UBC Graduate Research

Biophilic Community Wang, Mindi 2020-05

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Biophilic CommunityMindi Wang LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKMindi WangMaster of Landscape ArchitectureGraduate Project Part I & IISchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British Columbia Faculty Advisor: Patrick MooneyGPI Supervisors: Kees Lokman, Mari Fujita, Sylvia ColemanGPII Supervisor: Susan HerringtonSubmitted in partial fulfilment for the Master of Landscape Architecture,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,University of British ColumbiaBiophilic CommunityACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirstly, I would like to thank my advisor Patrick Mooney for instructing me for this project. You are such a responsible professor. I would also like to thank Cynthia Girling for the sup-port of the planning part of this project. Finally, I express gratitude to my friends and my partner Vincent for their mental and physical sup-port during this special COVID-19 pandemic.ABSTRACTiiPopulation growth and urbanization contribute to habitat loss and housing unaffordability in the urban area. Habitat loss contributes to the decline of biodi-versity, which can negatively affect the performance of ecosystems, as well as have a negative influence on ecosystem services. Vancouver’s population has increased by 48% over the past 50 years, and it is still expected to grow. The accelerating rate of popula-tion growth contributes to the fact that Vancouver tops the latest list of the cities with the least afford-able housing markets in North America. The future of Vancouver is intense and dense. For these rea-sons, finding a balance between urbanization and habitat loss while accommodating the population growth is a major issue for the City of Vancouver.  This thesis will try to replan the Langara Golf Course into a biophilic community with multiple types of housing and habitat. This thesis will use avian hab-itat as a major reference for habitat restoration, as birds are good indicators of general biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The proposed new biophilic community will maximize biodiversity in a dense ur-ban neighborhood.TABLE OF CONTENTSPART I I. STATEMENT .......................................................................................................................................................... 001II. DISCUSSION   1. Biodiversity in Urban Regions................................................................................................................ 005      1.1 The Importance of Biodiversity  .....................................................................................................007      1.2 Biodiversity loss in Metro Vancouver .........................................................................................009   2. Avian Diversity ....................................................................................................................................................017      2.1 The Importance of Birds....................................................................................................................... 019      2.2 The Status of Birds.................................................................................................................................... 021      2.3  Avian habitat ................................................................................................................................................ 023 2.4 Understanding Scales - Essential to Urban Landscape for Birds........................ 039   3. Biophilic Cities ................................................................................................................................................... 041      3.1 Nature and Biophilia............................................................................................................................... 043      3.2 Biophilic Cities............................................................................................................................................. 044   4.Site Analysis and Discussion................................................................................................................... 055       5. Precedent Studies...........................................................................................................................................068      5.1 Yardworks (Scale: Building-Community).................................................................................. 069      5.2 PLANT*SF (Sacale: Neighborhood-Community-City)..................................................... 071       5.3 Textile City Park (Scale: Neighborhood-Community)........................................................073     5.4 Park Poelzone Westland (Scale: City-Region).......................................................................075     5.5 New Residence at Norquay Neighborhood               (Scale: Neighborhood-Community).............................................................................................077III. PLANNING AND DESIGN....................................................................................................................... 079   Goals and Principles.......................................................................................................................................... 081   Planning...................................................................................................................................................................... 083          Master Plan ........................................................................................................................................................083        Housing ................................................................................................................................................................085    Circulation............................................................................................................................................................086             Stormwater Management........................................................................................................................095  Habitat Design.........................................................................................................................................................101BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................................... 109PART IIivLIST OF FIGURES, TABLES, AND CHARTSFigure 1.1 Bumble Bee Pollinating  Figure 1.2 Western tiger swallowtail butterfly settled on Delphinium elatum Figure 1.3 Ecosystem Services  Figure 1.4  B.C. Red, Blue, and Yellow List and Representative Species  Figure 1.5  Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone Figure 1.6  Pacific Flyway   Figure 1.7 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Migration Routes Figure 1.8 Timeline: Historical  Witness of Biodiversity Loss in Metro Vancouver Figure 2.1 Bird Flock Figure 2.2 Birdwatching Figure 2.3 Red-winged blackbird (male) Figure 2.4 Red-winged blackbird (female) Figure 2.5 Gains and Losses across the North American Avifauna over the Past Half-century.Figure 2.6 Gains and Losses of Avian in Canada since 1970 Figure 2.7 Sandhill CraneFigure 2.8 Tree SwallowFigure 2.9 Great Blue Heron Figure 2.10 Forest Habitats and Example SpeciesFigure 2.11 Park Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.12 Wetland Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.13 Old Field Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.14 Meadow Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.15 Hedgerow Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.16 Riparian Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.17 Shorezone Habitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.18 Deciduous ShrubHabitat and Example SpeciesFigure 2.19 Varied Thrush Captured in the CourtyardFigure 3.1 UBC SALA Students’ Outdoor Field TripFigure 3.2 the View of VancouverFigure 3.3 Vitoria-Gasteiz Green Belt, SpainFigure 3.4 Volunteers Investigating Invasive SpeciesFigure 3.5 Stanley ParkFigure 3.6 Core Biodiversity Network, Brisbane, Australia Figure 3.7 Vauban, Freiburg, GermanyFigure 3.8 Street Edge Alternatives program, Seattle, USAFigure 3.9 Cheonggyecheon creek, Seoul, South KoreaFigure 4.1 McCleery Golf CourseFigure 4.2  Riverwalk San DiegoFigure 4.3 Green Space in Vancouver Figure 4.4 Biodiversity Hotspot and CorridorFigure 4.5 Comparison of Three Golf CoursesFigure 4.6 Langara Golf Course-Transportation AnalysisFigure 4.7 Langara Golf Course-Proposed LanduseFigure 4.8-4.9 Langara Golf Course-New Development NearbyFigure 5.1 Park Poelzone WestlandFigure 5.2  Habitat Features Figure 5.3  SeasonalityFigure 5.4  Perspective ViewFigure 5.5  ConnectivityFigure 5.6-5.7  Project Example-Jerrold AvenueFigure 5.8-5.10 Project Example-Shotwell GreenwayFigure 5.11  Textile City Park PlanFigure 5.12  Textile City Park ConceptFigure 5.13  Textile City Park Plant SelectionFigure 5.14  Park Poelzone Westland PlanFigure 5.15-5.16  Park Poelzone Westland  Figure 5.17 Animal TreeFigure 5.18  Example of One Duplex on One 33 Ft X 120 Ft LotFigure 5.19  Example of Seven Units in Mini-houses on Three 33 Ft X 120 Ft LotsFigure 5.20  Example of Traditional Rowhouse on Three 44 Ft X 90 Ft LotsFigure 6.1 Master PlanFigure 6.2 Land UseFigure 6.3 Building HeightFigure 6.4 CirculationFigure 6.5 Existing Cambie Street SectionFigure 6.6 Proposed Cambie Street SectionFigure 6.7 Proposed Alberta Street SectionFigure 6.8 Proposed Green Alley SectionFigure 6.9 Little Mountain to Big River Figure 6.10 Blue-Green ‘Couplet’Figure 6.11 Stormwater Management Strategy ConceptFigure 6.12 Street Division DiagramFigure 6.13 Green Roof Building DiagramFigure 6.14 Residential Parcel DiagramFigure 6.15 Habitat MappingFigure 6.16 Park 2 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.17 Park 2 Courtyard Space SectionFigure 6.18 Old Field 5 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.19 Old Field 5 Courtyard Space SectionFigure 6.20 Wetland 1 Space PlanFigure 6.21 Wetland 1 Space SectionFigure 6.22 Meadow 1 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.22 Meadow 1 Courtyard Space SectionTable 01 Avian Foraging GuildsTable 02 Key Features of HabitatsTable 03 Urban Exploiters, Urban Adapters, and Urban AvoidersTable 04 Edge Species, Interior Species, and Interior-edge Generalist SpeciesTable 05 Street Stormwater VolumeTable 06 Green Roof Stormwater VolumeTable 07 Residential Parcel Stormwater VolumeChart 01 Features of Biophilic CitiesChart 02 Biophilic Design and PlanningviI. STATEMENTUrbanization and production-driven agricul-tural land use are believed to contribute to habitat loss globally, which leads to animal ex-tinction (City of Vancouver 2015). In Vancouver, it is estimated that approximately 87% of the forest cover has been replaced with urban de-velopment since the 1850s (City of Vancouver 2015).  