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Making Place : Structure as Catalyst Along the Fundy Footpath Francheville, Alex 2020-05

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M A K I N G  P L A C E :STRUCTURE AS CATALYST ALONG THE FUNDY FOOTPATHbyatAlex FranchevilleSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture and Master of Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, British ColumbiaMay 20202Wolf Beach.................................................................................................................................................................30Face of Martin Head............................................................................................................................................32Martin Head Beach...............................................................................................................................................34Goose Creek Beach...............................................................................................................................................36Chapter 6: STRUCTURES................................................................................................................................38Precedent Projects............................................................................................................................40Shelters by the Sea - LUMO Architects....................................................................................................40Ghost Lab- Brian MacKay-Lyons..................................................................................................................41The Cocoon...........................................................................................................................................46The Shacks.............................................................................................................................................52The Beacon...........................................................................................................................................66The Wharf...............................................................................................................................................74The Stand...............................................................................................................................................80The Chapel.............................................................................................................................................86The Smokehouse...............................................................................................................................92References..........................................................................................................................................................98Abstract.....................................................................................................................................................................ivThesis Statement.................................................................................................................................................VChapter 1: Introduction.....................................................................................................................................6     Introduction.............................................................................................................6Why this Project, Now?........................................................................................................................................6Thesis Question.........................................................................................................................................................7     Regional Context.....................................................................................................................................................7Chapter 2: Natural Landscape.....................................................................................................................8 Forest...............................................................................................................................................................................8Rock..................................................................................................................................................................................9Sea......................................................................................................................................................................................9Beach, Marsh, and Tidal Flats........................................................................................................................10Fog....................................................................................................................................................................................11Chapter 3: SITE USE..........................................................................................................................................11Historic Access..........................................................................................................................................................11Use Timeline...............................................................................................................................................................12Current Management Map..............................................................................................................................14 Chapter 4:  Site Users.......................................................................................................................................16Site User Essay......................................................................................................................................16Wilderness Adventurer.........................................................................................................................................16Local Residents..........................................................................................................................................................18Visting Off-road User..............................................................................................................................................19Car Tourist....................................................................................................................................................................20Eco-Worker...................................................................................................................................................................21Industrial