UBC Graduate Research

The Way Home : A Rural Renewal Model for Beikeng Jin, Tian 2020-05

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AbstractSince the Reform and Open Up initiated by Deng in 1978, China’s accelerated urbanization has been transforming the country from a backward agricultural society to a modernized industrial society through a series of radical institutional transitions. It is multi-layered story in spatial, demographic, economic, social dimensions. In its simplest and most apparent form, it refers to a shift in the pro-portion of total population demographically defined as rural as opposed to urban.1 In China, it has occurred as the urban population has grown from 17.9 percent in 1978 to 54.8 percent in 2014.2 In a similar unprecedented rate like urbanization, numerous villages in China’s immense countryside are vanishing rapidly, either absorbed as part of urban sprawl or abandoned due to the out-migra-tion of rural population. Since 2012, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China (MOHURD) has issued 5 waves of official shortlists designating “China’s Traditional Villages” to identify villages with qualified architectural heritage, settlement layout and intangible cultural heritage. 3 By 2019, 6,799 villages have been chosen for conservation and tour-ism-led regeneration while the left 2.5 million more non-listed villages are vanishing gradually. 4Beikeng, the proposed site for this thesis, located deep in the mountainous region of Fujian Province, is one of those non-listed villages. The vernacular architecture heritage Cuo with typological signifi-cance, the traditional forest-Cuo-terrace-stream settlement guided by Fengshui theory, and the idyllic rural way of living rooted in rice terraces implies that Beikeng village deserves a different future from a forthcoming vanishing fate. This thesis seeks to envision a rural renewal model in which time plays a critical role through 4 episodes: poetic dwellings, agricultural production, rural tourism and com-munity reconstruction. It’s an incremental process started by the arrival of lifestyle entrepreneurs, pushed by the involvement of local entrepreneurs and eventually attracts return entrepreneurs to come back to their homeland.1   Logan, John R. Urban China in Transition. Blackwell Pub, Malden, MA, 2008, pp. 25. 2   Zhang, Li, et al. Understanding China’s Urbanization: The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic, and Social Transformation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 2016, pp. 12. 3   Cao, Yingchun. & Zhang, Yukun. “Appraisal and Selection of ‘Chinese Traditional Village’ and Study on the Village Distribution”. Architectural Journal, no. 12, 2013, pp.44-49.4   Ren, Xiang. “China’s ‘barefoot architects’ are transforming left-behind rural villages.” The Conversation, 22 Aug, 2019. https://theconversation.com/chinas-barefoot-architects-are-transforming-left-behind-rural-villages-122161. Accessed 27 Oct 2019. iiThe Way HomeA Rural Renewal Model for Beikeng byTian JinBachelor of Engineering (BEng), Xi’an-Jiaotong Liverpool University, 2016. RIBA, Part I. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Architecturein The Faculty of Graduate StudiesSchool of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture ProgramCommitteeChair: John BassMari FujitaChad Manley______________________                    ______________________  John Bass                                                Blair SatterfieldThe University of British ColumbiaMay 2020© Tian JinContentsAbstract                                                                                              ii List of Figures                                                                                   v Thesis Statement                                                                                1Part I   Theoretical Framework Chapter Ii. Household Registration System                                                         2 ii. 5 Forms of Cityward Migration                                                          5iii. Land Management System in China & its Inmormalities              9Chapter II“Destroying What You Love” / Dali                                                               11“Over Protected” / Honghe                                                            27“Location, Location, Location” / Beigou                                       39Rural Renewal Precedent I / Wencun                                              49Rural Renewal Precedent II / Daoming                                            61Chapter IIIi. Urbanization in China                                                                           83ii. Vanishing Villages                                                                           85iii. Site Analysis                                                                              87  Part II   Design ProposalChapter IVi. Conceptual Model                                                                         119 ii. Masterplan Phasing                                                                      130iii. Story of Beikeng Village                                                                   136Bibliography                                                                                   175Appendicesi. The Rating System for the Appraisal and Selection of the    Traditional Villages                                                                    180iii iv List of FiguresFig. 1 Serial Migrants.........................................................................................................................6Fig. 2 Cyclical Migrants....................................................................................................................6Fig. 3 Repeat Migrants.......................................................................................................................7Fig. 4 Return Migrants.......................................................................................................................7Fig. 5 Permanent Migrants.................................................................................................................7 Fig. 6 “Destroying What You Love”................................................................................................11 Fig. 7 Location of Dali, Yunan Province, China..............................................................................14 Fig. 8 Booming Guesthouse Industry by Er’hai Lake of Dali, © Wang, zhushu..............................15Fig. 9  Gift Shop Selling Traditional Costume in the BarStreets, © Zheng, Xinhai...................................17Fig. 10 Er’hai Lake Before, © Tencent............................................................................................19Fig. 11 Er’hai Lake After, © Tencent...............................................................................................19Fig.12 Diagram of the Market-driven Gentrification of Dali, “Destroying What You Love”............21Fig.13 Diagram of 2 Types of Villagers Response to Dali’s Gentrification.......................................23Fig.14 “Overprotected” ..................................................................................................................27Fig.15 Location of Honghe, Yunan Province, China.......................................................................30 Fig.16 Forest, Village, and Layers of Rice Terrace © Guo,Zhan & Zhang, Jin..............................31Fig.17 Traditional Mushroom-like Dwellings in Honghe © Hu, Xue............................................34Fig.18 Diagram of the Institution-led Gentrification of Honghe,“Overprotected”........................35Fig. 19 “Location, Location, Location”.........................................................................................39Fig. 20 Location of Beigou, Beijing, China.....................................................................................42Fig. 21 Vacant Home Before Renovation© Robert Mcleod............................................................43Fig. 22  From Vacant  Home to Vacation Home ©  Emily Tang Spear............................................43Fig. 23 Diagram of the Entrepreneur/Developer-led Gentrification of Beigou, “Location, Location, Location”........................................................................................................................................45Fig. 24 Rural Renewal Precedent I / Wencun ................................................................................49Fig. 25 Location of Wencun, Zhejiang Province, China..................................................................52Fig. 26 View along the stream that runs through Wencun showing new residences © Baan, Iwan  53Fig. 27 View from the Farmlands  © Baan, Iwan.............................................................................55Fig. 28 Streetview showing the scale that follows the rural fabric  © Baan, Iwan..............................55Fig. 29 Pavilion & Sheltered Street Furniture at Public Node © Baan, Iwan...................................55Fig. 30 Sheltered Pedestrian Bridge with Openings of Mountain Views © Baan, Iwan...................55Fig. 31 Pavilion & Sheltered Street Furniture at Public Node © Baan, Iwan...................................56Fig. 32 Streetview along the stream that runs through © Baan, Iwan................................................56Fig. 33 View of the Courtyard of 1 Residence Unit © Baan, Iwan....................................................56vFig. 34 View of the Interior of 1 Residence Unit © Baan, Iwan.......................................................56Fig. 35 Diagram of the Architect-led Gentrification of Wencun........................................................57Fig. 36 Site Plan of Wencun.............................................................................................................59Fig. 37 Rural Renewal Precedent II / Daoming................................................................................61 Fig. 38 Location of Daoming, Sichuan Province, China..................................................................64Fig. 39 In Bamboo Community Center during Daytime & Nighttime © Designboom...........................65Fig. 40 Site Plan of the In Bamboo Community Center © Designboom.........................................66Fig. 41 In Bamboo Community Center Floor Plan © Designboom................................................67Fig. 42 In Bamboo Community Center Section A - A © Designboom............................................67Fig. 43 In Bamboo Community Center Elevation © Designboom..................................................68Fig. 44 In Bamboo Community Center Elevation © Designboom..................................................68Fig. 45 In Bamboo Community Center Detail © Designboom.......................................................69Fig. 46 Form & Structure Generation of the In Bamboo Community Center © Designboom..............70 Fig. 47 Roof canopy sweeps the ground naturally © Designboom.............................................71 Fig. 48 Community Events © Designboom......................................................................................71 Fig. 49 Introverted Courtyards © Designboom...............................................................................72  Fig. 50 Dinning Area © Designboom..............................................................................................72Fig. 51 Robotic Production of the Prefabricated Timber Components © Designboom..................72Fig. 52 Site Plan of the In Bamboo Community Center © Designboom.........................................73Fig. 53 An Experimental Sculptural Bamboo Pavilion at the Entrance © Designboom .................74Fig. 54 Entrance & Aerial View of the Bamboo Craft Village Tourist Center© Archdaily...............75 Fig. 55 Entrance & Exhibition Space of the Dingzhizhu Bamboo-weaving Culture Cente © Archdaily            ..............................................................................................................................................76Fig. 56 Entrance & Interior View of the Zhuli Bed & Breakfast (B&B) © Archdaily......................77Fig. 57 Public Plaza & Public Furniture underneath the Pedestrian Bridge © Archdaily.................78Fig. 58 Diagram of the Architect-led Gentrification of Daoming......................................................79Fig. 59 Diagram of the Public Nodes and Circulation of Daoming..................................................81Fig. 60 Urban Population VS Rural Population from 1978 to 2014................................................84Fig. 61 Proportion of Listed Villages by 2019..................................................................................86Fig. 62 Location of Beikeng, Fujian Province, China.......................................................................88Fig. 63 Locations of the 5 Chosen Villages for Research in Jukou County, Fujian Province, China            .............................................................................................................................................89Fig. 64 The settlement of Cuo between the sacred Fengshui Forest and the earthly rice terrace.....90 Fig. 65 Courtyard of An Abandoned House in Beikeng Village......................................................90 viFig. 