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-Waste +Substrate : Designing the Informal Waste Landscape Tan, Calvin 2020-05

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WASTESUBSTRATECalvin Tan2019-2020 / Graduate ProjectLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaCalvin Tan-Waste +SubstrateIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of Brit-ish Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Name: Calvin Tan   Signature:      Date: 2020-05-13WASTESUBSTRATECalvin TanD E S I G N I N G  T H E  I N F O R M A L  W A S T E  L A N D S C A P EFaculty Advisor / Fionn ByrneGP1 Supervisor / Kees LokmanGP2 Supervisor / Susan Herrington  This thesis explores the role of landscape architecture in spatializing the dematerialization and contamination of informal waste landscapes that have emerged in Accra due to global consumption. As a design response, it speculates how waste and excess can become a driver in creating an alternative future that fosters new social, ecological, and economic interactions while addressing the complexities and challenges that have arisen due to these landscapes. Waste and excess give rise to new landscapes. To confront them, we can restructure our preconceptions and negative connotations of these wastelands and its associated actors that have been rendered invisible and excluded. The proposed design critiques the binary of the contaminated landscape and remediated landscape and alternatively seeks to find a co-existence of the two by drawing out the potential reciprocity between them. As a result, a tension is created between the aesthetics of remediation and containment. There is both beauty and ugliness in the process of regeneration and decomposition.ABSTRACTIITABLE OF CONTENTSAbstractTable of ContentsList of FiguresAcknowledgementsIntroductionEmergence of Informal Waste LandscapesGlobalization of Electronic WasteWaste LandscapesThe Ugliness of LandscapesSpatializing the Informal Waste LandscapeGlobalization of AccraContamination and Pollution of E-waste in AccraPrecedent StudyState of DisassemblyAcid Mine Drainage and Art Shanghai Houtan Park Designing the Informal Waste LandscapeWaste to SubstrateRemediateContainmentReferencesI IIVVVI I I0206071721262729424345475051557391IVLIST OF FIGURESVFig 1.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightFig 2.  Global e-waste trade, mapping (Tan, 2020)Fig 3.  Dematerialization of common electronics, diagram  (Tan, 2020)Fig 4.  Consumers at the Apple Store, photograph (Wikimedia Commons, 2017)Fig 5.  Agbogbloshie e-waste workers completing a burn for copper recovery, photograph (Wikimedia Commons, 2010)Fig 6.  San Francisco, Infographic (Tan, 2020)Fig 7.  Accra, Infographic (Tan, 2020)Fig 8.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyright  Fig 9.  Agbogbloshie Scrapyard in Accra, Ghana, photograph (Wikimedia Commons, 2017)  Fig 10.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightFig 11.  Accra timeline (Tan, 2020)Fig 12.  Accra site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 13.  Port, section perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 14.  Port, site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 15.  Scrapyard, section perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 16.  Scrapyard, site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 17.  Market, section perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 18.  Market, site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 19.  Lagoon, section perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 20.  Lagoon, site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 21.  Harbour, section perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 22.  Harbour, site plan (Tan, 2020)Fig 23.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightFig 24.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightFig 25.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyright08091113141516181923273031323334353637383940444648VIFig 26.  Actors/project diagram, exploded axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 27.  Remediate, technical section (Tan, 2020)Fig 28.  Containment, technical section (Tan, 2020)Fig 29.  Lagoon bird’s-eye perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 30.  Module simulations (Tan, 2020) Fig 31.  Lagoon operations, section (Tan, 2020)Fig 32.  Construct, axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 33.  Stabilize, axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 34.  Earthwork perspetive (Tan, 2020)Fig 35.  Habitat, axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 36.  Collect, axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 37.  Habitat perspetive (Tan, 2020)Fig 38.  Scrapyard bird’s-eye perspective (Tan, 2020)Fig 39.  Windbreak simulations (Tan, 2020)Fig 40.  Scrapyard operations, section (Tan, 2020)Fig 41.  Separate, axonometric (Tan, 2020) Fig 42.  Stockpile, axonometric (Tan, 2020)Fig 43.  Waste management perspective (Tan, 2020) Fig 44.  Contain, axonometric (Tan, 2020) Fig 45.  Protect, axonometric (Tan, 2020) Fig 46.  Perimeter perspective (Tan, 2020) 525354565759616365676971747577798183858789Thank you to Fionn Byrne for his enthusiasm, guidance and support in the pursuit and development of this design thesis. I would also like to thank all my peers and colleagues for their support in creating a welcoming learning environment.Last but not least, I am grateful for the love and support of my family as I journeyed through 6 years of design school.      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSVI I IINTRODUCTION02INTRODUCTION-Waste +Substrate is a design thesis that explores the role of landscape architecture in spatializing the dematerialization and contamination of informal waste landscapes that have emerged in Accra due to global consumption and geopolitical decisions. It seeks to uncover the informal waste landscape as a refuge for the marginalized contended across multiple sectors. There is ecological and economic uncertainty and disparity that exist within these contested landscapes, and to intervene, we must acknowledge and address the actors that are rendered invisible. This project speculates how waste and excess can become a driver in creating an alternative future that fosters new social, ecological, and economic interactions while addressing the complexities and challenges that have arisen due to these landscapes. Our perception and attitudes towards waste are deeply rooted in history. The concept of the wasteland is closely associated with the 18th-century anti-picturesque landscape ideals that have drawn and evoked emotions of fear, hatred, contempt, and disgust (Di Palma 2014, 5). However, these ideals remain evident today in our contemporary aesthetics, attitudes and opinions toward waste landscapes. They have become a social and cultural tool of discrimination and moral judgement that have condemned the landscape on to repellent animals and the excluded members of society that it supports (Di Palma 2014, 10). However, a wasteland is also a place that not only encompasses many opportunities and new energies, but also elicits risk-taking, inventions, and imagination. They are then arenas that free the marginalized from the bounds of tradition and moral prejudice (Engler 2004, 36-37). In more recent events, the e-waste crisis in Accra has produced a contested wasteland of many complexities and challenges. The globalization of Accra in the last two decades is largely due to the e-waste boom where there was a significant growth in e-waste trading across the globe. A record of 44.7 million metric tonnes of e-waste generated globally was observed in 2016, and that number is expected to increase annually by 3-4% and double by 2050 (Balde, et al 2017, 38). The movement of e-waste stretches across oceans and borders, and expands beyond the centers of consumerism, becoming one of the largest worldwide operational landscapes, or what Neil Brenner defines as planetary urbanization (Brenner). The import of e-waste has transformed the landscape both economically and ecologically through urbanization along the floodplains of Accra. E-waste extraction has become a catalyst for the emergence of waste disposal along the floodplain, which in turn contaminated and polluted the landscape. The disproportionate effects of the global e-waste trades are then felt by the people living in informal settlements around the scrapyard whose lives heavily depend on the economy of extraction as they become increasingly exposed to the risk of