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Beyond Industry : A Systems-Based Approach to Collective Form Martyn, Jesse 2020-05

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Jesse MartynArchitectural Technology, Sheridan College, 2011 Honours Bachelor of  Arts, University of  Toronto, 2014 Bachelor of  Environmental Design Studies, Dalhousie University, 2018Submitted in partial fulfillment of  the requirements for the degreeof  Master of  Architecture in The Faculty of  Graduate Studies, School of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee Members: John Bass (Chair)Alastair BirdRoy CloutierTracey MactavishJohn BassBlair SatterfieldUniversity of  British Columbia, Vancouver© Jesse Martyn, May 2020BEYOND INDUSTRYA Systems-Based Approach to Collective FormBEYOND INDUSTRYA Systems-Based Approach to Collective FormResourcesEnvironmentIndustry EconomyBEYOND INDUSTRY(Re)Envisioning a Resource Economy in Prince Rupert, 2049By Jesse Martyn Globalization and capitalism are resulting in the emergence of  more and more urbanized landscapes.  As the world becomes increasingly globalized, ports become ideal places for investment and development.  Because of  its strategic coastal location, Prince Rupert has one of  the fastest growing port terminals in North America and is the epicentre for the exploitation of  natural resources in Northern British Columbia. As Prince Rupert evolves, peak oil is reached, and non-renewable resources decline, we can imagine a transition toward a renewable resource economy, an influx of  renewable resource industries, and an influx of  diverse groups of  people. Fumihiko Maki’s 1964 Investigations in Collective Form is adapted to act as the guiding framework for this project.  Maki’s writing suggests, “Our concern here is not, then, a “master plan,” but a “master program,” since the latter term includes a time dimension.  As a physical correlate of  the master program, there are “master forms” which differ from buildings in that they, too, respond to the dictates of  time.  Collective form represents groups of  buildings and quasi-buildings—the segment of  our cities. Collective form is, however, not a collection of  unrelated, separate buildings, but of  buildings that have reasons to be together.”1  Maki’s three major approaches to collective form—compositional form, mega form, and group form—are used as the fundamental base layer for this project.Our relationship with natural resources, industry, the economy, and the environment are complex and constantly in a state of  contradiction.  This relationship is explored through an understanding of  the city as a collective form.  Positioning industry as a generator, a systems-based approach to collective form imagines an urbanism through the lens of  a form, a strategy, and a program.  This project forecasts the future generative potential of  industries stimulating the Canadian resource economy, while allowing these industries to productively shape the built environment and the exchanges that occur within it.  1  Fumihiko Maki, Investigations in Collective Form, (Washington: School of  Architecture, Washington University, 1964), 4-5.CONTENTSABSTRACTAbstract  ivList of  Tables    viList of  Figures viiAcknowledgements xivDedication xvPrologue: A Micropedia  2Chapter 0: Thesis Statement  16Part 1Chapter I: Heading North 22Chapter II: Prince Rupert [Vancouver Lite] 30Chapter III: Vestiges 50Part 2Chapter I: [New] Artifacts 68Chapter II: BCC [Blind Carbon Copy] 78Chapter III: Infradustrial Landscapes 92Chapter IV: Metabolic Infrastructure 102Chapter V: Renewable Territories 110Part 3Chapter I: Collective Form: A Systems-Based Approach 118 Background 122 Proposal 126 A Form 130 A Strategy 134 A Program 190 Urban Character 232 Chronology 246Bibliography: A Catalogue of  References 256Epilogue, or (A Chronology of  Discarded Work) 262Appendix A: Exemplars 280 Figure 1.  Economy—Environment Scenario Planning Diagram. 14Figure 2.  Map of  2018 Annual Global Trade Volume. 20Figure 3.  Travel From Vancouver to Prince Rupert. 23Figure 4.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Trade Volume by City in Canada. 25Figure 5.  Map of  2018 Annual Trade Volume by City in Canada. 26Figure 6.  Global-to-Local Diagram. 27Figure 7.  Asia—Prince Rupert Trade Routes. 27Figure 8.  Prince Rupert Hays 2.0 Vision (Adapted from: http://www.princerupert.ca/hays2). 28Figure 9.  Prince Rupert Mind Map. 29Figure 10.  Prince Rupert Zoning 2019. 31Figure 11.  Prince Rupert Timeline. 33Figure 12.  Prince Rupert Trade Diagram. 35Figure 13.  Trans-Pacific Partnership Map.  35Figure 14.  Vancouver Map. 37Figure 15.  Prince Rupert Map. 38Figure 16.  Prince Rupert Ownership Map. 39Figure 17.  1908 Brett and Hall Town Plan (Prince Rupert City & Regional Archives Society, 2010, p. 26-27). 40Figure 18.  Early Infrastructure (Prince Rupert City & Regional Archives Society, 2010, p. 25).  41Figure 19.  Prince Rupert Aerial Photo (Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/company/school-district-no-52-prince-rupert-/?originalSubdomain=ca). 41Figure 20.  Prince Rupert Town Analysis. 42Figure 21.  Downtown 2nd Avenue West Analysis. 43Figure 22.  Derelict Downtown 1. 43Figure 23.  Derelict Downtown 2. 44Figure 24.  Ridley Island Petroleumscape. 45Figure 25.  Derelict Waterfront With Industry.  45Figure 26.  Post-War Housing Communities. 46Figure 27.  Nature Trails. 46Figure 28.  Waterfront View with Pellet Terminal From Ferry. 47Figure 29.  Waterfront Port Terminal.  47Figure 30.  Waterfront Rail Terminus + Shopping Mall. 48Figure 31.  Waterfront Rail Line. 48Figure 32.  Prince Rupert Vestiges. 49Figure 33.  Resource Connectivity Diagram. 51Figure 34.  Rail Terminus Study. 53Table 1.  50 Largest Port Terminals in the World by Annual Volume 2018 (Data retrieved from: http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade/top-50-world-container-ports).   263Table 2.  Port Terminals in Canada by Annual Volume 2018 (West to East).   267LIST OF FIGURESLIST OF TABLES Figure 35.  Northland Cruise Terminal Study. 54Figure 36.  Fairview Container Terminal Study. 55Figure 37.  Westview Pellet Terminal Study. 56Figure 38.  Ridley Coal Terminal Study. 57Figure 39.  Skeena Pulp Mill Study. 58Figure 40.  Prince Rupert Grain Terminal Study. 59Figure 41.  North Pacific Cannery Study. 60Figure 42.  Prince Rupert BC Ferry Terminal Study. 61Figure 43.  Prince Rupert Airport (YPR) Study. 62Figure 44.  Local Ratings. 63Figure 45.  Global Ratings. 63Figure 46.  Heritage Ratings. 64Figure 47.  Industry Ratings. 64Figure 48.  Prince Rupert Proposed Vestiges. 65Figure 49.  Map of  Prince Rupert Vestiges. 66Figure 50.  BC Resource Networks Map. 69Figure 51.  Oil and Gas Distribution Diagram. 71Figure 52.  Northern BC Carbon Network. 71Figure 53.  Taxonomy of  Old Coastal Tropes.  73Figure 54.  Taxonomy of  New Coastal Tropes. 74Figure 55.  Industrial Revolutions Timeline.  74Figure 56.  Map of  BC Networks and Exports. 75Figure 57.  Europe—Prince Rupert Trade Routes. 76Figure 58.  Prince Rupert Carbon + Boundary Proposals. 77Figure 59.  Canadian Petroleum Matrix. 79Figure 60.  Canada Carbon Timeline. 82Figure 61.  Coal Processing Collage. 83Figure 62.  Gas Processing Collage. 84Figure 63.  Coal Inhabitation Collage. 85Figure 64.  Wind Inhabitation Collage. 86Figure 65.  Coal Inlet Collage. 87Figure 66.  Wind Inlet Collage. 88Figure 67.  Coal Mill Observation Lab. 89Figure 68.  Converted Bioremediation Observation Lab. 90Figure 69.  Global—Local Flows Diagram.  90Figure 70.  A nature trail attached to the Central Electricity Board’s 400KV Pelham substation, situated on the boarders of  Essex and Hertfordshire, England.  Where industry contributes ecological, productive, or community benefits to the landscape it uses (Hough, 1990, p. 142). 91Figure 71.  Glaziers Wagons at the Crystal Palace (Bergdoll, 2000, p. 211). 93Figure 72.  Ford Motor Company, Press Shop, 1938, Dearborn, Michigan, Albert Kahn (Hyde, 1996, p. 18). 95Figure 73.  Ford Motor Company, Craneway in Six-Story Building, 1914, Highland Park, Michigan, Albert Kahn (Hyde, 1996, p. 13). 95Figure 74.  New Forms in Old Landscapes.  Regional power grids and other urban technologies have radically altered former perceptions of  what is urban and rural (Hough, 1990, p. 123). 97Figure 75.  Landscapes of  Power.  The technologies that support the city have spread into the larger landscape (Hough, 1990, p. 122). 97Figure 76.  Field Conditions, Stan Allen (Allen, 1999, p. 98). 99Figure 77.  Settlement Patterns. 100Figure 78.  Topology Patterns.  100Figure 79.  Approaches to Collective Form; Compositional Form, Megaform, Group Form (Maki, 1964, p. 6). 103Figure 80.  Two Types of  Megaform; Hierarchical Structure, and Open-Ended Structure (Maki, 1964, p. 12). 103Figure 81.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 1. To Mediate (Maki, 1964, p. 37). 105Figure 83.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 3. To Repeat (Maki, 1964, p. 39). 105Figure 85.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 5. To Select (Maki, 1964, p. 42). 105Figure 82.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 2. To Define (Maki, 1964, p. 38). 105Figure 84.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 4. To Make a Sequential Path (Maki, 1964, p. 41). 105Figure 86.  The Axes of  Postmodern Urbanism (Ellin, 1999, p. 155). 107Figure 87.  Experimental Utopia Collage. 109Figure 88.  Port Ownership Diagram. 111Figure 89.  Industry Phasing Diagram. 113Figure 90.  Pipeline Phasing Diagram. 113Figure 91.  Coal Mill Phasing Diagram. 114Figure 93.  Waterfront Nodes.  114Figure 92.  Pellet Terminal Phasing Diagram. 114Figure 94.  Ridleyville Nature + Architecture Collage.  115Figure 95.  Agriculture + Transportation Collage. 115Figure 96.  Wood Manufacturing + Public Recreation Collage.  116Figure 97.  Biomass Theatre + Seawall Collage. 116Figure 98.  Project Map. 120Figure 99.  National Resource Networks. 121Figure 100.  Prince Rupert Networks Model. 123Figure 101.  Predicted Boom + Demographic Shift. 124Figure 102.  A Form Parti. 132Figure 103.  Existing City Networks. 138Figure 104.  New Transportation Networks. 140Figure 105.  New Program Networks. 142Figure 106.  Old Town. 143Figure 107.  New City. 144Figure 108.  Urban Phasing. 148Figure 109.  District + Superblock Development. 150Figure 110.  Industry as Activator. 151Figure 111.  Existing Industry Nodes 1. 155Figure 112.  Existing Industry Nodes 2. 156 Figure 113.  New Industry Nodes. 157Figure 114.  Nodal Development. 160Figure 115.  North End Zone. 161Figure 116.  Industrial Spine - Rupert’s Landing. 163Figure 117.  Central Zone. 165Figure 118.  Industrial Spine - The Exchange. 167Figure 119.  Merger Zone. 169Figure 120.  Industrial Spine - Gantry Split. 171Figure 121.  Hillside Zone. 174Figure 122.  Industrial Spine - Timber Town. 175Figure 123.  South End Zone. 178Figure 124.  Industrial Spine - Ridleyville. 179Figure 125.  South Point Zone. 182Figure 126.  Resource Connectivity Matrix. 185Figure 127.  Resource Flows Diagram. 187Figure 128.  Resource-Based Districts. 188Figure 129.  Coastal Industry Nodes. 191Figure 130.  Exchange Diagram - Ridleyville. 193Figure 131.  Ridleyville. 195Figure 132.  Exchange Diagram - Cultivation Cove. 197Figure 133.  Cultivation Cove. 199Figure 134.  Exchange Diagram - Timber Town. 201Figure 135.  Timber Town. 203Figure 136.  Exchange Diagram - Lager’s Edge. 205Figure 137.  Lager’s Edge. 207Figure 138.  Exchange Diagram - Gantry Split. 209Figure 139.  Gantry Split. 211Figure 140.  Exchange Diagram - The Exchange. 213Figure 141.  The Exchange. 215Figure 142.  Exchange Diagram - Rupert’s Landing. 217Figure 143.  Rupert’s Landing. 219Figure 144.  Exchange Diagram - Marine Mile. 221Figure 145.  Marine Mile. 223Figure 146.  Exchange Diagram - The Runway. 225Figure 147.  The Runway. 227Figure 148.  New Prince Rupert Exchanges. 230Figure 149.  Clustered Communities - Timber Town. 233Figure 150.  Superblock Infill. 235Figure 151.  Waterfront - The Exchange. 237Figure 152.  Industrial Spine - Ridleyville 239Figure 153.  Industrial Spine - Marine Mile. 241Figure 154.  Mountain Perspective - Collective Form. 243Figure 155.  Chronology. 247Figure 156.  Project Thumbnails. 251Figure 157.  Project Presentation. 254Figure 158.  Graph of  50 Largest Port Terminals in the World by Annual Volume 2018. 264Figure 159.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Continent Trade Volume. 265Figure 160.  Map of  2018 Annual Continent Trade Volume. 265Figure 161.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Country Trade Volume. 266Figure 162.  Map of  2018 Annual Country Trade Volume. 266Figure 163.  Graph of  2018 Annual National Trade Volume in Canada. 268Figure 164.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Regional Trade Volume in Canada. 269Figure 165.  Map of  2018 Annual Regional Trade Volume in Canada. 269Figure 166.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Port Terminals Trade Volume in BC. 270Figure 167.  Map of  2018 Annual Port Terminals Trade Volume in BC. 270Figure 168.  Pipeline Section - Bill Murray Drive. 271Figure 169.  Pipeline Section - Ridley Island Access Road.  271Figure 170.  Pipeline Section - McBride Street.  272Figure 171.  Pipeline Section - Container Terminal Access Road. 272Figure 172.  Preliminary Intervention Sections.  273Figure 173.  Preliminary Interventions. 273Figure 174.  Preliminary Site Section.  274Figure 175.  Preliminary Site Axonometric. 274Figure 176.  Form Investigations Sketch.  275Figure 177.  Urban Reform Sketch. 275Figure 178.  Transformations Sketch. 276Figure 179.  Collective Form Sketch. 276Figure 180.  Interventions Analysis Sketch. 277Figure 181.  Storyboard Sketch. 278Figure 182.  Overall plan showing primary road and desire line for the Potteries Thinkbelt, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/307843). 281Figure 183.  Potteries Thinkbelt: axonometric view, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/307873). 282Figure 184.  Photomontage of  a perspective sketch of  Madeley Transfer Area for Potteries Thinkbelt, Staffordshire, England, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/378816). 282Figure 185.  Instant City, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 223). 283Figure 186.  Come-Go Project, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 60). 284Figure 187.  Come-Go Project, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 61). 284Figure 188.  Agricultural City Model, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/). 285Figure 189.  Agricultural City Plan, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/). 286Figure 190.  Agricultural City Section, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/). 286 Figure 191.  Liquid Kingdom Map, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom). 287Figure 192.  Liquid Kingdom Drawing, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom). 288Figure 193.  Liquid Kingdom Exhibit, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom). 288Figure 194.  #LATBD Model Drawing 1, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd). 289Figure 195.  #LATBD Model Drawing 2, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd). 290Figure 196.  #LATBD Model Presentation, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd). 290Figure 197.  Installation in the vault of  the Nasjonalmuseet Arkitektur, Oslo. Photo by Luis Callejas, Lateral Office (Retrieved from: http://lateraloffice.com/BOOM-BUST-2019). 291Figure 198.  Steady-State Architecture 1-9 Axonometrics, Lateral Office (Retrieved from: http://lateraloffice.com/BOOM-BUST-2019). 292 DEDICATIONACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFor my mother, whose constant DIY home renovations gave me no choice but to pursue a career in architecture. This project was completed during the outbreak of  the COVID-19 pandemic.  As such, I would like to dedicate this project to the essential service workers who kept our lives afloat during this time.  In particular, the marine pilots, railroaders, seafarers, ship owners, terminal workers, and truck drivers who were putting their lives at risk on a daily basis to support global trade and the Canadian economy. I’d like to express my sincere gratitude to my committee members.  My Chair, John Bass, for always pushing me to think more critically about each decision I make and its larger implications; for seeing my vision even when I could not.  Alastair, for the optimism, breadth of  ideas, and rigorous attention to detail.  Roy, for the encyclopedia of  knowledge + references, and for encouraging + emphasizing the importance of  relational thinking.  Tracey, for always being on the ball and knowing exactly where the gaps and opportunities lie in my project.  Thanks to all the friends, family, teachers, colleagues, and classmates who have been a part of  this journey.Thanks to the Rupertites who welcomed me and graciously dedicated their time to candidly speak with me. PROLOGUEA Micropedia A crisis for an urban metropolis.Brain GainA Phenomenon resulting from the influx of  highly skilled workers.  Often caused by an abundance of  industrial revenue and an abundance of  opportunities for highly skilled workers.  A blessing for a developing urban metropolis.CCapitalism$An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.  