66 The Most Well-preserved Family Dwelling, Xiaxin Cuo.......................................................92Fig. 67 Left-behind Kids...................................................................................................................92Fig. 68 The Only Gazelle Keeper in Beikeng..................................................................................92Fig. 69 Elders gathering in front of Yangdang Cuo............................................................................92Fig. 70 Artistic Installation in Beikeng during Yanping Art Fest, 2019. ...........................................93Fig. 71 Artistic installation provides seats and view to Xiaxin Cuo...................................................93Fig. 72 2018 International Heritage Conservation Workcamp, Jiulong, Fujian Province.................94 Fig. 73 Aerial View of Beikeng.........................................................................................................95Fig. 74 Site Plan of Beikeng.............................................................................................................96Fig. 75 Land Use of Beikeng.............................................................................................................97Fig. 76 Water System of Beikeng.....................................................................................................98Fig. 77 Site Plan................................................................................................................................99Fig. 78 Site Section.........................................................................................................................101Fig. 79 Exterior View of Xiaxin Cuo...............................................................................................103Fig. 80 Interior Wall Detail - “Bantiao Mo Hui / 板条抹灰” Bamboo strips covered with plaster            (in well-preserved condition).............................................................................................103Fig. 81 View of the Introverted Courtyard with Variations in Elevation.........................................104Fig. 82 Interior Wall Detail - “Bantiao Mo Hui / 板条抹灰” Bamboo strips covered with plaster            (bamboo-weaving wall exposed).......................................................................................104Fig. 83 View from the main hall looking to the opening that frames the landscape........................104Fig. 84 View from the 3rd floor hallway..........................................................................................104Fig. 85 South Elevation of Xiaxin Cuo...........................................................................................105Fig. 86 Roof Plan of Xiaxin Cuo....................................................................................................105Fig. 87 Ground Floor Plan of Xiaxin Cuo......................................................................................105Fig. 88 West Elevation of Xiaxin Cuo............................................................................................105Fig. 89 Section B - B of Xiaxin Cuo...............................................................................................106Fig. 90 Section A - A of Xiaxin Cuo...............................................................................................106Fig. 91 Diagram of Existing Rice-fish Farming System...................................................................107Fig. 92 Diagram of Existing Rice-duck Farming System...................................................................109Fig. 93 Diagram of Existing Gazelle-pumpkin System....................................................................111Fig. 94 Beikeng’s Lunar Calendar based on 24 Solar Terms..........................................................113Fig. 95 Beikeng’s Demographic Change in Local Calendar...........................................................115Fig. 96 3 Agents of Renewal and Their Relations...........................................................................120Fig. 97 Diagram of Lifestyle Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributions......................121Fig. 98 Diagram of Local Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributions...........................123Fig. 99 Diagram of Return Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributions.........................125Fig. 100 Diagram of the Renewal Process of Beikeng.....................................................................127Fig. 101 Proposed Circulation of Beikeng .....................................................................................129Fig. 102 Phasing 2020 - 2035 .........................................................................................................131Fig. 103 Phasing 2020 - 2025 & Program........................................................................................132Fig. 104 Phasing 2025 - 2030 & Program.......................................................................................133Fig. 105 Phasing 2030 - 2035 & Program .......................................................................................134 Fig. Location of Projected Village & Precedent Villages                                                                              145vii viiiix xAcknowledgment DedicationThank you to my supervisor, John Bass, for the constant support, guidance, and wisdom he con-tributed to this thesis. It has also been a pleasure to work with my committee members, Mari Fujita and Chad Manley throughout the whole project.  I thank them for the insight and enthusiasm they brought to each committee meeting. This thesis was based on my preliminary survey and research on Beikeng village under the supervi-sion of Yiping Dong, Xi’an Jiaotong-liverpool University - thank you to her for the this great oppor-tunity that allowed me to penetrate deeply into the mountainous areas of Fujian Province, China and research on this piece of rural land. To my friends who offered me help during this difficult quarantine period. To my family who have been supporting me all this way.To my homeland that shaped me into who I am.1Thesis StatementBeikeng, located deep in the mountainous region of Fujian Province, is one of those non-listed villag-es which have been trying to become shortlisted for national funding and resources. The vernacular typology Cuo, the traditional forest-Cuo-terrace-stream settlement, and the idyllic rural way of living rooted in rice paddies implies that Beikeng deserves a different future from a forthcoming vanishing fate. This thesis seeks to envision a rural renewal model in which time plays a critical role through 4 episodes: poetic dwellings, agricultural production, rural tourism and community reconstruction. It’s an incremental process started by the arrival of lifestyle entrepreneurs, pushed by the involvement of local entrepreneurs and eventually attracts return entrepreneurs to come back to their homeland.Chapter Ii. Household Registration System2“It was as if a Great Wall had been erected between urban and rural areas. The Hukou became the passport for travelling between as well as within the two sides of the wall.” 1 On June 22, 1955, the State Council passed and Premier Enlai Zhou endorsed “The Directive Con-cerning Establishment of a Permanent System of Household Registration.” This directive formally initiated a Hukou system on the eve of China’s collectivization. 2 Each Chinese citizen is required to register one place of regular residence to a household registration booklet, Hukoubu. This house-hold registrations were issued in 2 forms: individually registered urban households received a nonag-ricultural hukou, yet in the newly collectivized countryside, each cooperative (soon to be commune) received a collective registration for its members. The cooperative was viewed as the relevant “house-hold” of peasant families. 3 The China’s population was divided into a privileged urban minority (17%), and an exploited rural majority (83%), which in effect created a two-class society. To be urban means having entitlements that included subsidized grains and fuel, housing, education, health care, and cultural opportunities. To be rural means being condemned to a life of hard work and poverty. Individual life chances were therefore a product of the household registration system. 4The Hukou system was enforced with bureaucratic efficiency. For example, in the case of mixed urban-rural couples, the urban Hukou holder could live in the city while the other partner had to continue to live in the countryside. By the same token, aging rural parents were not allowed to join their urban children. 5 This is because daily necessities such as grains were rationed with coupons which could only be redeemed in one’s official place of residence. It was therefore almost impossible to survive far away from home. 1   Wang, Ying. Research and Evaluation on the Implementation of the Preservation and Renewal of Historic Blocks. Diss. Southeast University, 2015. 2   Cheng, Tiejun, and Selden, Mark. “The Origins and Social Consequences of China’s Hukou System.” The China Quarterly, vol. 139, no. 139, 1994, pp. 655.3   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.60. 4   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.60. 5   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.60. 3The Origin of the Hukou System1955With the Reform and Opening-up economic reform in late 1978, the restrictions on mobility be-tween the rural and urban area were gradually relaxed. 1 The urban youth who had been ruralized by the state in the Down to the Countryside Movement (1968) during Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) were allowed to return to their homes in cities. Couples that had been divided because each partner hold a different Hukou were allowed to be reunited in the urban areas. Aging rural parents were allowed to join their urban offspring as well. More importantly, the countryside was de-collectivized and the agricultural production was now under a new “household responsibility system. 2In 1984, for the first time the State Council permitted peasants to move into small towns (Jizhen) below the level of county and, in doing so, allowed them to switch their household registration from an agricultural Hukou to a nonagricultural one. 3In late 2001, the State Council allowed agricultural Hukou holders to move into small cities and des-ignated towns with less than 200,000 population, on condition that they had a stable job and a legal urban residence to exchange their agricultural Hukou for a new non-agricultural one. 41  Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.61.2   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.61. 3   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.61. 4   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.62.  4The Gradual Relaxation of the Houkou System1978The First Real Reform of the Houkou System1984The Second Real Reform of the Houkou System2001Since middle 1980s, tens of millions of nonagricultural Hukou holders started flooding into coastal cities, their suburbs, the semi-rural and rural areas around them. 1 A consensus has been settled as around 60-80 million in the late 1990s with 50-60 million of them headed for cities, including the urban fringe. 2  This massive cityward migration could be categorized into 5 forms – serial migrants, repeat migrants, cyclical migrants, return migrants and permanent migrants. 3 The nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their native village before ven-turing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest time or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.1   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.63.  2   Jie, Fan, and Wolfgang Taubmann. 2002. “Migrant Enclaves in Large Chinese Cities.” In John R. Logan, ed., The New Chinese City: Globalization and Market Reform, pp. 184. Oxford: Blackwell.3   Friedmann, John. China’s Urban Transition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 2005, pp.65.  