contamination.Historically, the Accra floodplain was once a rich tropical wetland that facilitated commercial fisheries and recreation. Up until the 1960s, the wetland served not only as a sacred hub that facilitated the movement of indigenous communities and traders, but also as a habitat for large populations of aquatic biota and birds (Little, et al 2019, 454). The floodplain gradually became more industrialized and urbanized over time and it was not until 03the 1980s that the City of Accra started seeing rapid informal urbanization along the floodplain, primarily due to the spike in e-waste import. The Agbogbloshie Scrapyard became a refuge for immigrants from Northern Ghana during times of declining economies and political conflicts (Little, et al 2019, 451).Consequently, e-waste extraction became a source of income for these communities, and the city itself experienced a significant economic and ecological transformation. One of the more notable ecological transformations is the downstream pollution of the Korle Lagoon, where high levels of contaminants such as heavy metals, PCB leachates, and excess nutrients restrict the lagoon from supporting aquatic life. However, these waste landscapes support a different group of species instead — seagulls, rodents, bacteria and fungi now occupy the land. They function as scavengers and decomposers that strive in the contaminated and polluted landscape. Although they are repellent and can be seen with disgust, they provide value to the ecologies of the waste landscape. Thus, the scrapyard provides not only refuge for the marginalized, but also habitat for the species that we, as the human species, find condemning.    There are currently plans from national and local governments as well as non-government organizations to restore the lagoon, but these plans always result in a conflict of interest between the restoration of the lagoon and the informal occupancy of the scrapyard. As landscape architects, we are often confronted with the task of transforming the built environment for the better. But, with this scale and level of contamination along with the many complexities that exist with it, full remediation of the lagoon may seem insoluble. Additionally, these landscapes are geopolitically driven and heavily influenced by external political decisions. With the obstacles in implementing solutions locally, the design project imagines an extreme future where external political decisions ban the transboundary movement of e-waste into Accra. In a post e-waste Accra, there would be an economic decline in the informal e-waste sector, thus revealing an uncertain future for the inhabitants of the scrapyard. Informal waste disposal will continue to occur on-site and contamination to last for several years.However, this presents the potential for design to go beyond just remediating the waste landscape. Instead, it expands the field of landscape architecture to work with the logistical implementation of the Green New Deal to address both the ecological and economic disparity that lies within the landscape. This project is a call for participation and cleanup as a collective that transforms the labour force to work with the potential of waste and excess as a substrate for land building. It addresses both the values of the scrapyard and the lagoon by drawing the potential reciprocity between them and proposes a co-existence of the two landscape typologies: the containment of the scrapyard and the remediation of the lagoon. By reconceptualizing waste and excess as a binding agent and material exchange between these two landscapes, an alternative socio-economic system is created to legitimize the occupancy of the floodplain.The lagoon is deployed with topographic modules that are replicated across the site to purify the water and to control its movement in order to generate suitable habitat and substrate through sedimentation and controlled eutrophication. These modules are to be low-tech to allow for a diverse workforce to be employed in the project. Flamingos and zooplanktons occupy the lagoon feeding on the excess algae. Workers collect dredge and algae to be used for substrate. The scrapyard moves away from the traditional method of capping. Instead, it is contained by a perimeter berm that defines the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. Within the perimeter, workers separate, stockpile and convert waste material into substrate suitable for land building. Linear plantings of columnar trees become a natural windbreak and screen that allows for the deposition and filtration of odour and dust particles. Scavengers and decomposers remain present and vital in the overall function of the scrapyard. We are presented with the ability to include and exclude in our design. We make value judgements on the actors that we design for, but what are the thresholds that constitute our decisions? This project critiques the negative perceptions that we have toward wastelands. Waste and excess give rise to new landscapes. To confront our toxic legacy, we can restructure our preconceptions and negative connotations of these wastelands and its associated actors that have been rendered invisible and excluded. A co-existence of a contaminated landscape and remediated landscape is critical to the future of Accra’s floodplain. By drawing out the potential reciprocity between them, it can reveal a new socio-economic and ecological system that will foster new interactions. There is a tension that exists between these two landscapes; perhaps it is the beauty and ugliness of regeneration and decomposition.04— Neil Brenner, Planetary Urbanization (Harvard GSD Urban Theory Lab)“This emergent condition of planetary urbanization means, paradoxically, that even spaces that lie well beyond the traditional centers of agglomeration—from worldwide shipping lanes, transportation networks and communications infrastructures to resource extraction sites, alpine and coastal tourist enclaves, offshore financial centers, agro-industrial catchment zones, and erstwhile “natural” spaces such as the world’s oceans, deserts, jungles, mountain ranges, tundra and atmosphere—are becoming integral to a worldwide operational landscape for (capitalist) urbanization processes.”EMERGENCE OFINFORMAL WASTE LANDSCAPES06GLOBALIZATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTEDigital RevolutionThe digital revolution has completely shifted the way in which we operate in the built environment.  It was not until the 1970s and 1980s that electronics became more common in households. This was mainly due to the invention of the microprocessor which contributed to the portability and compactness of electronics. Paradoxically, the technological advancement of the world was also its destruction. The 1990s and 2000s was a time of crisis in global electronic waste (e-waste) generation. The establishment of the Basel Convention in 1989 intended to control the transboundary movement of e-waste across the globe (Basel Advocacy). A significant increase in global electronic consumption was observed in 2000-2016 which was primarily due to falling prices and new technologies (Balde, et al 2017, 18). Consequently, the number of e-waste generated per year has also shown a rapid growth over the years with a record number of 44.7 million metric tonnes in 2016 (Balde, et al 2017, 38). According to the United Nations University, this number will double by 2050 (UNU). Planetary UrbanizationThe e-waste trade stretches across oceans and borders and expands beyond the centers of consumerism. Even ‘natural’ spaces have become integral to the worldwide operation of e-waste. The import of e-waste has transformed cities economically and ecologically through informal urbanization processes, or what Neil Brenner would describe as planetary urbanization (Brenner). E-waste trading is heavily influenced by political decisions, and in some cases, can cause political disputes. In recent events, the political dispute between Canada and the Philippines regarded the illegal export of hazardous waste into the Philippines in 2013-2014. The term ‘toxic colonialism’ was coined by Jim Puckett, who described it as the act of dumping industrial waste onto the territories of less developed countries (Pratt 2011, 587). One of the most prominent cases of toxic colonialism was the Khian Sea waste disposal incident in 1986.ScaleToxic colonialism is rooted in the consumerist culture of the west. The scale of an electronic device to the scale of e-waste contamination is a striking comparison. Today we own more than one handheld