild-salm-on-once-again-swimming-in-potentially-danger-ous-bloodwater-in-b-c-1.4714113‘Fish frames” - Industrial processor 56 credit: https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/aqua-culture-feed-1.3262922Bear + Salmon    57 illustrated by authorVectors     59 illustrated by authorLower Mainland Waterways + Parks 62 illustrated by author, data from BC Open Data, thanks to Scott Archer for data colletion and GIS skill Carcass Connections   63 illustrated by author, thanks to Scott Archer for icon creationLocation Key    65 illustrated by authorMusqueam Creek Watershed  66 illustrated by author; data from BC Open Data, thanks to Scott Archer for data colletion and GIS skill; aerial map from Google EarthTrailside Offering   67 illustrated by authorExisting trail network   68  illustrated by authorPotential offering plantform areas 69 illustrated by authorDesignated Offering    70 illustrated by authorStreamside Offering    71 illustrated by authorExisting bridges    72 illustrated by authorExisting Infrastructure   73 illustrated by authorPotential Infrastructure   76 illustrated by authorUnfolding Entanglements  78+ illustrated by author, thanks to Celia Winters for water tweaks and carcass enthusiasm!8990

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