In terms of avian, habitat loss has caused a 35% decline in characteristic bird species in the Pacific Coast region of Canada since 1970 (City of Vancouver 2015). Declines in species abundance can degrade ecosystem integrity (Rosenberg et al, 2019). Population growth is the main cause of ur-banization. It is expected that 66 percent of the world’s population will live in urban areas in 2050 (World Urbanization Prospects report). Vancouver’s population growth has reached 48% over the past 50 years, and it is still expect-ed to grow. The accelerating rate of population growth contributes to the fact that Vancouver tops the second of the list of the cities with the least affordable housing markets in North America (Daily Hive Vancouver, 2019). The fu-ture of Vancouver is intense and dense (Beas-ley, 2014). How to balance between urbaniza-tion and habitat loss while accommodating the population growth is a major issue for Vancou-ver.The design and planning of urban infrastructure increasingly incorporate “bio-diversity-friendly” practices to improve ecological services and quality of life in cities (Shwartz et al 2014).  The term biophilic city demonstrates people’s long-ing for nature in their daily life in cities. A biophil-ic city, it is a city that puts nature first in its de-sign, planning, and management; it recognizes the essential need for daily human contact with nature as well as the many environmental and economic values provided by nature and nat-ural systems (Beatley, 2011). The best biophilic cities should have biodiversity-friendly design and planning throughout different scales, where these scales overlap (Beatley, 2011).  Site scale habitat features located throughout the urban matrix could be an important strategy for en-hancing biodiversity in urban areas (City of Van-couver, 2013; Mooney, 2011b). In the Vancouver urban area, there are still many underutilized lands having huge potential to contribute to biodiversity and affordable housing. Landscape features including golf courses, cemeteries, airport lands, landfills, vacant lots and institu-tional campuses need to be explored for their ecological potential (Forman, 2014).Vancouver’s three major municipal golf cours-es, Fraserview, Langara, and McCleery, total 186 hectares, account for almost 15% of Van-couver’s parkland (City of Vancouver 2015). However, people are proposing to turn some of the golf courses into public parks and resi-dential areas to support affordable housing and biodiversity, because of the low usage rate and the high-cost maintenance. This thesis will try to re-plan the McCleery Golf Course into a biophilic community with mul-tiple types of housing and habitat restoration. This thesis will start with the literature review and the precedent study, use avian habitat as a major reference for habitat restoration, as birds are good indicators of general biodiversity and ecosystem integrity (Rosenberg et al, 2019). 002II. DISCUSSION004LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK1.Biodiversity  in Urban RegionsThere is a person within us who would like to hear birdsong spill out of the forest like a wave, watch spawning fish turn a black-water river to silver, or walk a road beaten into the savannah by herd animals. It’s that same person who would take some unexplainable satisfaction from the sound of a whale’s deep breathing as it sleeps at the surface of the sea, and who is able to grasp that a lichen that clings to the slopes of a single moun-tain is a metaphor for our own dependence on this lone earth in outer space.The Once and Future WorldJ.B. MacKinnon, 2013Figure 1.1 Bumble Bee PollinatingLocation: UBC Botanical Garden (Photo courtesy of the author)006Urban Biodiversity Urban biodiversity can be defined as ‘the vari-ety or richness and abundance of living organ-isms (including genetic variation) and habitats found in and on the edge of human settle-ments’ (Müller et al., 2013). Change of land-use and land-cover (including urbanization) and cli-mate change are two key impacts of biodiver-sity loss in urban regions (Zari, 2018; Mooney, 2011a). Human activities are the main reasons for these two impacts. Today, more than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas now (UN News, 2014). Human has become an urban-ized species that have a significant influence on biodiversity-human relationships (Zari, 2018).  Biodiversity loss describes the decline in the number, genetic variability, and variety of spe-cies, and the biological communities in a giv-en area (Rafferty, 2019). Declines in abundance can degrade ecosystem integrity, reducing vital ecological, evolutionary, economic, and social services that organisms provide to their envi-ronment (Rosenberg et al., 2019). 1.1 The Importance of Biodiversity  Figure 1.2 Western Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly Settled on Delphinium elatumLocation: UBC Botanical Garden (Photo courtesy of the author)Figure 1.3 Ecosystem ServicesSource: https://whsrn.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ecosystemservicesdiagram_en-1.jpgBiodiversity and Ecosystem Services Ecosystem functioning is defined as “the joint effects of all processes (fluxes of energy and matter) that sustain an ecosystem” over time and space through biological activities (Truchy et al., 2015). Ecosystem services are the ben-efits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating services such as flood and disease control; cultural services such as spir-itual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and supporting services, such as nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions for life on Earth (The 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). There is now a firm evidence base demonstrat-ing the importance of biodiversity to ecosys-tem functioning (European Commission et al., 2015). Ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are closely linked: some ecologists believe that the relationship between eco-system functioning and ecosystem services are approximately equivalent and inclusive (Song et al., 2004). Biodiversity loss can neg-atively affect the performance of ecosystems (Naeem et al.,1994). Hence, we can believe *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 0081.2 Biodiversity in Metro VancouverBiodiversity in B.C.The varied topography and climate in B.C. has nurtured the highest species richness in Can-ada (Westwood et al.,2018). British Columbia has greater biodiversity than any other Cana-dian province. However, it also has the most species at risk (Westwood et al., 2019). It is assessed that there are 278 species at risk of extinction within B.C. (extirpated, endan-gered, threatened, or special concern); 214 of these are legally listed under the feder-al Species At Risk Act (Westwood et al.,2018).  In B.C., each native species and ecosystem is assigned to the red, blue or yellow list to help set conservation priorities and provide a simpli-fied view of the status of B.C.’s species and eco-systems (the Government of British Columbia, Figure 1.4). According to the B.C. Conservation Data Center, there are 1638 species and eco-systems listed under the Red and Blue List, among which that 766 are under Red List. (Con-servation Data Center, accessed Dec 14, 2019).to take action on laws to protect and recover endangered species. It is assessed that there are 278 species at risk of extinction within B.C. (extirpated, endangered, threatened, or special concern); 214 of these are legally listed under the federal Species At Risk Act (Westwood et al.,2018).that biodiversity loss can have a negative influ-ence on ecosystem services. Researches have proved that some ecosystem services were improved because of the enhancement of bio-diversity (European Commission et al., 2015).  Human benefits from biodiversity Improving urban biodiversity can enhance urban residents’ wellbeing (Taylor and Hochuli, 2015). Researches have indicated that the following elements can be enhanced with improving biodiversity in urban regions: human physical and psychological health, societal and cultural health, economic health and stability (Zari, 2018). Any species or ecosystem that is at risk of being lost (extirpated, endangered or threatened).RED LIST BLUE LIST YELLOW LISTAny species or ecosystem that is of special concern.Any species or ecosys-tem that is at the least risk of being lost.white-headed woodpeckerPicoides albolarvatusdwarf brambleRubus lasiococcus  Count: 766 Count: 872Figure 1.4  B.C. Red, Blue, and Yellow List and Representative SpeciesDrawn by the authorAdapted from the Government of British Columbia. and B.C. Conservation Data Center, 2019.https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/environment/plants-animals-ecosystems/conservation-data-centre/explore-cdc-data/red-blue-yellow-listshttp://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/eswp/Photo Source:white-headed woodpecker: https://www.audubon.org/sites/default/files/styles/hero_cover_bird_page/public White-headed%20Woodpecker%20b61-1-048_V.jpg?itok=0aGd_SUAdwaft bramble: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/e9/00/b4/e900b4542c5394615cbc0319e2a18eca.jpg*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 010According to Strategic Directions for Biodiversi-ty Conservation in the Metro Vancouver Region, threats to Metro Vancouver’s biodiversity can be listed as follows:(i). Habitat loss and fragmentation(ii). Climate change(iii). Land management challenges(iv). Accommodating growth(v). Invasive species(vi). Air, water and soil pollution Biodiversity in Metro VancouverMetro Vancouver is located in the Georgia Ba-sin sub-region of the Pacific Northwest (Fry-er,2009). It occupies 2,930 square kilometers on and around the Fraser River delta (The Metro Vancouver Convention and Visitors Bureau,2019). Metro Vancouver is within the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone (Fryer, 2009, Figure 1.5), where mountains and oceans dominate, creating the coastal climate and ecology (Ministry of Forests,1999). Because of the special location and mild climate, Metro Vancouver provides fertile habitats for a wide variety and amount of species. For example, Metro Vancouver works as an important stop-over location for migratory birds on the Pacific Flyway (Figure 1.6), and also supports salmon migration (Figure 1.7).Even though Metro Vancouver can enjoy its great geographical,locational, and climatic ad-vantages. It still witnesses biodiversity loss. Re-garding the species in Metro Vancouver, there are over 100 species listed under the Red and Blue List in the Metro Vancouver region, includ-ing eight mammals, 24 birds, 3 amphibians, 1 reptile/turtle, 12 fish, 6 dragonfly/damselfly species, and 43 plant species (Anderson et al.,2008).Figure 1.5  Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone Drawn by the authorAdapted from: https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/documents/treebook/biogeo/cwhzone1.htmMetro VancouverFigure 1.6  Pacific Flyway  Drawn by the authorAdapted from:https://sites.google.com/site/edt3470pblbird/migrat ion-of-birdsh t tps : //k ids .b r i t ann ica . com/s tudents/assembly/v iew/143128012AlaskaPacific OceanWintering GroundsSummer Feeding GroundsB.C.Metro VancouverFigure 1.7 Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Migration RoutesDrawn by the authorAdapted from: Cohen,2013 “Populations of many shorebirds, insectivores and forest-dependent birds are declining.” “Sea levels may rise 0.5 metres by 2050. Coastal habitat for birds and fish may shrink.”Biodiversity Strategy, 2011“Forest cover  de-creased from 71% in 1827 to 54% in 1990.”Fryer, 2009Climate Emergency Response Infographic 014This timeline diagram tries to figure out the reason for habitat loss and species decline overtime in Metro Vancouver area, as well as how people protect and conserve the environ-ment. This diagram map consists of 3 parts:1.    