device (phones, tablets, and laptops). Planned obsolescence is a concept that we accept in the design of our modern electronics. According to recent data from the Kantar World Panel, smartphone lifecycles (months) in the US, China, and Europe have shown small increases from 2013-2015 (Balde, et al 2017, 21). However, the average smartphone life does not exceed more than two years. Several trends contribute to the e-waste crisis: the increase in multiple device ownership, electrifying non-electrical equipment, an increase in cloud computing services, in data centres, and shorter replacement cycles (Balde, et al 2017, 19).SitesThe global e-waste trade is a geopolitically driven complex network of disproportionate sending and receiving sites. North America and Europe are the leaders in global e-waste generation, combining with over 50% of the world’s e-waste (Balde, et al 2017, 60-79). In the Americas, USA and Canada do not have national legislation over the management of e-waste and those that do exist are typically at the provincial or state level (Balde, et al 2017, 64-66). Lepawsky (2010) identifies the following as confirmed destinations for e-waste: Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, Ghana, Pakistan, India, China, and Thailand (185). The most prominent ‘e-waste dumps’ are in Pakistan, Ghana, and China. E-waste accumulates differently in various sites; some are more dispersed across the landscape and some accumulate in more concentrated areas. E-waste extraction is an extreme form of income that is critical to the economic stability of the lower-class population. The e-waste landscape is very much a modern form of the wasteland that was associated with the 18th-century anti-picturesque. It is a refuge for the marginalized that is contended across multiple sectors.0708Fig 1. Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightFig 2. Isolated world map representing the participants of the global e-waste trade091011Fig 3. Dematerialization of common electronics12Fig 4-5. Left: Consumers at the Apple Store, right: Workers at the Agbogbloshie Scrapyard1314Fig 6-7. Infographic comparison between San Francisco and AccraSAN FRANCISCO, UN ITED STATES15ACCRA, GHANA1617WASTE LANDSCAPESContemplating WasteOur perception and attitudes towards waste are deeply rooted in history. Waste has always existed on earth. Humans did not invent nor conceive waste. Engler (2004) states (1):“Contrary to what many say, humans did not invent waste; nature did. The squirrel eats a nut and dumps the shell. In some places, the ocean floor leaks oil and pollutes marine habitats. Guano, the excrement of seafowl, kills plants and renders the birds’ own habitat sterile. Lava and ash spewed from volcanoes can destroy whole ecosystems. As part of nature, humans are no exception to this pattern. We throw away what we do not use; we pollute, sterilize, and destroy. The difference, however is that nature has mostly perfected its ‘waste management system’.”Waste is often perceived as dangerous and the repulsion or repression of it is what creates fear and danger. However, waste is not a threat in and of itself. To confront it, is to uncover the truth, dirt and ugliness of it (Engler 2004, 9). More importantly, the material value of waste is what define its social and cultural role in the landscape. The perception of waste to retain material value was influential to the awareness of environmental issues in the 1960s and 1970s, which led to the concept of recycling and reuse (Engler 1995, 13). Thus there is a tension between the repulsion and attraction of waste. It is inherently dialectical, in that it’s repulsive and brings joy (Engler 2004, 15). Lynch (1995, 166) references the dialectical waste landscape as a process of entropy (decay and decomposition): “Why not take pleasure in breaking things when they must be broken, make cleaning a joy, find composition in decline, deal openly with loss and abandonment, see death as part of life?”WastelandThe concept of the wasteland is closely associated with the 18th-century anti-picturesque landscape ideals that have drawn and evoked emotions of fear, hatred, contempt, and disgust (Di Palma 2014, 5). It is often the case that landscapes that supported waste disposal are degraded and neglected. These waste landscapes are ‘other spaces’ that supported the lower-class population. The anti-picturesque landscape ideals became a social and cultural tool of discrimination and moral judgement that have condemned the landscape on to repellent animals and the excluded members of society that it supports (Di Palma 2014, 10). However, a wasteland is also a place that not only encompasses many opportunities and new energies, but also elicits risk-taking, inventions, and imagination. They are then arenas that free the marginalized from the bounds of tradition and moral prejudice (Engler 2004, 36-37). Waste did not just end up accumulating on the landscape, but it became a part of the social and cultural identity of those that inhabit the wasteland.Waste InfrastructureWesternized cities were formed through a centralized infrastructure. Post-war cities became more decentralized in the emergence of post-industrial economies, which emphasized the unintended flow of waste in the metabolic city (Bélanger 2017, 24). As our cultural and social attitudes changed, so did 18Fig 8.  Redacted for digital publication due to copyright19Fig 9.  Agbogbloshie Scrapyard in Accra, Ghanaour attitudes towards waste infrastructure, which completely shifted in the post-industrial period. Bélanger (2017) states (24), “From the waste of urbanization emerges a set of new exchanges based on the process of recuperation and reclamation of those pollutants, premised on the backflows and reflows of waste.” Waste management is only limited to available land. It is thus that waste infrastructure posed a problem. Countries are now having to export and import waste across the world.Informal Waste LandscapesAcross the world, waste infrastructure has given emergence to novel waste ecologies. The extraction of material residuum by human and non-human species generates new interactions within the waste landscape. Belanger’s (2007) describes it as ecologies of disassembly (90), “…the single hierarchy of material separation: organics from inorganics, fluids from solids, solids from gases.” Waste in itself is placeless. But the act of dematerialization: breaking down, dismantling, and reorganizing gives place and value to it, creating facilities and landscapes that encourages interaction. However, in the case of e-waste, it is processed through the informal sector where a large percentage of the landscapes are heavily contested. These are both sites of spatial and social injustice. They are peripheral landscapes where the power and control of the marginalized are suppressed (Dalzero 2016, 202). The ideals of the wasteland are still evident today in our contemporary aesthetics, attitudes and opinions. They are rooted in our agendas as political, social and cultural tools of discrimination. As landscape architects we are familiar in the intervention of abandoned or post-industrial waste landscapes. We are obligated to transform the built environment for the better but with the many complexities and problems that exist with it, we need to move away from one-dimensional approaches. To do so, our aesthetics towards the waste landscape must change. The waste landscape has always been closely associated with negative aesthetics. We need to acknowledge the ugliness not as a way of condemning the landscape, but to render visible the ecologies and interactions of waste that have been supressed by our preconceptions. Beauty and ugliness in landscape architecture are aesthetic dichotomies. However, this thesis seeks to find a co-existence of the two through their processes in the landscape rather than their physical representation.2021THE UGLINESS OF LANDSCAPESSustaining BeautyBeauty and aesthetics existed in the field of landscape architecture since the 18th century. It was heavily debated in the character and the design of the picturesque landscape commonly found across Europe during the romantic age. Landscape architecture during this period faced aesthetic criticism, specifically the subjectivity of beauty and whether it was intrinsic in form or part of an emotional response to the processes (Meyer 2008, 8). In more recent landscape architecture practice, sustainability has shifted the paradigm where aesthetics became less part of the discourse. Elizabeth Meyer emphasizes in her manifesto: Sustaining Beauty: The Performance of Appearance, the necessity of resituating aesthetics in the discussion of sustainability to include culture in the making of landscape. She states that “…beauty is a key component in developing an environmental ethic.” (Meyer 2008, 9) and that landscapes are “…cultural products with distinct forms and experiences that evoke attitudes and feelings through space, sequence and form. …it can alter an individual’s consciousness and perhaps assist in restructuring her priorities and values.” (Meyer 2008, 10). In her reflection of Sustaining Beauty: The Performance of Appearance, Meyer expands on the aesthetic environmental experiences of beauty, wonder, awe, ugliness, and repulsion, where she draws the relationships between beauty and the ugly. Meyer further argues the paradox, stating that beauty itself can originate from the ugly, and its tension and disturbance are a form of aesthetic experiences that challenges our preconceptions of culture and nature (Meyer 2015, 34). Ethics and AestheticsMeyer’s theories of sustaining beauty were criticized by scholars Greet De Block and Vera Vicenzotti of further depoliticizing design (van Hellemondt and Notteboom 2018, 6). In the context of e-waste landscapes that are profoundly influenced by political decisions, is it important to consider the role of landscape architects in being ethical of the designed landscape in order to achieve beauty? Marc Treib (2018) argues that ethics does equal aesthetics, he states that (32), “The beauty of designed landscapes then, to my own mind, does not result from ethics — although it may be one factor. Instead it derives from a skillful interweaving of form, space, proportion, light, and colour, paired with the embrace of seasonal change, growth, a knowledgeable selection of vegetation, and a host of other natural processes that will guide the evolution of the new landscape.”Treib denounces the functionality and performance of the landscape as factors that determine beauty. He criticized Meyer’s analysis of Julie Bargmann’s Urban Outfitter Headquarters as being sustainable and beautiful because it reuses material. Instead, he suggests that it was the careful configuration of shapes, spaces, colours, textures, and materials that achieves beauty and social appreciation in the design (Treib 2018, 31). In addition, “Sustainable is not antithetical to beautiful, nor is beautiful antithetical to sustainable. Carefully designed and detailed landscapes can also represent sustainable practices…” (Treib 2018, 34). What is the role of sustainability in designing 22the waste landscape? How do our aesthetics, attitudes and opinions inflect the concept of sustainability in the environment? The informal waste landscape constantly faces political, social, and environmental challenges. Are there ways that landscape architecture can address both aesthetics, ethics and sustainability in the design of the informal waste landscape?Sublime Reflecting Meyer’s paradox of beauty and ugliness, Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Judgement, argues that our aesthetic judgement is a consequent of disinterestedness: pleasure is a result of judgement rather than judgement as a result of pleasure (Kant and Walker 2009, 41). For Kant there are two aesthetic experiences: the beautiful and the sublime. The former is the subject’s feeling of pleasure, and the latter is the subject’s feeling of displeasure, both are a response to the object’s representation (Kant and Walker 2009, 35). However, Kant’s conception of the beautiful and the sublime was criticized by scholars because it did not address the aesthetic experience concerning the subject’s senses. Thus Philosopher Edmund Burke, argues that the senses are important in our aesthetic judgement of beautiful and sublime. Burke defines the sublime as both displeasure and pleasure where danger in its immense scale and terror can be undelightful when it is too near, but at a safe distance, its experience can be delightful (Burke 2014, 60). Here, Burke hints on the idea of liminality as the transitional experience of the sublime: in-between safety and danger. Thus the co-existence of beauty and ugliness creates a tension that one could argue is a sublime experience.Ugliness in the Landscape “Ugliness I imagine likewise to be consistent enough with an idea of the sublime. But I would by no means insinuate that ugliness of itself is a sublime idea, unless united with such qualities as excite a strong terror.” (Burke 2014, 226). In more contemporary philosophy, Emily Brady restructures the spectrum of aesthetic experiences (beauty and the sublime) by adding ugliness, which addresses the elements of terrible beauty. Brady differentiates the confusion between the sublime and terrible beauty, “Unlike Grandeur, which is marked by uplifting pleasure, terrible beauty has elements of appeal mixed with something more negative, where the factor takes different forms, for example, tragic, ugly, horrible, and so on. …Nature marred by its industry can also combine beauty with more terrible elements. Imagine a sunset with hues made more intense because of pollution, with an understanding of the causes of that beauty giving the experience a tragic or poignant tone.” (Brady 2013, 172-173). Ugliness is defined as a form of aesthetic experience associated with qualities such as deformity, decay, disorder, repulsion, discomfort, and aversion, but in its novelty can also capture our interest, imagination and fascination (Brady 2013, 179). Ugliness is embedded the processes of nature and the waste landscape. It is often that the ‘purity’ and beauty of nature confine its ugliness to merely a negative value. Nature has always exhibited the characteristics of the ugly from its wildness, decay and decomposition. With the perception that nature embodies both beauty and ugliness, we must change the way in which we design landscapes by resituating aesthetics as part of ecologies.Designing with the Ugly Perhaps it is with the ugly that we find new ways to form dialogue and participation in the designed landscape — to build new relationships, values, and ethics towards the complexities of nature. Or, as Brady (2013) states (180), “Through an exploration of difficult forms of aesthetic appreciation, even ugliness, we might discover a different kind of relationship to nature than the varieties forged through easy beauty.” The performance of aesthetics in the design of disturbed landscapes is emphasized in Meyer’s manifesto. This includes the cultivation of hybrids, the design and performance of hypernature landscapes. She argues that through hybridization, the field of landscape architecture creates new potential in the interweaving of traditional binaries (social and ecological, urban and wild, aesthetic and ethical, appearance and performance, beauty and disturbance, aesthetics and sustainability) (Meyer 2008, 16). In addition, Meyer also advocated for arts to reintegrate into the field of landscape architecture in the idea of hypernature, which she defines as the deployment of design tactics such as exaggeration, amplification, distillation, condensation, juxtaposition, and displacement (Meyer 2008, 17). Such design tactics were utilized in Julie Bargmann and Stacy Levy’s design of a passive water treatment plant at a coal mine in Vintondale, Pennsylvania. A co-existence of a contaminated landscape and remediated landscape is critical to solving the political, social and cultural challenges within the wasteland. The interweaving of the binary can foster new interactions and uncover the beauty and ugliness in the processes of regeneration and decomposition. By reconceptualizing waste, we can forge new relationships with nature and resituate our place within the built environment.   