ii. Cyclical MigrantsChapter Iii. 5 Forms of Cityward Migration5 6Serial MigrantsRepeat MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their na�ve village before venturing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later �me are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest �me or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to re�re, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called permanent migrants.Cyclical MigrantsReturn MigrantsPermanent Migrants5 Forms of Cityward Migra�on Serial MigrantsRepeat MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their na�ve village before venturing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later �me are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest �me or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to re�re, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called permanent migrants.Cyclical MigrantsReturn MigrantsPermanent Migrants5 Forms of Cityward Migra�on i. Serial MigrantsFig.1 Serial MigrantsFig.2 Cyclical MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later time are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to retire, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called return migrants.7iii. Repeat Migrantsv. Permanent MigrantsFig.3 Repeat Migrants8Serial MigrantsRepeat MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their na�ve village before venturing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later �me are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest �me or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to re�re, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called permanent migrants.Cyclical MigrantsReturn MigrantsPermanent Migrants5 Forms of Cityward Migra�on Serial MigrantsRepeat MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their na�ve village before venturing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later �me are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest �me or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to re�re, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called permanent migrants.Cyclical MigrantsReturn MigrantsPermanent Migrants5 Forms of Cityward Migra�on iv. Return MigrantsFig.4 Return MigrantsFig.5 Permanent Migra tsSerial MigrantsRepeat MigrantsThe nonagricultural Hukou holders who firstly migrate to towns near their na�ve village before venturing into less familiar parts of China are called serial migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who went to urban areas and would return home only to set forth again at a later �me are called repeat migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home during harvest �me or similar occasions at regular intervals are called cyclical migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who return home to start up a business of his/her own, or to re�re, are called return migrants.The nonagricultural Hukou holders who go to city and remain there are called permanent migrants.Cyclical MigrantsReturn MigrantsPermanent Migrants5 Forms of Cityward Migra�on Chapter Iiii. Land Management System in China & its Informalities9A Hukou system to document population information was first established in cities in 1951 and extended to rural areas in 1955. Each Chinese citizen is required to register one place of regular residence to a household registration booklet. The Hukou registration divides Chinese citizens into 2 categories: the urban population or the rural population. 1 In the 1980s, the majority (around 82 percent) of Chinese population still lived in the rural areas which was managed by rural collective (represented by the village authority). Apart from agricultural land, the rural collective allocated a critical resource: housing land or Zhaijidi to cater for the social welfare and livelihood of millions of farmers. 2 The rural housing land followed principles described as: “Free of charge; no term; and non-transferable”, which means each household was entitled to a free piece of housing land without a time limit, yet with the use rights to land but not the ownership of it. 3 The household was not legally allowed to sell or rent out the housing land to a third person but could pass it to a younger generation within the family. However, the buildings on land may be transferred to a person who holds a rural Hukou (rural residential status) and is a recognized member of the same village. 4 Within such context, neither the rural collective nor the households perceived a need to practice ownership. Without formal proof of ownership, rural housing lands were distributed through cus-tomary laws and village internal rules, yet outside of statutory law. 5 The informality of the property rights of rural housing land led to illegal practices such as some villagers simply sell their houses to vil-lagers from a different collective or urbanities when leaving for urban employment. 6 The over-com-mercialization in the gentrification of the Dali Old Town is a typical example for such consequences caused by the informality of the property rights of rural housing land. 1   Chan, Kam Wing and Li Zhang. 1999. “The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes.” The China Quarterly 160 (160): 819.2   Ho, Peter. “Who Owns China’s Housing? Endogeneity as a Lens to Understand Ambiguities of Urban and Rural Property.” Cities, vol. 65, 2017, pp. 69.3   Ho, Peter. “Who Owns China’s Housing? Endogeneity as a Lens to Understand Ambiguities of Urban and Rural Property.” Cities, vol. 65, 2017, pp. 69. 4   Ho, Peter. “Who Owns China’s Housing? Endogeneity as a Lens to Understand Ambiguities of Urban and Rural Property.” Cities, vol. 65, 2017, pp. 70.5   Ho, Peter. “Who Owns China’s Housing? Endogeneity as a Lens to Understand Ambiguities of Urban and Rural Property.” Cities, vol. 65, 2017, pp. 70.6   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 68.10Rural-urban Population Divide: Hukou SystemHousing Entitlement in rural ChinaChapter IIMarket-driven Gentrification“Destroying What You Love”Dali 13In 1985, the Department of Tourism was established in Dali to foster tourism growth which brought millions of tourists since then. 1 At that time there was no private guest house in the Old Town but only 5 state-owned guesthouses, one of which was designated for foreign tourists. Due to the econom-ic reforms in the 1990s which encouraged privatization and market economy, the state-owned guest houses turned into private companies. 2 Since then, Dali’s rural landscape has dramatically changed due to the pervasiveness of guesthouses during the past 2 decades. 1   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 63.2   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 63. 14Fig.7 Location of Dali, Yunan Province, China.Dali15Fig.8 Booming Guesthouse Industry by Er’hai Lake of Dali,Wang, zhushu. “By the Lake.” 2017. Before the flourish of tourism in Dali, villagers lived on cultivation and livestock production. When the urbanities who planned to initiate guesthouse business came to them and brought about the first wave of business investment in rural homes in 2010, many of the villagers signed long-term lease (10-20 years) with them and received a lump-sum payment for 10 years rent. 1 According to Zhao’s fieldwork data, villagers’ annual cultivation income is 300-450 USD while annual rent income could be 3000 USD or more. The villagers who rent out their homes to newcomers usually chose to rent a cheaper home within the same village or buy an apartment in cities. 2 After renting houses from villagers, newcomers tend to propose reconstruction or renovation at their own cost and are often approved by the landlords since it meant a win-win situation where the newcomers could benefit from the guesthouse business and the landlords would receive a better building when the lease ended. 3Based on Zhao’s interview with local residents, a lakeside guesthouse was able to generate 150,000 USD per year in 2014. 4  Assuming a villager leases his/her house out at an annual rent of 9,000 USD to a newcomer who earns 150,000 USD per year, the villager could receive only less than 10 percent of the profit. It explains why a few informants of Zhao’s fieldwork described the urbanities as shrewd and exploitive. 5From 2010 to 2014, the relationship between local villagers and newcomers gradually changed: the local villagers welcomed alternative source of income at first while dispute arose regarding rents due to the surge of land values. Some of the landlords institutes an increase on rent while some of them started to run their own guesthouse business to compete with the newcomer entrepreneurs. Most of the local guesthouse owners remain living in their houses and adapt them into guesthouses. In order to distinguish their guesthouses from those of newcomers, local villagers retain Bai (local Ethnic mi-nority) architectural elements like grey eaves and paintings on walls, serve guest Bai cuisine, and ask staff to wear traditional Bai costumes. 61   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 64. 2   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 64. 3   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 64. 4   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 64. 5   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 64.  6   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 16Renting out rural homesStarting Their own guesthouse business 17A number of local villagers commented on agricultural livelihood, arguing that income from crop cultivation and livestock production could hardly sustain a rural household considering the high cost of seeds and fertilizers. Therefore, many young villagers moved out to seek urban employment. 1 There are also villagers who rent their agricultural lands to other villagers and work full time running their guesthouses. According to one informant (female, guesthouse owner, in her 40s), the profit generated by 2 guestrooms equals to annual cultivation income. 2 The boom of guesthouses in Dali Oldtown and local guesthouse operators’ success attracted a number of villagers in cities to return and join such ventures. The arrival of tourists and newcomer entrepreneurs brought the expansion of material consumption culture to the village. A number of interviewees in Zhao’s fieldwork in Dali articulated nostalgia for the ‘good old days’ when rural homes were not commercialized, social relations were not capitalized and distantiated, and the rural ethnic community (Bai) were not encroached on by the outsiders. 3 The rising competition, widening wealth gap and weakening social bonds among the local villagers due to altered social relations when some landlords (who are relatives or friends of other villagers) move out of the village has contributed to a sense of loss of their traditional Bai community according to the villagers who physically remained in the Old Town. For the landlords who have moved into cities, they experience not only spatial relocation but also a disconnection with their rural ways of living and their rural homelands which anchors the past and identity.1   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 65. 2   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 65. 3   Zhao, Yawei. “When Guesthouse Meets Home: The Time-Space of Rural Gentrification in Southwest China.” Geoforum, vol. 100, 2019, pp. 65. 18Change Local LifestyleSpatial Relocation, Cultural Disintegration & DisintegrationFig. 9    Gift Shop Selling Traditional Costume in the BarStreets, © Zheng, Xinhai.19Fig.10 Er’hai Lake Before © Tencent Fig.11 Er’hai Lake After © TencentErhai Lake, one of the largest highland freshwater lakes in Yunnan Province, have attracted throngs of tourists to head to the Dali Old Town for the stunning lake view since 1990s. The tourism boom has resulted in water pollution in Erhai Lake and destroyed its rural tranquility. There large-scale out-break of blue-green algae occurred in the Erhai Lake in 1996, 2003 and 2013. 1 The discharge from lakeside hotels, guest houses, and restaurants are the major source of water pollution in the Erhai Lake. In March 2017, the local government issued a protective management order – the Seven Major Actions, to curb the water pollution, including regulating the guesthouse industry, demolishing illegal construction around the Erhai Lake and constructing infrastructure covering sewage disposal, gar-bage collection. More than 2,400 lakeside hotels, guesthouses, restaurants were required to suspend business. 2 They were not allowed to reopen until the authorities confirm they have all the required permits and construction of a sewage pipeline running around the lake is completed. 1,806 buildings including 540 guesthouses which lie within 15 meters of the shoreline of the lake have been demol-ished. 3 Since May 2018, some business have restarted operation as they have met the environmental protection standard.1  Cao, Desheng. “Erhai Lake Cleans Up Its Act In Pollution Fight”. China Daily. 13 Feb, 2019. 2  Cao, Desheng. “Erhai Lake Cleans Up Its Act In Pollution Fight”. China Daily. 13 Feb, 2019.  3  Cao, Desheng. “Erhai Lake Cleans Up Its Act In Pollution Fight”. China Daily. 13 Feb, 2019. 