Worker.......................................................................................................................................................21Site User Map.......................................................................................................................................22Chapter 5:  SITES.................................................................................................................................................22 Site Selection Map..........................................................................................................................26Seely Beach................................................................................................................................................................28CONTENTSThis thesis hopes to show:•  How “place” can be created through small interventions in a remote land   scape. • How this “place-making” can be a catalyst for developing community,    promoting ecological respect, and fostering deeper understanding    of the natural landscape.THESIS STATEMENTThis graduate project engages with five specific sites located along the Fundy Footpath, a sixty-one kilometer trail that runs along the southern coast of New Brunswick, on the Bay of Fundy. The goal is to create a strong sense of place through small interventions in a remote landscape.  This act of place-making serves as a catalyst for developing a sense of community, promoting ecological respect, and fostering a deeper understanding of the natural landscape, while generating important public revenue responsibly through Eco-tourism. For each site that I have chosen, I have designed a building inspired conceptual-ly and aesthetically by site-specific, local architectural precedents rooted in the history of coastal New Brunswick: the lighthouse, the fishing shack, the fishing stand, the smokehouse and the chapel.  These sites and accompanying structures embody a unique investigation of the current relationship that exists between twenty-first century humans and “the wilderness” and serves a platform for visitors to engage with each other, the nat-ural world and the history of the region.ABSTRACT6 7CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Eco-tourism, with camping as a main activity, is exploding. Since 2014, there have been more than six million new camping households in North America. In 2017 alone there was an increase of 2.6 million camping households in North America (Houghton 2018). The majority of these households camp as often as three times per year, which has increased by 64% since 2004. Along with the rise in camping as an activity of interest, there has a been a huge cultural fascination and attach-ment to the idea of the wilderness cabin.The field of architecture is equally intrigued by the wilderness cabin. Huge ar-chitecture firms such as BIG and Snøhetta have recently produced thoughtful, small-scale wilderness projects. There is a growing interest in the idea of strip-ping down architecture to a pure form of shelter. It is a form of contemporary minimalism. It also has to do with a growing desire in the west to foster a deeper sense of connection with our natural surroundings.This last idea brings me to my thesis question.Can modest design interventions bring people meaningfully closer to each other and the natural landscape?Regional ContextThe Fundy Footpath is located on south coast of New Brunswick. The Body of water it faces is called Bay of Fundy.I have spent half of my life on the Bay of Fundy. It is, undoubtedly, my favorite area in the world. Like many southern New Brunswickers, I feel as though this landscape is an essential part of my personal identity. Childhood summers were spent in a wonderland of rocks and forests, sandy beaches and sparkling water-falls. All this a short trot from St. Martin’s or Alma, the quaint coastal towns in which my family so often set up camp for a week or two at a time. These were family-friendly excursions, magical outdoor interludes, replete with the comforts of home. My understanding and appreciation of the outdoors spiked in 2013, when I hiked the arduous sixty-one kilometers of the Fundy Footpath for the first time. I was in awe. I completely lost track of time and space as I hiked through the enchanted mossy green woodland, waded waist deep through pristine, icy rivers, and relaxed on beaches with no signs of human activity in sight. I had it completely to myself. I was immersed in a beautiful landscape and, despite the exhausting and strenuous journey, I felt a calmness come over me.Along this first hike I came across many backcountry campsites that were in shambles. Due to a serious lack in funding, the trail’s sites and services had been left to rot. The dense forested ravines and sculpted sea floor were completely unique and distinct to this area, yet the human constructions contained no signs of the rich local cultural identity of this place. I have a personal and deeply felt ambition to fill in this gap and provide this service for this landscape that I love so much.Further down the trail I arrived at a beach called Martin Head. It was full of off-road vehicle enthusiasts with gigantic campfires fueled by propane, electric generators, and camps set-up to mirror the rustic luxuries of a rural home. On this same beach, over on the opposite side, I saw backpackers set up camps in-tentionally hidden from the commotion of the bustling beach. These two camps were going out of their way to create distance between one another. They were butting heads. The associations and expectations they held of this landscape were intensely different. These seemingly conflicted ways of integrating with the remote landscape were another problem that I vowed to resolve.Why this Project, Now?New Brunswick needs innovative design. New Brunswick is in an economic downfall. This year it has officially become Canada’s poorest province, with the worst economic growth rate in the country(Jones 2019). Currently, tourism visitor spending is estimated at $1.3 billion, making it the third largest export service sector in the New Brunswick Economy (New Brunswick Government 2018). New Brunswick’s biggest attraction is the Hopewell Rocks, which are located further down the Fundy coast from this project. New Brunswick’s most successful tour-ism attractions can be classified as eco-tourism, with some historic tourism.N E W  B R U N S W I C KNOVA SCOT IAM A I N EQ U E B E CP E IBay of  Fundy8 9CHAPTER 2: NATURAL LANDSCAPE FORESTThe Fundy Footpath runs through predominantly old growth Acadian Forest. This mixed forest is a dense tapestry of deciduous and coniferous trees. This forest type forms the transition between the deciduous forests of North Eastern Amer-ica and the Boreal Forest that spans across the rest of