Some facts of the loss in biodiversity in the Metro Vancouver area: green area loss and the species that are declining, extirpated, or extinct over time.2.    What did human do that contributed to biodiversity loss in Metro Vacnouver.3.    What kind of actions did people do to im-prove biodiversity? Figure 1.8 Timeline: Historical  Witness  of Biodiversity Loss in Metro VancouverDrawn by the author*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 0162.Avian Diversity“They (animals) are not just living things; they are be-ings with lives......next time you are outside......notice the first bird you see......you are beholding a unique indi-vidual with personality traits, an emotional profile, and a library of knowledge built on experience......what you are witnessing is not just biology, but a biography!” Jonathan Balcombe, EthologistFigure 2.1 Bird FlockLocation: Residence at UBC(Photo courtesy of the author)018Birds Play Important Roles in Ecosystem ServiceBirds are essential contributors to all types of ecosystem services (Whelan et al., 2008). Re-garding regulating services, for example, fru-givores can disperse seeds; nectarivores can work as pollinators that pollinate flowers; in-vertebrate and vertebrate birds can contribute to pest control (Sekercioglu, 2006). As nutrient depositors, waterfowl can input 40% of the ni-trogen and 75% of the phosphorus entering a wetland (Sekercioglu, 2006; Post et al., 1998). Humans are the beneficiaries of ecosystem services, protecting the bird diversity, directly and indirectly, improves human’s quality of life.Birds Benefit the EconomyBird watching is a fast-growing outdoor recre-ational activity in North America (City of Van-couver, 2014). According to a report, birders spent an estimated $15 billion on their trips and $26 billion on equipment in 2011 (Carver, 2013). In 2004 and 2005, more than 1.8 million peo-ple in Canada went for multi-day out-of-town birdwatching (Lang,2007). Birds contribute to cultural services by birdwatching, and other bird-related activities (Sekercioglu, 2006). 2.1 The Importance of BirdsBirds as Excellent Indicators for BiodiversityResearch indicates that avian diversity may serve as a surrogate for overall biodiversity (Mooney, 2007). In other words, birds can be excellent indicators of general biodiversity and ecosystem integrity (Rosenberg et al., 2019), as they are very sensitive to habitat change and highly visible (Savard et al., 2000). Protecting and enhancing bird habitat can also benefit other species, thereby contribute to biodiversi-ty. Thus, this project will use avian habitat as a main and significant reference for habitat resto-ration and creation.Figure 2.2 BirdwatchingLocation: George C. Reifel Bird Sanctuary(Photo courtesy of the author)p4.1 The reference or rationale that design principles extract from. See Chapter III Goals and Principles.Figure 2.3 Red-winged blackbird (male)Location: George C. Reifel Bird Sanctuary(Photo courtesy of the author)Figure 2.4 Red-winged blackbird (female)Location: George C. Reifel Bird Sanctuary(Photo courtesy of the author)020Avian Diversity LossA research team estimated that in the past 48 years, the population of avian in North America declined 29% since 1970, about 3 billion birds (Rosenberg et al., 2019; Figure 2.3 ). In Canada, shorebirds, grassland birds, and aerial insecti-vores are in steep decline, with the population losses from 40% to 60% since 1970 (Francis et al.,2019.; Figure 2.4). In B.C., there are 106 bird species under the Red and Blue Lists (Arbeider, 2015). In Metro Vancouver, there are 24 bird species listed in the Red and Blue Lists (Ander-son et al.,2008).Birds in Metro Vancouver Due to the locational, geographical, and climat-ic factors, Metro Vancouver plays a significant role in supporting bird diversity. Over 250 spe-cies of resident, migratory and over-wintering birds are regularly observed in Metro Vancou-ver (City of Vancouver, 2015). Metro Vancouver situates at a major stop along the Pacific Fly-way(Figure 1.6) which is traversed by at least a billion birds every year. From forests to estuar-ies, the diverse habitats provide a great hub for migratory birds as well as resident birds (City of Vancouver, 2015).2.2 The Status of Birds iftsLeft: Figure 2.5 Gains and Losses across the North American Avi-fauna over the Past Half-century.Source: Rosenberg et al.,2019Right: Figure 2.6 Gains and Losses of Avian in Canada since 1970Source: Francis et al.,2019*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 2.7 Sandhill CraneLocation: George C. Reifel Bird Sanctuary(Photo courtesy of the author)Figure 2.8 Tree SwallowLocation: George C. Reifel Bird Sanctuary(Photo courtesy of the author)022The primary threat to birds is habitat loss (Mooney, 2007b). Despite the negative effects of urbanization, cities can still contribute to stemming biodiversity losses (Mooney, 2011b; Müller et al., 2013). For example, research has shown that suburban areas can support high avian species richness (Mooney, 2011b).Most birds use more than one habitat (Mooney, 2007a&b,2011c). The habitat heterogeneity hy-pothesis was coined in 1961, which proposes that an increase in number of different habi-tats can lead to an increase in species diversity (MacArthur and MacArthur, 1961; Cramer and Willig, 2002). Local research has also shown that habitat heterogeneity can support a larger 2.3 Understanding Avian Habitatvariety and number of species (Mooney, 2007b). The City of Vancouver released its Bird-Friendly Design Guidelines in 2014, which also suggest-ed providing diverse habitat types (City of Van-couver, 2014).To better support avian diversity in Metro Van-couver, it is significant to understand the types of birds and their behaviors and habitats.This section will talk about the key bird spe-cies and their habitat types in Metro Vancouver, which can be an essential reference to the ur-ban planning and landscape design.Figure 2.9 Great Blue Heron Location: Lost Lagoon, Vancouver(Photo courtesy of the author)p4.2 2.3.1 Foraging Guilds of Bird and Key HabitatsForaging Guilds of Bird The term guild was proposed by an ecologist and professor Richard B Root, which is “as a group of species that similarly uses of environ-mental resources” (Root, 1967). It is useful to use guilds to study ecological communities as it is impossible to study all species living in an ecosystem, and taxonomic groups may be un-related (Simberloff and Dayan, 1991).A research team (González-Salazar et al., 2014) Categorized 22 guilds for birds in North Ameri-ca based on diet. They can be grouped into the following eight broader groups: (i).carnivores, (ii).frugivores(iii).granivores (iv).herbivores(v).insectivores(vi).nectarivores(vii).scavengers(viii).omnivores  However, a bird habitat must include these four essential elements: food, water, shelter (nest-ing), and space (McLean,2002; Begazo,2018). Food is only one of these elements. Moreover, a diet guild of birds may eat more than one type of food. For example, chestnut-backed chicka-dees eat about 65 percent insects and other ar-thropods. They also eat seeds, berries, and fruit pulp (All About Bird, Cornell University). Thus, the guild category described above catego-ry may not be appropriate and useful in urban planning and landscape designing.Mooney (2007b, 2011c) uses the foraging guild to categorize birds primarily according to their food-finding behavior. This guild category can be more useful for urban planners and land-scape designers to create habitats for urban birds. The 12 foraging guilds of the Lower Main-land are as follows:Guild A.insect gleaners Guild B. hawkers Guild C. probingGuild D. chiseling Guild E.leaf tossersGuild F. diving Guild G. swooping  Guild H. dabbling  Guild I. wading  Guild J. scavenging  Guild K. frugivorous Guild L. granivoresGuild strategy can be applied to habitat man-agement and design to benefit several species at the same time,  as it allows for the categori-zation of groups of birds that prefer the quali-ties of particular habitat types (Mooney, 2007b).024Key HabitatsAccording to Mooney (2007a&b, 2011c) and the City of Vancouver (2014), the following types of habitat (Figure 2.10-2.18) can be found in Met-ro Vancouver region that are highly valuable in supporting bird diversity:(i).Deciduous forest(ii).Mixed forest(iii).Park(iv).Wetland      (including saltwater and freshwater marsh)(v).Old field(vi).Meadow(vii).Hedgerow(viii).Riparian(ix).Shorezone(x).Deciduous shrubResearchers have found out that some factors can be indicators of some aspects of site biodi-versity in habitats (Mooney, 2007a). These ele-ments can be considered and applied to urban planning and landscape design by using some of them as attributes and criteria to evaluate the quality of a habitat. The elements are as fol-lows (Mooney, 2007a):(i).Area    Generally the larger an area is, the greater number and diversity of avian species. How-ever, small-sized habitat can also support bird diversity. (ii).Edge/Area ratio    A habitat with high edge/area ratio may sup-port fewer interior species.(iii).Structure versus Floristics    Researchers primarily consider vegetation structure, rather than plant species in a habitat as it provides shelter from weather and preda-tors. However, plant species also play import-ant roles in a habitat. Some researchers sug-gest considering both of them simultaneously as indicators. (iv).Foliage height diversity    Research has shown that higher foliage height diversity can support higher avian diver-sity, especially in the habitats with woody areas. Because it creates more niches for foraging, nesting and shelter (Mooney, 2007b). When ap-plying in planning and design, this can be un-derstood that it is better to have multiple vege-tation structure vertically.