The domination of  labour by capital.  A class of  capitalist in command of  work process, organizing that process for a profit.  The labourer and labour power as a commodity that can be sold on the market.  Accumulation as the means whereby the capitalist class reproduces both itself  and its domination over labour.3  A source of  greed and wealth that drives the economy through accumulation and class struggle. Climate ChangeA real phenomenon impacting the future 3  David Harvey, “The Urban Process Under Capitalism: A Framework for Analysis”, 1981, 110-111.DDystopiaAn (un)imagined state of  society in which there is great suffering or injustice. Typically, one that is totalitarian or post-apocalyptic.  The accepted future of  today should we remain complacent about climate change and the exploitation of  resources.  EEconomy$The structure or conditions of  economic life in a country, area, or period.  A system especially of  interaction and exchange. The driving influence of  a prosperous global settlement.  Experimental UrbanismSettlements as experiments.  Inherent complexity, fragility and instability at all levels make settlements susceptible to catastrophe and require diversity and experimentation to be robust over time. Unstable environments are primed for experimentation.5  A necessary process to advance the field of  architecture and urbanism in an ever-evolving world.  5  Erick Villagomez, “Experimental Urbanism”, 2013, para 7, 10.ABBinge EconomyConsumption embedded in daily rhythms of  work, in the cultural construction of  gender, and the economy. Emerging in extractive industries on the margins of  the capitalist world.  A way to build social order which allows workers to survive harsh work discipline, dangerous physical labour, and the socially corrosive nature of  money.1  Excessive consumption serving the interests of  capital. BioregionalismPOLENVECOActivity restricted to distinct ecological and geographical regions.  Political, cultural, and ecological perspectives on naturally defined bioregions.  The human processes in a region as an extension of  a place’s natural characteristics. Brain DrainA Phenomenon resulting from the exodus of  highly skilled workers.  Often caused by a lack of  industrial revenue and opportunities for highly skilled workers.2 1  Richard Wilk, “Poverty and Excess in Binge Economies”, 2014, 66.2  Pier Vittorio Aureli, Labor and Architecture: Revisiting Cedric Price’s Potteries Thinkbelt, (New York: Anyone Corporation Publishing, 2011), 110.of  our planet as a result of  neglect and over-consumption of  carbon.  Resulting in global warming, coastal erosion, rising sea levels, and ultimately the destruction of  earth.CoastalThe land near a shore.  Susceptible to erosion and rising sea levels.  The meeting point of  land and sea.  Ideal for ports.CommodityAn economic good.  Coal, pulp, wood, grain, energy, brains, people, resources.Community HubA place in which a diverse group of  people with the same characteristics in common can occupy.  A social condenser with free-space for people and things.  Critical RegionalismMediates the impact of  universal civilization with elements derived indirectly from the peculiarities of  a place.4 Designing of  the built environment with an emphasis on regional specificity.  4  Kenneth Frampton, “Towards a Critical Regionalism”, 21. GlobalizationThe worldwide diffusion of  practices. Expansion of  relations across continents, organization of  social life on a global scale, and growth of  a shared global consciousness.  The central issue is the relationship between the highly interrelated topics of  homogeneity-heterogeneity and the global-local.8  GlocalizationEmphasizes the integration of  the global and the local and involves far more heterogeneity than homogeneity. Results in unique outcomes in different geographic areas.  Individuals and groups as important creative agents.  Subject to globalizing processes, these individuals and groups are not likely to be overwhelmed by them.  Rather, they are likely to modify and adapt them to their own needs and interests.9GrobalizationThe imperialistic ambitions of  nations, corporations, organizations, and their desire to impose themselves on various geographic areas.  Interested in seeing power and profits grow throughout 8  George Ritzer, The McDonaldization of  Society: Revised New Century Edition, (London: Pine Forge Press, 2004), 162.  9  Ritzer, 163. anything real.11  Much of  the postmodern landscape has been described as ‘hyperreal’. IIndustry$A distinct group of  productive or profit-making enterprises.  A disruption to the local, often as a result of  the global. Economic activity concerned with the processing of  raw materials and manufacturing of  goods.Industrial LandscapeThe concentration of  industrial processes in one place and their direct connections to urban areas.12  The technologies that support the city spread into the larger landscape.  Industrial expansion in the 19th century followed the railway lines and coalfields.  Today, it runs along roads and power lines.  Travel, electronic communications, industry, power generation and distribution, television towers, and other urban-based technologies have become part of  rural landscapes.  Electrical utility lines and gas + oil pipelines travel miles of  terrain from their points of  origin to their destination points of  consumption in cities.1311  Nan Ellin, Postmodern Urbanism, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 162-163. 12  Michael Hough, Out of  Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape, (New York: Yale University Press, 1990), 122.13  Hough, 122-123.ExtrastatecraftDesigning action and interplay as well as designing objects.  Infrastructure space. The often-undisclosed activities outside of, in addition to, and sometimes even in partnership with statecraft6 (statecraft as the skillful management of  state affairs).  FFuturismGlorified modernity, technology, and ideas of  the future.  Origins in 1909 Italy.7 An attempt to systematically explore predictions and possibilities about the future and how they can emerge from the present.  GGeopolitics$Politics and international relations relating to geography.  The inherent value and opportunity of  a physical place. International politics.  See Pipeline and Trans-Pacific Partnership.6  Keller Easterling, Extrastatecraft: The Power of  Infrastructure Space, (New York: Verso, 2016), 3. 7  Edward Denison, 30-Second Architecture: The 50 Most Significant Principles and Styles in Architecture, Each Explained in Half  a Minute, (UK: The Ivy Press, 2013), 96.the world.  Social processes as largely unidirectional and deterministic.  Forces flow from the global to the local, and little possibility of  the local having any significant impact on the global. Grobalization overpowers the local and limits the ability of  the local to act and react, let alone to act back on the grobal.10 HHeritageSomething possessed as a result of  one’s natural situation or birth.  Valorization of  existing forms or ideals through perceived symbolic and embedded meaning.Hybrid=+The combination of  two or more things that produce a whole that is greater than the sum of  its parts. 1 + 1 = greater than 2.HyperrealEfforts at contextualism and preservation engaged in inventing a history or re-valorizes it and idealizes selected earlier periods.  Once the intervention of  tradition goes beyond a certain point, it produces ‘hyperreal’ environments which must be fake in order to be better than 10  Ritzer, 165.  not distanced commentary or critique.  A way of  working at a large scale that escapes suspect notions of  master planning and the heroic ego of  the individual architect.  A return to instrumentality and a move away from the representational imperative.14 Architecture’s ability to deal with infrastructural problems such as territory, communication, and speed.  JKLLocalOf, relating to, or characteristic of  a place.  Not general or widespread. Uninfluenced by globalization.  Relating to heritage.  Often glamorized for its purity. The opposite of  global.  LocaleA place where something happens, is set, or that has events associated with it.  A place or locality especially when viewed in relation to an event or characteristic. A (fictional) setting.  M14  Stan Allen, Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 52.MetabolismThe fusing of  megastructures with organic growth.  The city as a process.17 Distinction between the permanent and the transient.  The city as a living organism consisting of  elements with different metabolic cycles.  An organic growth of  networks and infrastructure that connect land with sky and water.  NNetworksConduits for transportation, communication, or utilities.  Associated with infrastructure.  Organized through linear, multi-centred, radial, serial, or parallel topologies.  A linear network connects successive points along a line. In a radial network, a single central point controls the flow of  information.  A parallel network is an open mesh.18  NodeSwitches.  An interchange in a highway network.  A dam in a hydrological network. A terminal in a transit network.  An earth station in a satellite network.  An internet service provider in a broadband network. 17  Zhongjie Lin, Kenzo Tange and the Metabolist Movement: Urban Utopias of  Modern Japan, (London; New York: Routledge, 2010), 2.  18  Easterling, 77. Industrial RevolutionA transition to new manufacturing processes and technologies that has direct impacts on society and the economy.  Four Industrial Revolutions have occurred to date:1.0 - 1764:  Mechanization, steam power, weaving loom.2.0 - 1870:  Mass production, assembly line, electrical energy.3.0 - 1969:  Automation, computers and electronics.4.0 - Today:  Cyber physical systems, internet of  things, networks.InfrastructureThe system of  public works of  a country, state, or region.  The resources (such as personnel, buildings, or equipment) required for an activity.  A medium for extrastatecraft.  A network of  visible or invisible systems that enable something larger.  A system which links resources with people and the environment.  Infrastructural UrbanismA model for practice and renewed sense of  architecture’s potential to structure the future city.  Architecture as material space—an activity that works in and among the world of  things.  An architecture dedicated to concrete proposals and realistic strategies of  implementation and Material PracticesOrganizes and transforms aggregates of  labour, materials, energy, and resources. Material practices work through mediated procedures such as operations of  drawing and projection, leaving their trace on the work.  Material practices deploy an open catalog of  techniques without preconceived formal ends.  They do not control or predetermine meaning.  They are not about expression, but rather condense, transform, and materialize concepts.15 MegastructureA large frame in which all functions of  a city or part of  a city are housed. Ideal cities intended to house somebody else’s Utopias—the new Utopias of  the Futurologists.16  Any structural framework into which rooms, houses, or other small buildings can later be installed, uninstalled, and replaced.  Capable of  ‘unlimited’ extension.  This type of  framework allows a structure to adapt to individual wishes of  its inhabitants, even as those wishes change.15  Allen, 53.16  Reyner Banham, Megastructure: Urban Futures of  the Recent Past, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976), 80. PipelineA way to bring oil and liquefied natural gas from Alberta to Prince Rupert.  A part of  Canada’s carbon corridor from land to sea.  The Northern Gateway pipeline was quashed by the Federal Government in 2014.  A network to bring local resource extraction to the global economy.  PortA town or city with a harbor.  A place that facilitates trade, commerce, and binge economies.  A place often characterized by coastal tropes.  A place ripe for investment and growth.  A place influenced by the local and the global.  Coastal in geographic location.  A place of  opportunity.  Pulp MillA symbol of  a once prosperous economy. An indicator of  resources.  More symbolic than literal.  A manifestation of  an idea. A place that contains people and labour.Prince RupertA melting pot of  new and old (humans and resources).  A dystopia and a utopia.  A place of  anguish and opportunity.  A global city of  the future.  for globalization.  A natural way of  living in a commodified world.  Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and the United States signed on February 4, 2016.  A vehicle for trade in a capitalist economy.  TropeHistorical-spatial configurations that have given rise to ways of  seeing and knowing spaces.  A stereotypical way of  shaping our understanding of  places and people that reside in these places.  Clichés often associated with coastal communities. UUtopia A (real) place or state of  things in which everything is perfect.  Visionary or improbable.  A fetishized vision of  the future where all our problems no longer exist.  See Prince Rupert.  “They establish potentials.  They may suppress or redirect.  The switch may generate effects some distance down the line.  It is a remote control of  sorts—activating a distant site to affect a local condition or vice versa.  Exceeding the reach of  a single object form, the switch modulates a flow of  activities.”19Northern PassageGlobal trading systems having the ability to move north due to advancements in technology and receding ice, reducing shipping time and expense from Europe to Canada.  More open and safe access to the Northwest Passage above Canada, and the Northern Sea Route above Russia are becoming a reality.  Using these northern routes, Prince Rupert is estimated to be 9-12 days sailing time closer to Europe than existing trade routes. OPPacific RimA sea of  connectivity between countries. A high volume of  trade through the Pacific Ocean that far exceeds that of  the Atlantic.  The Pacific Age.  See Trans-Pacific Partnership19  Easterling, 75. QRResourceA natural source of  wealth or revenue. Something to be exploited.  See commodity.STTerminusA final point in space or time.  An end or extremity.  Often associated with transportation infrastructure.  An origin point for Prince Rupert.  A symbol of  hope while also a means to an end.  TopologyIntuitive markers of  disposition in an organization.  They can be assemblies of  multipliers and switches.  Related to extrastatecraft.  TradeThe business of  buying and selling or bartering commodities.  An important process in a capitalist society.  A vehicle  YZVVancouveriteA west coast human that thrives on urbanity while still indulging in the preciousness of  nature.  Someone seeking culture and entertainment. Typically residing in, but likely not from, Vancouver, BC.  Vancouver Lite‘Second-tier’ B.C. cities like Prince Rupert become ‘Vancouver Lite’ by highlighting features like universities and cultural events people in the Lower Mainland are hesitant to give up.20  A migrant to Northern BC from urban centres like Vancouver.VernacularOf, relating to, or characteristic of  a period, place, or group.  Architecture without architects.  Architecture that emerges naturally in response to climate, geology, and culture of  a place.  See critical regionalism.  WX20  Andrew Kurjata, “Advice for B.C. cities trying to entice Vancouverites northward: become ‘Vancouver-Lite’”, 2017, para 19.  ++--ECONOMYECONOMYENVIRONMENTENVIRONMENTPOL=+ENVECO$$ $$Climate ChangeDystopiaFuturismBinge EconomyMaterial PracticesGeopoliticsNorthern PassageCommodity ResourceUtopiaIndustrial LandscapeVancouveriteInfrastructureMegastructureLocalVernacularHeritageBioregionalismExperimental UrbanismInfrastructural UrbanismVancouver LiteTrans-Pacific PartnershipTerminusHyperrealBrain DrainBrain GainGlocalizationTropeMetabolism Critical RegionalismCoastalExtrastatecraftPulp MillEconomyIndustryHybridCommunity HubPrince RupertProjectPacific RimNetworksGrobalizationTradeCapitalismGlobalizationPipelineIndustrial RevolutionPortNodeLocaleTopologyFigure 1.  Economy—Environment Scenario Planning Diagram. CHAPTER 0Thesis Statement This project seeks to envision how the city can develop through a responsive urbanism shaped by the industries that stimulate the local and global economy.  This will be explored through a Systems-Based Approach to Collective Form.  Urban society is “a dynamic field of  interrelated forces,”1 and as such, this proposal positions the architect as a mediator.  It proposes approaches not as fixed solutions, but as possibilities for how a place can evolve in response to shifting geopolitical and socioeconomic values.  This project suggests ways in which an urbanism can develop and adapt to support these shifts, highlighting the need for the designer to consider cycles and transformations.  Post-war carbon economies can transition towards renewable resource economies as a catalyst for diversification and the growth of  Prince Rupert as a collective city. Our relationship with natural resources, industry, the economy, and the environment are complex and constantly in a state of  contradiction.  This relationship is explored through an understanding of  the city as a collective form.  