20Water Pollution & Suspension of Guesthouse Industry 21ERHAI LAKE POLLUTED ERHAI LAKEEXTERNAL CAPITAL& KNOWLEDGELEASE BETWEENVILLAGER & NEWCOMERINFLUX OF TOURISTS BOOM OF GUESTHOUSESDISCHARGE FROM GUESTHOUSESBREAKOUT OF BLUE-GREEN ALGEARENOVATION /RECONSTRUCTIONROLCATION TO URBAN AREA OR SUBURDDALIAN UNCONTROLLED LINE STARTED BY EXTERNAL CAPTIAL & MARKETPROCESS OF “TO DESTROY WHAT YOU LOVE”2 TYPES OF VILLAGERS’ RESPONSE DISINTEGRATIONOF LOCAL COMMUNITYSHIFT FROM FARMERTO URBAN DWELLERSHIFT FROM FARMER TO GUESTHOUSE OWNERDISCONNECTIONFROM RURAL LANDINVOLVEMENT IN MARKET COMPETITIONCAPITALIZED  & DISTANTIATED SOCIAL BONDSEXTERNAL CAPITAL& KNOWLEDGELEASE HOME TO NEWCOMERPHYSICALLYCULTURALLYVILLAGERS WHO LEFTVILLAGERS WHO STAYRENOVATION  OF THEIR OWNHOUSE INTO GUESTHOUSEFig.12 Diagram of the Market-driven Gentrification of Dali,“Destroying What You Love”22ERHAI LAKE POLLUTED ERHAI LAKEEXTERNAL CAPITAL& KNOWLEDGELEASE BETWEENVILLAGER & NEWCOMERINFLUX OF TOURISTS BOOM OF GUESTHOUSESDISCHARGE FROM GUESTHOUSESBREAKOUT OF BLUE-GREEN ALGEARENOVATION /RECONSTRUCTIONROLCATION TO URBAN AREA OR SUBURDDALIAN UNCONTROLLED LINE STARTED BY EXTERNAL CAPTIAL & MARKETPROCESS OF “TO DESTROY WHAT YOU LOVE”2 TYPES OF VILLAGERS’ RESPONSE DISINTEGRATIONOF LOCAL COMMUNITYSHIFT FROM FARMERTO URBAN DWELLERSHIFT FROM FARMER TO GUESTHOUSE OWNERDISCONNECTIONFROM RURAL LANDINVOLVEMENT IN MARKET COMPETITIONCAPITALIZED  & DISTANTIATED SOCIAL BONDSEXTERNAL CAPITAL& KNOWLEDGELEASE HOME TO NEWCOMERPHYSICALLYCULTURALLYVILLAGERS WHO LEFTVILLAGERS WHO STAYRENOVATION  OF THEIR OWNHOUSE INTO GUESTHOUSE23Fig.13 Diagram of 2 Types of Villagers Response to Dali’s Gentrification2425The unsustainable market-driven gentrification process has led to the over-commercialization of the Dali Old town, the negative impacts of which have undermined the natural and cultural heritage of the local ethnic community (Bai). The spatial relocation of the natives who have leased their rural homes to newcomers not only dis-connected them from the land and their rural way of living but also altered the social relations within the community. For those remain in the town, they have been undergoing a kind of cultural displace-ment by material consumption culture, which capitalized and distantiated the social bonds between villagers and changed their rural lifestyle. These intangible social bond and way of life that grew from the rural land may be exactly what urban escapers have been looking for. Although recognized as the greatest tangible wealth of Dali, the Erhai Lake have been under great threat by the contamination discharged by the excessive tourism development by the shoreline. Since the stunning lakeview of the Erhai is the major attraction for tourists to come, the deterioration of the lake would eventually struggle the future of local industry. Therefore, such market-driven gentrification led by external entrepreneurs tend to take an unsus-tainable approach focusing on immediate interests rather than long-term opportunities, which is very likely to result in the over-commercialization and over-development of the site. The proposed model of gentrification of this thesis would try to avoid profit-orientated entrepreneurs as the major gentrifier leading the process towards gentrification. 26SummaryChapter IIInstitution-led Gentrification“Overprotected”Honghe 29On June 22nd 2013, the Honghe Hani Rice in Yunnan Province was inscribed by UNESCO as a cultural-landscape World Heritage Site (hereafter “Honghe WHS”) in recognition of the spectacular rice terrace and its century-long sustainable relationship with indigenous Hani community stewarded by unique cultural and religious practice. 1 The rice-fish ecosystem has been sustained for generations (around 1,300 years) and has been rooted in Hani’s cultural spirituality.1   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1262.30Fig.15 Location of Honghe, Yunan Province, China.HongheIn prior to Honghe’s inscription as a WHS in 2013, a low degree of gentrification had already oc-curred. Since 2004, two groups of non-local entrepreneurs including indigenous people from other communities and neighboring towns and non-indigenous people from distant big cities had rented local dwellings and converted them into guest houses or restaurants. 1 The first groups benefit from their familiarity with local culture and language, and socio-economic system which means they gener-ally fare better than the ones from further afield. The second group are “lifestyle entrepreneurs” who desert urban lives to become guesthouse operators in Honghe. According to Chan’s interviews with early entrepreneurs in Honghe, these lifestyle-seeking gentrifiers are not primarily profit orientated and share similar reasons for relocating: affinity to the rice terrace landscape, the desire of conser-vation, and the willingness to help local communities. 2 For instance, one lifestyle entrepreneur in Honghe WHS commented: These two groups of early gentrifiers brought new and transferable ideas and resources to the Hani community, which provided base for local entrepreneurs to seize opportunities, imitate business models and ideas, and learn to start their own business. Besides this two groups of non-local entre-preneurs, tourists also bring their own expectations and requirements gained from touristic experi-ence they had elsewhere to Honghe WHS, which contributes to the beginning of some indigenous entrepreneurship. In Chan’s interview with a local young Hani male who has never left homeland and struggled from subsistence-farming family to a successful “middle-class” entrepreneur, the young person explained how his guesthouse and tourist transport service business occurred through years of interaction with tourists:1   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1270.  2   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1270.   In the Core Area of Honghe WHS, the upper mountainous area with an altitude over 1800 m are forested while the rice terraces are distributed down to 700 m above sea level with a gradient of 15 to 20 degrees. 1 Between the sacred mountaintop forests and the earthly rice terraces further down to the river valley, the Hani build their villages featured with traditional mushroom like dwellings. 2 The forest functions as a natural moisture trap and water reservoir and supplies ever-running streams via a complicated network of natural and artificial channels to distribute water throughout the terraces. The rivers down at the bottom of the valley received the water from the ditches and terraces above brought them to bigger rivers outside the village. 31   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1268. 2   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1268.  3   Guo, Zhan, and Zhang, Jin. “Hani Rice Terraces of Honghe - the Harmonious Landscape of Nature and Humans.” Landscape Research, vol. 40, no. 6, 2015, pp. 658.Fig.16 Forest, Village, and Layers of Rice Terrace © Guo & Zhang31 32UNESCO Inscription & Multipartite Gentrifiers They don’t have enough teachers. A lot of kids stop going to school after fifth grade. I hope to change the local’s view on education. My wife has taught at the school for 2 years. We encourage our guests to become voluntary teachers and provide them food and accommodation. We hope to be a bridge to help them. Those are the purposes of us being here. At the time I started to guide tourists, they would say ‘how about we have lunch at your place?’ I would be very happy… after eating they would stay for the night at the house, the business slowly started in this way.33After the UNESCO inscription, the local government appointed the Yunnan Expo Yuanyang Hani Terrance Tourism Development Company to develop and manage tourism activities in the Honghe WHS. The company collects entrance fees from groups of tourists and use 5 per cent of the collec-tion for indigenous community development. 1 The company provides employment and training to the local community and shares experience with indigenous entrepreneurs. 2 Rural-urban migration in China is often a circular process, with migrants returning to their hometown in the end due to diverse economic and social factors including retirement, family concerns and success or failure in their urban venture. 3 They often return with knowledge of urban approaches to business and investment and social and financial capital and generally prefer to work in the service sector and start small-scale businesses.4 Despite physical disconnection to the homeland, young ur-ban migrants from Honghe village tend to maintain their strong feeling of connection to the terrace farming. For example, they often return to help their families during planting and harvest seasons which coincide with important cultural-religious fests and they will go back to city after that. 5 There-fore, such indigenous returnees may be regarded as self-gentrifiers. 1 Chan, J.H., Zhang, Y., McDonald, T., & Qi, X. Entrepreneurship in Indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic de-velopment in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site. In K. Iankova, A. Hassan, & R. L’Abbé (Eds.), Indigenous people and economic development: An international perspective,2016, pp. 199, London: Routledge. 2 Chan, J.H., Zhang, Y., McDonald, T., & Qi, X. Entrepreneurship in Indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic de-velopment in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site. In K. Iankova, A. Hassan, & R. L’Abbé (Eds.), Indigenous people and economic development: An international perspective,2016, pp. 200, London: Routledge. 3   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1273.   4   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1273.   5   Chan, Jin H., et al. “The Role of Self-Gentrification in Sustainable Tourism: Indigenous Entrepreneurship at Honghe Hani Rice Terraces World Heritage Site, China.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 2016, pp. 1273.   Returning Indigenous Migrants as Self-gentrifiers34 New construction in the Honghe WHS has been prohibited for conservation purposes. Stringent controls have been instituted on retrofitting existing buildings by imposing regulatory approval hur-dles. 1 However, the government doesn’t attempt to regulate the rental market on those traditional dwellings. Following the arrival of tourism, some villagers start to rent their houses to newcomers under long-term contract (10-20 years), providing accommodation for tourists. Since the supply of properties in Honghe WHS is limited and no more new construction is allowed, there is a risk of ‘buying-out’ the villagers from their homeland. The local long-term residents have to move out of the village to make space for tourists and live away from the rice terrace which requires constant main-tenance. In some extreme case, there is a possibility that the village would turn into ‘ghost villages’, populated seasonally by tourists and tourism operators. 2 Furthermore, the absence of long-term residents would increase the likelihood of degradation of the terraced rice fields. There has been discussion of large-scale relocation of the entire village to a nearby vicinity. Nevertheless, this idea of ‘hollowing out’ of the Honghe WHS has not been implemented since no available site has been identified. 31  Chan, J.H., Zhang, Y., McDonald, T., & Qi, X. Entrepreneurship in Indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site. In K. Iankova, A. Hassan, & R. L’Abbé (Eds.), Indigenous people and economic development: An international perspective,2016, pp. 198, London: Routledge.2  Chan, J.H., Zhang, Y., McDonald, T., & Qi, X. Entrepreneurship in Indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site. In K. Iankova, A. Hassan, & R. L’Abbé (Eds.), Indigenous people and economic development: An international perspective,2016, pp. 198, London: Routledge. 3  Chan, J.H., Zhang, Y., McDonald, T., & Qi, X. Entrepreneurship in Indigenous community: Sustainable tourism and economic development in a newly inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site. In K. Iankova, A. Hassan, & R. L’Abbé (Eds.), Indigenous people and economic development: An international perspective,2016, pp. 198, London: Routledge. Absolute Preservation & Development Limitations Fig.17 Traditional Mushroom-like Dwellings in Honghe © Hu, Xue.35Fig.18 Diagram of the Institution-led Gentrification of Honghe,“Overprotected”HONGHE  A STRONG LINE DRAWN BY GLOBAL INSTITUTION  RICE TERRACECULTURAL-LANDSCAPE UNESCO INSCRIPTION IMPOSITION OF TOP-DOWN RULESABSOLUTE  PRESERVATION& DEVELOPMENT LIMITATION3637Like another extreme opposite to the case of Dali, the process of gentrification in Honghe WHS led by the global institution UNESCO imposed stringent restrictions on the development such as new construction and renovation. Besides UNESCO, multipartite gentrifiers have took part in the process including lifestyle entrepreneurs, tourists, state-appointed operator, and local entrepreneurs. Honghe’s model of gentrification which involved multi-gentrifiers provides a promising learning en-vironment for the local entrepreneurs or the returning migrants who have intention to become one of them. By learning business models from lifestyle entrepreneurs and ideas from tourists, theses potential self-gentrifiers would be able to get involved and perhaps even play a significant role in the process of gentrification happening on their land. Such model of gentrification which involves mul-ti-gentrifiers and encourages information exchange would be a reference for the proposed model of this thesis to engage local entrepreneurs into the process. The cultural heritage and rice terrace landscape of the Beikeng Village in fact have something in com-mon with the Honghe WHS although it will not be able to be qualified as the heritage site with same level as Honghe. It is promising for Beikeng to attract lifestyle entrepreneurs to escape from cities and come to seek for idyllic rural life with their affinity to the rice terrace, the desire of conservation and the willingness to help local communities. Thus, the crucial role of the lifestyle entrepreneurs would be emphasized in the process of gentrification in Beikeng Village as some sort of bridge between the rural and the urban.38SummaryChapter IIEntrepreneur/Developer-led Gentrification“Location, Location, Location”Beigou 41Located at the foot of the Mutianyu section of the Great Wall, 80 kilometers from downtown Beijing, Beigou was a dying village as most of the residents had left to work in the city and those had stayed lived in abject poverty. 