(v).Canopy tree richness   High canopy tree richness is associated with a high avian diversity.(vi).Habitat heterogeneity   As mentioned above, at the matrix scale, the heterogeneity hypothesis proposes that more habitat types in a site can support higher species diversity. In the patch scale, regarding the spatial structure, the variation in plant species should be considered both vertically and horizontally. (vii).Soil conditions and disturbancep4.2 p4.3 Table 02 Key Features of HabitatsMade by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007a&b, 2011c; City of Vancouver, 2014Table 01 Avian Foraging GuildsGuild Type Foraging Behavior Representative Species Habitat UseA insect gleaners insect capturing, birds pick prey from leaves, stems, and tree limbs or trunks chickadees, warblers, vireos deciduous forest, mixed forestB hawkers capture insects inflight flycatcher, swallows, martins deciduous forest, mixed forest, wetland(salt marsh)C probing prey by probing into mud or soils with long bills killdeers, sandpipers  wetland(freshwater marsh), shorezone, old field, meadowD chiseling excavate trees to extract wood boring insects woodpeckers mixed forestE leaf tossers overturn leaves exposing insect prey juncos, towhees deciduous forest, old fieldF diving dive to different depths to hunt prey mergansers, cormorants, grebes shorezoneG swooping high-speed aerial pursuit by raptors hawks, falcons, ospreys deciduous forest, shorezoneH dabbling surface feeding ducks wigeon, mallards, wood ducks shorezone, wetland(salt marsh)I wading/stalking walking or wading in shallow water to capture prey great blue heron shorezone, old fieldJ scavenging consume carrion gulls, crows park, shorezone, deciduous shrubK frugivorous fruit-eating seasonal birds cedar waxwing, band-tailed pigeon deciduous forest, park, meadowL granivores primarily seed eaters pine siskin, purple finch deciduous forest, old fieldRetrieved and adapted from from Mooney, 2007a&b, 2011cCriteria AreaFoliage height diversity Habitat heterogeneity(patch scale)Floristics/   Canopy tree richnessOther(adapted from Mooney, 2007a)   (Vertical vegetation structure)Criteria Area Canopy coverUnderstorey coverageHerbaceous/  thicket coverageHorizontal vegetation structureSpecies richness(adapted from City of Vancouver, 2014)HabitatDeciduous forestminimum:3-8.5hahighmedium high /60-90% 70% 10-40%Mixed forest minimum:3-8.5hahighmedium high conifer:30-50%60-90% 70% 10-40%Park / high high high island minimum size:3mx3mWetland                                                                           (including saltwater and freshwater marsh)minimum:0.05-0.25 halowhigh low-mediumconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-3:710-20% within 15-30 m setback10-20% within 15-30 m setback25%Old field /low high low-mediumvegetation islands should be at least 2-3m apart, and no more than 5m wide and 10-12m longwoody vegetation: 30-40% dominantMeadow minimum:0.5-1 halowhigh lowconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-3:710-20%     along edges10-20%     along edges 80%Hedgerow usually 3-5m wide high:3-5 layers high medium-high /Riparianriparian vegetation area at least 15m widehigh                high high /Shorezone15-30m setback from high water markhigh                high highconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-1:160-80% 70% 10-20%Deciduous shrub minimum:0.5-3 hamedium              medium medium-highconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-1:120-40% 60-80% 20-40%Wetland026dense tree canopyvarious shrub layerthicket layergroundcover60-90% canopy density10-40% open spaceA. Bewick’s wren B. willow flycatcherDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007b; City of Vancouver, 2014Bewick’s wren:https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/assets/photo/68034911-480px.jpgwillow flycatcher:https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/assets/videoThumbs/440884-480px.jpgchestnut-backed chickadee:http://www.glennbartley.com/naturephotography/GB%20Collection/                                                           Chestnut-backed%20Chickadee%20-%2007.jpgA. chestnut-backed chickadeeDeciduous forest/Mixed forest(mixed forest should contain 30-50% conifer)Figure 2.10 Forest Habitats and Example SpeciesExample species and their guilds*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. forest nearbyvegetation island mown grassParkA. brown creeper K. Steller’s jayExample species and their guildsDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007b; City of Vancouver, 2014brown creeper: https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/sites/default/files/styles/detail/public/media/im                           ages/2012/12/brown_creeper_12-08-12.jpg?itok=NE7e-MauSteller’s jay: https://www.audubon.org/sites/default/files/stellersjay.jpgFigure 2.11 Park Habitat and Example Species*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 028WetlandDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007b; City of Vancouver, 2014barn swallow: https://download.ams.birds.cornell.edu/api/v1/asset/133119711/mediumyellow warbler: http://www.tringa.org/images/8946_Yellow_Warbler_04-24-2011_1.jpgjpg?for                           mat=2500wFigure 2.12 Wetland Habitat and Example Speciesnesting islandemergent vegetationold field or deciduous forest nearbyold field or deciduous forest nearbyemergent vegetationB. barn swallow B. yellow warblerExample species and their guilds*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. vegetation island grassy areaOld FieldE. white-crowned sparrow L. American goldfinchExample species and their guildsDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007bwhite-crowned sparrow: https://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_LHT/0006/640/Zonotrichia_leu                                           cophrys,_White-crowned_Sparrow,I_LHT637.jpgAmerican goldfinch: https://imgc.artprintimages.com/img/print/american-goldfinch-feeding-                                   on-sunflower-seeds_u-l-q12t6n60.jpg?h=550&w=550&background=fbfbfb             Figure 2.13 Old Field Habitat and Example Species*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 030MeadowDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007b; City of Vancouver, 2014savannah sparrow: https://live.staticflickr.com/4601/27422493739_177b07c110_b.jpgwhite-crowned sparrow https://birdwatchersdigest.com/bwdsite/wp-content/up                                         loads/2015/02/800px-White-crowned_Sparrow_57.jpgFigure 2.14 Meadow Habitat and Example SpeciesL. savannah sparrow E. white-crowned sparrowExample species and their guildslong grass, herbaceous plant little or no woody vegetation*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. linear woody vegetationHedgerowK. cedar waxwing A. spotted towheeExample species and their guildsDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007bcedar waxwing: https://ct.audubon.org/sites/default/files/styles/bean_wysiwyg_full_width/                           public/media-netx/5014/APA_2013_28475_226130_ClydeDexter_Cedar_Wax                           wing_KK.jpg?itok=hTM2rZk4spotted towhee: https://audubonportland.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/34508294111_                             fff7fe8f71_k-Edited.jpgFigure 2.15 Hedgerow Habitat and Example Species*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 032RiparianDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007bEuropean starling: https://www.birds.cornell.edu/k12/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/149197961.jpgviolet green swallow: https://download.ams.birds.cornell.edu/api/v1/asset/68279841/1800Figure 2.16 Riparian Habitat and Example SpeciesE. European starling B: violet green swallowExample species and their guildsvegetationoverhangs waternative woodyvegetationrootsstabilizebanksnative woody vegetation*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. woody vegetationhigh tidelow tidetidal marshShorezoneC. sandpiper H. American wigeonExample species and their guildsDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007a; City of Vancouver, 2014sandpiper: https://live.staticflickr.com/4313/35541946820_01a778b794_b.jpgAmerican wigeon: https://download.ams.birds.cornell.edu/api/v1/asset/24950031/mediumFigure 2.17  Shorezone Habitat and Example Species*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 034Deciduous shrubDrawn by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007a; City of Vancouver, 2014barn swallow: https://download.ams.birds.cornell.edu/api/v1/asset/133119711/mediumviolet green swallow: https://download.ams.birds.cornell.edu/api/v1/asset/68279841/1800Figure 2.18 Deciduous ShrubHabitat and Example Species sparse tree canopydense shrub layerherbaceous layertree canopyshrub layerherbaceous layerB.barn swallowExample species and their guildsB. violet green swallow*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 2.3.2 Understanding of Urban Bird BehaviorMore Bird CategoriesBesides the foraging guild, we should still con-sider these categories of avian to better under-stand the behavior of birds and support urban avian diversity.(i).urban exploiters, urban adapters,     urban avoidersResearch has divided wildlife into urban avoid-ers, urban adapters, and urban exploiters, de-pending on their responses to urbanization (Fischer et al., 2015) (Table 03).Urban exploiters Urban adapters Urban avoidersDefinitionthe species that utilize anthropogenic resources to reach their greatest densities in highly developed areas the species that take advantage of the supplemental food and nest sites in suburban environments, which are most abundant in moderately developed areasthe species that reach their highest densities at the most natural sites, not typically found in anthropogenic habitats Relation to Human synanthropic species non-synanthropic speciesExampleperegrine falcons red-winged blackbird western wood pewee house sparrows American robin Hutton’s vireo  European starling Anna’s hummingbird pileated woodpeckerEuropean rock doves chestnut-backed chickadee western tanagersDistributionMade by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2011b&c; Fischer et al., 2015Table 03 Urban Exploiters, Urban Adapters, and Urban AvoidersNote: Suburban areas can support high avian species richness, including urban adapters and urban avoiders (Mooney, 2011b). 