This project forecasts the future generative potential of  industries stimulating the Canadian resource economy, while allowing these industries to productively shape the built environment and the exchanges that occur within it1  Fumihiko Maki, Investigations in Collective Form, (Washington: School of  Architecture, Washington University, 1964), 3. Prince RupertVancouver1-10 Largest Port Terminals11-25 Largest Port Terminals26-50 Largest Port TerminalsTrade RoutesRelative Port Terminal Annual VolumeFigure 2.  Map of  2018 Annual Global Trade Volume. CHAPTER IPART 1Heading North Prince RupertVancouverRailWaterRoadAirRelative 2019 Population2 hours / 750 km24 hours17 hours / 1,500 km48 hoursFigure 3.  Travel From Vancouver to Prince Rupert.We are approaching a time when the pristine shoreline of  Stanley Park and the beloved Vancouver Seawall could very well be reduced to a neglected landscape of  coastal erosion and flooding due to sea level rise.  Global warming and the immediate impacts of  carbon economies, such as diluted bitumen spills, are nudging us toward a climactic state of  emergency.   We are on the precipice of  a transitional period away from carbon economies and the exploitation of  natural resources, and into a renewable future.  We can imagine designers approaching these issues holistically and expanding their roles in search of  opportunities to intervene in the complex networks and systems of  extraction and consumption that exist today.  These bounds can extend architecture’s reach outward to engage landscape, urbanism, infrastructure, ecology, and politics.  In order to think holistically about the larger environmental issues facing us today the architect can readily accept this role as an agent looking for synergies between old and new systems, exploring how they can expose opportunities for overlap and cross-pollination between seemingly independent heterogeneous stakeholders.  The old fishing town of  Prince Rupert is in the process of  being eroded by globalization through the rapid growth of  its port and ease of  access to the global market.  In the early 1900s a visionary explorer named Charles Hays had a modern vision of  Prince Rupert as a global port metropolis.  Unfortunately, his vision was not realized as he tragically died on the RMS Titanic in 1912.  Hays’s memory lives on for Rupertites through the “It was a bright day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.”         - George Orwell Vancouver Fraser Port Authority Montreal Port Authority Prince Rupert Port Authority Quebec Port Authority Sept-Îles Port AuthorityHalifax Port Authority Hamilton-Oshawa Port Authority Thunder Bay Port Authority St. John's Port Authority Belledune Port AuthorityWindsor Port Authority Trois-Rivières Port Authority Toronto Port Authority Saint John Port Authority Nanaimo Port AuthorityPort Alberni Port Author�ty Saguenay Port AuthoritySaint John (1%)Nanaimo (1%)Port Alberni (0.5%)Saguenay (0.5%)Belledune (2%)Toronto (1.5%)Trois-Rivières (1.5%)St. John’s (2%)Halifax (6%)Thunder Bay (3%)Windsor (2%)Hamilton-Oshawa (4%)Vancouver (39%)Montreal(12%)Quebec(8%)Sept-Îles(7%)Prince Rupert(12%)Halifax(6%)SaintJohn(1%)Belledune(2%)Toronto(1.5%)Montreal (12%)Hamilton(4%)Windsor(2%)Thunder Bay(3%)St. John’s(2%)Prince Rupert(12%)Vancouver(39%)Port Alberni(0.5%)Nanaimo(1%) Trois-Rivières (1.5%)Quebec City (8%)Sept-Îles (7%)Saguenay (0.5%)Figure 5.  Map of  2018 Annual Trade Volume by City in Canada.Figure 4.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Trade Volume by City in Canada. Mandatory: - RCMP loan: $30 million - Landfill cell upgrades: $10 million - Waste water treatment: $175 million - Water supply: $25 million Necessary: - A new fire hall: $15 million - Wooden bridges: $18 million - Airport ferry: $12 million - Roads and sidewalks: $67 million3These infrastructure challenges require the digging-up of  all roads in the municipality. This provides a perfect opportunity to rethink the infrastructure of  Prince Rupert.  With the city expected to grow and the infrastructure needing replacement, infrastructural urbanism can be viewed as a profitable venture that could help with the deficit long term 3  City of  Prince Rupert, “Hays 2.0 Vision Statement”, 2018, para 7.newly adopted Hays 2.0 strategic plan.1  This reincarnated plan, adapted from the 1912 vision, promotes economic resilience, protecting the natural environment, and working together to collectively enhance the quality of  life.  This plan is positioned as being predominantly driven by inclusivity and diversity.  Foreign investment in trade and a ‘Hail Mary’ pass from Prince Rupert Port Authority CEO Don Krusel has instilled a sense of  hope in Prince Rupertites.2  He welcomed the global economy to the port through international trade, and Prince Rupert has become one of  the fastest growing ports in North America.  Trade in Prince Rupert has sky-rocketed since Asian investors learnt that shipping goods there could be up to three-days quicker than Vancouver shipping time.  As a result, the port of  Prince Rupert has been transformed into an intermodal trade hub with the epicentre located at the Fairview Container Terminal just south of  the city-centre.  In 2019 Prince Rupert was facing $352 million in deficits.  This astronomical figure can be accounted for through mandatory and necessary improvements:1  City of  Prince Rupert, “Hays 2.0 Vision Statement”, 2018, para 1.2  Andrew Kurjata, “‘A Hail Mary pass’: how the Port of  Prince Rupert became a player in the world of  global trade”, 2017, para 14.  Figure 6.  Global-to-Local Diagram.Re-Design RupertBecoming a Global Community2030 Sustainable CityRe:Build RupertPartnershipsHAYS2.0SHANGHAIVANCOUVERPRINCE RUPERT3 Days QuickerFigure 8.  Prince Rupert Hays 2.0 Vision (Adapted from: http://www.princerupert.ca/hays2).Prince Ruper t WorldBr i t i sh  ColumbiaFigure 7.  Asia—Prince Rupert Trade Routes.while allowing the city to undergo urban reform.  This paves the way for infrastructural opportunism as a strategy for planned growth through a set of  systematic interventions at the scale of  the territory rather than at the scale of  the building. The challenges that led to such poor conditions in Prince Rupert were a result of: - An over-reliance on resource industries - Population decline - Staff  and services cuts due to a lack of  capacity - No major asset management plan - Extensive and expensive infrastructure repairs4In the future, Vancouverites could flood into this community and bring with them a brain gain in Prince Rupert.  This could lead to the emergence of  Prince Rupert as the new Vancouver Lite, opening the door for reformed socioeconomic models that more holistically engage with industries driving the economy.    4  City of  Prince Rupert, para 7. CHAPTER IIPrince Rupert [Vancouver Lite]New CruiseShip DockLOCAL REGIONALBritishColumbiaWesternCanadaCanadaCONTEXT VERNACULARPLACE-MAKINGAESTHETICSFORMMATERIALITYCOASTALGLOBALNorthAmericaAsiaChinaShanghaiglobal leaderin tradehighest number of port terminalsin the world concentrated herelargest port terminal annualtrade volume worldwideDirect RelationshipsIndirect RelationshipsVancouver, BC Juneau, AlaskaPort Edward, BC675,218population32,164population577population201913,000 POPULATIONFUTURE?EST. 1910FISHING MILL TOWNRegional Centre(North Coast, BC)1940SMALL CITYWWII Troops21,000 PopulationRail Terminus DeclaredNational Historic SiteJasper to Prince Rupert TrainWar SuppliesAnd Materials1960s AirportOpening + AlaskaBC Ferries Terminals1977 FairviewTerminal Opened1990sINDUSTRY DECLINE1990sPOPULATION DECLINE2005ECONOMY BOOSTCONTAINER PORT CONSTRUCTIONINTERMODALHUBHARBOUR3rd deepest, natural, icefree harbour in world3 days quicker to Prince Rupertthan Vancouver from AsiaTRADENATUREButze Rapids ParkKhutzeymateen Grizzly Bear SanctuaryWhale Watching ToursWettest Municipalityin CanadaMarine ClimateMinimal Snow1230 Annual Hours of Sunshine“100 Days of Sunshine”Lowest Amount of Annual Sunshine in Canada FISHINGHalibut Capital of the WorldFish Plant Burnt DownPulp MillClosedRAIL TERMINUS PORTIMPORTSauto and machineparts (27%)lumber +wood (33%)grain (31%)pulp andpaper (13%)agriculture (5%)auto parts,machineryelectronics (4%)other (13%)textiles (15%)furniture (14%)appliances +electronics (7%)buildingmaterials (9%)other (17%)householdgoods (10%)EXPORTSWATERshiptrainPrince George Houston(forestry)Fraser Lake(molybdenum)resourcesRegional Centre (Cariboo, BC)Granisle(copper)Kitimat(aluminum)truckRAILROADTOURISMFORESTRYPulp MillOpenedPRINCE RUPERTFigure 9.  Prince Rupert Mind Map. Campaigns in Northern British Columbia cities have enticed Vancouverites to move north to more affordable living.  It is the lack of  entertainment, culture, and amenities that are causing resistance amongst young people to move north.1  Rising costs of  living left young professionals wanting a future without debt no choice but to move elsewhere.  With rising temperatures due to global warming, Northern BC is becoming more desirable.  As a result, places like Prince Rupert are ripe for transformation into urban hubs that connects the global world with the local community.  Mayor Bob Simpson of  the city of  Quesnel claims “People are struggling with the affordability issue [in Vancouver]. They’re struggling with an unbalanced lifestyle... We’ve got a story to tell where all of  that is accessible.”2  What grants Prince Rupert its potential over other Northern BC communities is its coastal location and accessibility to the global economy.  The municipality of  Prince Rupert is comparable to the geographic size of  Vancouver, with much less density, making it highly capable of  becoming Vancouver Lite.  In 2019, for Vancouverites, moving to a different province or country was recorded as more desirable than moving to Northern BC.3  Millennials are looking for the excitement of  a vibrant city.  Thus, radical interventions could be the answer to building 1  Andrew Kurjata, “Advice for B.C. cities trying to entice Vancouverites northward: become ‘Vancouver-Lite’”, 2017, para 19.2  Andrew Kurjata, para 12.3  Andrew Kurjata, para 16.“Buy the ticket, take the ride”       - Hunter S. ThompsonBusiness IndustrialBusiness CommercialResidentialMunicipal BoundaryKaien IslandRidley Island Port EdwardWatsonIslandDigby Island1000m0Figure 10.  Prince Rupert Zoning 2019.                      a desirable hub in Northern BC.  “Now is the absolute opportune time for cities [like Prince Rupert] to say, ‘You know what? We’re actually a city too. We’re still in BC and we actually offer a lot of  good value.’”4  Prince Rupert is in Northern BC as part of  the North Coast region.  It’s a small coastal town that is home to about 13,000 residents and a municipal boundary of  103 km2.  This town was originally a settlement dependent on fishing, forestry, and its port; it became an important rail terminus for both leisure travel and trade.5  Surrounded by a beautiful natural scenic landscape, this town is becoming an off-the-beaten path tourist destination and stopover on the way to Alaska. 4  Andrew Kurjata, para 24.5  City of  Prince Rupert, “About Prince Rupert”, 2018, para 8.This fishing town was established in 1910.  Soon after, the pulp mill and canneries opened, and it was declared the halibut capital of  the world.  In the 1940s the town saw many war supplies pass through as well as an influx of  people, predominantly soldiers, increasing the population temporarily to 21,000.6  In the 1960s the airport opened, as well as the Alaska to BC ferry terminals.  By the 1990s industry declined and the population and economy dropped quite substantially.  During this time the rail terminus was declared a national historic site.  In 2005, there was an economic boost as the pulp mill reopened, a new cruise ship dock was completed, and construction began on the new container port.  Unfortunately, the pulp mill 6  City of  Prince Rupert, para 14.Figure 11.  Prince Rupert Timeline. closed for good in 2001, and the main source of  economic stability was lost. In 2019 population began to rise as the container port expanded and provided more employment.  The Jasper to Prince Rupert train line keeps the rail terminus history active.  As the container port expanded and continued its success the economy has continued to improve.  However, according to local accounts Prince Rupert is still a miserable place to live with a high unemployment rate.7  The container port was a last-ditch effort by the Port Authority to contact Asian investors to announce that this new intermodal hub would cut shipping time to and from Vancouver by three full days.  A fast and efficient rail, road, and ship transportation hub made this possible.   What brings visitors to Prince Rupert is the beautiful natural landscape that surrounds the city.  There are hikes along Butze Rapids Park, a grizzly bear sanctuary at Khutzeymateen Provincial Park, and several whale-watching tours.  One can even get a glimpse of  Alaska in the distance.  Visitors often move through Prince Rupert on their way to Alaska.  While these are wonderful attractions, Prince Rupert is the wettest municipality in Canada with a marine climate that results in plenty of  rain, and minimal snow.  It also contains the lowest amount of  annual sunshine in Canada.  As the slogan in Prince Rupert goes, there is "100 days of  sunshine".  This is a glorified way of  stating the municipality only receives a total of  1,230 annual hours of  sunshine per year.  The Skeena Pulp Mill was sold and recently demolished, and the site is being rebuilt as Watson Island Intermodal Trade and Logistics Park—a propane logistics facility.8  This ‘Logistics Park’ is owned by Pembina, a pipeline developer, or more lavishly described as an ‘energy infrastructure company’.9  This forecasts the future of  carbon and its continued relationship with Prince Rupert and British Columbia.  The Ridley Coal Mill was recently sold by the Federal Government to a private company for $350 million.10 The Fairview Container Terminal has plans for larger expansion, projecting Prince Rupert’s growth as a global economy dependent on resource extraction and trade.  The Federal government could very likely approve a pipeline from Alberta to Prince Rupert.  As carbon remains an important driver of  the local economy, the ‘Logistics Park’ on Watson Island could expand to scale-up the exporting of  coal to Asian markets. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) could be ratified, and we may usher in a new Pacific Age.  This agreement would bring twelve countries into endless trade possibilities.  The TPP is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and the United States that was signed on February 4, 2016 but failed to be implemented.  It would create an environment of  rapid trade along the Pacific Rim.  The TPP is a vehicle for trade in a capitalist economy serving as grounds for development in Prince Rupert. 7  Local Wanderer, “Prince Rupert Travel Guide: A Perfect Weekend in Northern BC”, 2018, para 23.8  North Coast Review, “City’s latest Watson Island video provides city’s view of  the timeline for Pembina LPG terminal work”, 2018, para 2.  9  Andrew Kurjata, “The City of  Prince Rupert, B.C., was forced to own an island it didn’t want; now it’s starting to pay off ”, 2017, para 7.  10  The Canadian Press, “Feds sell majority stake in B.C.’s Ridley Terminals for $350 million”, 2019, para 1.CanadaUSAMexicoPer uChi leNew ZealandAustra l iaBr uneiVietnamJapanMalays iaS ingaporeFigure 12.  Prince Rupert Trade Diagram.Prince Ruper t Global  EconomyBC Resources  TownsFigure 13.  Trans-Pacific Partnership Map.  Figure 15.  Prince Rupert Map.Figure 14.  Vancouver Map.Vancouver Population:   675,218Vancouver Municipal Boundary:  137 km²Prince Rupert Population:  12,220Prince Rupert Municipal Boundary: 103 km² What makes the economic scenario especially problematic in Prince Rupert is the port’s relationship to the local community.  Most of  Prince Rupert is municipally owned land, however, almost all the land along the coast is federally, provincially, or privately owned. This creates a scenario in which the main economic drivers of  the community are in fact not investing back into the local economy.  The Federal Government leases their land along the coast to the Port Authority, and the Port Authority rents the land to each industry as their tenants.  Thus, the Port Authority is somewhat autonomous and need not follow the rules of  the local municipality.  The port and its industries are rapidly growing and requiring more workers, so in turn locals are flocking to these opportunities as they are typically higher paying wages than local jobs within the community.  This has resulted in a derelict town in which most of  the downtown storefronts are abandoned and decrepit with local businesses often failing. The city is quite run down and in need of  major rejuvenation.  The contradiction here is that there are not enough workers in Prince Rupert to fulfill all the positions that are available at the port, so workers come from out of  town.  Workers from out of  town often do not stay because the city can’t maintain the quality of  life they are looking for, especially for the younger generation.  What we see here is a paradox in which the port is booming but the town is busting because there is negligible reinvestment in the community from the port industries.  