23Fig 10. Redacted for digital publication due to copyright24— Vittoria Di Palma, Introduction (Wasteland: A History, 2014)“The concept of the wasteland has—with both positive and negative consequences—enabled the formulation of a landscape ideal, influenced our management of natural resources, colored our attitudes toward newly discovered territories, and directed our attitudes toward pollution and waste. The ideas, attitudes, and beliefs associated with the concept of wasteland may have deep historical roots, but they continue to inflect our attitudes and opinions.”SPATIALIZING THE INFORMAL WASTE LANDSCAPE26GLOBALIZATION OF ACCRA27Historically, the Accra floodplain was once a rich tropical wetland that supported a diverse population of aquatic biota and birds. The floodplain gradually became industrialized and urbanized over time. It was not untill the 1980s that the City of Accra observed rapid informal urbanization along the floodplain. Paired with the spike in e-waste import and the declining economies and politcal conflicts, the Agbogbloshie Scrapyard was established as a common for immigrants across Ghana. E-waste extraction became a source of income for these communities.28Fig 11. Timeline of Accra and the establishment of Agbogbloshie  CONTAMINATION AND POLLUTION OF E-WASTE IN ACCRAThe PortE-waste begins its journey at the Port of Tema. Here e-waste is imported from multiple countries through large freighters. Freighters produce large amounts of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. During the process unloading contaminants are released through oil and ballast water discharge. These contaminants diffuse into the sediments of the gulf and the aquatic biota. Once unloaded, e-waste is handled through multiple stakeholders depending on their functionality. In most cases, they are transported to the Agbogbloshie Scrapyard and processed through the informal e-waste sector. The ScrapyardWithin the Agbogbloshie Scrapyard, workers ranging from teenagers to adults, re-extract electronic parts for valuable metals. Direct contamination and pollution occur through dismantling, burning and leaching. The scrapyard is not only occupied by the workers — non-human species such as seagulls, rodents, and livestock roam the landscape and can become carriers of dangerous pathogens. However, these species form a new ecology associated with the scavenging and decomposing of waste material.The Market   Adjacent to the scrapyard are the diverse markets and informal settlements that contribute to the cultural identity of the landscape. According to recent health reports, a large percentage of the inhabitants reveal high levels of heavy metals and signs of carcinogenic effects. Air quality data from nearby stations reveal high traces of heavy metals found in the dust particles.The LagoonDownstream, the Korle Lagoon has become a cesspool of contamination and pollution from the by-products of informal waste extraction and disposal. The lack of waste and wastewater management facilities for the urbanization of the floodplain has turned the banks of the lagoon into an open waste disposal site. Trap dams reduce the flow of water through the lagoon. The polluted water and sediments are directly released into the Gulf of Guinea.The HarbourThe harbours of Accra are the most active locations for commercial fisheries. Seafood makes up a large portion of the city’s eating habits. Contaminated sediments from the lagoon are directly released into the gulf. It is transported by longshore drifts along the coast and eventually makes its way into the harbours. The scale of contamination and pollution transcends beyond the site of extraction. E-waste moves across Accra, manifesting itself into the ecologies and economies of the landscape.29Fig 12. Site plan of Accra identifying the sites of contamination and pollution30THE PORTFig 13-14. Ecologies and morphlogies of e-waste, left: section perspective of the port, right: site plan of the port    3132THE SCRAPYARD33Fig 15-16. Ecologies and morphlogies of e-waste, left: section perspective of the scrapyard, right: site plan of the scrapyard 34THE MARKET35Fig 17-18. Ecologies and morphlogies of e-waste, left: section perspective of the market, right: site plan of the market   36THE LAGOON37Fig 19-20. Ecologies and morphlogies of e-waste, left: section perspective of the lagoon, right: site plan of the lagoon 38THE HARBOUR39Fig 21-22. Ecologies and morphlogies of e-waste, left: section perspective of the harbour, right: site plan of the harbour 40PRECEDENT STUDY42STATE OF DISASSEMBLYState of Disassembly was an exhibition project for the 2017 Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism. The project spatializes the environments that are created as a response to e-waste extraction. As a design response, the project proposes typologies of architectures and landscapes that recognizes the emergence of e-waste and the importance of localizing waste streams (State of Disassembly 2017).From the physical device, its material compartments are traced across the globe to reveal the economic and social disparity of globalization — it seeks to uncover the social and cultural values of communities formed from waste sites (State of Disassembly 2017). The design consists of material libraries, workshops, salvage depots, markets, and theatres that transforms the ecology, economy, and education of the territory (State of Disassembly 2017). Assembled together, the typologies make up a new socio-economic system that reconceptualizes the waste stream of local electronics. The project is a critique to the capitalist ideals that have distinctly partitioned landscapes according to consumption (clean) and production/waste (dirty) (State of Disassembly 2017). Instead, it acknowledges the waste landscape as a site of diverse interactions and exchanges that can speculate new futures in how we design for waste streams.This project engages the tool of representation in spatializing the movement of e-waste. Accra has been transformed ecologically and economically by the import and extraction of e-waste. As an inspiration, the project can provide alternative ways of representing the ecologies of waste through design drawings. Through innovative design solutions, State of Disassembly grapples the complexities of e-waste by making them more tangible. To solve the waste crisis in Accra will require holistic thinking and inclusion of multiple stakeholders and communities, and even those directly associated with the waste landscape. 43Designer(s): Lateral OfficeType: ExhibitionDate (Start): 2017Date (End): 2017Size: N/ALocation: Seoul, KoreaThemes: Localizing, representation, socio-economic, e-waste44Fig 23. Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightACID MINE DRAINAGE AND ART The AMD and Art Project was a collaborative land art project between landscape architect, Julie Bargmann, and artist, Stacy Levy. It seeks to redefine the role of aesthetics in the remediation and design of contaminated landscapes.Located in Vintondale, Pennsylvania, a contaminated landscape was left abandoned after the coal-mining industry moved out, leaving behind polluted water and mountains of slag (AMD & Art). The project addressed two main issues: the first was to reclaim the contaminated landscape for the town of Vintondale, and the second, to preserve the hybridization of natural beauty and industrial legacy. Rather than to create a landscape rid of its past, Bargmann and Levy wanted to reveal the strange beauty in the heavy metals as it is passively treated (AMD & Art). Through a series of ponds, polluted water is treated as it moves through each pond, revealing the beauty of each pollutant as it interacts with the water. This project engages the ugliness of landscapes as both an aesthetic and educational experience. By revealing the process of remediation, users are engaged in a participatory and educational experience. In addition, the construction of the design engaged the local community in the planting of vegetation and building of site furniture (AMD & Art). The engagement of the local community is a call for participation. It seeks to restructure our obligation to nature as a collective. As a precedent, this project provides the opportunity for landscape architecture to reintegrate the role of aesthetics and participation in design. The informal waste landscape is a contested site of many complexities and challenges. Rendered invisible, the ecologies of waste are confined to merely a negative aesthetic. In the design of the AMD & Art Project, the strange beauty of the contaminated water ponds is revealed as an educational and experiential tool. It rethinks the way we categorized aesthetic categories and provides the potential in working with the ugliness of the landscape. The engagement of the local community suggests the potential to include the inhabitants of the waste landscape in the intervention of the site. Thus, there is an opportunity to work with Green New Deal framework to address the environmental and economic disparity within the landscape.   