1 An American entrepreneur saw the prime real estate value of the village in proximity to the Great Wall when he visited there on vocation. In the 1990s, Spear renovated a village home as a weekend getaway with easy access to hiking trails and a front-row seat to the Great Wall. In 2005, he resigned from his job as project manager in a consulting and investment company and moved to his getaway in Beigou full-time.2 1 Xia, Hua. “Feature: An American man’s life by the Great Wall.” Xinhuanet. 11 Feb, 2017. http://www.xinhuanet.com//eng-lish/2017-02/11/c_136049574_2.htm Accessed 7th Nov, 2017. 2   Springer, Kate, and Serenitie Wang. “Do these village homes have the best view in China?”. CNN Style. 2 Nov, 2016. https://www.cnn.com/style/article/beijing-luxury-village-homes/index.html Accessed 27 Oct 2019.42Fig. 20 Location of Beigou, Beijing, China.        BeigouFig.21 Vacant Home Before Renovation© Robert McleodFig.22 From Vacant  Home to Vacation Home ©  Emily Tang Spear43 44Spear began investing in properties in the village, leasing vacant homes from villagers and turning them into vocation homes. About the same time, the village head of Beigou talked to Spear about his vision of turning the village into a prime tourist destination. In 2006, Spear and his two partners leased the abandoned village schoolhouse and started a sustainable tourism business. Dashiyao Inn, a renovated vocation residence with 23 rooms and 2 villas, was collectively invested by Jingxibei Real Estate Development Company and 6 villagers who all own shares. The villagers benefited from the profit of the resort and the jobs it provided including hospitality, housekeeping, guards, landscaping, servers, cooks, and managers. 1 80 percent of the employees are from the village and are employed full time according to Spear. 2Following the success of the “Dashiyao model”, the villagers began to explore hospitality on their own and one third of the 100 households in Beigou offer accommodation. In 2005 when Spear first moved to Beigou, the annual rental on a residential plot of around 200 square meters was 729 USD. By 2017, it had risen to 8,748 USD. 3Spear discovered new opportunities in rural China: “There’s a whole movement in China for coun-tryside houses and hotels. People are cooped up in hives in the city. They want good, clean food and fresh air -- there’s this idealized notion of the simple, good, country life.” 4 1   Springer, Kate, and Serenitie Wang. “Do these village homes have the best view in China?”. CNN Style. 2 Nov, 2016. https://www.cnn.com/style/article/beijing-luxury-village-homes/index.html Accessed 27 Oct 2019. 2 Xia, Hua. “Feature: An American man’s life by the Great Wall.” Xinhuanet. 11 Feb, 2017. http://www.xinhuanet.com//eng-lish/2017-02/11/c_136049574_2.htm Accessed 7th Nov, 2017.  3 Xia, Hua. “Feature: An American man’s life by the Great Wall.” Xinhuanet. 11 Feb, 2017. http://www.xinhuanet.com//eng-lish/2017-02/11/c_136049574_2.htm Accessed 7th Nov, 2017. 4   Springer, Kate, and Serenitie Wang. “Do these village homes have the best view in China?”. CNN Style. 2 Nov, 2016. https://www.cnn.com/style/article/beijing-luxury-village-homes/index.html Accessed 27 Oct 2019.  From Vacant Home to Vacation Home 45Fig.23 Diagram of the Entrepreneur/Developer-led Gentrification of Beigou,“Location, Location, Location”46LOCAL GOVERNMENT FUNDING & COMMISION OF STAR ARCHITECTVISION FOR THE VILLAGEBY A TALENTED PROFESSIONALTOP-DOWN INTERVENTION NEGATIVE FEEDBACKFROM VILLAGERSRISE TO FAMEACROSS CHINA    ARRIVAL OF VISITORS     ARRIVAL OF EXTERNALCAPITAL & INVESTMENT    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERSEMERGENCEOF GUESTHOUSEINDUSTRY & RISE OF PROPERTY VALUE   WENCUNA STRONG LINE DRAWN BY TALENTED ARCHITECTBEIGOUA LINE STARTED BY AN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPERSHIFT IN ALTITUDE OF VILLAGERSA DYING VILLAGE WITH PROXIMITY & VIEW TO THE GREAT WALL BROUGHT-IN IDEAS,SOCIAL RELATIONS & CAPITALTRANSFORMATION INTO MODERN VOCATIONHOMES WITH VIEW TOTHE GREAT WALL    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERSAS STAFF &  SHAREHODLERARRIVAL OF TOURISTS    VILLAGERS’ IMITATIONOF THE SUCCESSFUL MODEL    BOOM OF GUESTHOUSEINDUSTRY & RISE OF PROPERTY VALUE   A RENEWED VILLAGED LEASE BETWEENDEVELOPER & VILLAGERRECONSTRUCTION / RENOVATION OF EMPTY / RUN-DOWN HOUSES 47The case of Beigou Village demonstrates the critical role of one key gentrifier, an external entre-preneur who carries capital, knowledge, and business skill, in impelling the process of gentrification on the dying rural land. It also introduced a form of joint investment on one piece of rural land by enteral capital and former residents who benefit the profits and job opportunities it generated. In the case of Beikeng, such process of regeneration could hopefully happen if the lifestyle entrepreneur or returning migrants takes the role of the the crucial gentrifier like Jim Spear in Beigou’s case.48SummaryChapter IIArchitect-led Gentrification“Overprotected”Wencun 51After being awarded the 2012 Pritzker Prize, architect Shu Wang was invited by Fuyang municipality to design a cultural complex. 1 Wang negotiated a village regeneration project funded by local gov-ernment as his condition of commission instead. 2 After years of research on Fuyang countryside, Wencun Village located along the Heshsan Stream at the foot of Wenbi Hill, Zhejiang Province, seems an ideal site for Wang to experiment his vision for rural China. It is hoped by Wang and his team Amateurs Architecture Studio the approach of intervention they implemented on Wencun Village would be able to stem the exodus of rural population to the cities and perhaps even attract urban-dwellers back. 1 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. 2 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. 52Fig.25Location of Wencun, Zhejiang Province, China.WencunFig. 26 View southeast along the stream that runs through Wencun showing new residences © Baan, Iwan53 54The regeneration project includes 14 new residential buildings, a new bridge, several small public pavilions, the reconstruction of some dilapidated houses, and the refurbishment of recently built concrete-brick houses. 1 The 14 combined three- and four-storey courtyard houses accommodate 24 local families, featuring diverse facades and tectonics. They are also unified by a careful selection of materials integrated with concrete-frame construction: wood, bamboo, rammed earth, yellow clay, grey limestone, tile, and white plaster. 2 Local masons are involved in the construction. Grey lime-stone from nearby quarry is chosen as the principle finish. The residential buildings include space for a shrine to ancestors, storage for farm tools, and family-run workshop for rural industry such as hard-ware production or a brewery. In order to keep the overall architectural language, Wang ‘upgraded’ the concrete houses finished with ceramic tiles by peeling off the tiles and plastering with yellow clay. When Wang first talked to the villagers in 2012, they expressed their expectations for new house – newer, and bigger, was better, and the space taken up in a house by a traditional courtyard would be even better used for larger rooms. In addition, they would like to demolish all the old buildings if they could. 3 The top-down approach to rural regeneration seems un unwelcome intervention to the villagers. Once it was completed, only 7 families agree to move into their new homes. They com-plained that courtyard spaces did not meet their expectations and that bedrooms are not enough by indicating their ideal living space should occupy all of the lot and maximize the courtyard in front of the house. However, a good thing for them is that their new built houses were very cheap in terms of the construction cost. 4Wang’s involvement in Wencun Village has attracted the interest of a biotech company.  They brought forward a proposal of turning the houses into bed-and-breakfast accommodation run by locals, which immediately changed the unwelcome situation among the villagers. 5 Now the concern becomes whether the inevitable tourism would drive the local residents out and turn Wencun Village into nothing but an imagined form of rural lifestyle for city dwellers. 1 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. 2 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. 3 Berg, Nate. “Renovation of Wencun Village”. The Architect Magazine. 3 Mar, 2017. https://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gal-lery/renovation-of-wencun-village_o. Accessed 27 Oct 2019.4 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. 5 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015. Top-down Approach & Villagers’ Feedback Wencun Village has over 500 registered households and approximately 1,800 residences. It is faced with same problem of being “hollowed out” like the other rural areas in China. Besides agriculture, Wencun Villages has developed its own light industry since the 1980s. There is a mix of historic timber-framed and masonry wall buildings which can date back to Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911) and modern concrete dwellings covered with ceramic tiles built in the 1990s. 1 1 Dong, yiping. “Country Life: Wencun Village Regeneration Project, Designed by Wang Shu and Lu Wenyu’s Amateur Architecture Studio, Proposes an Alternative Approach to Chinese Rural Housing and Construction.” The Architectural Review 238 (1425), pp 92, 2015.  55272928305631333234LOCAL GOVERNMENT FUNDING & COMMISION OF STAR ARCHITECTVISION FOR THE VILLAGEBY A TALENTED PROFESSIONALTOP-DOWN INTERVENTION NEGATIVE FEEDBACKFROM VILLAGERSRISE TO FAMEACROSS CHINA    ARRIVAL OF VISITORS     ARRIVAL OF EXTERNALCAPITAL & INVESTMENT    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERSEMERGENCEOF GUESTHOUSEINDUSTRY & RISE OF PROPERTY VALUE   WENCUNA STRONG LINE DRAWN BY TALENTED ARCHITECTBEIGOUA LINE STARTED BY AN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPERSHIFT IN ALTITUDE OF VILLAGERSA DYING VILLAGE WITH PROXIMITY & VIEW TO THE GREAT WALL BROUGHT-IN IDEAS,SOCIAL RELATIONS & CAPITALTRANSFORMATION INTO MODERN VOCATIONHOMES WITH VIEW TOTHE GREAT WALL    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERSAS STAFF &  SHAREHODLERARRIVAL OF TOURISTS    VILLAGERS’ IMITATIONOF THE SUCCESSFUL MODEL    BOOM OF GUESTHOUSEINDUSTRY & RISE OF PROPERTY VALUE   A RENEWED VILLAGED LEASE BETWEENDEVELOPER & VILLAGERRECONSTRUCTION / RENOVATION OF EMPTY / RUN-DOWN HOUSES 57Fig.35 Diagram of the Architect-led Gentrification of Wencun5859Wencun Village’s process of gentrification initiated and funded by the local government was primar-ily impelled by the design intervention of star-architect Shu Wang, which attracted external capitals to invest on local guesthouse and tourism industry. Wang’s form of intervention including planning, architecture and landscape would be regarded as a reference for the proposed form of intervention and scale of design this thesis project would commit to. Nevertheless, Wang’s top-down design ap-proach will be avoided in Beikeng’s case because it turned out to be unwelcome to the local when they were told to move in their new homes designed by this star architect. Although the unwelcome situation changed due to the entry of external capital later, it in effect posed a potential risk of the displacement of the natives and the over-commercialization of the village, which has the tendency to turn the renovated village into a merely imagined form of rural life for urban dwellers. Wang’s forms of intervention at different scales including urban planning, architecture, and land-scape fit into the historic rural fabric in a modest way. His way of intervention could be regarded as “modest” in 2 aspects: the organizational principle and its geometric typology. The renewed portion mainly followed the historic road system and waterway and created a series of public nodes either in the center of villages in the form of the family temple or along the major circulation through the form of pavilion, sheltered bridge and bamboo structure. Furthermore, the geometry and scale of the new residence follows the vernacular courtyard dwelling typology. With appropriate respect to the past of the village, Wang’s intervention of rural regeneration was given a gesture which makes people feel like it is something new that grew out of the past of the rural land. 60SummaryChapter IIArchitect-led GentrificationBamboo Craft VillageDaoming63Daoming Town is located in Daoming County, Chongzhou City, Sichuan province, more than 50 kilometers away from the urban area. It is a village well-known for its enduring tradition of bam-boo-weaving. In Daoming, the practice of bamboo-weaving is not only a rural handicraft, but also an integral part of the way families and the community spend time together. 