Thus, the city has seen industries come and go as opportunities arise and diminish.  The economy has been quite unstable because of  this, leaving gaps between the port and the community.  The integration of  the port with the local community could be a way to merge the two and look for potential synergies between the global and the local.  There are opportunities for the global reach of  these industries to become more homogenous with the local community.  FederalProvincialMunicipalPrivateUnknownUn-Surveyed Provincial 1000m0Figure 16.  Prince Rupert Ownership Map. Figure 17.  1908 Brett and Hall Town Plan (Prince Rupert City & Regional Archives Society, 2010, p. 26-27). Figure 18.  Early Infrastructure (Prince Rupert City & Regional Archives Society, 2010, p. 25). Figure 19.  Prince Rupert Aerial Photo (Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/company/school-district-no-52-prince-rupert-/?originalSubdomain=ca).ShoppingRecreat ionHospi ta lSecondar y  SchoolsElementar y  SchoolsPost-Secondar y  SchoolsHote lsMuseumsGrocer yBarsRestaurantsDowntownHighl iner  Hote l*17 s toreys*ta l les t  bui ld ing in  Pr ince  Ruper tFer r y  Ter mina lConta inerTer mina lMount  Hays  LookoutWheelhouse Brewing*only  brewer y in  Pr ince Ruper tFire  Depar tmentSher i f f  Ser v icesRCMP Stat ionCr uise  Ter mina l300m0Figure 20.  Prince Rupert Town Analysis. Figure 21.  Downtown 2nd Avenue West Analysis.Figure 22.  Derelict Downtown 1. Figure 23.  Derelict Downtown 2. Figure 24.  Ridley Island Petroleumscape.Figure 25.  Derelict Waterfront With Industry. Figure 26.  Post-War Housing Communities.Figure 27.  Nature Trails. Figure 28.  Waterfront View with Pellet Terminal From Ferry.Figure 29.  Waterfront Port Terminal. Figure 30.  Waterfront Rail Terminus + Shopping Mall.Figure 31.  Waterfront Rail Line. CHAPTER IIIVestigesFigure 32.  Prince Rupert Vestiges. Relics, artifacts, and ruins line the coast of  Prince Rupert’s industrial corridor and connect to the Pacific Ocean.  Once important relics symbolize the original settlement of  this town in 1910, while new artifacts can accompany and transform the old relics into the next phase of  their lifecycle.  The landscape and the architecture begins to transform and morph for future industrial possibilities and the latent potential of  the industrial processes already taking place.  Old and new artifacts will continue to line the coast of  Prince Rupert as it moves toward the future and expands the city in efforts to catch up with the success of  the port.  “[K]ill your darlings, kill your darlings, even when it breaks your egocentric little scribbler’s heart, kill your darlings.”          - Stephen KingFISHINGBOATLOGGINGRAILMININGCRUISEFERRYAIRPLANESHIPSHIPPINGGLOBAL LOCALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 33.  Resource Connectivity Diagram. P R I N C E  R U P E R T  R A I L  T E R M I N U SIn 1910 the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Rail Terminus opened in Prince Rupert.   This station marked the settlement of  the community after auctioning off  2,400 homes in 1909.  The first through train arrived in Prince Rupert from Winnipeg in March of  1914.  CN Rail still operates trains in and out of  Prince Rupert, however, this station has been abandoned for decades and deemed ‘an eyesore’ by the local community.  Given this building’s historic nature and location on the waterfront, with ties to the settlement of  Prince Rupert, this is a potential site to develop and invite a lively waterfront.The Kwinitsa Railway Museum was built in 1911—a stop between Prince Rupert and Terrace—BC.  The Grand Trunk Pacific developed six basic station designs—Type A through Type F—of  which only four remain.  The Kwinitsa Railway Museum is a Type E design, the most common of  the six, and was transported via tugboat to Prince Rupert in 1985 and now serves as a railway museum.LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYN O R T H L A N D  C R U I S E  T E R M I N A LThe Northland Cruise Ship Dock opened in 2004 welcoming a new era of  tourism to Prince Rupert.  As the city becomes more global, allowing for easier access, tourism becomes a major part of  Prince Rupert’s economy.  The access to nature in a less urbanized, remote environment, brings thousands of  tourists there annually.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 34.  Rail Terminus Study. Figure 35.  Northland Cruise Terminal Study. FA I RV I E W  C O N TA I N E R  T E R M I N A L The Fairview Container Terminal is one of  the North America’s fastest growing container terminals.  Based on Prince Rupert’s northern location the terminal expansion serves as a direct intermodal connection for Asian imports.    In 1972 Prince Rupert was designated a National port and the Fairview Container Port opened in 1977.  The Prince Rupert Port Authority was established in 1997 and a new container port opened in 2007.  This port is projected to be a major economic driver providing hundreds of  new jobs.  Like the Vancouver-Fraser Port Authority, the Prince Rupert Port Authority is part of  the Container Capacity Improvement Program that will see the terminal size expanded as trade volume rapidly increases.  Prince Rupert’s economy is now largely driven by facilitating the successful operation of  the port terminal.    LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYW E S T V I E W  WO O D  P E L L E T  T E R M I N A LThe Westview Wood Pellet Terminal operates as a distributor of  industrial wood pellets. This pellet terminal receives pellets from as far as Alberta.  It highlights the reliance on resources and agriculture from the surrounding hinterlands.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 36.  Fairview Container Terminal Study. Figure 37.  Westview Pellet Terminal Study. R I D L E Y  C OA L  T E R M I N A L In 1991, the Federal Government became sole owner of  the Ridley Coal Terminal, opened in 1984, making Ridley Terminals Inc. a Federal Crown Corporation.  The Ridley Project Cargo Facility is designed to accommodate the transfer of  non-containerized goods from barge to rail.  It is located south of  Downtown Prince Rupert on Ridley Island.   The terminal was sold by the federal government for $350 million to a company owned by Riverstone Holdings and AMCI Group.  This facility transfers bulk coal and related resources such as petroleum coke.  The Northern Gateway Pipeline is proposed to run from Edmonton through Kitimat, to Prince Rupert.  Prince Rupert was expecting this to be a new economic driver with an influx of  jobs for the community before the expansion was cancelled due to public outcry.  As a result of  selling the Ridley Coal Terminal, the Federal Government has $350 million it could invest into future infrastructure projects in Northern BC.  Ridley Island supports coal mines and processing facilities throughout Northern BC.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYS K E E N A  P U L P  M I L L The Skeena Pup Mill opened in 1951 and was the major economic driver for Prince Rupert for most of  its history.  When the mill shut down in 2001 economic stability was lost, leaving the community to re-evaluate new sources of  industry.  Population began declining after the pulp mill closure.  The pulp mill operated for fifty years on Watson Island, located at the southern portion of  the Prince Rupert Municipal District, just east of  Ridley Island.  As demolition of  the Skeena Pulp Mill begins, Watson Island becomes a symbol of  prosperity and loss for the community.  A propane terminal coined the ‘Watson Intermodal Trade and Logistics Park’ has been proposed for development on Watson Island.  This project will support 200 jobs during its construction, followed by 20-30 permanent jobs upon completion.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 38.  Ridley Coal Terminal Study. Figure 39.  Skeena Pulp Mill Study. P R I N C E  R U P E R T  G R A I N  T E R M I N A LThe Prince Rupert Grain Terminal stores and ships wheat, barley, canola, and other grains. It is located on Ridley Island next to the Ridley Coal Terminal.  Shipments come from Alberta along CN rail lines.  The flow of  grain volume to this terminal is directly impacted by Alberta farmers and the operation of  CN Rail.  Delays, worker strikes, and understaffing by CN Rail have major implications on the volume shipped internationally from Prince Rupert and in turn impacts global relations.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYN O R T H  PAC I F I C  CA N N E RYThe North Pacific Cannery opened in 1889 and operated as a salmon cannery until the late 1970s.  It then operated as a maintenance and reduction facility until 1981.  In 1985 a group of  locals lobbied to keep the historic structure intact and the facilities were converted into a museum that continues operation today.  Staff  housing was located on site and remains as part of  the museum.   Salmon fishing was crucial to early coastal life in Northern BC.  The Skeena River was marked with dozens of  salmon canneries that are almost entirely closed today.  The cannery is located just south of  Prince Rupert in Port Edward.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 40.  Prince Rupert Grain Terminal Study. Figure 41.  North Pacific Cannery Study. P R I N C E  R U P E R T  B C  F E R RY  T E R M I N A LThe Prince Rupert BC Ferry Terminal transports people from Prince Rupert to the airport, and vice versa.  The ferry occupies interstitial space between Kaien Island and Digby Island.   It moves locals and tourists from land to sky transportation.  It also move travellers, often tourists, along the Inside Passage scenic route to and from Vancouver.   The ferry connects to Haida Gwaii, Vancouver, and Alaska.  Ferries move in and out of  Prince Rupert.  They act not only as vehicles for people, but vessels of  time.   LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYP R I N C E  R U P E R T  A I R P O R T  ( Y P R )The Prince Rupert Airport opened in 1970 and is located on Digby Island, nine kilometres west of  Prince Rupert.  To access the airport, one must board a ferry from Kaien Island to Digby Island.  Prior to construction, the only access to Prince Rupert by air was though an amphibian aircraft from Seal Cove to Sandspit in the Queen Charlotte Islands.  From Sandspit an aircraft would be boarded and travel to Vancouver.  This airport fuels globalization and a greater connection to the rest of  the world.  The airport was renovated and expanded in 2016.  There is a ton of  surrounding land available for future development and expansion on Digby Island.  LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYFigure 42.  Prince Rupert BC Ferry Terminal Study. Figure 43.  Prince Rupert Airport (YPR) Study. LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLO CA L G LO BA LRAIL TERMINUS RAIL TERMINUSNORTH PACIFIC CANNERY NORTH PACIFIC CANNERYSKEENA PULP MILL SKEENA PULP MILLFAI VIEW CONTAINER TERMINAL FAIRVIEW CONTAINER TERMINALRI LEY COAL TERMINAL RIDLEY COAL TERMINALWESTVIEW PELLET TERMINAL WESTVIEW PELLET TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT GRAIN TERMINAL PRINCE RUPERT GRAIN TERMINALNORTHLAND CRUISE SHIP TERMINAL NORTHLAND CRUISE SHIP TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT BC FERRY DOCK PRINCE RUPERT BC FERRY DOCKPRINCE RUPERT AIRPORT (YPR) PRINCE RUPERT AIRPORT (YPR)LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYL CALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYL CALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBAHERITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBAHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHE ITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALH RITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBALH RIT GEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERIT GEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHE ITAGEIN USTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHE I AGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYRAIL TERMINUSNO TH PACIFIC CANNERYSKEENA PULP MILLFAIRVIEW CONTAINER TERMINALRIDLEY COAL TERMINALWESTVIEW PELLET TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT GRAIN TERMINALNORTHLAND CRUISE SHIP TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT BC FERRY DOCKPRINCE RUPERT AIRPORT (YPR)L CALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBAHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHE ITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHE IT GEIN USTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERI AGEINDUSTRYH E R I TAG E I N D U S T RYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYRAIL ERMINUSNORTH PACIFIC CANNERYSKEENA PULP MILLFAIRVIEW CONTAINER TERMINALRIDLEY COAL TERMINALWESTVIEW PELLET TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT GRAIN TERMINALNORTHLAND CRUISE SHIP TERMINALPRINCE RUPERT BC FERRY DOCKPRINCE RUPERT AIRPORT (YPR)LOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBALHE ITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALH RITAGEINDUST YLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEIN USTRYLOCALGLOBALHERIT GEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUSTRYLOCALGLOBALHERITAGEINDUST YFigure 44.  Local Ratings. Figure 46.  Heritage Ratings.Figure 45.  Global Ratings. Figure 47.  Industry Ratings. RAILTERMINUSWOOD PELLETTERMINALFERRYDOCKAIRPORTCOALTERMINALPULPMILLSALMONCANNERYCONTAINERTERMINALGRAINTERMINALCRUISESHIP DOCKFigure 49.  Map of  Prince Rupert Vestiges.Figure 48.  Prince Rupert Proposed Vestiges. CHAPTER I[New] ArtifactsPART 2 “It is not possible to live in this age if  you don’t have a sense of  many contradictory forces.”        - Rem KoolhaasCapitalism comes with flaws of  inequality, excess materialism, and boom bust cycles. It does, however, offer opportunity, growth, and hope.  Through reevaluating coastal settlements in Northern BC, we can begin to reframe them as forward-thinking places with space to test new ideas and reinvent the local urbanism.  The existing coastal tropes of  fishing, trade, tourism, lumberjack, beer drinking criminals can transition into new coastal tropes associated with renewable forms of  industry, futurism, experimental urbanism, and the hyperreal.  As people look to move north, these tropes can redefine what it means to be a coastal settlement in Northern British Columbia.    Prince Rupert could become a diversified culture with ‘community hubs’ centred around emerging industry.  These hubs can be held together through an infrastructure of  connective tissue along the coastline, acting as social condensers that embrace and foster resources and diversification.  These are places where old and new industry, people, and the economy can converge.  They can become places where industry and tourism meet at the intersection of  local and global relations.  In 2018, the federal government stepped in to buy the Trans Mountain pipeline between Alberta and the British Columbia coast from Kinder Morgan Canada for $4.5 billion. The company and its investors got cold feet about proceeding as political opposition to the pipeline threatened unending delays.  A study found that 60% of  Canadians support Figure 50.  BC Resource Networks Map.Fort St. JohnFort McMurraryPrince RupertEdmontonCalgaryVancouverKelownaKamloopsJasperPrince GeorgeKitimatFort NelsonGrand PrairieLumber MillsPulp + Paper MillsChip MillsPellet MillsCoal MinesCoal DepositsProposed LNG FacilitiesCitiesRailRoadPipelinesProposed PipelinesGas and Oil DepositsAsiaAsiaAsia pipeline construction.1  Thus, the carbon corridor and carbon economy in Northern BC is alive and well.  It is still thriving as the Federal Government disregards environmental concerns pushing ahead with the Trans Mountain pipeline production.  The pipeline is an artifact of  the carbon economy, and we can think about new forms of  renewable resource production overtaking these remaining, but soon to be extinct, carbon relics. As peak oil is nearing, there is an inevitable decline in carbon availability and in turn consumption that will take place, and we will be forced to develop new innovative sources of  energy and production.Global warming has caused receding ice in the Northern Passage which could open opportunities for easier trade with European countries.  This could create trade routes that reduce travel by 9-12 days.  Moreover, Vancouver exports the most coal out of  any North American port terminal.2  British Columbia has yet to confront its intimate relationship with carbon, and as the inevitable pipeline proposals proceed, Vancouver becomes a place of  contradiction.  So too does Prince Rupert in its role as a prominent actor in the global supply chain.  Varying forms of  carbon are still ever-present in the resource economy of  BC.  Crude oil is the largest export in the province, while liquefied petroleum gases are in the top five exports.3  These resources will continue to play a role for Canada on the global stage.  In accepting this, we can move forward and look to foster new forms of  renewable resources.  These conflicting forces can be reconciled in Prince Rupert as the epicentre for trade and resource exploitation.  This can play out through new settlement patterns from the predicted influx of  people and residents.  New migrants and resources that arrive can create new artifacts.  