036(ii). edge species, interior species,      and interior-edge generalist speciesEdge species Interior-edge generalist species Interior speciesDefinitionthe species that associated primarily with the perimeter of a habitat patch and not the corethe species that use both edge and interior habitats the species that are associated with the centre of patches, thereby avoiding edge habitatExamplecedar waxwing black-capped chickadee Canada warblerAmerican goldfinch purple finch hairy woodpecker  American robin blue jay hermit thrushred-winged blackbird downy woodpecker winter wrenDistributionMade by the authorAdapted from Imbeau et al., 2003.Table 04 Edge Species, Interior Species,and Interior-edge Generalist SpeciesNote: Some researchers challenged the defi-nition of edge species as those species use both habitats in the transition area. Research has demonstrated that areas where two habi-tats are relatively close, will support more avian species (Imbeau et al., 2003.) For research purposes, scientists have divided birds into these three types based on their re-sponse to habitat edge, in terms of the compo-sition of avian communities and species’ abun-dance patterns in forest fragments and habitat loss (Imbeau et al., 2003) (Table 04). (ii). residential birds, migratory birds,       and overwintering birdsResident Birds Migratory Birds  Over-wintering Birds Definitionthe species that are non-migratoryand live in the region year-roundthe species that spend the winters in Central and South America but breed here the species may pass by on their migratory routes or migrate further north in the spring ExampleSteller’s Jay wilson’s warbler Barrow’s goldeneyeblack-capped chickadee barn swallow American wigeonnorthern flicker warbling vireo Cooper’s hawkDuration of StayMade by the authorAdapted from City of Vancouver,2014 Table 06 Residential Birds, Migratory Birds, and Overwintering BirdsAs mentioned above, over 250 species of res-ident, migratory and over-wintering birds are regularly observed in Metro Vancouver, and the Pacific Flyway (Figure1.6) supports at least a billion birds every year. Thus, understanding the bird groups based on living locally and sea-sonally is also essential, which could influence the local planning and designing strategies. The birds in Metro Vancouver can be grouped into these three types (City of Vancouver,2014)(Table 05) :p3.3 p4.4 038When planning and designing an urban land-scape that supports avian diversity, it is crucial to understand that different species respond to their home range at different scales (Hostetler, 2001). A homeowner’s decision on his backyard may affect hummingbirds, a city planners’ man-agement project may determine if hawks will come to an area or not (Hostetler,2001). Gen-erally, birds occupying higher trophic positions have larger spatial extents. However, other factors, like breeding and migration, can also affect the home range (Hostetler, 2001). Thus, in the urban regions where the ecosystem is unique and complex, bird species richness is influenced both by local landscape character-istics, and a multiscale-approach is essential to its proper management (Savard et al., 2000).Before the planning and designing, understand-ing a broader scale is essential. Thus, whether a species appears at a specific location depends not only on whether there are enough key fea-tures that can define the space (a small patch of woody area can attract hawks). However, it first depends on whether there is sufficient struc-ture existing at broad scales relevant to a spe-cies (this patch is located in a broader natural site with high-quality habitat value for hawks) (Hostetler,2001). Meanwhile, determining the appropriate target species is also crucial. 2.4 Understanding Scales - Essential to Urban Landscape for BirdsFigure 2.19 Varied Thrush Captured in the CourtyardLocation: Residence at UBC(Photo courtesy of the author)p2.1 p4.5 Figure 2.20  Different Species with Different Home Range  A theoretical representation of the scale-dependent landscape structures responded to by a Carolina wren and a red-tailed hawk.Source: Hostetler,2001*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 0403.Biophilic Cities“The innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms. Innate means hereditary and hence part of ultimate human nature”    E. O. Wilson, 1984Figure 3.1 UBC SALA Students’ Outdoor Field TripThe course Field Studies in the Regional Ecosystem is taught by Dr. Patrick Mooney, which aims to enhance students’ ability to identify natural ele-ments, systems, and processes.Location: UBC Farm(Photo courtesy of the author)042Nature Benefits HumansEvidence has shown that green neighborhoods have broader and more pervasive impacts on people’s health than we sometimes appreciate (Beatley, 2011). Research has proved that peo-ple who live in greener regions are healthier as well as have better mental health than those who do not (de Vries et al., 2003). Kaplan (1995) discussed the four elements of restorative ex-perience that nature can provide to humans:(i). being away     It is the sense of staying in the natural ele-ments, psychologically or physically, being “es-caping” from daily stress. (ii). Fascination     The ability of nature that attracts people’s at-tention without controlling or forcing.(iii). extent    It refers to environments that have a scope and coherence that allows one to feel im-mersed and engaged with the environment (Kaplan, 2001). (iv). compatibility.    It means that the individual is doing an activity that is fitting with and supporting what one de-sires to do or what one is inclined to do (Kaplan, 2001).3.1 Nature and BiophiliaBiophiliaThe word biophilia was introduced and pop-ularized by E.O. Wilson, which suggests that humans have an innate tendency and desire to bond with nature (Mooney, 2011a). He men-tioned that even the evidence for that is not yet strong, but the biophilic tendency is so evident and clear in daily life. People now are appre-ciating nature; many cities consider the urban biodiversity and ecosystem while developing (NOVA, 2008). For example, Vancouver has the Greenest City Action Plan with the ambition of putting Vancouver on the path to becoming the greenest city in the world (City of Vancouver).Biophilic CitiesA biophilic city is a city that puts nature first in its design, planning, and management; it recogniz-es the essential need for daily human contact with nature as well as the many environmental and economic values provided by nature and natural systems (Beatley, 2011). A biophilic city not only cherishes the existing natural resourc-es but also restores and repairs what has been lost or degraded (Beatley, 2011).Beatley (2011) has listed the major indicators of a biophilic city and key urban design elements at different scales. These will be discussed in the next section (3.2).p2.1According to Beatley (2011), there is no uni-versal definition for what biophilic design and planning are, or for what a biophilic city looks like. However, there are some dimensions and indicators (Chart 01) that we can use for evalu-ating a biophilic city.3.2 Biophilic Cities3.2.1 Features of Biophilic CitiesFigure 3.2 the View of VancouverVancouver has emphasized a strategy of accommodating population growth through slender high-rise towers yet has placed great importance on siting and spacing those buildings to ensure views of the city’s spectacular surroundings (Beatley, 2011).source: https://blueocean.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/vancouver-canada-city-skyline.gif*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 044as a key consideration educating and informing citizens FEATURES OF BIOPHILIC CITIESBiophilic Conditions and InfrastructureEasy access to natureAbundant natureMultisensory environmentclose to nature view to nature  (Figure 3.2)ecological network (Figure 3.3)regional greenspace biomimicry in design and policyapplication of closed-loop metabolism building formfacade patterninterior patternKnowledge about biodiversity and nature local nature knowledge and recognitionenvironmental education (Figure 3.1)Sense of the natural history of city and regionPriority to ecological restoration and repairBiophilic Institutions and GovernanceBiophilic ActivitiesBiophilic Attitudes and KnowledgeInspired by natureMimic natureBiophilic sensibilitiesConnect and involved with natureLocal climate as a key consideration  awareness and attentiondirect experience to naturethe official emblem or seal  activities in nature organization and projectjob and volunteer (Figure 3.4)outdoor cultureplanning and designactivities and eventpurchasing policieslearn from and contribute to global treatiesrestorative workThe investment that facilitates a biophilic lifeThe policies that reflect the local featuresProtect nature education on green green infrastructurepartnership between public and private entitiesleadership that ensures biophilic resourceclimateenvironment natural historytopography(Figure 3.9)Chart 01 Features of Biophilic CitiesMade by the authorAdapted from Beatley, 2011p3.2p2.1p2.1 p2.3 p4.3as a key consideration educating and informing citizens FEATURES OF BIOPHILIC CITIESBiophilic Conditions and InfrastructureEasy access to natureAbundant natureMultisensory environmentclose to nature view to nature  (Figure 3.2)ecological network (Figure 3.3)regional greenspace biomimicry in design and policyapplication of closed-loop metabolism building formfacade patterninterior patternKnowledge about biodiversity and nature local nature knowledge and recognitionenvironmental education (Figure 3.1)Sense of the natural history of city and regionPriority to ecological restoration and repairBiophilic Institutions and GovernanceBiophilic ActivitiesBiophilic Attitudes and KnowledgeInspired by natureMimic natureBiophilic sensibilitiesConnect and involved with natureLocal climate as a key consideration  awareness and attentiondirect experience to naturethe official emblem or seal  activities in nature organization and projectjob and volunteer (Figure 3.4)outdoor cultureplanning and designactivities and eventpurchasing policieslearn from and contribute to global treatiesrestorative workThe investment that facilitates a biophilic lifeThe policies that reflect the local featuresProtect nature education on green green infrastructurepartnership between public and private entitiesleadership that ensures biophilic resourceclimateenvironment natural historytopography(Figure 3.9)p3.2046Figure 3.3 Vitoria-Gasteiz Green Belt, SpainThe Vitoria-Gasteiz Green Belt is a network of suburban parks surrounding the town. The net-work encompasses multiple habitats such as agricultural mosaics, riverine woodland, isolated woods, and extensive forest masses(EUROPARC Federation).source: https://www.vitoria-gasteiz.org/http/we001/img/fichas/anilloVerde/en/mapaVitoria.png*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 3.4 Volunteers Investigating Invasive Species“(Regarding the reason for participating in this program), I want to use my knowledge of identifying plants to contribute to scientific research, which I believe is very meaningful . I also learned a lot from it.” said. Xiahui Liu, a former SALA Landscape Architecture student.Location: Stanley Park(Photo courtesy of Xiahui Liu)*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 048The best biophilic cities are places where these different scales overlap and reinforce biophilic behaviors and lifestyles (Beatley, 2011). Girling and Kellett outlined the ele-ments of biophilic cities at six different scales (Beatley, 2011). To be more clear and concise, I modified them into three scales and listed the key elements with examples (Chart 02). 