1 Daoming has the same issue like the rest of the Chinese countryside – the exodus of the young population. The architect Philip f. Yuan attempted to create a rural infrastructure system integrated with culture industry and tourism. The renewal project consists of planning of multi-leveled public space including plaza, pub-lic furniture etc. , re-organization of road system, introduction of an agricultural landscape water puri-fication system, design and construction of 7 public buildings (a community center, a bed & breakfast, a bamboo-weaving culture center, a village service center, a tourist center, a campground). 21   Bianchini, Riccardo. “Building a Future Countryside – The China Pavilion | 16th Venice Biennale 2018”. Inexhibit. 13 August, 2018. https://www.inexhibit.com/case-studies/building-future-countryside-china-pavilion-16th-venice-biennale-2018/ Accessed 2 Dec 2019.2   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019.64Fig. 38 Location of Daoming, Sichuan Province, China.Daoming1 Daoming Town is planning to launch seasonal cultural events such as art fest or construction fest where the making, processing and consumption of bamboo-weaving articles are fully displayed. It is hoped by Yuan that the project could become a model or a system that other villages can follow to attract people back to the countryside as he puts it that architecture is not just about space and form but also about social networks. 21   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019.2   Angelopoulou, Sofia Lekka. “Archi-union nterview reveals details of chinese bamboo pavilion at venice biennale.” Design-boom, 31st May, 2018. https://www.designboom.com/architecture/archi-union-interview-chinese-bamboo-pavilion-venice-bienna-le-05-31-2018/ Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019.Fig. 39 In Bamboo Community Center during Daytime & Nighttime © Designboom65 66In Bamboo is a multi-functional community center capable of dining, meeting, exhibition, and other community events. The overlapping roof is supported by a system of light steel and wood construc-tion. 70 percent of the construction was completed by optimized pre-fabrication which allows the complicated geometry to be completed in 52 days. 1 The serpentine roof canopy naturally sweeps down and defines two interior yards, providing a rich experience between what is inside and what is outside. The building is finished with local grey tiles for roof and bamboo-weaving for façade, which is the shared language of materiality in this rural renewal project.1   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019. In Bamboo Community CenterFig. 40 Site Plan of the In Bamboo Community Center © DesignboomFig. 42 In Bamboo Community Center Section A - A © DesignboomFig. 41 In Bamboo Community Center Floor Plan © Designboom67Fig. 44 In Bamboo Community Center Elevation © DesignboomFig. 43 In Bamboo Community Center Elevation  © Designboom6869Fig. 46 Form & Structure Generation of the In Bamboo Community Center © DesignboomFig. 45 In Bamboo Community Center Detail © Designboom707147487250495173Yuan and his team looked at the structural limits of bamboo as a primary structural system through working with a local artisan who modeled over 20 variations of weaving patterns using thin bamboo strips.11   Azzarello, Nina. “archi-union’s bamboo pavilion in china is shaped like a giant infinity symbol.” Designboom, 2nd May, 2018. https://www.designboom.com/architecture/archi-union-in-bamboo-infinity-pavilion-chongzhou-china-05-02-2018/ Accessed 18th Dec, 2019.Fig. 52 Site Plan of the In Bamboo Community Center © Designboom Fig. 53 An Experimental Sculptural Bamboo Pavilion at the Entrance of the Project © Designboom7475As the gateway of Daoming Town, the tourist center serves as a bus drop-off point and a parking lot. The central open space is surrounded by functional spaces including service hall, souvenir shop, exhibition hall and open timber structure with great view to the flowering fields. 1 The timber frame structure is integrated with brick walls.   1   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019.  Bamboo Craft Village Tourist CenterFig.54 Entrance & Aerial View of the Bamboo Craft Village Tourist Center© Archdaily Fig.55 Entrance & Exhibition Space of the Dingzhizhu Bamboo-weaving Culture Cente © Archdaily76Dingzhizhu Bamboo-weaving culture center is an outcome of integrating 2 farm houses that origi-nally existed on site into a unified streamlined volume which incorporates exhibition, workshop and tea-drinking spaces. 1 Under the open and flowing linear roof, visitors are able to enjoy the produc-tion, teaching and display of the bamboo weaving process in the shuttle flow.   1   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019. Dingzhizhu Bamboo-weaving Culture Center77Fig.56 Entrance & Interior View of the Zhuli Bed & Breakfast (B&B) © ArchdailyZhuli Bed & Breakfast (B&B)Zhuli B&B is located on the former dormitories of Academy of Fine Arts on the hillside behind the village and compactly scattered in the woods. 1 Visitors can take a battery car to get to the mountain and walk to the small village through a tranquil and idyllic process of approach. The patio created by the double-curvature roof not only avoids the transplantation of the trees on site but also meets the need of interior lighting.   1   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019. Fig.57 Public Plaza & Public Furniture underneath the Pedestrian Bridge © Archdaily78The Fifth Space is located in the center of the village, facing the public square and flowering field with forest trays and canals at the back. As the villager service center, it incorporates teahouse, play areas for kids, viewing platform, express delivery, ATM, restroom and is equipped with a small parking lot. 1 The “X” shaped pedestrian bridge stretches over the site, providing seats for rest and view to the flower fields and village roads below. The building follows the unified architectural language in this project - a curvilinear cross section roof, which is supported by a steel-wood hybrid structure, with the use of bamboo-molded concrete walls. 1   Han, Shuang. “Bamboo Craft Village / Archi-Union Architects”. Archdaily, 24 May, 2018.  https://www.archdaily.com/894982/bamboo-craft-village-archi-union-architects Accessed 3rd Dec, 2019. The Fifth Space Village Service CenterLOCAL GOVERNMENT FUNDING & COMMISION OF ARCHITECTVISION FOR THE VILLAGEBY A TALENTED PROFESSIONALINTRODUCTION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURALGEOMETRY & ADVANCEDBUILDING TECHNIQUES INTEGRATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURALGEOMETRY & BAMBOOWEAVING CRAFT RISE TO FAMEACROSS CHINA    ARRIVAL OF EXTERNALCAPITAL & INVESTMENT    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERS RISE OF BAMBOO WEAVINGINDUSTRY, GUESTHOUSE& CATERINGDAOMINGBEIGOUA LINE STARTED BY AN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPERA DYING VILLAGE WITH PROXIMITY & VIEW TO THE GREAT WALL A DYING VILLAGE FEATUREDBY TRADITIONAL BAMBOOWEAVING CRAFTBROUGHT-IN IDEAS,SOCIAL RELATIONS & CAPITALTRANSFORMATION INTO MODERN VOCATIONHOMES WITH VIEW TOTHE GREAT WALL    NEW JOB & EXTRAINCOME FOR VILLAGERSAS STAFF &  SHAREHODLERARRIVAL OF VISITORS     ARRIVAL OF TOURISTS    VILLAGERS’ IMITATIONOF THE SUCCESSFUL MODEL    BOOM OF GUESTHOUSEINDUSTRY & RISE OF PROPERTY VALUE   A RENEWED VILLAGED LEASE BETWEENDEVELOPER & VILLAGERRECONSTRUCTION / RENOVATION OF EMPTY / RUN-DOWN HOUSES 79Fig. 58 Diagram of the Architect-led Gentrification of Daoming8081Fig. 59 Diagram of the Public Nodes and Circulation of DaomingDaoming Town shares similar social context with Beikeng and is seeking to develop its cultural in-dustry and tourism featured by its intangible heritage – bamboo craft. Taking Daoming Town as an experimental prototype, the architect Yuan attempt to propose a model of rural renewal covers mul-ti-leveled public space, agricultural infrastructure (road system & waterway), buildings which serves the community and tourism. This model could be an important reference for Beikeng Village in terms of its coverage and multi-leveled form of rural intervention. Yuan’s intervention of renewal did not attempt to insert itself into the historic fabric of the Daoming Town but chose to sit at the periphery of the settlement, giving the project an image of something new expanding from the historic core of the rural land. One reason might be Yuan’s introduction of complex modern architectural language supported by advanced building techniques of robotic prefabrication. Yuan tried to mitigate the possible overwhelming effect of such foreign architectural language by applying local materials such as grey tiles, bamboo and keeping certain distance from the traditional settlement. This strategy of reconciliation between the new and the past could be a refer-ence for Beikeng Village in the case of introducing modern architectural language including form, geometry and techniques.82SummaryChapter IIIi. Urbanization in China83Since the Reform and Open Up initiated by Deng in 1978, China’s accelerated urbanization has been transforming the country from a backward agricultural society to a modernized industrial society through a series of radical institutional transitions. It is multi-layered story in spatial, demographic, economic, social dimensions. In its simplest and most apparent form, it refers to a shift in the pro-portion of total population demographically defined as rural as opposed to urban.1 In China, it has occurred as the urban population has grown from 17.9 percent in 1978 to 54.8 percent in 2014.2 1   Logan, John R. Urban China in Transition. Blackwell Pub, Malden, MA, 2008, pp. 25. 2   Zhang, Li, et al. Understanding China’s Urbanization: The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic, and Social Transformation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 2016, pp. 12. 84Fig. 60 Urban Population VS Rural Population from 1978 to 201417.9 %54.8 %45.2 %Urban PopulationRural Population1978201482.1 %Chapter IIIii. Vanishing Villages85Just like the cities urbanized in an unprecedented rate, the villages in modern China have been undergoing rapid transformation during the past 4 decades. Between 2000 to 2010, the number of villages in China dropped from 3.7 million to 2.6 million, a daily loss of around 300 villages either absorbed as part of urban sprawl or abandoned due to the out-migration of rural population. 1 Some efforts have been made by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the Peo-ple’s Republic of China (MOHURD) to preserve the architectural heritage in rural areas by 5 waves of official shortlists designating “China’s Traditional Villages” since 2012. According to the Rating System for the Appraisal and Selection of the Traditional Villages, MOHURD applied qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate candidate villages mainly from 3 aspects including architectural heritage, settlement layout, intangible cultural heritage. 2 So far, 6,799 villages have been chosen for conservation and tourism-led regeneration while the left 2.5 million more non-listed villages are van-ishing gradually. 3 Beikeng, the proposed site for this thesis located deep in the mountains of Fujian Province, is one of those non-listed villages. 1   Qin, Amy. “Architects Seize on Potential in China’s Countryside.” The New York Times, 17 June, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/18/arts/design/architects-see-potential-in-chinas-countryside.html. Accessed 27 Oct 2019.2   Cao, Yingchun. & Zhang, Yukun. “Appraisal and Selection of ‘Chinese Traditional Village’ and Study on the Village Distribution”. Architectural Journal, no. 12, 2013, pp.44.3   Ren, Xiang. “China’s ‘barefoot architects’ are transforming left-behind rural villages.” The Conversation, 22 Aug, 2019. https://theconversation.com/chinas-barefoot-architects-are-transforming-left-behind-rural-villages-122161. Accessed 27 Oct 2019.86Fig. 61 Proportion of Listed Villages by 20190.003 %Listed VillagesNon-listed Villages99.997 %Chapter IIIiii. Site AnalysisBeikeng Village, Jukou County87In 2018 summer, I participated in the research project “Heritage-zation in Conservation Practice in Rural Villages of China – Case Study in Jukou, Fujian” supervised by Dr. Yiping Dong from Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. The research team investigated on 5 villages in Jukou county, Fujian Province – Beikeng Village, Guyuan Village, Yuqing Village, Shangpu Village, and Jiulong Village. Among these 5 villages, Guyuan, Yuqing, and Shangpu Villages have been enrolled in the Fifth Batch of the Official Listed “China’s Traditional Villages” on June 6th, 2018. 1 Beikeng Village is currently working towards the title of “China’s Traditional Villages” and in the process of preparing documen-tations of its cultural and landscape resources for the submission to MOHURD. One of the practical meanings of this research in collaboration with the Government of Jukou County is to produce ma-terials and documentations of non-listed villages like Beikeng for future evaluation. 