Complex systems of  extraction to consumption contribute to the resources that fuel this place and can shape the human experience immensely.  As such, a new network of  infrastructure and urbanism can act as activators for shaping the future of  Prince Rupert.  1  Cillian O’Brien, “Three in five Canadians support construction of  new pipelines: Nanos survey”, 2019, para 2.  2  Tristin Hopper, “Yes, anti-pipeline Vancouver really is North America’s largest exporter of  coal”, 2018, para 5. 3  Hopper, para 11. Drill and Mine Transport Store DistributePrince RupertFigure 51.  Oil and Gas Distribution Diagram.Figure 52.  Northern BC Carbon Network.Fort St. JohnPrince RupertPrince GeorgeKitimatTerraceSmithersCoal MinesCoal DepositsProposed LNG FacilitiesRegional CentresCitiesRailRoadPipelinesProposed Pipelines           Industr y Futur ismBra in GainExper imenta l  Urbanism Hyper rea lMetabol i sm$Trade Tour ismFishingBeer Cr imeLumber jacksFigure 54.  Taxonomy of  New Coastal Tropes.Figure 55.  Industrial Revolutions Timeline. Figure 53.  Taxonomy of  Old Coastal Tropes.  NORTHCOASTNORTHEASTNECHAKOCARIBOOVANCOUVERISLAND / COASTMAINLAND /SOUTHWESTKOOTENAYTHOMPSON -OKANAGANYUKONALASKANORTHWEST TERRITORIESALBERTAWASHINGTON MONTANAIDAHOFort St. JohnDawson CreekPrince RupertGrand PrairieJuneauWhitehorseSeattleEdmontonCalgaryHudson’s HopeGranislePort McNeilPort AliceGold RiverElkfordLogan LakeVancouverKelownaKamloopsJasperVictoriaTahsisHoustonFraser LakePrince GeorgeKitimatMackenzieTumbler RidgeFort NelsonBurns LakeFort FraserVanderhoofWillowRiverEndako Aleza LakeUpper FraserSinclair MillsLongworthLoosDome CreekHuttonBennyMcBrideDunsterHarveyTelkwaHoustonSmithersCedarvalloDorreenPacificUskTerranceKwintsaKitwangaNew HazeltonRegional CentresResource TownsPlanned Resource TownsClosed Resource TownsTrain StationsNearby CitiesTransortation RailCargo RailShip roouteMain RoadSecondary Roadlumber and wood(33%)auto parts, machinery, electronics(4%)energy products(25%)wood(21%)pulp + paper(11%) metallic mineral products (13%)machinery + equipment(11%)other (7%)agriculture (7%)fish (3%)fabricated metal products(3%)Prince Rupert 2018 Containerized Goods ExportedBC 2018 Containerized Goods Exportedgrain(31%)pulp + paper(13%)other(13%)agriculture (5%)Figure 56.  Map of  BC Networks and Exports.Northwest Passage RouteROTTERDAMPRINCE RUPERTCurrent Panama Canal RouteNorthern Sea Route 9 Days Quicker12 Days QuickerFigure 57.  Europe—Prince Rupert Trade Routes. CHAPTER IIBCC [Blind Carbon Copy]1000m0LNG + Coal ProposalsExisting BoundaryProposed BoundaryExisting Ridley Coal TerminalNew Pembina Trade & Logistics ParkProposed Aurora LNG Plant & Export TerminalProposed Pacific Northwest LNG Plant & Export TerminalProposed WCC LNG Plant & Export TerminalFigure 58.  Prince Rupert Carbon + Boundary Proposals. Top Oi l  And Gas Companies  In CanadaResponsible for half the crude oil production in CanadaCanadian Energ y Pipe l ine  Assoc ia t ion MembersKinder Morgan sold Tans Mountain Pipeline to Canadian Federal Government in 2016Spectra merged with Enbridge in 2017Other  Major  Oi l  And Gas Contr ibutorsGlossary of  terms:  Fossil Fuels:  Naturally occurring fuels such as coal, oil and gas formed beneath Earth’s surface.  Over millions of  years, plants and animals have decomposed into organic chemical compounds, called hydrocarbons, that make up these fuels.Crude Oil (or Petroleum): Unrefined hydrocarbon oil that is extracted from the earth to process for various human uses.Bitumen:  Thick, dark mixtures of  hydrocarbons sourced in the earth or in the process of  refining petroleum.Diluted Bitumen (“dilbit”):  Bitumen that has been diluted with lighter types of  petroleum so that it will flow through pipelines.Natural Gas:  Gas sourced beneath Earth’s surface, composed of  mixtures of  hydrocarbons such as methane. It is called liquefied natural gas when it has been converted to liquid for transportation or storage.Greenhouse Gases:  Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere.  There are several different types of  greenhouse gases, but two in particular are responsible for climate change: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).“Port cities are the quintessential petroleumscapes, where the physical presence of  oil infrastructure—storage tanks, pipelines, shipping facilities—overlaps with oil-related administrative and cultural functions.”        - Carolina HeinFigure 59.  Canadian Petroleum Matrix.         Figure 60.  Canada Carbon Timeline. Figure 61.  Coal Processing Collage. Figure 62.  Gas Processing Collage.Oil and Gas WellSeparationWaterOilVented and FlaredGas Processing PlantCompressor StationLiquefaction TransportStorage TransportRegasification- products removed- Nonhydrocarbon   gases removed- return to field- vented and flaredAB69%Natural Gas production by provinceBC29%SK2%BC44%Coal production by provinceAB41%SK15%NS1% Figure 63.  Coal Inhabitation Collage. Figure 64.  Wind Inhabitation Collage. Figure 65.  Coal Inlet Collage. Figure 66.  Wind Inlet Collage. Ridley Coal MillGrain TerminalWood Processing Plant Biomass PlantAgriculturePellet Terminal Global ExportsLocal ConsumptionCoalOil and Natural GasLumberWood PelletsGrainCanada has a rich history as a carbon economy.  The need for carbon has shaped migration patterns through territories of  resource extraction, infrastructural networks of  roads and highways, and human life through the carbon emission inherently embedded in manufacturing processes.  These processes have become part of  everyday life and have been the norm for many years.  There is opportunity now for us to think about reframing these norms.  Resource extraction and environmentalism are often seen in complete contradiction, and at opposite ends of  the spectrum.  However, as peak oil is reached and non-renewable resources decline, we can imagine a transition toward a renewable resource economy, and an increase of  renewable resource industries.  Each Industry can aid in global export and local consumption.Figure 68.  Converted Bioremediation Observation Lab.Figure 67.  Coal Mill Observation Lab.Figure 69.  Global—Local Flows Diagram.  CHAPTER IIIInfradustrial LandscapesFigure 70.  A nature trail attached to the Central Electricity Board’s 400KV Pelham substation, situated on the boarders of  Essex and Hertfordshire, England.  Where industry contributes ecological, productive, or community benefits to the landscape it uses (Hough, 1990, p. 142). This project seeks to create new normals by connecting elements of  the rural with the urban, and the industrial.  “Traditional agriculture and forestry are no longer sustainable rural occupations contributing to the countryside’s health and beauty.  They have, like cities themselves, become high-production technologies that are reshaping the landscape.  The need for safety and for large quantities of  water for cooling has determined the location of  nuclear power stations far from urban centers and in the proximity of  lakes, rivers, or oceans.  Visual perceptions of  the countryside are now totally altered.  It is almost inconceivable to think of  travelling along a road that is not lined with telephone poles and lines.  They form the dominant and, for some, comforting acknowledgement of  man’s presence.”1  Roadside symbols act as markers on the landscape or as infrastructural monuments. The coast of  Prince Rupert could be lined with an infrastructure of  renewable energy resources, rather than a landscape of  carbon.  The landscape can become a symbol of  the past and the future potential of  this place.   “Nonetheless, images of  the past persist, in spite of  the transformation of  the landscape.  Engineering structures—the visible expressions of  our urban way of  life—are something we spend enormous amounts of  time and ingenuity trying to conceal on the basis that they mar the beauty of  the landscape.  Power lines and relay stations are important cultural symbols to a country trying to 1  Michael Hough, Out of  Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape, (New York: Yale University Press, 1990), 123. “The time has come to approach architecture urbanistically and urbanism architecturally.”        - Alison SmithsonFigure 71.  Glaziers Wagons at the Crystal Palace (Bergdoll, 2000, p. 211). modernize.  It is clear that we have not come to terms with the new landscapes that are being created.”2  An infrastructure of  carbon is still an important part of  the economy.  As coal continues to burn, we can look to uncover new ways to use this resource.  How can carbon contribute to new productive ways of  living?  Can it be hybridized with renewable energy for an infrastructure of  present and future energy resources?   This landscape can shape the new industrial, emphasizing connectivity and the spaces in-between resource nodes.  “Industrial forms that have been superimposed on the landscape appear foreign on the traditional cultural patterns and environmental character to which we have become accustomed.  Most industrial objects are technological extensions of  the city, not the outgrowth of  rural imperatives.  By contrast, where technologies have developed specifically in response to rural needs, the resulting forms have a greater likelihood of  belonging, of  being part of  the landscape.  For instance, few people object to the prefabricated windmills that used to be associated with every farmhouse for drawing water, or for the waterwheels that at one time provided power for the local sawmill, or the contemporary industrial silos that store the grain.  They are accepted as part of  the rural scene because their functional relationship to the necessities of  farming gives them a clear sense of  belonging to the agricultural landscape. Technology has created objects whose construction and materials are derived from the discipline of  that technology and its manufacturing process.”3  New landscapes for Prince Rupert can emerge through new forms of  infrastructure. These are landscapes that build off  the past and explore the future potential of  the land as it intertwines with technology.  Technology and resources can become icons in the landscape as symbols of  a renewable future rather than of  exploitation.   These landscapes can be shaped by working through Stan Allen’s seven points on infrastructural urbanism:1. Infrastructure works not so much to propose specific buildings on given sites, but to construct the site itself.2.  Infrastructures are flexible and anticipatory.  They work with time and are open to change.  3.  Infrastructural work recognizes the collective nature of  the city and allows for the participation of  multiple authors. 4.  Infrastructures accommodate local contingency while maintaining overall continuity.  5.  Although static in and of  themselves, infrastructures organize and manage complex systems of  flow, movement, and exchange.  6.  Infrastructural systems work like artificial ecologies.  They manage the flows of  energy and resources on a site, and they direct the density and distribution of  a habitat.  2  Hough, 123-124.  3  Ibid., 139-140.Figure 72.  Ford Motor Company, Press Shop, 1938, Dearborn, Michigan, Albert Kahn (Hyde, 1996, p. 18).Figure 73.  Ford Motor Company, Craneway in Six-Story Building, 1914, Highland Park, Michigan, Albert Kahn (Hyde, 1996, p. 13). Figure 74.  New Forms in Old Landscapes.  Regional power grids and other urban technologies have radically altered former perceptions of  what is urban and rural (Hough, 1990, p. 123).Figure 75.  Landscapes of  Power.  The technologies that support the city have spread into the larger landscape (Hough, 1990, p. 122).7. Infrastructures allow detailed design of  typical elements or repetitive structures, facilitating an architectural approach to urbanism.4Infrastructural urbanism focusses on the forms between things, not the forms themselves.5  An infrastructure of  connective tissue between old and new resources can be designed in which the space between nodes is just as important as the nodes themselves.  The infrastructure becomes the vehicle for architectural development. Parts form ensembles, which in turn form larger wholes.6  This project will look to intervene in larger systems to explore the potential of  infrastructural opportunism.  “As each generation of  machines becomes more complicated, we withdraw into dreams of  obsolete machines and see ourselves among windmills, clipper ships, even trolley cars.  The smaller our machines become, the more the older larger ones evoke nostalgia and become part of  a common folklore. While postmodern urbanism has largely overlooked changes set in motion by the factory systems, it has at the same time ascribed new meanings to the industrial era by displacing historic artifacts from their original context.”7  Prince Rupert’s infrastructure space can accept the old use of  the land predominantly defined by port industries, while not shying away from large industrial processes as required for the evolution of  the industrial landscape.  This can allow for emergent forms that are informed by the nostalgia of  industrial relics but shaped by a renewable resource economy.  “We are familiar with the potentials and capacities of  networks that have, for example, linear, multi-centered, radial, serial, or parallel topologies.  A linear network connects successive points along a line, as in the case of  a bus, a train, or an elevator that connects sequential floors.  In a radial, or hub and spoke, network, like mass media television or radio, a single central point controls the flow of  information.  Mainframe computing was a serial network that passed information sequentially, while a parallel network might be modeled as a more open mesh with information flowing simultaneously from many points.”8  Infrastructure can become architectural space.  The processes of  the resources themselves can be embedded in the infrastructure that shapes the city.  The nodes in this project are demarcated by the vestiges of  the old Prince Rupert and the new artifacts that emerge.  Those vestiges become markers for a new resource economy. New artifacts can emerge at the points of  old indicators of  prosperity—the rail terminus, the pellet terminal, the coal terminal, the container terminal—as ‘community hubs’, while creating new artifacts along the larger network.  This can create a logic that is used for the architect to think about infrastructure through the lens of  metabolic megastructures.  It can understand architecture at the scale of  the territory through the implementation of  relational thinking as a generative exercise.  4  Stan Allen, Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 54-57.  5  Allen, 92.  6  Ibid., 93. 7  Nan Ellin, Postmodern Urbanism, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 162.8  Keller Easterling, Extrastatecraft: The Power of  Infrastructure Space, (New York: Verso, 2016), 77.  Ring Mesh Star Fully ConnectedBusTreeLineHierarchicalClusterLinearFigure 76.  Field Conditions, Stan Allen (Allen, 1999, p. 98).Figure 77.  Settlement Patterns.Figure 78.  Topology Patterns.  CHAPTER IVMetabolic Infrastructure In 1964, Fumihiko Maki first used the word ‘megastructure’ in print.  Maki defined subsidiary categories of  megastructures as ‘hierarchical’ and ‘open-ended’.  He proposed that large basic works for megastructures should be changed to public accounts, while smaller and more transient structures could be left to private investment.1  ‘Collective form’ is a response to the notion that architecture exists as singular buildings; that we have been accustomed to a spatial language in which buildings are self-sufficient or self-referential.  ‘Collective form’ represents groups of  buildings and quasi-buildings.2 These buildings are not unrelated but have reason to be together.  This framework will be used to think about infrastructure networks in the geography of  an industrial landscape.  The proposed infrastructure will facilitate a ‘collective form’ of  resources that create a unified whole.  Maki presents ‘collective form’ through three paradigms:1.  Compositional Form (compositional approach): Groups of  buildings composed according to traditional Modern Movement precepts.  These are individual tailored buildings that are separately determined and result in a ‘collective form’.  This is the most common paradigm in which there is a larger idea, but the buildings are designed independent of  one-another.  This is the most common approach to ‘collective form’.  1  Reyner Banham, Megastructure: Urban Futures of  the Recent Past, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976), 72.2  Fumihiko Maki, Investigations in Collective Form, (Washington: School of  Architecture, Washington University, 1964), 5.“No one owns life, but anyone who can pick up a frying pan owns death.”        - William S. BurroughsFigure 79.  Approaches to Collective Form; Compositional Form, Megaform, Group Form (Maki, 1964, p. 6).Figure 80.  Two Types of  Megaform; Hierarchical Structure, and Open-Ended Structure (Maki, 1964, p. 12). 2.  Mega-Structure (structural approach): A large frame containing all the functions of  a city, mostly housed in transient short-term containers.  This is a way to order massive grouped functions.  