Canada. It is unique to the region and makes up only about 2% of Canada’s forested areas. (“Caledonia High-lands Plateau” 2019) The predominant tree species in the area are red spruce (Picea rubens), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), white birch (Betulla papyrifera), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and red maple (Acer rubrum). Overall, there are more than 34 tree species found in this area (refer-ence). This extremely diverse forest provides an equally diverse habitat for fauna. ROCKAlong the Fundy Footpath there is a dramatic display of a diversity of rock types. The rocky cliffs show a cross section of geological time exposed by the tides and past glaciers. Traveling along the coast, users witness the culmination of 400 mil-lion years, including some of the oldest and youngest rocks in the Maritimes. The rolling hills that break into the bay are the coastal extensions of the Appalachian Mountain Chain. Travelers bear witness to folded rocks, uplifts, faults, basaltic lava flows, elevated beaches and the solidified remains of old sand dunes. This area, that used to be a mountain range with glaciers and elevations poised to rival the Rockies, are now left with rock forms with colors and textures changing continuously throughout the trail (Leger 2015).SEAThe Bay of Fundy has the largest tides in the world. The bay empties and fills twice a day during each tide cycle. Each cycle displaces 160 billion tonnes of wa-ter, more than all of rivers in the world combined. The fastest tidal streams occur during the third and fourth hour after slack tide. Half of the total amount of wa-For visiting humans, the potent smells of balsam firs and the bright fall colors of the birch and maples create a completely unique experience. The forest floor is almost entirely blanketed by moss, wood fern (Dryopteris), and bunchberry (Cor-nus canadensis). (“Caledonia Highlands Plateau” 2019)Crooked Creek Look-Off in Autumn, (Ben Phillips)Coastal forest along the Fundy Footpath. (Pope 2017) Fundy forest brook (McGrath)Whale in Fog (Smith 2019)Top Photo: Rocky Cliffs (Norris 2017), Bottom Photo: Sea caves (Pope 2017)10 11ter displaced moves during this two hour period. In the Bay of Fundy, 80 billion tonnes of water is displaced in just two hours (FORCE: Tidal Energy, The Bay of Fundy).BEACH, MARSH, AND TIDAL FLATSEvery day, the powerful tides expose and conceal hundreds of meters of diverse ecosystems along the coast. The pebble and sand beaches dotted along the coast change in color and texture, depending on the geology in the local area. Thesalt marshes are dominated by salt-water cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) and carry rich plant and animal matter into the bay daily. The Tidal Flat areas may extend for almost a kilometer at low tide. This seemingly barren landscape is teeming with hidden life including mud shrimps (Corophium volutator), clamsand a multitude of worms. These small animals provide essential food for over twenty different species of shorebirds.  (“Marine coastal system” 2019)FOGThe most visually dramatic weather condition produced by the Bay of Fundy is the fog. Twice a day, when the bay fills with a new volume of cold water, a thick, fog billows up over the shore, permeating the lands and forests for kilometers in all directions. (“The Bay of Fundy Weather” 2019) The fog is formed when warm, moist air moves off the land and over the cold bay. As the air cools, it condenses to form millions of microscopic water droplets in the air. This coastline is one of the foggiest areas in Canada with an average of about 70 fog days a year. This fog can often linger within the micro-climate of the dense moist forest. (Wheatley 2016)Goose Creek Beach (“Hiking NB” 2019)Looking up Goose Creek Valley (“Hiking NB” 2019)Fog rising over Long Beach (Guitard 2009)Fog on Trail (Munson 2017)CHAPTER 3: SITE USESea CanoesMi’kmaw First Nations have lived in the Bay of Fundy for thousands of years. Re-cent archaeological evidence shows their presence in the region for 14,000 years. In the area along the Fundy Footpath, Mi’kmaq were mostly nomadic using ca-noes to travel from encampment to encampment. The canoes were made with softwood frame and encased in birch bark woven together with spruce root and sealed with spruce gum. These large (6 - 8.5 m) canoes were made to be incredibly light (50 lbs) which allowed them to be carried easily overland. (“The Mi’Kmaq” 2019) Sloops, Schooners and TugsIn the mid 1700’s The Fundy Footpath coast line became a major center of logging Historic Modes of Access along the Fundy Footpathand shipbuilding. (“Ship Building”) Wharfs, dams and mills were constructed along the wild coastline. Logging workers would access these small work settlements by small boats that would travel at high tide from Alma or Saint John.Boots, Hooves and Snow-shoesLogging workers and mineral prospectors would often have to travel into the land to look for resources. Mi’kmaq were employed as expert guides and the other workers inherited their use of snowshoes. Due to the absence of roads along the coast,  horses were only used for hauling abilities at the mills. (“Ship Building”) First Depiction of Mi’kmaq sea Canoes, French Map Mi’kmaq Guide Canoes anchored (1890)Schooner and large ship in distance, Bay of Fundy Loggers in Wood, Fundy Loggers in Wood, Fundy Mi’kmaq Guides (1890)Tug boat at wharf, Fundy (1890)H I S T O R I C A L  P L A C E - M A K I N G  A S  D E S I G N  G U I D E20201800 1900160014000 BCOUTDOOR ATHLETES CAR TOURISTOFF-ROAD USERSLOGGERS AND SHIPBUILDERSEARLY FRENCH SETTLERSMI’KMAQ NATIONC U R R E N T  M A N A G E M E N T  S T U D YFundy FootpathFundy Kayak RouteFundy FootpathFundy ParkwayFundy ParkwayFundy ParkwayFundy Kayak RouteOff-road Route 819Fundy FootpathFundy Kayak RouteOff-road Route 819CROWN LAND PROVINCIALPARKNATURALPROTECTED AREANATIONAL PARKPRIVATE PROPERTYMost Managed Least Managed16 17USER TYPES Within the vicinity of the Fundy Footpath there are many different types of people that use the landscape. This diversity is a result of the variety of activities tied to this area, representative of both work and leisure. Each of these activities attract similar types of people, relatively unified by their social and cultural views. For the sake of clarity, I distilled all of these different users into six distinct categories: Wilderness Adventurers, Local Residents, Visiting Off-Road Users, Car Tourists, Eco Workers, and Forestry Workers.  