1 MOHURD (The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China). The Fifth Batch of the Official Listed “China’s Traditional Villages”. Beijing: MOHURD, 2018. Web. http://www.mohurd.gov.cn/wjfb/201906/t20190620_240922.html Accessed 18 Dec 2019.88Fig. 62 Location of Beikeng, Fujian Province, China.Beikeng89Fig. 58 Diagram of the Architect-led Gentrification of DaomingFig. 63 Locations of the 5 Chosen Villages for Research in Jukou County, Fujian Province, China900 M 500 M91 92Between the sacred mountaintop Fengshui forest (Fengshuilin) and the earthly terraced rice fields lies the settlement of ancient Cuo in Beikeng Village. One of the most well-preserved family dwelling, Xiaxin Cuo, was chosen for surveying and measuring in the 2018 heritage-zation research. Similar to other rural areas across China, young people from Beikeng are migrating into cities for job and education, leaving the elderly and pre-school children behind. The absence of youth labor force to cultivate and maintain the fields would probably lead to the deterioration of the specular cultural landscape of rice terraces with which local festivals and rituals are interwoven with. Furthermore, owing to the out-migration of long-term residents, a number of historic vernacular dwellings are subject to disrepair and even collapse. 646566676869Art Fest and International Heritage Conservation Workcamp are two forms of annual events ini-tiated by Shanghai Ruan Yishan Heritage Foundation and Yanping District government to attract academy and artists to bring new energy to the dying villages in Jukou County. During 2019 Yanping Art Harvest in the Village,  the faculty of Architecture Department of Xi’an-Jiaotong Liverpool Uni-versity designed and installed an Artwork Seats for Seeing in Beikeng, which provides seating and view to the most importmant building in the village - Xiaxin Cuo. Held jointly by Union Rempart (France) and Shanghai Ruan Yishan Heritage Foundation, the International Heritage Conservaton Workcamp has attracted university students across the country or oversea to  repair local relics each year during summertime since 2017. 1 These two forms of annual events which have been happening since 2017 indicates a way to access media exposure and attract vistors for those unknown villages with stunnnig rural landcape and cultural heritage like Beikeng.      1 Luo, Guangyao. “Volunteers build appreciation for architectural heritage.” Chinadaily, 3rd Sep, 2018. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/fujian/2018-09/03/content_36859371.htm Accessed 18 Dec, 201 93 94Fig. 70 Artistic Installation in Beikeng during Yanping Art Fest, 2019. Fig. 71 Artistic installation provides seats and view to Xiaxin Cuo. Fig. 72 2018 International Heritage Conservation Workcamp, Jiulong, Fujian Province. 95 96Fig. 73  Aerial View of Beikeng Fig. 74 Village Plan of Beikeng97 98Fig. 75 Land Use of BeikengResidentialReligious / AncestralCommercialMixed-usedEducationalFig. 76 Water System of Beikeng99 Fig. 77 Site PlanStreamTerraced FieldsIdeal Rice-fish / Rice-duck Paddies100Beikeng village is surrounded by 3 clusters of hills and situated on a valley-like topography. Ances-tors of villagers in Beikeng who initially chose this site to settle down made up their mind based on ancient Fengshui Theory, known as Chinese geomancy to harmonize human beings with natural and built environment. Buildings are basically against the hills and facing to the rice terraces, following the topography. 2 streams coming down from the hills supplies water for life and irrigation. This type of forest-Cuo-terrace-stream settlement layout has been well preserved and added significant credits to Beikeng’s qualification for “China’s Traditional Village”.The local traditional way of rice-duck and rice-fish farming is gradually dying because of the depop-ulation of rice farmers. Such symbiotic agricultural system with cultural significance and economic potential deserves preservation and renewal. Since this kind of hybrid rice farming requires certain area and shape of the rice paddies, a number of ideal rice-fish and rice-duck paddies are annotated in the site plan.     101 102Fig. 78 Site SectionSurvey & Measuring SubjectXiaxin Cuo下新厝This site section cutting through the forest, Cuo, rice terrace, and stream shows the traditional settlement layout. The building in the center is the survey and measuring subject for documentation of Beikeng as potential “China’s Traditional Village” candidate. Xianxin Cuo is the most well-preserved family house with vernacular typological significance. Cuo / 厝 in Chinese means big family house for farmers of high social class. Xiaxin Cuo was originally built in 1760s, QingDynasty by the first son of the Scholar Huang, a local  squire with the highest social status in the village. The ownership of Xiaxin Cuo had been passed on to every local governor before the founding of the People’s Republic of China. 103 104798081828384Fig. 79 Exterior View of Xiaxin CuoFig. 80 Interior Wall Detail - “Bantiao Mo Hui / 板条抹灰” Bamboo strips covered with plaster            (in well-preserved condition)Fig. 81 View of the Introverted Courtyard with Variations in ElevationFig. 82 Interior Wall Detail - “Bantiao Mo Hui / 板条抹灰” Bamboo strips covered with plaster            (bamboo-weaving wall exposed)Fig. 83 View from the main hall looking to the opening that frames the landscapeFig. 84 View from the 3rd floor hallway105 106Fig. 85  South Elevation Fig. 89  Section B - BFig. 90  Section A - AFig. 88  West ElevationFig. 86  Roof PlanFig. 87  Ground Floor PlanXiaxin Cuo is a timber-structured courtyard house with typological significance in vernacular ar-chitecture in China. It responses to the topography with variation in elevation. Its well-preserved detailing of bamboo-weaving wall covered with plaster is found locally unique in Fujian province.107 108109 110111112Feb 3 - 5 START OF SPRING&PANGONG’SDAYZHANGGONG’SDAYMID-AUTUMNFESTIVAL&SPRING FESTIVAL&LANTERNFESTIVAL&WINTERFESTIVALLiChun立夏小满芒种雨水谷雨惊蛰清明春分May 5 - 7 START OF SUMMERMay 20 - 22 GRAIN BUDSMar 19 - 22 SPRINGEQUINOXMar 5 - 6 AWAKENINGOF INSECTSApr 4 - 5 PURE BRIGHTNESSFeb 18 - 20 RAIN WATERApr 19 - 21 GRAIN RAINJun 5 - 7GRAININ EARMangZhongXiaoManYuShuiGuYuJing ZheChun FenQing MingLiXia大暑立秋 处暑 白露寒露秋分小暑夏至Jul 6 - 8LESSERHEATJul 22 - 24GREATERHEATAug 7 - 9START OFAUTUMNAug 22 - 24END OF HEATSep 7 - 8WHITE DEWOct 8 - 9COLD DEWSep 22 - 24AUTUMNEQUINOXXiaoShuDaShuLiQiu ChuShu BaiLu QiuFenHanLuXiaZhiJun 20 - 22SUMMERSOLSTICE24 SOLAR TERMS IN CHINESE LUNAR CALDENDER立春大寒小雪 立冬霜降 小寒大雪冬至Jan 19 - 21 GREATER COLDJan 4 - 6LESSER COLDDec 6 - 8GREATERSNOWNov 21 - 23LESSERSNOWNov 7 - 8START OFWINTEROct  22 - 24DESCENTOF FROSTDec 21 - 23WINTERSOLSTICEDongZhiXiaoHanShuangJiangLiDongXiaoXueDaXueDaHan2ND RICE SEASONHARVEST SEASONHARVEST SEASON1ST RICE SEASONFALLOW SEASON113 114Fig. 94 Beikeng’s Lunar Calendar based on 24 Solar TermsBeikeng’s lunar Calendar is divided by solar terms into 24  micro seasons. It  was invented by ancient farmers to guide agricultural production by observing sun and climate. This is not only a knowl-edge system of climate, but also one of folk customs and festivals.  The lunar cycle goes in the anticlockwise direction, begin-ing with its first solar term called start of spring in Feb 3 - 5. It divides the circle into 3 seasons - 2 seasons of rice cultiva-tion and 1 fallow season when the land gets rest and farm-ers work on rice processing and preparation for celebration.  The 2 seasons of rice harvest are busiest time of the year, when migrant workers in the cities will come back and help with their parents. For those who leave their kids with grandparents, it’s the time for time to reunite. It’s also a peak tourist season since the rice turned into golden at this time.     24 Solar Terms 115Fig. 95 Demographic Change in the Local Calendar116立春大寒小雪 立冬霜降 小寒大雪冬至DongZhiXiaoHanShuangJiangLiDongXiaoXueDaXueDaHan1ST RICE SEASON HARVEST HARVEST2ND RICE SEASON FALLOW SEASONGrandparents& GrandkidLifestyle EntrepreneurLifestyle EntrepreneurTourists (Peak) Reunited 3-Generation FamilyLifestyle EntrepreneurTourists Reunited 3-Generation FamilyLiChun立夏小满芒种雨水谷雨惊蛰清明春分MangZhonXiaoManYuShuiGuYuJing ZheChun FenQing MingLiXia大暑立秋处暑白露寒露秋分小暑夏至XiaoShuDaShuLiQiuChuShuBaiLuQiuFenHanLuXiaZhi117“They have often heard of the death of some elders in the village. And they will say, ‘The old house would never be lit any more once the elder passed away.’The old man passed away. The ligth went out.More and more houses in the village are falling into darkness when the night fall.”Shengxian, Huang.Village Head of Beikeng118Chapter IVDesign ProposalRural Renewal Model for Beikeng119In order to avoid destructive implications such as spatial relocation, cultural displacement and disin-tegration that occurred in the gentrification of Dali, this thesis proposes a proactive and bottom-up approach by which 3 types of long-term residents play the leading role in the renewal process. The conceptual model for Beikeng village is shown in the diagram above as an an incremental process started by the arrival of lifestyle entrepreneurs, pushed by the involvement of local entrepreneurs and eventually attracts return entrepreneurs to come back to their homeland.1203 Agents of RenewalChapter IVi. Conceptual ModelLIFESTYLE ENTREPRENEURARRIVAL2025 2030 2035INVOLVEMENT RETURNLOCAL ENTREPRENEURTIMELINE FOR 3 AGENTS OF RENEWALRETURN ENTREPRENEURTEACHLEARNATTRACTLEARNFig. 96   3 Agents of Renewal and their relations122121LIFESTYLE ENTREPRENEURAFFINITY TO RUAL LANDSCAPEWILLINGNESS TO SHARE & HELPDESIRE OF CONSERVATIONI USED TO WORK IN OFFICE AND GOT TIRED OF CITY LIFE.I LOVE THE GREAT VEIW HERE SO I STARTED MY OWN BUSINESSHERE. I HOPE I COULD BRINGSOME ENERGY TO THIS EMPTYVILLAGE WIHOUT DESTROYING ANYTHING.   BUSINESS& SOCIAL NETWORKCAPITALNEW IDEAS& BUSINESS SKILLSFig. 97 Diagram of Lifestyle Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributionsLifestyle Entrepreneurs are previous dwellers who choose to abandon fast-paced and polluted urban living and migrate to the countryside seeking for a new relaxed and idyllic way of living. To make their living on rural lands, Lifestyle En-trepreneurs may start their own guesthouse business with capital, social network, new ideas and business skills they brought from the cities. These lifestyle-seeking entrepreneurs are not primarily profit orientated and share similar reasons for relocating: affinity to rural landscape, the desire for preservation, and the willingness to help and share knowledge with the local community. LOCAL ENTREPRENEURIF WE COULD ATTRACT TOURISTSTO COME, WE DON’T HAVE TO RELY SOLELY ON FARMING. WE MAY MAKEENOUGH MONEY RIGHT IN HOMWTOWNWITHOUT GOING TO SOMEWHERE ELSE.IF SO, OUR YOUNG PEOPLE MIGHT COMEBACK TOO. WE MAY SEE THOSE ‘GOOD OLD DAYS’ AGAIN.   LABOUR FORCE & SERVICEFARMLAND, LIVESTOCK & PROPERTYKNOWLEDGE OFRURAL LANDSADDITIONAL INCOMEBESIDES FARMINGRETURN OF THE LOSTCOMMUNITY MEMEBRSVISION FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN VILLAGE123 124Fig. 98 Diagram of Local Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributionsLocal Entrepreneurs are local villagers who start their own business in tourism industry such as guesthouse, catering, or tour guide service etc. by learning from with the new villagers - Lifestyle Entrepreneurs. Local Entrepreneurs are able to provide their unique tourism service with farmland, livestock, house property, and most importantly, their knowledge on rural land and local culture. To make a living solely by farming is getting increasingly arduous and low-profit. By getting involved in the tourism industry, Local Entrepreneurs are able to maintain their rice terraces and rural way of living without migrating into cities for job.Return Entrepreneurs are migrant villagers who return to their hometown and start their own business after seeing their fellow villagers’ success in local tourism industry. It is not difficult for them to start with the ready-made example of Local Entrepreneurs, knowledge and skills they learnt from cities, accumulated capital from years of working and their rural properties. As thus Return Entrepreneurs are about to reunite with their families and rebuild their connection to local community and to the rural land. 125 126RETURN ENTREPRENEUR PROPERTYNEW IDEAS& BUSINESS SKILLSFAMILY REUNIONCULTURAL TIE TORURAL LAND & NOSTALGIAVISION FOR BUSINESSOPPORTUNITIESI HAVE BEEN WORKING IN BIG CITIES FOR YEARS. NOW I’M GOING HOME TO START MY OWN BUSINESS THERE. AS I SAW SOME POTENTIAL. I’VE EARNED SOME MONEY AND MY EXPERIENCE IN CITY WOULD HELP TOO. NOW I’M ABLE TO WORK AND  TAKE CARE OF MY AGING PARENTS AT THE SAME TIME. KNOWLEDGE OFRURAL LANDSFig. 