Ideally, the megastructure allows the city to move into new states rather than the city being at the mercy of  the megastructure.  This ‘collective form’ is made of  systems that can expand and contract with minimal disturbance; it is made of  multiple smaller systems that form a larger system.  There are two types: hierarchical structure, and open-ended structure.  Each system has generative properties embedded within it, while an open-ended system allows for more expansion.3.  Group Form (sequential approach): Accumulation of  identical spatial or structural elements into larger complexes.  Each form has its own built-in link, either obvious or hidden.  It is a systematic linkage.  The element and the growth pattern is reciprocal.  Elements demand growth, which requires the growth of  the system of  elements altogether.  There is a constant feedback loop.  Group form requires a skeleton that guides the elemental growth.  There is an essence of  collectivity, a unifying force functionally, socially, and spatially. These often grow from the people of  the society, not the leadership in power.3 In applying ‘collective form’ at the city scale a pattern of  events is suggested.  These patterns are defined by five linking acts either physically, or by implication:1.  To mediate: Connect with intermediate elements or imply connection that demonstrates cohesion.  2.  To define: Surround a site with a wall or physical barrier.  3.  To repeat:  Link by introducing one common factor in each dispersed part of  the design.  4.  To make functional path: Arrange a building or parts of  buildings in a sequence of  activity.  5.  To select: Establish unity in advance of  the design process by choice of  site.4Though cities naturally evolve into a ‘collective form’, Prince Rupert’s projected growth presents an opportunity to implement pre-planned ideas about ‘collective form’.  This project seeks to straddle the line between infrastructure space as mega form and subsidiary space as compositional form and group form.  It seeks to set the groundwork for guiding future city growth and develop a resilient infrastructure that results in a resilient architecture, that results in a resilient community.  This infrastructure will use Maki’s ‘collective form’ principles to formalize the arrangement of  a network of  interconnected ‘community hubs’.  This will create an infrastructure defined by the resource economy that shapes a new regional urbanism for Prince Rupert.  This will continue to shape the vernacular and the regional through a collective scale of  infrastructure and urbanism. An ‘open regionalism’ that accepts societal and environmental change as a part of  its evolution will be fostered, re-evaluating the regional in this locale.  3  Maki, 19.4  Maki, 35-42.Figure 81.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 1. To Mediate (Maki, 1964, p. 37).Figure 83.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 3. To Repeat (Maki, 1964, p. 39).Figure 82.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 2. To Define (Maki, 1964, p. 38).Figure 84.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 4. To Make a Sequential Path (Maki, 1964, p. 41).Figure 85.  City as a Pattern; Linking Acts: 5. To Select (Maki, 1964, p. 42).   Figure 86.  The Axes of  Postmodern Urbanism (Ellin, 1999, p. 155).Prince Rupert has an opportunity to look back to the Japanese Metabolist that regarded human society as a vital process; a continuous development from atom to nebula, and to see design and technology as a reflection of  human vitality.  The Japanese Metabolists were promoting the metabolic growth of  their society through design proposals.  They saw human society as part of  a natural entity that includes animals and plants; that technology acts as an extension of  humanity.5  Thus, architecture is part of  a metabolic cycle that can be regenerative.  There is a continuity between buildings and nature, whether that be man-made or natural.  These principles can be used to develop a metabolic mega-infrastructure.  This is an infrastructure that allows for growth and development.  One that is connective and all-encompassing, like a megastructure.  It can contain visible and invisible connections.  It can grow and regenerate as need be.  The mobility of  people, goods, and information is increasing at a drastic pace and the pattern of  living structures is becoming volatile.6  Metabolism rationalizes this kind of  rapid metamorphosis, and in doing so, metabolic megastructures can be combined with infrastructural urbanism.  Resource beacons act as nodes within the infrastructure network.  Artifacts become monuments through their cultural, social, and political significance, rather than size.7  Infrastructural space is one of  the remaining spaces of  the collective. The infrastructural monument is defined by its ability to accommodate the plurality of  the city.8  Robert Levit goes so far as to describe infrastructure as leviathan.  He postulates that because of  infrastructure’s identification with support for life, it more easily gains political support.9  Infrastructure supports our daily needs and can be monumental in scale.  Infrastructure becomes a vehicle for shaping space and culture.  The axes of  postmodern urbanism will guide the role of  the architect in developing this infrastructure.  The theoretical and non-theoretical axes will help navigate how to implement change.  This project will present resource-based infrastructure as a vehicle to incorporate ‘community hubs’ as nodes of  culture, entertainment, and integration into active resource processes.  The seven points on infrastructural urbanism will work in tandem with the notion of  ‘collective form’ to develop a metabolic framework for the growth of  Prince Rupert.  This project will straddle the realms of  mass culture, regionalism and physical contextualization.  It seeks to subvert the notion of  local regionalism and develop a new understanding of  what it means to be a coastal settlement. 5  Kisho Kurokawa, Metabolism in Architecture, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977), 27.6  Kurokawa, 43.  7  MIT Centre for Advanced Urbanism, Infrastructural Monument, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2016), 25.  8  MIT Center for Advanced Urbanism, 29.9  MIT Center for Advanced Urbanism, 76. CHAPTER VRenewable TerritoriesFigure 87.  Experimental Utopia Collage. “Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized.”        - Daniel BurnhamPrince Rupert is currently a carbon territory.  The infrastructure is car-centric and engaged in the exporting of  carbon-based goods (among others).  Sooner than later we will reach peak oil, these industries will recede, and so too will their revenue. To act against this, a transition towards phasing out the carbon reliance can begin the transformation of  this town.  This will not happen overnight, and perhaps, unfortunately, will begin with the scaling up of  carbon-based non-renewable resource extraction.  With liquefied natural gas being better for the environment than coal, the transition may begin by focussing on scaling up LNG facilities and pipeline proposals.  The Eagle Spirit pipeline, among many others, has been proposed to terminate in Prince Rupert.  It’s only a matter of  time before one of  these pipelines will be approved.  This can still be a positive transition as the country moves away from coal.  This carbon infrastructure can eventually be phased out to make way for a renewable resource economy.  Scaling up the pellet terminal could lead to more renewable supplies that can be exported to support a global renewable resource economy.  This can then be coupled with a local energy distribution that would supply for the local community.  None of  these changes will happen quickly, however, so understanding a three-phase approach is a way to think about a transitional economy, and the cycles and transformation Prince Rupert may undergo.  In allowing the port industries to substantially contribute to the local economy a more holistic system can be set in motion where the local and the global are both benefactors.  Figure 88.  Port Ownership Diagram. Biomass District Energy PlantContainerTerminalViewing PavilionRidley Industrial Research ParkRidley Industrial Research ParkTimber Manufacturing5 Minute WalkDowntownBiomassDistrict Energy PlantWaterfrontRedevelopmentExisting Cow Bay DIstrictTo Highway and LNG NorthExisting Cruise Ship DockWater Treatment Bath HouseTransit Terminal Community Hub5 Minute WalkDownton Revitalization5 Minute WalkWater Treatment Bath houseLNG Facility NorthTimber ManufacturingBiomass District Energy ZoneBiomass District Energy PlantExpanded Pellet TerminalWater Treatment Bath HouseDowntownTimber ManufacturingContainerTerminalRidley Industrial Research Park5 Minute WalkBiomassDistrict Energy ZoneRidley Industrial Research ParkExisting Coal TerminalNewResearchHubExisting Grain TerminalTimberManufacturingContainerTerminal5 Minute WalkHousing + ManufacturingHousing + TourismHousing + RecreationWatson Island Logistics ParkWaterfrontRedevelopmentBio NodeContainerTerminalCow Bay DistrictDowntownRevitalizationRidley Island IndustrialResearch ParkNew NodesIndustrial AnchorsFigure 89.  Industry Phasing Diagram. Figure 90.  Pipeline Phasing Diagram. Figure 91.  Coal Mill Phasing Diagram. Figure 92.  Pellet Terminal Phasing Diagram.Figure 93.  Waterfront Nodes. 123CoalConsumptionCoal Phase-Out and Conversion to LNGLNG Phase-Out and Conversion to Renwewables123Pellet Distribution Scale-Up Pellet DistributionAdd Local Biomass District Energy Distribution123Coal DIstribution Scale-Up LNG DistributionPhase-Out LNG and Convert to Research Hub123Pipeline Distribution SystemLNG Phase-Out and Conversion to Green InfrastructureUp-Scaling of Green Infrastructure Figure 94.  Ridleyville Nature + Architecture Collage. Figure 96.  Wood Manufacturing + Public Recreation Collage. Figure 97.  Biomass Theatre + Seawall Collage.Figure 95.  Agriculture + Transportation Collage. CHAPTER ICollective Form: A Systems-Based ApproachPART 3  Background+ ContextProposalUrbanCharacterChronology1. Industry asActivator2. Industry asNode3. Industry asGenerator1. Coupling 2. Anchoring 3. Hybridizing1. CompositionalFormA FormA StrategyA Program2. MegaForm3. GroupFormProject MapFigure 98.  Project Map.This project is investigating the relationship between industry, resources, the economy, and the environment. Globalization and capitalism are resulting in the emergence of  more and more urbanized landscapes.  As the world becomes increasingly globalized, ports become ideal places for investment and development.  Vancouver is the largest port terminal in Canada, followed by Prince Rupert, which is one of  the fastest growing port terminals in North America.  This rapid growth is because Prince Rupert is three days quicker than Vancouver shipping time, to and from Asia.Canada is a resource rich landscape with an economy that relies on the exploitation and export of  lumber, pulp and paper, grain, coal, oil, and gas. Vancouver exports more coal than any other North American port terminal, and Prince Rupert has a thriving coal mill that regularly exports to China.  We may be banning plastic straws locally, but we are exporting global warming at an astronomical rate.  There is a clear contradiction between our values of  environmental stewardship and the importance of  resource extraction for the prosperity of  the Canadian economy.  Many of  the resources from BC and Alberta pass through Prince Rupert on route to the global market. Prince Rupert is home to Canada’s first propane export facility and there have been several LNG facilities and pipeline proposals put forth that would terminate there.  Because of  this exploitation of  natural resources, rising temperatures due to global warming, and rising housing prices in Vancouver, Northern BC and places like Prince Rupert are primed for future development.   BackgroundGlobal  •  National  •  Regional  •  LocalAsia+IndiaAsiaUSA USA USAUSAUSAEuropeEuropeSouthAmericaUSAAsiaAL69%BC29%SK2%AL41%BC44%SK15%NS1%Natural Gas ProductionCoalProductionPortTerminalsPulp and PaperCoal Mines Lumber Pipelines ProposedPipelinesRail LinesFigure 99.  National Resource Networks.Prince Rupert is framed by Mount Hays to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.  The coast is lined with industry as points of  convergence between the local and the global, the rural and the urban.  As a port city, industry will continue to grow along the coastline and shape the built environment and local economy.  Prince Rupert has experienced a boom bust cycle as a result of  industries coming and going.  Because of  projected incoming industries, we could see a massive boom with an influx of  both new industries and, as a result, new residents.  There is potential for a population increase of  hundreds of  thousands of  people, shifting this place’s identity from an inward facing local community to an outward facing global economy.   300 PeopleExisting Residents300 PeopleNew ResidentsEmployment Rate: 59.9%Employment Rate: IncreasedUnemployment Rate: 12.4%Unemployment Rate: DecreasedExisting Population: 12, 700New Population: +150, 000Transportation and Warehousing (18%)WholesaleTrade + Retail(13%)Health Care + Social Assistance(11%)Accommodation+ Food Services(8%)PublicTransportation(10%)Construction(7%)Manufacturing(5%)EducationalServices(7%)Information,Culture, and Recreation(3%)Other Services(4%)Business,Buildings, and Other Support Services(4%)Professional,Scientific, and TechnicalServices(2%)Agriculture,Forestry,Fishing,Hunting(2%)Finance,Insurance, Real Estate, Rental + Leasing(3%)    Figure 101.  Predicted Boom + Demographic Shift.Figure 100.  Prince Rupert Networks Model. ProposalCollective Form: A Systems-Based ApproachThis project seeks to envision how the city can develop through a responsive urbanism shaped by the industries that stimulate the local and global economy.  This will be explored through a Systems-Based Approach to Collective Form.  COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program2. Industry as Node2. Anchoring1. Industry as Activator1. Coupling3. Industry as Generator3. Hybridizing2. Mega Form1. Compositional  FormFormStrategyProgram3. Group FormFumihiko Maki’s 1964 Investigations in Collective Form is adapted to act as the guiding framework for this project.  Maki’s writing suggests, “Our concern here is not, then, a “master plan,” but a “master program,” since the latter term includes a time dimension.  As a physical correlate of  the master program, there are “master forms” which differ from buildings in that they, too, respond to the dictates of  time.  Collective form represents groups of  buildings and quasi-buildings—the segment of  our cities.  Collective form is, however, not a collection of  unrelated, separate buildings, but of  buildings that have reasons to be together.”1  Maki’s three major approaches to collective form—compositional form, mega form, and group form—are used as the fundamental base layer for this project.  A form, a strategy, and a program will be used as a framework to guide this proposal.  1  Fumihiko Maki, Investigations in Collective Form, (Washington: School of  Architecture, Washington University, 1964), 4. 1. Compositional Form(Urban Superblock Infill)3. Group Form(Rural Clustered Communities)2. Mega Form(Industrial Spines)COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA ProgramCompositional forms are elements that are preconceived and predetermined separately, with functional, visual, and spatial relationships.1  This proposal applies compositional form as urban superblock infills.  Mega forms are large frames housing all the functions of  a city.2  Mega forms will be applied as Industrial spines.  Group forms are forms which evolve from a system of  generative elements in space.3  Group form will be deployed as rural clustered communities.  Each of  these forms have their own built in link, whether expressed or latent, so they may grow in a system.4  1  Fumihiko Maki, Investigations in Collective Form, (Washington: School of  Architecture, Washington University, 1964), 6.2  Maki, 8.3  Maki, 14.4  Maki, 19. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowResource Row, a rail corridor along the coast, and the Carbon Connector, a pipeline rail corridor along the mountain base, create new boundaries and edge conditions for the city.  The port terminal, Gantry Split, becomes the pivot point as a threshold between the urban and the rural.  Coastal industries produce magaform spines for new city districts to develop off. Urban districts, such as the Exchange, are infilled with compositional forms, and rural districts, such as Lager’s Edge, are developed using group forms.  Figure 102.  A Form Parti. COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program1. Industry as Activator (Urban Reform)2. Industry as Node (Points of  Convergence)3. Industry as Generator (Localized Relationships)A Strategy views industry as an activator, industry as a node, and industry as a generator.   Industry as activator allows the city to undergo urban reform.The original plan for Prince Rupert was done by Brett and Hall in 1908 with major streets running parallel to the waterfront.    In the new plan, the cut and fill required for a pipeline makes way for a network of  light rail transit along the mountain base.  