3.2.2 Biophilic Design and PlanningFigure 3.5 Stanley Park Stanley Park accounts for over 75% of the native forest in Vancouver. Without Stanley Park, Vancouver’s canopy cover would drop from 18% to 16%. (Isaac et al., 2018)source:https://i0.wp.com/vancouversbestplaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Stanley-Park-and-Lower-Mainland.jpg?re-size=640%2C360&ssl=1p2.1 p4.5 *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 3.6 Core Biodiversity Network, Brisbane, Australia Core Biodiversity Network, emphasizing biological corridors and giving priority to projects that facilitate wildlife movement and connectivity throughout the city (Beatley, 2011).source:http://brisbanecatchments.org.au/Brisbane+Community+Biodi-versity+Strategy_FINAL.pdfFigure 3.7 Vauban, Freiburg, Germany Vauban is a car-limited neighborhood, which provides a lot of biking and walking areas for human. It is also connected to larger green features nearby. (Beatley, 2011).source: https://www.ft.com/content/b7a6f9aa-d5f5-11e9-8367-807eb-d53ab77*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 050Chart 02 Biophilic Design and PlanningMade by the authorAdapted from Beatley, 2011Building & Block ScaleGreen wallQuai Branly Museum, Paris, FranceCaixa Forum Museum, Madrid, SpainGreen rooftopBallard Library, Seattle, USAMinneapolis Public Library, Minnesota, USABalcony/courtyard/interior gardenBalcony Garden Project, Montreal, Canada  44% of residents grow food in the courtyard, Vancouver, CanadaSpace that brings outdoor features inCommerzbank Tower, Frankfurt, GermanyDell Children’s Medical Center, Austin, USABIOPHILIC DESIGN AND PLANNINGNeighbourhood Scale City & Region ScaleWalkable areaNeighbourhood park and gardenGreen street/sidewalkUrban water Vauban, Freiburg, Germany (Figure 3.7)Strøget, Copenhagen, DenmarkTeardrop Park, NYC, USAFalse Creek Community Garden, Vancouver, CanadaPLANT*SF Project, San Francisco, USAHigh Line, NYC, USA Street Edge Alternatives program, Seattle, USA (Figure 3.8)Cheonggyecheon creek, Seoul, South Korea (Figure 3.9)Treatment of water: “Bächle”, Freiburg, GermanyIntegrated networkurban networks at Helsinki, Finland“Finger Plan” Copenhagen, Denmark “Green Ring”, Hannover, GermanyRegional green space/forest coverage  Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada (Figure 3.5)American Forests Organization,  Washington, D.C, USAInstitution of biophilic event/educationKIVA, Virginia, USASPREE, Denver,USACohabitate with urban animalCore Biodiversity Network, Brisbane, Australia (Figure 3.6)Local foodRooftop Gardens Project, Montreal, CanadaCommunity Roots, Colorado, USARiver system planningLos Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan, USARestoration of Noisette Creek, North Charleston, USABuilding & Block ScaleGreen wallQuai Branly Museum, Paris, FranceCaixa Forum Museum, Madrid, SpainGreen rooftopBallard Library, Seattle, USAMinneapolis Public Library, Minnesota, USABalcony/courtyard/interior gardenBalcony Garden Project, Montreal, Canada  44% of residents grow food in the courtyard, Vancouver, CanadaSpace that brings outdoor features inCommerzbank Tower, Frankfurt, GermanyDell Children’s Medical Center, Austin, USABIOPHILIC DESIGN AND PLANNINGNeighbourhood Scale City & Region ScaleWalkable areaNeighbourhood park and gardenGreen street/sidewalkUrban water Vauban, Freiburg, Germany (Figure 3.7)Strøget, Copenhagen, DenmarkTeardrop Park, NYC, USAFalse Creek Community Garden, Vancouver, CanadaPLANT*SF Project, San Francisco, USAHigh Line, NYC, USA Street Edge Alternatives program, Seattle, USA (Figure 3.8)Cheonggyecheon creek, Seoul, South Korea (Figure 3.9)Treatment of water: “Bächle”, Freiburg, GermanyIntegrated networkurban networks at Helsinki, Finland“Finger Plan” Copenhagen, Denmark “Green Ring”, Hannover, GermanyRegional green space/forest coverage  Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada (Figure 3.5)American Forests Organization,  Washington, D.C, USAInstitution of biophilic event/educationKIVA, Virginia, USASPREE, Denver,USACohabitate with urban animalCore Biodiversity Network, Brisbane, Australia (Figure 3.6)Local foodRooftop Gardens Project, Montreal, CanadaCommunity Roots, Colorado, USARiver system planningLos Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan, USARestoration of Noisette Creek, North Charleston, USA052Figure 3.8 Street Edge Alternatives program, Seattle, USAThe wide auto-dominated (suburban) streets have been convert-ed into narrow, wavy, vegetation-filled green streets with side-walks. Seattle has now gone beyond converting single streets to creating entire “green grids” of connecting and intersecting roadways that together set the baseline condition for these green neighborhoods. (Beatley, 2011).source:https://www.slideshare.net/cntweb/sustainable-in-seattle-from-street-edge-alternatives-to-city-standards*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 3.9 Cheonggyecheon creek, Seoul, South KoreaThe city of Seoul, South Korea, took down the elevated high-way and brought back to the surface six kilometers of the creek, making it an urban amenity unparalleled in that city and a focal point of pedestrian life (Beatley, 2011).source:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Ko-rea-Seoul-Cheonggyecheon-2008-01.jpg*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 054*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 4. Site Analysis and DiscussionAs people flock to urban centers where ground space is limited, cities with green walls and roofs and sky-scraper farms offer improved health and well-being, renewable resources, reliable food supply, and relief to the environment.  Diane Ackerman Figure 4.1 McCleery Golf Coursesource: https://c1.staticflickr com/1/25/58380507_9eee6a5c2a_b.jpg056LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKWhy Golf Course?There are three city-owned golf courses in the City of Vancouver, totally accounting for 15% of the parkland (City of Vancouver,2014). However, Golfing is not exactly on the upswing (Condon and Hein, 2019). Condon and Hein (2019) are arguing turning golf courses into a residential areas with public parks to accommodate the population growth in Vancouver. As the accel-erating rate of population growth contributes to that, Vancouver tops the list of the city with the least affordable housing markets in North America (Daily Hive Vancouver, 2019). Howev-er, obviously, the housing crisis is not the only reason for repurposing golf courses. The low usage and high maintenance are two key fac-tors. Condon and Hein (2019) pointed out that the popularity of golf is declining. Research by the National Allied Golf Association has shown that in Canada, the number of rounds played on the average fell 10 percent from 2009-2014. Another study has demonstrated that the av-average 18-hole golf course produces 740 metric tons of CO2 per year, the equivalent of 123 cars (Valenti, 2010; Condon and Hein, 2019). If the public golf courses can be transformed into a residence with green areas, by splitting these areas with half of parks and half of hous-ing, they can still provide enough houses for more than 60000 residents in Vancouver. These could be built not at high-rise density, but at family-friendly stacked townhouse and garden apartment densities (Condon and Hein, 2019).  Since it is unlikely that new large parks will be created in Vancouver, an alternative strategy is to make the urban landscape resemble na-tive habitat (City of Vancouver, 2014). Improving habitat quality or creating habitats of high qual-ity in the neighborhood can also contribute to biodiversity..Figure 4.2  Riverwalk San DiegoA proposed development that includes repurposed golf courses. source:https://www.fastcompany.com/90315242/need-land-for-parks-and-housing-there-are-plenty-of-useless-golf-courses-to-repurpose*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 058p1 0 1 3 5 kmNGreen Space in VancouverGolf CourseMcCleery Golf Course Green WayLangara Golf Course Fraserview Golf Course Figure 4.3 Green Space in Vancouver  Drawn by the authorDate from: City of Vancouver Open Data0 1 3 5 kmNOther Important Areas for Nature  Just Outside of VancouverWithin VancouverVancouver City BorderFunctioning  Impaired Non-functioning  Potential CorridorBiodiversity HotspotFigure 4.4 Biodiversity Hotspot and CorridorDrawn by the authorAdaped from City of Vancouver, 2014 Appendix 1.City of Vancouver (2014) has assessed the shortest, most natural route between hubs and concluded these corridors. According to their ability to assist wildlife in moving between hubs, City of Van-couver divided the corridors into three types: (i) functioning; (2) im-paired; (3) non-functioning. 060Site VegetationUnvegetated Open WaterMown Grass ShrublandForestTree CanopyPaved0 100 300 500NFigure 4.5 Comparison of Three Golf CoursesDrawn by the authorDate from: City of Vancouver Open DataComparison of Three Golf CoursesTo accommodate the population growth, housing crisis and habitat loss in the City of Vancouver, this thesis evaluated the three public golf courses, trying to replan the new programs and proposals for each of them. It aims to utilize the utmost of the land properly integrating with other city planning.    1) The McCleery Golf Course is located to the south of the Marine Drive, which is in the flood plain in the southwest of Vancouver. Due to sea-level rise and high habitat value, the McCleery Golf Course could be turned into a riverfront park with an elaborate design for both terrestrial and aquatic habi-tat. This park allows flood to take over gradually.   2) The Fraserview Golf Course is located southeast of the city, close to the border to the City of Burnaby. The forest hab-itat at the Fraserview Golf Course contributes tremendously to the city’s biodiversity. This golf course also functions well as a biodiversity hotspot, connecting to a larger habitat corridor in the City of Vancouver and to the City of Burnaby. Thus, this golf course is not suggested to develop into a dense residen-tial area but remains the status quo and could be enhanced to support biodiversity.   