99 Diagram of Return Entrepreneur’s thoughts, statement and contributions127VISION FOR THE RENEWAL OF BEIKENG BY A PROFESSIONALPROPOSAL FOR PLANNING,ARCHITECTURE, LANDSCAPESEASONAL ART FESTINITIATED BY LOCAL GOVERMENTMEDIA EXPOSURE OFART FEST IN THE VILLAGEARRIVAL OF THELIFESTYLE ENTREPRENEURPARTICIPATION OF THELOCAL ENTREPRENEURIN LOCAL TOURISMEMERGENCE OF AGRITAINMENTADDITIONAL INCOMEBESIDES FARMING SPREADING NEWS OF THESUCCESS OF AGRITAINMENTWITHIN THE COMMUNITYEMERGENCE OF GUESTHOUSE &CATERING ARRIVAL OF TOURISTSLOCAL GOVERNMENT FUNDING & COMMISION OF ARCHITECTUNDERPOPULATED VILLAGE WITH IDYLLIC RICE TERRECE,& HERITAGE REPOPULATED VILLAGE WITH IDYLLIC RICE TERRECE,& HERITAGE RESTRUCTURE OF LOCAL COMMUNITYHOMECOMING OF THERETURN ENTREPRENEURPARTICIPATION OF THERETURN ENTREPRENEURIN LOCAL TOURISMREUNION OF SEPARETEDRURAL FAMILIES128Fig. 100 Diagram of the Renewal Process of Beikeng129Fig. 101 Proposed CirculationVehicle AccessPathTo the forest130Chapter IVii. Masterplan Phasing131 132By 2025 Lifestyle EntrepreneurFamily-run GuesthouseTea HouseBy 2030By 2035Fig. 102  Phasing 2020 - 2035 Fig. 103  Phasing 2020 - 2025 & ProgramThe phasing of this renewal model has been divided into 3 steps, which might take about 5 years to proceed. Briefly, the first five-year focuses on reconstruction or renovation of existing buildings invested by external capital. The second five-year introduces small-scale new construction and me-dium-scale reconstruction invested by internal capital. The last five-year leads to medium-scale new construction and large-scale  reconstruction or renovation invested by internal capital and the reflux capital returning from urban areas. The first phasing is featured by the arrival of the lifestyle entrepreneurs who start to renovate or reconstruct several unoccupied Cuos. After that, they move in and start their family-run guesthouse business. 2020 - 2035 2020 - 2025133 134酒酒Township GovernmentLifestyle EntrepreneurLocal EntrepreneurBus StopHoney WorkshopGazelle-pumpkin House B & BTea HouseLocal KitchenRice Wine BrewpubBamboo Crafts WorkshopReturn EntrepreneurLocal CommunityGazelle-pumpkin HouseDaycare + Rice WorkshopGuesthouseFamily-run GuesthouseRenovationFig. 105  Phasing 2030 - 2035 & ProgramFig. 104  Phasing 2025 - 2030 & Program酒酒酒酒The rising of guesthouse business brings money and visitors to the village, which shows the potential of tourism here. Some perceptive locals start to add attachment to existing structures such as bee keeper’s honey workshop or the gazelle – pumpkin house of gazelle keeper. Besides, more lifestyle entrepreneurs enter the village with various business – B & B, tea house, and brewpub. The village committee believes it’s a great time to invest on the rising tourism so some community investment occurs, such as local kitchen, bamboo crafts workshop, and tea house. The township government, which is one level above the village committee, contributes in constructing a bus stop as infrastructure for this project.Benefiting from the booming tourism, now the community have the money to build a community Cuo for daycare and rice workshop. They also plan to renovate one communal housing and one heritage Cuo because these buildings carry the memory of several generations of villagers. 2025 - 2030 2030 - 2035135 136Chapter IViii. Story of Beikeng Village137 138Fig. 106 Narrative Section1. Huang’s Family Cuo2. Rice Wine Cuo 3. Beikeng Cuo4. Rice Terraces 5. Hejian Tea House139 140Fig. 107  Huang’s Family Cuo141 142Fig. 108  Rice Wine Cuo143 144Fig. 109  Beikeng Cuo145 146Fig. 110  Rice Terrace147 148Fig. 111 Hejian Tea House149 150Fig. 112 Panoramic View of Beikeng Village151 152153 154155 156157 158159 160161 162163 164165 166167 168169 170Fig. 113 Views embedded in solar termsLiChun立夏小满芒种雨水谷雨惊蛰清明春分MangZhongXiaoManYuShuiGuYuJing ZheChun FenQing MingLiXia大暑立秋 处暑 白露寒露秋分小暑夏至XiaoShuDaShuLiQiu ChuShu BaiLu QiuFenHanLuXiaZhi立春大寒小雪 立冬霜降 小寒大雪冬至DongZhiXiaoHanShuangJiangLiDongXiaoXueDaXueDaHan2ND RICE SEASONHARVEST SEASONHARVEST SEASON1ST RICE SEASONFALLOW SEASONGrain in Ear / 芒 种Major Heat / 大 暑 Mid-autumn / 中 秋Rain Water / 雨 水171 172Rain Water / 雨 水 When the air becomes moist and more rain is falling on earth, it’s the time to begin the spring plant-ing of the first season of rice.Grain in Ear / 芒 种Grain in Ear is a  solar term to harvest the first season of rice and start planting the second season soon after. Meanwhile, the fish and duck are ready for the table now.Fig. 114 View of Rain Water Fig. 115 View of Grain in Ear173 174Major Heat / 大 暑It is the time of year when the duration of the sunshine is the longest, the temperature is the highest, the rainfall is the greatest, and the thunderstorms come the most frequently.Mid-autumn / 中 秋During this festival, migrant workers come back to their homeland to reunite with their parents and kids. Each family have mooncakes together and enjoy the full moon outdoor. Traditionally, the full moon means reunion in Chinese culture.Fig. 116 View of Major Heat Fig. 117 View of Mid-autumnBibliography175 176Ahlburg, Dennis A., and Richard P. C. 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Criteria  Criteria Subdivision   Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit  Credit Quantitative Assessment  1 History Time of Construction of the Existing Oldest Building  Before 1644: 4 1644-1912: 3 1912-1949: 2 1949-1980: 1 4  Time of the Concentrated Construction of the Architectural Complex Before 1912: 6 1912-1949: 4 1949-1980: 3 6  2 Rareness Class of Culture Relic Protection Site  National: 5 (+2 per site if there’re more than 2 sites) Provincial: 3 (+1 per site if there’re more than 2 sites) Prefectural: 2 (+1 per site if there’re more than 2 sites) Included in Archaeological survey: 1 (+0.5 per site if there’re more than 2 sites) 10  3  Scale  Building Footprint of the Traditional Architecture  > 5 ha: 15-20 3-5 ha: 10-14 1-3 ha: 5-9 0-1 ha: 0-4 20  4 Proportion  Site Area of the Traditional Architecture over the Construction Land  > 60%: 12-15 40-60%: 8-11 15  5 Variety  Types of Building Functions  Residential/Commercial/Defensive/Postal/Ancestral/Religious/Educatiotnal etc. 2 for each type. 10  Method NO. Criteria  Criteria Subdivision   Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit  Credit Qualitative   Assessment 6 Completeness Preservation Condition of the Existing Traditional Architecture & its surroundings  1. The existing traditional architecture (or complex) with its surroundings is well preserved in a unified traditional style; still occupied. 12-15 2. The existing traditional architecture (or complex) with its surroundings is relatively well preserved despite some incongruous construction; still occupied. 8-11 3. Part of the existing traditional architecture (or complex) has 15  1811. Rating System for the Appraisal of Traditional Architecture182 collapsed but its structure framework remains. Part of the architectural details is well preserved with certain time features. The surrounding has been somewhat damaged by incongruous construction.  4-7 4. Most of the existing traditional architecture (or complex) has collapsed but some structural components or details remains with certain time features. The surrounding has been greatly damaged by incongruous construction. 0-3 7 Craftmanship & Aesthetics Value  Aesthetic Value of Architectural Form, Structure, Material, Decoration etc.  1. Forms, structure, material (processing, regional material), decoration (timber/stone/brick carving, painting, pavement/door/window/partition etc.) have typical regional or national characteristics with unique construction techniques, fine details and high aesthetic value. 9-12 2. Form, structure, material, and decoration have general features of the regional culture and aesthetics. Some of the building are decorated with details of relatively high aesthetic value. 5-8  3. Form, structure, material, and decoration have no regional nor national characteristics but reflect local features. 0-4  12  8 Inheritance of the Traditional Construction Techniques  Application of Traditional Construction Techniques to newly built construction  1. Traditional material, tools and craft have been greatly applied in newly built construction which follows the traditional architectural style and rules. The building crafts have typical regional feature and become intangible culture heritage. 8-10 2. Traditional material, tools and craft have been applied in newly built construction which follows the traditional architectural style and rules. The building crafts have typical regional feature. 5-7     Type  NO. Criteria  Criteria Subdivision   Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit  Credit Quantitative Assessment  1 History Time of the Formation of the Village   Before 1912: 5 1912-1949: 3 After 1949: 1 5  2 Variety Elements of the Existing Historic Environment  Ancient riverway, commercial street, public architecture, fortress, gate, wharf, pavilion, ancient tree etc. Each for 2.  15  Type  NO. Criteria  Criteria Subdivision   Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit  Credit Qualitative Assessment  3 Completeness Preservation Conditional of the Traditional Layout of the Village   1. The traditional layout of the village is well preserved. The street system is complete. The traditional public facility is still in use and closely connected to production and living. The overall style of the village is united without any incongruous new building. 26-30 2. The village basically keeps the traditional layout. Street system is relatively complete. The traditional public facility is still in use and connected to production and living. The incongruous new buildings haven’t influenced the overall style of the village. 16-25 3. Part of the traditional layout is preserved in concentrated clusters of buildings. The original street system could be seen from an overall picture. The traditional public facility is out of use. A number of incongruous new buildings have affected the overall traditional style. 6-15 4. Some of the framework of the traditional layout is preserved. The original street system could be seen from scattered details. The traditional public facility is completely out of use. Plenty of incongruous new buildings result in the chaotic of the townscape. 0-5    30   4  Cultural Value  Cultural/Historical/ 1. The siting, planning and construction 35   3. Traditional material, tools and craft have been somewhat applied in newly built construction which follows the traditional architectural style and rules to certain degrees. The building crafts have typical regional feature. 0-4 Total     100                                        183 1842. Rating System for the Layout of the Village  Archaeological value of the Siting and Planning of the Village  of the village demonstrate typical regional/historical/national features with high cultural/historical/archaeological value. The village and its surroundings clearly show the culture and historic background of the siting process. 25-35 2. The siting, planning and construction of the village show certain regional and cultural value. The village and its surroundings indicate the culture and historic background of the siting process. 15-24 3. The siting, planning and construction of the village show local features. The village and its surroundings somewhat imply the culture and historic background of the siting process. 0-14  5 Harmony  Harmonious Coexistence between the Village and its Surrounding Environment  1. The surrounding environment is well preserved and coexist with the village, reflecting the original siting concept. 11-15 2. The surrounding environment has changed to certain degree but still kept in harmony with the village, reflecting the original siting concept. 5-10 3. The surrounding environment has been damaged greatly and conflicted with the development of the village. The original siting concept cannot be seen. 0-4  15  Total     100        185 186 Subdivision   Credit   1 Rareness  Class of the Intangible Cultural Heritage  International: 15 National: 10 Provincial: 5 15   2  Richness  Type of the Intangible Cultural Heritage National: 2 per heritage Provincial: 1 per heritage  5   3  Continuity  Duration of the Continuous Inheritance  > 100 years: 15 > 50 years: 8 15   4 Scale  Scale of the Inheritance Activities  The whole village: 5 > 30 persons: 4 10-30 persons: 3 < 10 persons: 2 5   5 Inheritor  Representative Inheritor  National/Provincial Inheritor: 5 Prefectural Inheritor: 3 None: 0  5  Type  NO. Criteria  Criteria Subdivision   Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit  Credit  6 Vitality  Situation of Inheritance  1. In well inheritance and vitality: 25 2. In lack of management: 18 3. In imminent danger: 10 25   7 Dependency  Dependency of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Related Ritual, Inheritor, Material, Craft and Other Practices on the Village and its Surrounding Environment  1. Heritage related material, processing, activity and its space, organization and management are closely related to the unique physical environment of the village. 26-30 2. The space needed for inheritance activity relies on the physical environment of the village. The activities are managed and organized by the villagers. 16-25 3. The inheritance activity and organization are connected with the village. 6-15 4. The heritage can be inherited independently without the intervention of the village. 0-5 30  Total     100    Type  NO. Criteria  Criteria Rating Standard & Explanation  Full Credit 3. Rating System for the Intangible Cultural Heritage 

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