Industrial anchors along the waterfront ripple through the city along linear paths, linking the boundaries of  the city, and extended by funiculars, connect to the mountain beyond.  A new system of  light rail transit is laid across the city making use of  the existing grid.  Streets that are not along the city grid are converted to greenways with bike and pedestrian paths.  This creates a network of  transportation infrastructure where rail transit and pedestrian trails converge at transit nodes.  New parking is located along the opposite side of  the mountain, with access to trails, allowing this to become a carless city as all local roads are removed. Old post-war housing that’s not along the grid is demolished to make way for new community superblocks that contain local greenscapes and mixed-use housing developments, acting as micro-communities.  Industrial megaforms emerge from coastal industry anchors and become the central axes for new city districts.  Along the rail and pipeline boundaries are a series of  linear parks that span between industry.  Each industrial spine contributes to global trade while generating resources for the local community.  The result is a transformation from an old town, to a new city.COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program1. Industry as Activator (Urban Reform)2. Industry as Node (Points of  Convergence)3. Industry as Generator (Localized Relationships) Industrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lExis t ing Bui ld ings Exis t ing WaterExis t ing Industr y1km x 1km GridExist ing Tra i l sExis t ing ForestsIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lExis t ing Bui ld ngs Exis t ing WaterExis t ing Industr y1km x 1km GridExist ing Tra i l sExis t ing ForestFigure 103.  Existing City Networks. Industrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Sp ed Rai lExtended Rai lN w FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsFigure 104.  New Transportation Networks. Industrial AnchorsExist ing WaterExis t ing Bui ld ingsExis t ing Forests New GreenscapesNew SuperblocksDemol ished Bui ld ingsNew Loca l  ResoucesNew Industr y  Bui ld ingsNew Distr ic tsNew ParksNew Inf i l l  Bui ld ingsNew Industr ia l  AnchorsIndustrial AnchorsWaterExis t ing Bui ld ingsForests New GreenscapesNew SuperblocksDemol ished Bui ld ingsNew Loca l  ResoucesNew Industr y  Bui ld ingsNew Distr ic tsNew ParksNew Inf i l l  Bui ld ingsNew Industr ia l  AnchorsFigure 105.  New Program Networks. Industrial AnchorsExist ing WaterExis t ing Bui ld ingsExis t ing Forests New GreenscapesNew SuperblocksDemol ished Bui ld ingsNew Loca l  ResoucesNew Industr y  Bui ld ingsNew Distr ic tsNew ParksNew Inf i l l  Bui ld ingsNew Industr ia l  AnchorsIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lExis t ing Bui ld ings Exis t ing WaterExis t ing Industr y1km x 1km GridExist ing Tra i l sExis t ing ForestsFigure 106.  Old Town. Figure 107.  New City. This phased development can be accomplished by extending the existing rail corridor, creating a boundary condition along the coastline, followed by a new transportation corridor, creating the second boundary along the mountain base.  The existing industry divides these boundaries into districts, followed by new industry further dividing the boundaries.  These boundaries are then sub-divided into superblocks, the remaining streets are converted to greenways, and the city is infilled.New urban districts are defined by transit and industry boundaries.  As compositional form, superblocks are infilled as a kit of  parts combining various scales and arrangements of  buildings with greenspace.Industry as activator creates zones and districts for the new city’s development.A Time-Based ApproachExtend  •  Develop  •  Divide  •  Sub-Divide  •  Convert Extend Rail Corridor Boundary2025 2030 2035 20401 Develop New Pipeline Transit Corridor Boundary2 Divide Boundaries With Existing Industry3 Divide Boundaries Further With New Waves of Industry42045Sub-Divide Into Superblocks5 Convert Roads to Greenways and Infill62050Figure 108.  Urban Phasing. Transit Street Hierarchy Building Infill New Urban DistrictGreenwaysPedestrian LanewaysSuperblocksMid Rise SlabMid / High Rise Point TowerLow / Mid Rise ULow / Mid Rise LSuperblockLow / Mid RiseTownLow / Mid RiseGableFigure 109.  District + Superblock Development. North End Central Merger Hillside South End South PointCloudCorridorMarineMileCentralSoukRupert’sLandingTheExchangeTheLinkGantrySplit LVLLager’sEdgeTimberTownCultivationCoveNature’s PointRidleyvilleTheRunwayFigure 110.  Industry as Activator. Industry as Node specifies Industrial anchors as points of  convergence.COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program1. Industry as Activator (Urban Reform)2. Industry as Node (Points of  Convergence)3. Industry as Generator (Localized Relationships) Seaplane TerminalCruise Ship DockRail TerminusPellet TerminalBC Ferries TerminalPort TerminalGrain TerminalCoal TerminalFigure 111.  Existing Industry Nodes 1. Figure 112.  Existing Industry Nodes 2. ManufacturingWater ManagementWood ProcessingBiofuel (Repurposed Coal Terminal)Existing industry and old industrial relics are accompanied by new waves of  industry.  The industrial processes taking place along the coastline become the drivers of  each industrial spine.Figure 113.  New Industry Nodes. Figure 114.  Nodal Development. Marine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayFigure 115.  North End Zone. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsFigure 116.  Industrial Spine - Rupert’s Landing.HousingExis t ingEducat ionRecreat ionIndustr yAs a point of  coastal recreation, a regatta defines Rupert’s Landing.  A bridge structure of  transportation infrastructure coupled with hotels, shopping, and recreation, physically connects industry with the mountain beyond.   Central Souk Rupert’s Landing The ExchangeMarine Mile Figure 117.  Central Zone. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsHousingExis t ingEducat ionRecreat ionIndustr yThe Exchange stems from an expanded pellet terminal that supports global pellet trade and a local biomass district heating plant that serves mixed-use office buildings, defining the central business district.  Figure 118.  Industrial Spine - The Exchange. Gantry SplitThe Link LVLFigure 119.  Merger Zone. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsUrbanRuralFigure 120.  Industrial Spine - Gantry Split.HousingExis t ingEducat ionRecreat ionIndustr yThe container terminal anchors Gantry Split, where there is a viewing platform and outdoor event space.  A recreational wall becomes the literal division between the urban and the rural, with urban housing superblocks to the north, and rural housing clusters to the south.   Lager’s Edge Timber Town Figure 121.  Hillside Zone. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsFigure 122.  Industrial Spine - Timber Town.HousingExis t ingEducat ionRecreat ionIndustr yTimber Town integrates a wood manufacturing facility into the public waterfront.  The manufactured wood is used to construct buildings for the adjacent community.   Cultivation Cove Ridleyville Figure 123.  South End Zone. The ExchangeThe LinkGantry SplitUrbanRuralLVLTimber TownCultivation CoveRidleyvilleNature’s PointOld TownNew CityNew Industrial BoundariesNew Industrial SpinesNew SuperblocksConverted GreenwaysRupert’s LandingLager’s EdgeCentral SoukMarine MileCloud CorridorThe RunwayThe Carbon ConnectorResource RowIndustrial AnchorsExist ing RoadsExis t ing Rai lRemoved Roads Diver ted HighwayNew High Speed Rai lExtended Rai lNew FunicularsNew Light  Ra i l  Ar ter iesNew Light  Ra i lNew Park ingExis t ing Tra i l s New Tra i l s New Bike Lanes New Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Pipe l ineNew Trans i t  StopsFigure 124.  Industrial Spine - Ridleyville.HousingExis t ingEducat ionRecreat ionIndustr yThe old Ridley Coal Mill is phased out and converted into a bioremediation facility that can be used as a testing ground for biofuel and local agriculture.   Ridleyville Nature’s Point Figure 125.  South Point Zone. Industry as generator fosters unique localized relationships.COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program1. Industry as Activator (Urban Reform)2. Industry as Node (Points of  Convergence)3. Industry as Generator (Localized Relationships) Coal, Oil, and GasBiofuelTrains Light RailAgriculture Eating DrinkingWood Lumber BuildingsIndustryGlobal PublicWood PelletsCruise ShipsCargo ShipsFerriesEnergyCollection DistributionWaterSeaplanesParksLocalEntertainmentRelaxationDiningRecreationFigure 126.  Resource Connectivity Matrix.Resources expand from the local to the global and become generators for both industry and the public realm.  Using resources to bridge the gap between industry and the public can foster interesting human experiences.   Ridleyville Cultivation Cove Timber TownLager’s Edge Gantry Split The ExchangeRupert’s Landing Marine Mile The RunwayLocal agriculture and bioremediation facilities generate food production and transit fuel. Water is collected and distributed to supply people and industry. Locally harvested trees are processed to construct buildings with the resulting wood pellets used for a biomass district heating system.  Resources from out of  town pass through as exports or as surplus local supplies.This results in the defining of  resource-based districts.Figure 127.  Resource Flows Diagram.Figure 128.  Resource-Based Districts. 1. Coupling (Industry, Infrastructure, Architecture)2. Anchoring(Tethered Development) 3. Hybridizing(Multivalent Design) The districts are developed through a program.  This program consists of  coupling industry with infrastructure and architecture, anchoring nodes with tethered development, and hybridizing sites using a multivalent design approach.  COLLECTIVE FORM: A Systems-Based ApproachA Form A StrategyA Program The DistrictsRidleyville  •  Cultivation Cove  •  Timber Town  •  Lager’s Edge  •  Gantry Split  The Exchange  •  Rupert’s Landing  •  Marine Mile  •  The RunwayRidleyvilleCultivation CoveTimber TownLager’s EdgeGantry SplitThe ExchangeRupert’s LandingMarine MileThe RunwayCloud CorridorCentral SoukThe LinkLVLFigure 129.  Coastal Industry Nodes. RidleyvilleBiofuel  •  Research Lab  •  University Campus  •  Public ParkA former coal mill and propane export facility is now a bioremediation lab, research centre, and university campus.  Research and development are used to convert this carbon export facility to a productive landscape. The old industrial landscape is now a leisure playground that takes advantage of  the potential of  the old machinery.  Figure 130.  Exchange Diagram - Ridleyville.Decomissioned Coal MachineryPublic BeachIncreased WildlifePublic ExplorationRepurposed Oil SilosBiofuel StorageResearchEducationLeisureBioremediation of  Coal Site Figure 131.  Ridleyville. Cultivation CoveAgriculture  •  Farmer’s Market  •  Dining  •  RespiteAgricultural land becomes a place of  leisure and respite from the city.  Locals and visitors can purchase crops or indulge in the restaurants, farmer’s markets, and community dining halls. Figure 132.  Exchange Diagram - Cultivation Cove.Public ExplorationLocal DiningAgriculture HarvestingKelp HarvestingGrain Exports Figure 133.  Cultivation Cove. Timber TownWood Processing  •  Boardwalk Community  •  Nature Trails  •  ConstructionConnecting to rail lines, a waterfront wood processing facility receives logs from out of  town and processes the wood for exporting.  It uses selective locally harvested tress for constructing buildings in their placeA hillside wood boardwalk community is developed up the mountain connecting to recreation trails and leisure along the waterfront.Figure 134.  Exchange Diagram - Timber Town.Boardwalk CommunitiesLocal Construction MaterialLocal Wood HarvestingConnection to ForestEntertainmentWood Exports Figure 135.  Timber Town. Lager’s EdgeWood Manufacturing  •  Waterfront Leisure  •  Breweries  •  SaunasLumber is manufactured to promote the development and use of  innovative wood building materials.  Workers reside in a hillside community above while locals and visitors enjoy the waterfront brewery crawl and public saunas that branch off  the wood manufacturing facility.   Figure 136.  Exchange Diagram - Lager’s Edge.Waterfront RecreationWood ManufacturingBreweriesSaunas Figure 137.  Lager’s Edge. Gantry SplitContainer Terminal  •  Community Gathering  •  Festivals  •  RecreationThe port is a place for gathering.  It’s an outdoor event and recreation hub with the thriving port industry as a backdrop.Urban, rural, local, and global, all meet at this point, as it becomes a mixing hub for both people and resources.Entertainment Port Workers Recreation ObservationRenewablesExportFigure 138.  Exchange Diagram - Gantry Split. Figure 139.  Gantry Split. Wood Pellet ExportWood Pellet CollectionLocal Wood MillingBusiness DistrictEntertainmentWood Pellet SilosBiomass District HeatingThe ExchangePellet Terminal  •  Biomass District Heating  •  Theatre  •  Business DistrictWaterfront pellet exporting is paired with a biomass theatre and performing arts centre.  This ties into the central business district and becomes a hub for exchanges between people, wood pellets, transit, and entertainment.  Figure 140.  Exchange Diagram - The Exchange. Figure 141.  The Exchange. Rupert’s LandingRail Terminus  •  Waterfront Recreation  •  Shopping  •  HotelsRupert’s landing is the site of  the revived Prince Rupert Rail terminus constructed in 1910.  There is a large public space, waterfront recreation, museums, and a bridge with shopping and leisure.  RegattaShopping RecreationRevived Rail TerminusMuseumsFigure 142.  Exchange Diagram - Rupert’s Landing. Figure 143.  Rupert’s Landing. Marine MileWater Treatment Facilities  •  Bath Houses  •  Fishing  •  Cruise ShipsAs the wettest municipality in Canada, water collection and distribution capitalize on the community’s intimate connection with water.  A water treatment facility, aquafarming, and series of  bath houses brings water into the community, connecting resources with leisure. Cruise ShipsAquafarmingWater CollectionBath HousesFigure 144.  Exchange Diagram - Marine Mile. Figure 145.  Marine Mile. The RunwaySeaplane Terminal  •  Textiles  •  Fashion District  •  EntertainmentNon-resource-based industries, such as the sea plane terminal, are combined with local manufacturing.  This shapes the fashion and entertainment district, paired with the local textile industry, and paves the way for development of  diverse urban life.  Fashion DistrictSeaplane TerminalEntertainmentTextile IndustryFigure 146.  Exchange Diagram - The Runway. Figure 147.  The Runway. Figure 148.  New Prince Rupert Exchanges.Ridleyville Cultivation Cove Timber TownLager’s Edge Gantry Split The ExchangeRupert’s Landing Marine Mile The RunwayRidleyvilleCultivation CoveTimber TownLager’s EdgeGantry SplitThe ExchangeRupert’s LandingMarine MileTheRunwayCentral SoukCloudCorridorThe LinkLVL Urban CharacterResources  •  Industry  •  Economy  •  EnvironmentEach industry connects to the global market and the local community.  The industrial drivers of  this economy are in turn driving the form of  the built environment and the human interactions that take place.  A systems-based approach to Collective Form gives way to industry’s role in the development of  the city through a form, a strategy, and a program.  This framework investigates the architect’s ability to design systems and strategies as tools that can extend from the human scale to the territory.  It considers form not simply as a physical manifestation, but as a collection of  approaches that engage with multiple vehicles and actors, resulting in a whole that’s greater than the sum of  its parts.  As Maki suggests, “the human quality which determines form has to do with the way of  life, movement, and relation to persons in society.”1  1  Maki, 21. Figure 149.  Clustered Communities - Timber Town.People can interact with industry, architecture, and the landscape.  This urbanism seeks to blend the city with the environment, and the processes taking place. Figure 150.  Superblock Infill.Urban life integrates mixed-use housing typologies at a variety of  scales.  It prioritizes green space and perimeter blocks, creating micro-communities that tether to the industrial spines that are adjacent. Figure 151.  Waterfront - The Exchange.The waterfront is a mixture of  leisure and port activity.  Diverse groups of  people and resources all converge at these points. Figure 152.  Industrial Spine - RidleyvilleDecommissioned industrial zones are adapted to make way for renewable resource economies, productive landscapes, and public occupation. Figure 153.  Industrial Spine - Marine Mile.Local resources are at the forefront of  the urban fabric, are integrated into everyday life, and at the core of  leisure activities.   Figure 154.  Mountain Perspective - Collective Form.This is a vision in which industry, resources, the economy, and the environment could all be synergized into one collective form.  A Chronology2020 - 2050Urban society is “a dynamic field of  interrelated forces,”1 and as such, this proposal positions the architect as a mediator.  