3) The Langara Golf Course is located at the Cambie Cor-ridor, one of the busiest and the most prosperous streets in the City of Vancouver, with Canada Line Skytrain and the new medium- to high-density developments nearby. The site also connects to other main city streets that provide convenient public transportation, as well as city greenways that contrib-ute to pedestrians and bikers. Thus, this golf course is sug-gested to develop into a high-density community with suffi-cient green space.McCleeryLangaraFraserviewSite VegetationUnvegetated Open WaterMown Grass ShrublandForestTree CanopyPaved0 100 300 500N062Figure 4.6 Langara Golf Course-Transportation AnalysisDrawn by the authorDate from: City of Vancouver Open DataLangara Golf CourseTransportation AnalysisThe Langara Golf Course is located at the Cambie Corridor, one of the busiest and the most prosperous streets in the City of Van-couver, with Canada Line Skytrain and the new medium- to high-density developments nearby. The site also connects to other main city streets that provide convenient public transportation, as well as city greenways that contribute to pedestrians and bikers. Thus, this golf course is suggested to develop into a high-density community with sufficient green space.064Figure 4.7 Langara Golf Course-Proposed LanduseDrawn by the authorDate from: City of Vancouver Open DataLangara Golf CourseProposed LanduseFigure 4.8-4.9 Langara Golf Course-New Development Nearbysource: City of Vancouver,2018 Langara Garden Policy Statmentsource: https://www.onni.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Hero2_Final-med-Custom-1024x957.jpg*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.  Vancouver’s future is intense and dense.Larry Beasley0665.Precedent      Studies“Nature does not hurry yet everything is accomplished.” Said Lao Tzu, an ancient Chinese thinker, philosopher, founder, and a leading representative of the Taoist.  This sentence means: Humans should follow the princi-ples of nature, conform to the operation of nature, do not interfere with the operation of nature. However, as a part of nature and society, people should do something that follows the natural principles, to contribute to the world.Figure 5.1 Park Poelzone Westland source: LOLA  https://lola.land/projecten.php?id=73068068068*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. The Yardworks Project is a project that focus-es on improving environmental conditions for both humans and wildlife from the building to the community scale. It is conducted in three communities in New York State by a team from the Landscape Architecture Studio of Cornell University. The homeowners were engaged in the project by the technical support of the team. The project provides diverse habitats for urban wildlife such as birds and pollinators, by incorporating important habitat features (water, shelter, nest, and space) into the design (Fig-ure 5.2). Planting design is an essential strate-gy not only for wildlife but also offers the aes-thetic need for humans. The team considered the vegetation structure, plant species, as well as seasonality, to offer high-value habitats for wildlife and interest for humans (Figure 5.3-5.4). This project also considered the connection to the broader contexts as well as within the neighborhood (Figure 5.5) (Cerra, 2016).5.1 YardworksFigure 5.2  Habitat Features source: Cerra, 2016Scale: Building-CommunityType: Neighborhood Landscape DesignLocation: New York State, USA Design Team: Landscape Architecture Studio                                   Team, Cornel University Figure 5.3  Seasonalitysource: Cerra, 2016p2.3p4.3p3.3p4.4*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 5.4  Perspective Viewsource: Cerra and Crain, 2016Figure 5.5  Connectivitysource: Cerra and Crain, 2016070*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. PLANT*SF was founded in 2004; it is a non-prof-it organization that promotes permeable land-scaping equally as sustainable urban infra-structural practice and as an aesthetic effort; by providing information to the public and by collaborating with city and neighborhood or-ganizations (Beatley, 2011; PLANT*SF). San Francisco is a highly paved city, with signif-icant flooding and combined sewer over-flow problem (Beatley, 2011). Inserting green space in such a city is a challenge. Jane Mar-tin, the founder of PLANT*SF, started her first trial at her home neighborhood, by recogniz-ing the over-wideness of the paved sidewalk and transforming part of the sidewalk into permeable planting. The results of her cre-ative insertion of green are sidewalk gardens; in some cases, green vegetated features on both sides of the sidewalk create a kind of linear sidewalk park (Beatley, 2011). Now, this organization contributes to improving the per-meability throughout the whole city, and edu-cation and awareness-raising about the impor-tance of permeable landscape (Beatley, 2011). 5.2 PLANT*SFScale: Neighborhood-Community-CityType: Street/Sidewalk Landscape            ImprovementLocation: San Francisco, USA Design Team: Jane Martin and her teamFigure 5.6-5.7  Project Example-Jerrold Avenuesource: http://www.plantsf.org/FeaturedProjects.htmlbeforeafterp2.2*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Figure 5.8-5.10 Project Example-Shotwell Greenwaysource: http://www.plantsf.org/FeaturedProjects.html072*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. This park offers diverse green spaces and fa-cilities to the citizens, such as sports, gar-dening, community meeting, art exhibitions, with the theme “Textile.” The designers want all the inhabitants and visitors to learn about textile knowledge, such as textile-mak-ing, the resource of plants and animals.  This park celebrates the relationship be-tween human and non-human, by focus-ing on an elaborate selection of plants, as each plant in the park relates to this indus-try (Figure 5.13), which is an excellent cul-tural and educational tool (Inside Outside). 5.3 Textile City ParkScale: Neighborhood-CommunityType: Park DesignLocation: Prato, ItalyDesign Team: Inside Outside Size:3.3 ha Figure 5.11  Textile City Park Plansource: Inside Outside https://www.insideoutside.nl/Textile-City-ParkPratop3.2p2.1p3.2*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 5.12  Textile City Park Conceptsource: Inside Outside https://www.insideoutside.nl/Textile-City-ParkPratoFigure 5.13  Textile City Park Plant Selectionsource: Inside Outside https://www.insideoutside.nl/Textile-City-ParkPrato074*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. This project runs through the greenhouse-filled land along the riverside (Figure 5.14), where people can enjoy the river view by biking on a 1.5km bike route. This project also emphasizes on cohabitation between humans and wildlife. Fish can enjoy the safe and clean water envi-ronment for spawning and foraging. The artifi-cial animal tree (Figure 5.17) stands in the site, offering shelter for wildlife, including birds, in-sects, small mammals, bees, and butterflies, also working as a landmark for people (LOLA). 5.4 Park Poelzone WestlandScale: City-Region Type: Riparian Landscape DesignLocation: Poelzone Noord, NetherlandsDesign Team: LOLA Landscape ArchitectsSize:21 ha Figure 5.14  Park Poelzone Westland Plansource: LOLA  https://lola.land/projecten.php?id=73p3.1p4*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 5.15-5.16  Park Poelzone Westland  source: LOLA  https://lola.land/projecten.php?id=73Figure 5.17 Animal Treesource: LOLA  https://lola.land/projecten.php?id=73076*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. To accommodate the population growth, City of Vancouver proposed to turn single-fam-ily houses into new residential zones, offering more affordable housing types for the citizens. The new housing types include four-story low-rise, stacked townhouse, duplex and infill. On average, there will be two and more house-holds within one parcel lot (City of Vancouver, 2010). 5.5 New Residence at Norquay NeighborhoodScale: Neighborhood-CommunityType: Residence ProposalLocation: Vancouver, BC,CanadaDesign Team: City of VancouverFigure 5.18  Example of One Duplex on One 33 Ft X 120 Ft Lotsource: City of Vancouver, 2010p1 *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure5.19 Example of Seven Units in Mini-houses on Three 33 Ft X 120 Ft Lotssource: City of Vancouver, 2010Figure 5.20  Example of Traditional Rowhouse on Three 44 Ft X 90 Ft Lotssource: City of Vancouver, 2010078*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. III. PLANNING AND DESIGN080LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKThe project will focus on the relation between human and wildlife, by treating them as equal agencies in such an anthropocentric context --- the city. The general goal of this project is to create a biophilic community   (i). that can offer humans affordable housing, access to nature, and diverse programs. (ii). that can provide good habitats for wildlife to support biodiversity.  GOALSHUMAN PERSPECTIVEP1.Affordable housing Provide a variety of affordable housing types for the residents, but avoid high-rise buildings.  P2. Access to nature P2.1. Plan green space throughout different scales, from a single household to the whole community   P2.2 Be aware of underutilized and interstitial spaces, such as sidewalks, laneways, roofs, where the green space can be inserted in/on.  P2.3 Recognize the connectivity of green spac-es within the scale or to a broader context.  P3. Program P3.1 Ensure there are enough outdoor spaces where humans can gather and do activities, within a certain distance from home.   PRINCIPLESP3.2 Consider cultural and educational pro-grams. p3.3 Consider four-season interestWILDLIFE P4.1 Use bird habitats as essential references for habitat restoration and creation. P4.2 Ensure the diversity of habitat types. P4.3  Improve  the habitat quality within the patch, as well as focus on the connectivity among patches.P4.4 Be aware of seasonality (e.g., different be-haviors of wildlife at different seasons), make sure wildlife can survive during the wintertime.P4.5 Understand the scales of habitat that dif-ferent wildlife response to.082LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKPLANNINGDominant medium-density condos combining with a few high-density towers, with green courtyard space, is the ide-al housing strategy that meets the thesis proposal. Condos are one of the high landuse- and energy- effective housing types (Condon, 2010) . Building up the housing stories can save some land space for the green area. Following the general “rules” of the planning along the Cambie corridor (City of Vancouver, 2018b), the height of the house will gradually lower down from west to east.  