45Designer(s): Julie Bargmann and Stacy LevyType: Land Art, ReclamationDate (Start): 1995Date (End): 2005Size: 16 haLocation: Vintondale, Pennsylvania, USAThemes: Participation, remediation, aesthetics46Fig 24. Redacted for digital publication due to copyrightSHANGHAI HOUTAN PARK The Shanghai Houtan Park is designed by Turenscape to rethink the park as a living system. The design facilitates ecosystem services critical to the state and occupation of the Huangpu River (Yu, 2015). It is a post-industrial attitude towards addressing the history of industrial occupation along the banks of the river. Challenges such as pollution and flooding were addressed in the design concept through the proposition of terraced wetlands that facilitated settling, aeration, and vegetative and microbial processes (Yu, 2015). It explicitly reveals the purification process. The transition of water quality between each terrace becomes not only an aesthetic pleasure, but also an educative process. The current quality of the Huangpu River is at Grade V in the grade spectrum of I-V, V being the poorest (Yu, 2015). The design of the park is expected to improve the quality of the river to Grade III with the ability to treat over 2,400 tons of water per day (Yu, 2015). Given the scale and proportion of the river and the treatment cap, it is questionable how effective the wetland terraces are in the depollution of the river system. As a precedent, the Shanghai Houtan Park is an example of a remediation project within the context of a very contaminated water body. In relation to Accra, the Korle Lagoon is a very contaminated and polluted water body. There is the potential to implement a remediation project to improve the quality of water. But with the level of contamination it will take several years for the lagoon to restore back to adequate conditions. Alternatively, there could be a more engaging remediation project that would take on the inhabitants of the scrapyard in cleaning up the lagoon. This would still require years of remediation but the process itself is educative and socially engaging. The process of remediation requires a diversity of actors in both the ecological and economic sector. The merging of the actors and processes speculates the potential for a new socio-economic and socio-ecological system. 47Designer(s): TurenscapeType: Park DesignDate (Start): 2007Date (End): 2010Size: 14 haLocation: Pudong, Shanghai City, ChinaThemes: Remediation, recreation, riverfront48Fig 25. Redacted for digital publication due to copyright— Rosalind Williams, Redesigning Design (New Geographies 09: Posthuman, 2018)“Design, as we know it today, is characterized by beliefs in the agency of the designer and in the potential of design to transform the human-built world for the better. William Morris shared these convictions, but he also had strong doubts about them. He expanded the concept of design to include the labor process as part of the design process. [...] his coming to terms with the forces of modern civilization without illusion or evasion—provides a model for designers who today who face political and environmental problems that seem and perhaps are insoluble. [...] Giving design the burden of changing history may be too heavy a load for it to bear. There may be other ways that design can make the world a better place, through rethinking what ‘design’ is and does.”DESIGNING THE INFORMAL WASTE LANDSCAPE50WASTE TO SUBSTRATEThis design project is situated in the post e-waste Accra. Geopolitical decisions and external policies banned the transboundary movement of e-waste. The Informal e-waste sector experiences an economic decline, thus increasing the uncertainty and disparity that already exists. Informal waste disposal continues to occur on the scrapyard and floodplain. Contamination and pollution levels remain present and are expected to last for several years.As landscape architects, we have an obligation to transform the built environment for the better. But, with this scale and level of contamination along with the many complexities that the Accra floodplain poses, full remediation of the lagoon may seem insoluble. However, this presents the potential for design to go beyond just a remediation project. Instead, it expands the field of landscape architecture to work with the logistical implementation of the Green New Deal to address both the ecological and economic disparity that lies within the landscape. This project is a call for participation and cleanup as a collective that transforms the labour force to work with the potential of waste and excess as a substrate for land building. It addresses both the values of the scrapyard and the lagoon by drawing the potential reciprocity between them. A co-existence of the two landscape typologies: the containment of the scrapyard and the remediation of the lagoon is critical to solving the economic and ecological disparity along the floodplain. By reconceptualizing waste and excess as a binding agent and material exchange between these two landscapes, an alternative socio-economic system is created to not only legitimize the occupancy of the floodplain but also foster new social, ecological, and economic interactions.The remediation of the lagoon deploys topographic modules that are replicated across the site to purify the water its movement in order to generate suitable habitat and substrate through sedimentation and controlled eutrophication. These Modules are to be low-tech to allow for a diverse workforce to be employed in the project. Flamingos and zooplanktons occupy the lagoon feeding on the excess algae. Workers collect dredge and algae to be used for substrate. The containment of the scrapyard moves away from the traditional method of capping. Instead, it is contained by a perimeter berm that defines the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. Within the perimeter, workers separate, stockpile and convert waste material into substrate suitable for land building. Linear plantings of columnar trees become a natural windbreak and screen that allows for the deposition and filtration of odour and dust particles. Scavengers and decomposers remain present and vital in the overall function of the scrapyard.51Fig 26. Exploded axonometric identifying the layers of the alternative socio-economic system, material exchange and the actors and species of the operational landscape52REMEDIATE VS. CONTAINMENTFig 27-28. Technical sections representing the organization of aesthetics and actions of spe-cies, left: remediate, right: containment5354LAGOON / REMEDIATE55Fig 29. Bird’s-eye perspective of the topographic modules replicated across the lagoon and merging of the socio-economic and ecological system56Fig 30. Simulations of the topographic modules to experiment and visualize the consequences of different arrangements in relation to water flow, fill and sedimentationMODULE SIMULATIONS5758Fig 31. Section across the lagoon showing the operations and interactions of waste and excessOPERATIONS5960AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employ ent of a less experienced work force to undergo gener l labourthat will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site toanother.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell mad  from scrapped metal to r tain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employ ent of a less experienced work force to undergo gener l labourthat will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site toanother.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell mad  from scrapped metal to r tain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employ ent of a less experienced work force to undergo gener l labourthat will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site toanother.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell mad  from scrapped metal to r tain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employ ent of a less experienced work force to undergo gener l labourthat will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site toanother.