It proposes approaches not as fixed solutions, but as possibilities for how a place can evolve in response to shifting geo-political and socio-economic values.  This project suggests ways in which an urbanism can develop and adapt to support these shifts, highlighting the need for the designer to consider cycles and transformations.  Post-war carbon economies can transition towards renewable resource economies as a catalyst for diversification and the growth of  Prince Rupert as a collective city.  1  Maki, 3. BiofuelIndustrial Adaptation2020Wood HarvestiugCarbonEconomyCollectiveCityPeak OilOil Oil DeclineBioremediation2050Wood Pellet EnergyIncreased RecreationIncreased TourismDiverse DemographicsLocal BuildingHyrbidized DistrictsExportsIncreased EntertainmentLocal AgricultureLocal  Resource ConsumptionInfrastructural Urbanism2030 2040Increased RenewablesDiversified EconomyFigure 155.  Chronology. Our relationship with natural resources, industry, the economy, and the environment are complex and constantly in a state of  contradiction.  This relationship is explored through an understanding of  the city as a collective form.  This project forecasts the future generative potential of  industries stimulating the Canadian resource economy, while allowing these industries to productively shape the built environment and the exchanges that occur within it.   Figure 156.  Project Thumbnails. Figure 157.  Project Presentation.The final presentation for this project was completed from home through a digital platform known as Zoom.  This was due to the mandatory quarantine that resulted from the outbreak of  the COVID-19 pandemic.  Closures of  universities and most all places of  business and leisure was implemented across the country.  Storefronts were boarded up with plywood and parks + playgrounds were roped off  with caution tape. Signs were littered throughout the city reminding people to keep a safe distance of  six feet apart.  At times the city felt like a ghost town in which fresh air became a luxury and human contact rendered forbidden.  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Shanghai, China    42,010,000 TEU2. Singapore     36,600,000 TEU3. Shenzhen, China    27,740,000 TEU4. Ningbo-Zhoushan, China   26,350,000 TEU5. Guangzhou Harbor, China   21,870,000 TEU6. Busan, South Korea    21,660,000 TEU7. Hong Kong, S.A.R, China   19,600,000 TEU8. Qingdao, China    18,260,000 TEU9. Tianjin, China    16,000,000 TEU10. Jebel Ali, Dubai, United Arab Emirates  14,950,000 TEU11. Rotterdam, The Netherlands   14,501,000 TEU12. Port Klang, Malaysia   12,320,000 TEU13. Antwerp, Belgium    11,100,000 TEU14. Kaohsiung, Taiwan, China   10,450,000 TEU15. Xiamen, China    10,000,000 TEU16. Dalian, China    9,770,000 TEU17. Los Angeles, U.S.A    9,460,000 TEU18. Tanjung Pelepas, Malaysia   8,960,000 TEU19. Hamburg, Germany    8,730,000 TEU20. Long Beach, U.S.A    8,090,000 TEU21. Laem Chabang, Thailand   8,070,000 TEU Keihin Ports, Japan*    7,980,000 TEU22. Tanjung Priok, Jakarta, Indonesia  7,640,000 TEU23. New York-New Jersey, U.S.A.   7.200,000 TEU24. Colombo, Sri Lanka    7.050,000 TEU25. Yingkou, China    6.500,000 TEU26. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam   6.330,000 TEU27. Bremen/Bremerhaven, Germany  5.420,000 TEU Hanshin Port, Japan**   5.220,000 TEU28. Manila, Philippines    5.050,000 TEU29. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva), India 5.050,000 TEU30. Piraeus, Greece    4,910,000 TEU31. Algeciras, Spain    4,770,000 TEU32. Lianyungang, China   4,750,000 TEU33. Tokyo, Japan    4,570,000 TEU34. Mundra, India    4,440,000 TEU35. Savannah, U.S.A    4,350,000 TEU36. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia   4,120,000 TEU37. Santos, Brazil    4,120,000 TEU38. Rizhao, China    4,000,000 TEU39. Colon, Panama    3,890,000 TEU40. Felixstowe, U.K.    3,850,000 TEU41. Seattle-Tacoma NW Seaport Alliance, U.S.A. 3,800,000 TEU42. Dongguan, China    3,500,000 TEU43. Tanger Med, Morocco   3,470,000 TEU44. Barcelona, Spain    3,420,000 TEU45. Vancouver, Canada    3,400,000 TEU46. Salalah, Oman    3,390,000 TEU47. Fuzhou, China    3,340,000 TEU48. Marsaxlokk, Malta    3,310,000 TEU49. Nanjing, China    3,230,000 TEU50. Cai Mep, Vietnam    3,200,000 TEU*  superport hub on the Tokyo Bay and ncludes Yokohama, Kawasak, and Tokyo. **  superport hub on the Osaka Bay; ncludes Kobe, Lsaka, Saka-Semboku and Amafasak-Nshnomya-Ashya.Table 1.  50 Largest Port Terminals in the World by Annual Volume 2018 (Data retrieved from: http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade/top-50-world-container-ports). Figure 158.  Graph of  50 Largest Port Terminals in the World by Annual Volume 2018. Africa (1%)South America (1%)North America (8%)Europe (12%)Asia (79%)Asia(79%)Europe(12%)Africa(1%)South America (1%)North America(8%)Figure 159.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Continent Trade Volume.Figure 160.  Map of  2018 Annual Continent Trade Volume.ChinaSingaporeUSASouth KoreaMalaysiaJapanUnited Arab EmiratesNetherlandsGermanyBelgiumVietnamIndiaSpainThailandIndonesiaSri LankaPhilippinesGreeceSaudi ArabiaBrazilPanamaUKMoroccoCanadaOmanMaltaChina(45%)Singapore(7%)USA(7%)South Korea(4%)Malaysia(4%)Japan(4%)United Arab Emirates(3%)Netherlands(3%)Germany(3%)Belgium (2%)Vietnam (2%)India (2%)Spain (2%)Thailand (2%)Indonesia (2%)Sri Lanka (2%)Philippines (1%)GreeceSaudi ArabiaBrazilPanamaUKCanadaMoroccoOmanMaltaChina(45%)Singapore(7%) Indonesia(2%)Thailand(2%) Malaysia(4%)Vietnam(2%)India(2%)Sri Lanka(1%)Brazil(1%)Panama(1%)UK(1%)Malta(1%)Saudi Arabia(1%)Greece(1%)Philippines(1%)United Arab Emirates (3%)Oman(1%)Netherlands (3%)Belgium(2%)Germany(3%)South Korea(4%)Japan(4%)USA(7%)Canada(1%)Morocco(1%)Spain(2%)Figure 161.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Country Trade Volume.Figure 162.  Map of  2018 Annual Country Trade Volume. British Columbia1. Nanaimo Port Authority     44,891 TEU2. Port Alberni Port Authority    35,336 TEU3. Prince Rupert Port Authority   1,000,000 TEU4. Vancouver Fraser Port Authority  3,400,000 TEUAlbertaSaskatchewan ManitobaOntario5. Hamilton-Oshawa Port Authority  305,263 TEU6. Toronto Port Authority    57,894 TEU7. Thunder Bay Port Authority   231,578 TEU8. Windsor Port Authority    136,314 TEUQuebec9. Montreal Port Authority    1,026,315 TEU10. Quebec Port Authority    726,315 TEU11. Saguenay Port Authority     20,061 TEU12. Sept-Iles Port Authority    637,657 TEU13. Trois-Rivieres Port Authority   81,578 TEUNew Brunswick14. Belledune Port Authority   170,588 TEU15. Saint John Port Authority    57,402 TEUNova Scotia16. Halifax Port Authority    559,242 TEUPrince Edward IslandNewfoundland and Labrador17. St. John's Port Authority   187,350 TEUYukon Northwest TerritoriesNunavut 05000001000000150000020000002500000300000035000004000000Figure 163.  Graph of  2018 Annual National Trade Volume in Canada.Table 2.  Port Terminals in Canada by Annual Volume 2018 (West to East).   Figure 164.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Regional Trade Volume in Canada.Bri�sh Columbia Quebec Ontario Nova Sco�a New Brunswick Newfoundland and LabradorNewfoundland and Labrador (2%)New Brunswick (3%)Nova Scotia (6%)Ontario (8%)Quebec (29%)British Columbia (52%)Figure 165.  Map of  2018 Annual Regional Trade Volume in Canada.Nanaimo Port Authority (1%)Port Alberni Port Authority (1%)Prince Rupert Port Authority (22%)Vancouver Fraser Port Authority (76%)Vancouver (76%)Prince Rupert (22%)Nanaimo (1%)Port Alberni (1%)Figure 166.  Pie Chart of  2018 Annual Port Terminals Trade Volume in BC.Figure 167.  Map of  2018 Annual Port Terminals Trade Volume in BC.Quebec(29%)Ontario(8%)Nova Scotia(6%)NewBrunswick(3%)Newfoundland and Labrador(2%)British Columbia(52%) Figure 168.  Pipeline Section - Bill Murray Drive.Figure 169.  Pipeline Section - Ridley Island Access Road. Figure 170.  Pipeline Section - McBride Street. Figure 171.  Pipeline Section - Container Terminal Access Road. Figure 172.  Preliminary Intervention Sections. Figure 174.  Preliminary Site Section. 30,00010,00010,000190,000 Tota l  10 ,00015,00010,00010,00015,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,000Waterfront  Appendage Ridley  Is land Industr ia l  ParkMount  Hays  Industr ia l  Cor r idor Interchange HubHi l l top Anchors Airpor t  ConnectorNew Str uctura l  FramePhase  1  Archi tecture  Inf i lAddi t iona l  Phased Inf i l sExis t ing Industr ia l  AnchorsNew Phased Anchors  Infras tr ucture :Phase  1Phase  2Phase  3Phase  412#335 6614245Industr yPubic  SpaceLiv ingInfras tr uctureInfras tr uctureInfras tr uctureOld Town West Old Town East New Town East WaterfrontLower  New Town WestUpper  New Town WestUpper  New Town EastLower  New Town EastWaterfrontPr imar y Ring Road800m0m250m600mMid Town AxisSecondar y  Ring RoadSecondar y  Ring RoadPr imar y Ring RoadTer t iar y  Ring RoadTer t iar y  Ring RoadMount  Hays  AxisFigure 173.  Preliminary Interventions. Figure 175.  Preliminary Site Axonometric. Figure 178.  Transformations Sketch.Figure 179.  Collective Form Sketch.Figure 176.  Form Investigations Sketch. Figure 177.  Urban Reform Sketch. Figure 180.  Interventions Analysis Sketch. Figure 181.  Storyboard Sketch. APPENDIX AExemplars P OT T E R I E S  T H I N K B E LT  -  C E D R I C  P R I C E This project uses existing infrastructure networks to facilitate larger ideas.  Cedric Price is questioning the way we use infrastructure and how it can be used as a vehicle for a different industry—other than pottery or coal in this case—such as the education system.  He has merged multiple systems into one network in which a person’s knowledge is a commodity.Housing units are developed alongside this network in a modular fashion that can be added and removed as the community grows.  Price envisions his project as a productive landscape in the form of  knowledge rather than goods, an idea that is becoming increasingly relevant.  There is an industrial nature to the project and the belief  that it can expand in scale through infrastructure.  This network of  new forms of  resources and ways to use infrastructure can tie into the future of  Prince Rupert and its resource dependency as an intermodal hub. This connects to a large scale of  networks and movement of  goods and knowledge within a globalized economy.  Figure 183.  Potteries Thinkbelt: axonometric view, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/307873).Figure 182.  Overall plan showing primary road and desire line for the Potteries Thinkbelt, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/307843).Figure 184.  Photomontage of  a perspective sketch of  Madeley Transfer Area for Potteries Thinkbelt, Staffordshire, England, Cedric Price (Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/378816). I N S TA N T  C I T Y  +  C O M E - G O  P R O J E C T  -  A R C H I G R A M This project questions how cities function and acknowledges that one stimulus feeds the next; that the density of  spaces allows for cross stimulus to continue.  It suggests in old cities that interaction and regeneration is so established that the reason for their existence becomes blurred.  It implies that governments and monuments can be anywhere; that great cities are great because of  the coming together of  many different minds.Great architects feed their buildings into the culture that holds them.  The project seeks to build for the coming and going, rise and fall, and change1.  It postulates that the environment of  a city can reflect this reality.  Projecting the future of  Prince Rupert serves as an exploration about how this place can develop and how the architecture can reflect and aid in this process. This type of  project, and other work by Archigram, can be used to reimagine and represent new ideas of  global space in developing cities.  1  Come-Go Project, Archigram (Warren Chalk, Archigram: The Book, London: Circa Press, 2018).Figure 186.  Come-Go Project, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 60).Figure 187.  Come-Go Project, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 61).Figure 185.  Instant City, Archigram (Retrieved from: Warren Chalk, Archigram: the Book, London: Circa Press, 2018, p. 223). Figure 189.  Agricultural City Plan, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/).Figure 188.  Agricultural City Model, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/).AG R I C U LT U R A L  C I T Y  -  K I S H O  K U R O K AWAJapanese architect Kisho Kurokawa designed the Agricultural City in 1960.   Intended for the replacement of  the agricultural towns in Aichi destroyed by the Ise Bay Typhoon in 1959, the accommodation was to be raised above the ground to deal with future Flooding. The grid was intended to be between 300 and 500 metres.  Kurokawa challenged the assumption that the city and the country need be in antagonism.1This project includes a local resource, agriculture, and uses it as a vehicle to shape the resulting architecture.  The project is a large-scale organic structure that serves as an economic driver through its incorporation of  resources.  This metabolic way of  thinking and organizing space can be applied to a new infrastructural logic centred on resource dependency in Prince Rupert.1  Arch Eyes, 2016, Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/. Figure 190.  Agricultural City Section, Kisho Kurokawa (Retrieved from: http://archeyes.com/agricultural-city-kurokawa-kisho/). L I Q U I D  K I N G D O M  -  S M O U T  A L L E NThis project responds to an island’s character on the Isle of  Sheppey in the Thames Estuary, while planning for future demands of  society and climate change.  It bridges the gap between research and local user groups through the integration of  architecture and landscape, the seaside, nostalgia, and anthropogenic impacts.1This is a speculative proposal that treats the landscape as a proving ground through architectural installations.  It uses the site as a testing ground for new ideas.  This type of  thinking could apply to Prince Rupert on a larger scale to explore potential ways of  stabilizing a developing economy, and projecting into a future city.  There is an experimental component to this project that poses larger question about the character of  this place and how it is impacted by, and can have an impact on, climate change.  1  Smout Allen, 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom.Figure 192.  Liquid Kingdom Drawing, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom).Figure 193.  Liquid Kingdom Exhibit, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom).Figure 191.  Liquid Kingdom Map, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/liquid-kingdom). Figure 195.  #LATBD Model Drawing 2, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd).# L AT B D  -  S M O U T  A L L E NThis project seeks to reveal key forces that helped shape Los Angeles, such as coastal ecology and the city’s freeway system, and imagines unique visions of  the hypothetical future of  LA.1 The representation techniques use models to explore larger ideas about ecology in this project. The models prioritize the invisible just as much as the visible.  They uncover ideas that are below grade and invisible to the naked eye.  Prince Rupert’s history and its projection into the future can use a similar approach in which a model acts as a testing ground for experimental urbanism.  The integration of  model and drawings is an effective technique for conveying a message about this project.  The model and the drawings tell different parts of  the story, but when combined, form a larger idea about the whole.  1  Smout Allen, 2015, Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd.Figure 194.  #LATBD Model Drawing 1, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd).Figure 196.  #LATBD Model Presentation, Smout Allen (Retrieved from: http://www.smoutallen.com/latbd). B O O M  /  B U S T  -  L AT E R A L  O F F I C EAs a resource-based economy centered on staples, Canada’s success has historically depended on foreign markets for fish, fur, paper, grain, wood, minerals, and oil.  This form of  economy encourages growth-oriented extraction + harvesting and brings with it a labour market that works in intensive bursts at the risk of  extinguishing.  A shift to oil and gas in the 1990s has provided some economic consistency, but Newfoundlanders are aware that this industry too has a limited lifespan and is equally volatile.1  This project uses nine representations of  interventions that celebrate rural economy, contemporary subsistence, and the inevitability of  degrowth.  This sets a framework for designing new potentials for public engagement with the rural economy.  It uses these interventions as nine distinct nodes that can work together to form a collective whole.  This technique can be used in developing similar ‘community hubs’ in Prince Rupert that are connected through infrastructure to create a unified whole.  1  Lateral Office, 2019, Retrieved from: http://lateraloffice.com/BOOM-BUST-2019. Figure 198.  Steady-State Architecture 1-9 Axonometrics, Lateral Office (Retrieved from: http://lateraloffice.com/BOOM-BUST-2019).Figure 197.  Installation in the vault of  the Nasjonalmuseet Arkitektur, Oslo. Photo by Luis Callejas, Lateral Office (Retrieved from: http://lateraloffice.com/BOOM-BUST-2019). 

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