The courtyard space is semi-open to provide an opportunity for light, air, and activity for surrounding residential units, and non-residents.The two ponds are great natural resources to be preserved. The existing vegetation will be preserved as much as possible.Master PlanFigure 6.1 Master Plan084PLANNINGHousingThe concept retains the pattern of the existing city grids with the preservation of many existing trees. It organizes linear buildings loosely around central courtyards or the water ponds. The site is intended to become a high-den-sity mixed-use new community along the Cambie corri-dor. It will be primarily residential with a range of building types, with heights ranging from 2 to 25 stories. Towers step from 12-25 stories are placed sparsely at the corner of some courtyards to minimize the shadow (Light Analysis). Terraced mid-rise buildings step from 2 to 8 stories create some green roof to maximize the green space on site as well as capture the rainwater. Figure 6.2 Land Use                                                         Figure 6.3 Building HeightSite Area:120 acre (48.56 ha)FAR:1.66BCR:23.73%Unit Density: 41du/area                       (103 UPH)PLANNINGCirculationProposed Street HierarchyArterial Street (Cambie)Secondary Arterial StreetResidential BoulevardGreen Alley Figure 6.4 Circulation086PLANNINGCirculation: Arterial Street (Cambie)Cambie Street is planned as a complete street by the City of Vancouver. With the new development along the Cambie Corridor, the street should be re-de-signed to accommodate the new context. In the pro-posal, the existing urban trail will integrate with the building setback area to create more green space or a wider walking area. The car lane, bike lane, and the planting area will be relocated to improve the safe-ty of bikers.The plant palette focuses mainly on pro-viding a stop-by place for birds with taller trees and shrubs to reduce roadkill. Figure 6.6 Proposed Cambie Street SectionFigure 6.5 Existing Cambie Street Section088*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. PLANNINGCirculation: Secondary Arterial StreetThe secondary arterial street works as a tran-sit line for motor transport as well as separating bikers and pedestrians. With the rain garden, these streets aim to manage stormwater within the paved area and try to avoid the overflow to the city pipes. Same as Cambie street, the plan-ning merges public areas with private building setbacks to increase the continuous green area along the street. The plant palette focuses on the creation of rain garden and the street trees. Figure 6.7 Proposed Alberta Street Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 090PLANNINGCirculation: Residential BoulevardThe secondary arterial street works as a tran-sit line for motor transport as well as separating bikers and pedestrians. With the rain garden, these streets aim to manage stormwater within the paved area and try to avoid the overflow to the city pipes. Same as Cambie street, the plan-ning merges public areas with private building setbacks to increase the continuous green area along the street. The plant palette focuses on the creation of rain garden and the street trees.Figure 6.7 Proposed Residential Boulevard*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 092PLANNINGCirculation: Green AlleyThe green alleys work as connectors that create an inviting public space for people to walk, bike, play, and interact within the residential area. Pe-destrians and bikers will share a central alley with strip planting at both sides. Figure 6.8 Proposed Green Alley Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 094PLANNINGStormwater ManagementFigure 6.9 Little Mountain to Big River source: City of Vancouver, 2019, VanPlay Appendix AFigure 6.10 Blue-Green ‘Couplet’Background ResearchAccording to the City Planning, Alberta Street is identified as potential locations to manage rain-water to reduce Combined Sewer overflows. VanPlay also identified the same corridor as a potential park interconnection route, named “Little Mountain to Big River.” Alberta Street will be considered in conjunction with Ontario Gre-enway as a blue-green ‘couplet,’ which brings benefits to both corridors. As Alberta Street is designed to capture rainwater and connect to the closer parks (Winona Park and so on) to function better as a rainwater collector, the On-tario Greenway could be a green BLVD that pro-vides a safe transit for bikers and pedestrians. Strategy ConceptThe vision of stormwater management in the community is to absorb the stormwater within the site. The treatments of stormwater are dif-ferent depending on the location. The general design concept of stormwater management can be described as follows:1) The rainwater collected by the green roof is relatively “cleaner”, and could be reused for second use within the building.2) The rainwater collected by the normal roof, small plaza, trail, and vegetated area will mainly infiltrate underground, or flow to the designed rain garden or existing wetland when needed.3) The rainwater collected by the hard pave-ment of streets will flow to the separate rain garden along the streets, this rain garden only captures the rainwater from streets (not resi-dential parcels).*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.PLANNINGStormwater Management-Strategy ConceptStormwater Management-ConceptCapture Treat*main purposeConveyance Retention Filtration FiltrationConveyance Infiltration  ConveyanceInfiltration Detention Retention Filtration at the building basementconveyed, purified and/or stored in infiltrated to conveyed, purified and /or stored in rain garden conveyed, purified and stored in Reuse infiltrated to Vegetated area, plaza, trail, roof etc.StreetGreenroofResidential parcelPaved ground areacisternunderground waterbioswale, wetland,raingardentoilet/irrigationunderground waterinfiltrated to underground waterFigure 6.11 Stormwater Management Strategy Concept096PLANNINGStormwater Management-Paved Ground Area (Street)Each main street (as shown in the map) will be responsible for capturing, purifying, storing, and infiltrating stormwater with the rain garden. The calculation of the stormwater volume is based on the 2-year stormwater event for one-day cap-ture. The grid divides these streets into 15 sec-tions (A-O). Each section is responsible for ab-sorbing stormwater for itself. The result of each part shows roughly how much volume of storm-water should be captured within the street. The numbers can be a useful reference for the area of rain gardens on each street. The rain garden could also be integrated with the street planting.Figure 6.12 Street Division DiagramTable 05  Street Stormwater VolumePLANNINGStormwater Management-Green RoofThe stormwater collected through the green roof is “cleaner”. It can be stored and purified in the cisterns inside the building for reusing (i.e. toilet). As Alberta Street is recognized as a po-tential location to manage rainwater, as well as the price of the green roof, the buildings along Alberta Street are chosen to be pilot projects of green roof.   This calculation shows an approxi-mate volume of water that could be collected by the green roof theoretically within each building.Figure 6.13 Green Roof Building DiagramTable 06  Green Roof Stormwater Volume098PLANNINGStormwater Management-Residential ParcelEach residential parcel is responsible for its own storm-water management. Similarly, this robust calculation result could be a reference for the design of bioswale, rain garden within each parcel.Figure 6.14 Residential Parcel DiagramTable 07 Residential Parcel Stormwater Volume100LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKHABITAT DESIGNCriteriaTable 02 Key Features of HabitatsMade by the authorAdapted from Mooney, 2007a&b, 2011c; City of Vancouver, 2014Criteria AreaFoliage height diversity Habitat heterogeneity(patch scale)Floristics/   Canopy tree richnessOther(adapted from Mooney, 2007a)   (Vertical vegetation structure)Criteria Area Canopy coverUnderstorey coverageHerbaceous/  thicket coverageHorizontal vegetation structureSpecies richness(adapted from City of Vancouver, 2014)HabitatDeciduous forestminimum:3-8.5hahighmedium high /60-90% 70% 10-40%Mixed forest minimum:3-8.5hahighmedium high conifer:30-50%60-90% 70% 10-40%Park / high high high island minimum size:3mx3mWetland                                                                           (including saltwater and freshwater marsh)minimum:0.05-0.25 halowhigh low-mediumconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-3:710-20% within 15-30 m setback10-20% within 15-30 m setback25%Old field /low high low-mediumvegetation islands should be at least 2-3m apart, and no more than 5m wide and 10-12m longwoody vegetation: 30-40% dominantMeadow minimum:0.5-1 halowhigh lowconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-3:710-20%     along edges10-20%     along edges 80%Hedgerow usually 3-5m wide high:3-5 layers high medium-high /Riparianriparian vegetation area at least 15m widehigh                high high /Shorezone15-30m setback from high water markhigh                high highconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-1:160-80% 70% 10-20%Deciduous shrub minimum:0.5-3 hamedium              medium medium-highconiferous to deciduous ratio in the canopy-1:120-40% 60-80% 20-40%Bird habitat is used as a reference, as birds are great indicators of general biodiversity.. This chart shows the main features of each habitat. Technically the design of habitat should meet its criteria. However, due to the limitation of the size, the strategy of creating the forest and shrub habitats will be switched to maintain other significant features (i.e., high vertical vegetation structure).This map shows the general habitat planning for each residential parcel. Note that some habitats (or habitat features) such as forests are integrated with other habitats (i.e The wetland has at least a 15m buffer of the vegetated area, and it is surrounded by old field or forest.)HABITAT DESIGNHabitat MappingFigure 6.15 Habitat Mapping102HABITAT DESIGNPark (Park 2 Courtyard Space)Figure 6.16 Park 2 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.17 Park 2 Courtyard Space Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. HABITAT DESIGNOld Field (Old Field 5 Courtyard Space)Figure 6.18 Old Field 5 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.19 Old Field 5 Courtyard Space Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 104HABITAT DESIGNPark (Park 2 Courtyard Space)Figure 6.21 Wetland 1 Space Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Figure 6.20 Wetland 1 Space Plan*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 106HABITAT DESIGNMeadow (Meadow 1 Courtyard Space)Figure 6.22 Meadow 1 Courtyard Space PlanFigure 6.23 Meadow 1 Courtyard Space Section*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. 108LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKbibliographyArbeider, Michael. 2015. “British Columbia List-ed Bird Species”. 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