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell mad  from scrapped metal to r tain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE878AXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE87861Fig 32. Construction of the modulesCONSTRUCTAXO 01 / CONSTRUCTDeployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES11Dredge material and excess fill are stockpiled on site to be used as genral fill for the modules.DREDGED MATERIAL22Harvested algae are utilized in the contruction of gabion units that are deployed as general fill for the modules.SUBSTRATE33Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS44Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS55Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another.TRANSPORTERS66Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted algae.GABION SHELL7Algae is compacted and placed inside a gabion shell. The algae will be used as substrate that will decompose over time and improve soil quality.COMPACTED ALGAE8786231245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES231245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment f a less experienced work force to undergo g ner l labour that will ssist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanaus : heavy metal and pollutant r ovaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Meg thyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses63Fig 33. Stabilization of the modulesSTABILIZE31245AXO 02 / STABILIZECompacted moulds made from waste are used to cast armatures that are used to stabilize the modules.CASTING1Plantings on the modules will help stabilize the soil and also contribute to the purification of the water and remediation of the soil.PLANTING3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5The armatures serves as a landscape device for erosion control and sediment accumulation. ARMATURES2Megathyrsus maximusPennisetum purpureumImperata cylindricaAndropogon gayamusrange: native to Ghanause: heavy metal and pollutant removaltolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Phytoremediation Grasses64Fig 34. Perspective representing the construction and maintenance of the topographic modules as part of the design process  EARTHWORK6566HABITATAXO 03 / HABITATShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46R m val of heavy m tals, waste, leachates, pollutants nd ontaminants through ative grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5mployment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11D pl yment of low-t ch topographic modules that manipul te water flow to reate various conditio s.MODULES22xcess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65AXO 03 / HABITATPhoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser FlamingoShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS6567Fig 35. Occupancy of the modulesAXO 03 / HABITATShallow and calm waters provide habitat for species that thrive on  HABITAT11Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES22Excess algae provides food for flamingos and zooplanktons thus helping control the rate of eutrophication.ALGAE SUPPLY334Areas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY46Removal of heavy metals, waste, leachates, pollutants and contaminants through native grasses.  PHYTOREMEDIATION 5Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS65Phoeniconaias minorrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: near threatenedhabitat: coastal and inland wetlands, shallow akaline and saline waterfood: algae, zooplanktons, and small invertebratesLesser Flamingo6820 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS6620 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4mployment of experienced work force t  operate ma hineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available to ls to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11xcess algae is harvested and transp rted to the s rapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic m dules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: g obally distributedgrowth: pr fers slow, shallow,and warm wa ruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation69Fig 36. Collection and harvesting of generated substrateCOLLECT20 l = 0.02 m3AXO 04 / COLLECTAreas of slow water allow for sedimentation to occur thus creating a change in the morphology of the lagoon.SEDIMENT SUPPLY11Excess algae is harvested and transported to the scrapyard where it is converted to a substrate for land building.ALGAE HARVEST22Deployment of low-tech topographic modules that manipulate water flow to create various conditions.MODULES3453Employment of maintenance workers that will carry on the conservation and preservation of the lagoon.MAINTAINENCE WORKERS4Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS5The use of low-tech and available tools to assist in the collection and transportation of material.AVAILABLE TOOLS66Chlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentationChlorophyta trebouxiaform: bedrange: globally distributedgrowth: prefers slow, shallow,and warm wateruse: composting, compacting, and fuel.Green Algaeformation: shallow banks and slow moving wateruse: dredged to be used as fillSedimentation70Fig 37. Perspective showing the occupancy of the lagoon and the dynamic processess of eutrophication and sedimentation PRODUCTION7172SCRAPYARD / CONTAINMENT73Fig 38. Bird’s-eye perspective showing the diverse operations within the scrapyard’s perimeter74Fig 39. Simulation of different vertical elements to experiment and visualize the consequences of different arrangements in relation to wind flow and turbulenceWINDBREAK SIMULATIONS7576Fig 40. Section showing the operations of the scrapyard and the natural processes at playOPERATIONS7778SEPARATEAXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..TRANSPORTERS6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGum Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force o undergo g neral labour t at will assist the larger ocio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGum Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of ga deners to plant nd maint in veg tation across the si e. GARD NERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGum Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess f om across Accr  are transport d and piled within the scrapyard. W STE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are s parat d base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGum Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGum Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654AXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils TRANSPORTERSGu  Arabic Tree6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS465479Fig 41. Separation of waste and excess materialAXO 01 / SEPARATEWaste and excess from across Accra are transported and piled within the scrapyard. WASTE + EXCESS11Waste and excess are separated base on their material qualities. They are then compacted or decomposed as substrate for land building.SEPARATING AND COMPACTING223Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Employment of transport drivers to move substrate from one site to another..TRANSPORTERS6Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK3Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site. GARDENERS4654Acacia nilotica ‘cupressiformis’form: columnavg height: 10-15mrange: native to Ghanause: fodder, shade, windbreaktolerance: dryland savannas, flooding, saline areas, degraded and acidic soils Gum Arabic Tree80AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can bec me potential nestinghabitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a l s  experi nced work force to undergo general labour that ill assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can bec me potential shelter f r r ts that scavenge the scrapyard. BURR W6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1xcess substrate are stockpil d to be used as general fill for future ear h ork or maintenance.STOCKPI ED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomp sable waste, and cont min ted soils are composted tobe used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear pl ting f Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generat  turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are tockpil d to be used as general fill for future earth ork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomp sable waste, and c nt minated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMP STING3Linear planting f Acacias to serve asa windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6AXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW6Chroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly fou d multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African Rat81Fig 42. Conversion and stockpiling of building substrateSTOCKPILEAXO 02 / STOCKPILEChroicocephalus cirrocephalusrange: native to Ghana, sub-saharan Africastatus: least concernhabitat: coastal and inland waters, landfills, and urban environmentsfood: waste, small invertebrates and fishGrey-hooded GullMastomys natalensisrange: Commonly found multiple African countriesstatus: least concernhabitat: subtropical forests/shrublands, wet/dry savannas, landfills and urban environmentsfood: waste and small invertebratesCommon African RatMoulds are stockpiled as a topographical element that can become potential habitat for non-human species of the wasteland.STOCKPILED MOULDS1Excess substrate are stockpiled to be used as general fill for future earthwork or maintenance.STOCKPILED FILL2Moulds can become potential nesting habitat for birds that scavenge the scrapyard.NESTING76715234Algae, decomposable waste, and contaminated soils are composted to be used as planting soil for future earthwork or maintenance.COMPOSTING3Linear planting of Acacias to serve as a windbreak that will generate turbulence across the scrapyard. This will allow for the deposition of dust and odor particles.WINDBREAK4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Mould can become potential shelter for rats that scavenge the scrapyard. BURROW682Fig 43. Perspective showing the interaction of waste within the scrapyardWASTE MANAGEMENT8384CONTAINAXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employ ent of experienced w rk force to ope ate machin ri s.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25De l t f bio  units in the  core of the berm redu es the amount of fill required to construct the profile.BION CORE2Dredge material and x ss fr m the lagoon fill are used as gen ral fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS6AXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS685Fig 44. Construction of the perimeter bermAXO 03 / CONTAINThe perimeter berm is a defined edge that protects and acknowledges the scrapyard as a landscape of risk and experimentation. PERIMETER BERM11436 25Deployment of gabion units in the  core of the berm reduces the amount of fill required to construct the profile.GABION CORE2Dredge material and excess from the lagoon fill are used as general fill in the construction of the berm.DREDGED MATERIAL3Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS4Employment of gardeners to plant and maintain vegetation across the site.GARDENERS5Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries.MACHINE OPERATORS686AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo gen ra  labour that will assist the larger socio-ec nomic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell m de from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted wast .GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a p otective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPP D COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impac s from both political and ecol gical forces.S TTLEMENT2Existing river b nks around the scr pyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing rosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employm nt of experienced work force to operate machineries such as li ts.MACHIN  OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are curr nt y facing negative impac s from both political and ecol gical forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river b nks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing rosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employm nt of experienced work fo ce to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHIN  OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE7AXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE787Fig 45. Deployment of floodwalls to protect floodplainPROTECTAXO 04 / PROTECTTemporary gabion units are arranged in the form of a floodwall to protect the settlements from inundation. FLOODWALL DEPLOYMENT14123675Informal urbanization along the banks of the Odaw River are currently facing negative impacts from both political and ecological forces.SETTLEMENT2Existing river banks around the scrapyard and settlements on experiencing ongoing erosion due to urbanization and vegetation loss. ERODED BANK3Employment of experienced work force to operate machineries such as lifts.MACHINE OPERATORS4Employment of a less experienced work force to undergo general labour that will assist the larger socio-economic system.GENERAL LABOURERS5Weaved shell made from scrapped metal to retain the structural integrity of the compacted waste.GABION SHELL6Compacted waste is wrapped in a protective layer to reduce the amount of leaching from various materials.WRAPPED COMPACTED WASTE788Fig 46. Perspective showing the perimeter berm and the containment of waste within the scrapyard PERIMETER8990REFERENCES91“AMD & Art.” Stacy Levy, https:/ /www.stacylevy.com/amd-art.Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw, et al. Ghana E-Waste Country Assessment. Basel Convention, 2011.Ari, Vidyadhar. “A Review of Technology of Metal Recovery from Electronic Waste.” E-Waste in Transition - From Pollution to    Resource, IntechOpen, 2016, pp. 121-158.Baldé, C. P., et al. The Global E-Waste Monitor: Quantities, Flows, and Resources. United Nations University (UNU), 2017.  “Basel Advocacy.” Basel Action Network, https:/ /www.ban.org/advocacy.Bélanger, Pierre. Landscape as Infrastructure: A Base Primer. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY, 2017.Bélanger, Pierre. Landscape of Disassembly. https:/ /www.academia.edu/7642482/ Landscape_of_Disas   sembly. Brady, Emily. The Sublime in Modern Philosophy: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Nature. Cambridge University Press, 2013.Brenner, Neil. GSD Urban Theory Lab, https:/ /www.urbantheorylab.net/vision/.Burke, Edmund. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: With an Introductory Dis   course Concerning Taste; and several Other Additions. Cambridge University Press, 2014.Dalzero, Silvia. “Rejected Landscapes – Recycled Landscapes.” Procedia Engineering, vol. 161, Dec. 2016, pp. 201–206.Di Palma, Vittoria. Wasteland: A History. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2014.Engler, Mira. Designing America’s Waste Landscapes. J. Hopkins University Press, 2004.92“Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: The Republic of Ghana.” FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture, http:/ /www.fao.org/fishery/   facp/ GHA/en.Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Y., et al. “Heavy Metals Concentration and Distribution in Soils and Vegetation at Korle Lagoon Area in   Accra, Ghana.” Cogent Environmental Science, vol. 3, no. 1, 2017Kant, Immanuel, and Nicholas Walker. Critique of Judgement. Oxford University Press USA - OSO, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Cen   tral, https:/ /ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ubc/detail.action?docID=415216.Kirkwood, Niall, et al. Manufactured Sites: Rethinking the Post-Industrial Landscape. Spon Press, 2001.Lepawsky, Josh, and Chris McNabb. “Mapping International Flows of Electronic Waste: Mapping International Flows of Elec   tronic Waste.” The Canadian Geographer, vol. 54, no. 2, 2010, pp. 177-195.Little, Peter C., and Grace A. Akese. “Centering the Korle Lagoon: Exploring Blue Political Ecologies of E-Waste in Ghana.”    Journal of Political Ecology, vol. 26, no. 1, 2019.Lynch, Kevin, and Michael Southworth. Wasting Away. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1990.Meyer, Elizabeth K. “Sustaining Beauty. the Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts.” Journal of Landscape    Architecture, vol. 3, no. 1, 2008, pp. 6-23.Meyer, Elizabeth K. “Beyond ‘sustaining beauty’: Musings on a manifesto.” 2015.Ottaviani, Jacopo. E-Waste Republic. https:/ /interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2015/ewaste/index.html.Pratt, Laura A. W. "Decreasing Dirty Dumping? A Reevaluation of Toxic Waste Colonialism and the Global Management of Trans   boundary Hazardous Waste." William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review, vol. 35, no. 2, 2011, pp. 581.“State of Disassembly 2017.” Lateral Office, https:/ /www.lateraloffice.com/states-of-disassembly-2017.Tchounwou, Paul B., et al. "Heavy Metal Toxicity and the Environment." vol. 101, Springer Basel, Basel, 2012.Treib, Marc. "Ethics ≠ Aesthetics." Journal of Landscape Architecture, vol. 13, no. 2, 2018, pp. 30-41.UNU. “With E-Waste Predicted to Double by 2050, Business as Usual Is Not an Option.” United Nations University, https:/ /unu.   edu/news/news/with-e-waste-predicted-to-double-by-2050-business-as-usual-is-not-an-option.html.Van Hellemondt, Imke, and Bruno Notteboom. "Sustaining Beauty and Beyond." Journal of Landscape Architecture, vol. 13, no.    2, 2018, pp. 4-7.Yu, Kongjian. “City Green: Landscape as A Living System Shanghai 2010 Expo Houtan Park.” Turenscape, https:/ /www.turen   scape.com/en/news/detail/327.html, 2015.9394

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