Each of these user groups have a very different understanding of the landscape and opinion on how it should be managed.For each category, I have attempted to distill the reasons why each user chooses to come to this area as a means to extract core principles to translate into design.WILDERNESS ADVENTURERThe Wilderness Adventurer user type in the Fundy Footpath area consists of backpackers and sea kayakers. Wilderness Adventurers are separated from other outdoor participants, such as  tourists, by the physical endurance required of their long-distance trips. With no car accessible routes along this coastline, most hikers on the footpath traverse all 49 kms of trail by foot, and kayakers will often travel the full 56 km route by sea. Ecological ImmersionThere is a distinct feeling that almost all humans get when they are surrounded by greenery and a healthy landscape. There seems to be an innate drive for us to have an intimate connection to the natural world. The Fundy Footpath coast-line presents an opportunity to completely immerse oneself in a dense, unspoiled and ecologically rich landscape. When the hiker or kayker moves deeper along the coast, farther and farther away from the roads and human infrastructure, the feeling of being completely alone with nature gets increasingly stronger. The land-scape begins to take on an air of increased control and unpredictability. The Wil-derness Adventurer begins to feel a humbling vulnerability, becoming dependent on the natural systems around them. It is a humbling thrill to know that you left all your safety nets behind. There are many points along the path where you are the only  person wading through a river or the only one on your own beautiful beach. You begin to feel like a small creature quietly moving through a dense forest. It is in these times of isolation with nature that you truly feel a part of an ecological whole.  This quasi-spirituality attracts a lot of people to backcountry kayaking and CHAPTER 4: SITE USERS backpacking. The deeper into a landscape you go, the more you are able to con-nect on a level that transcends your daily lifestyle and your very sense of time.MindfulnessWilderness backpacking is a temporary period of escape. It is often a desirable escape from the hyper-social, hyper-stimulated, and monotonously convenient as-pects of contemporary life. It offers the opportunity to temporarily flee the noise and claustrophobia of a seemingly endless urban sprawl. In many ways, back-packing temporarily fulfills the urge to get as far away from daily life as possible, both geographically as well as psychologically. With this  vast geography, there is a psychological distance from all the pressures of daily life. Interestingly, this urban deprivation does not just allow people to hide from daily tasks but, rather, adds challenge and extra care to the tasks that have become mindless due to modern convenience. Simple daily tasks such as cooking a meal or drinking potable water now become a direct result of physical labour. In this process, wilderness adven-turers are forced to think deeply about the menial processes we take for granted. This heightened moment-by-moment awareness of our daily tasks, bodily sensa-tions, and surrounding environment can be a major therapeutic draw to those backpacking and long distance kayaking.ChallengeOne of the characteristics that separate wilderness adventurers from the other user types is the amount of experience and sheer determination needed to travel very long distances through extremely challenging terrain on foot and by water. Due to the length and remoteness of this rugged terrain along undeveloped coast-line, there is a particular draw to outdoor athletes that yearn for challenge. With only a few access points along the Fundy Footpath, hikers are forced to travel long distances carrying all the equipment needed to sustain comfortable living on their backs for two to three nights. This difficult task becomes a huge attraction point and it distinguishes the hike from smaller hiking trails. The trail now has a repu-tation as one of the hardest hikes in Canada. An example of its reputation can be seen in a recent movie called “Surviving the Fundy Footpath” which follows an inexperienced hiker traversing the Fundy Footpath with the trail’s creator Alonzo Legere.CamaraderieMost of the time the trail is completed in a party of 2-8 members. With the trail being as hard as it is, there is a sense of shared achievement by all members who overcome the hike together. This, along with the interdependence of the group due to the necessity of having to solve problems together, fosters kinship and ca-maraderie. This bond, that is the product of finishing a long difficult task together in seclusion, attracts people to this activity. Camaraderie is also built when the group arrives at the site of their overnight camp. At a backcountry campsite there are none of the distractions, activities, and social conventions that are found in the city. Members are left with only the activity of sitting and talking and getting 18 19to know people they are with. Take, for example, the ritual of making a camp-fire. Campfires have played a huge role in human history. They were a significant milestone in the development of humanity, not only in regards to food prepara-tion, but also in terms of the social progression of our species. This is because, for ancient humans, the light of the fire successfully extended the length of the day. The limited light provided by the fire did not extend far enough to accomodate processes such as hunting, but gave reason for prolonged human communication, storytelling, singing and entertaining conversations as a distinct activity and bond-ing opportunity.Local ResidentsEven though there are no homes within the project’s geographic limits, within 15 to 20 kms from the trail there are many homes sparsely scat-tered throughout this forested landscape. The residents that choose to live in such a remote area are drawn to this very particular setting for multiple reasons. FreedomOne of the main reasons residents choose to live here is the individual freedom that comes from a lack of regulation and supervision. This lack of regulation is a direct financial and social consequence of being outside of the geographic means of federal, provincial and municipal governance. There is also a social freedom that comes from not having to conform with the vast social constructs inherent to urban living where denser populations and a close proximity to others dictates noise levels, privacy expectations, behavioral norms and standards.Self-sufficiencyIn addition to the freedom that comes from living in a remote landscape, this user group has chosen to adopt a particular lifestyle. This lifestyle is a product of re-moteness, which can often be much harder to sustain then the convenience of living in a township. There is a romanticism that exists within the traditionalism of such a self-reliant lifestyle. Many of the people in this area cut their own wood from their land to keep themselves warm, build their own structures and hunt and fish to sustain their diet. There is a sense of control and satisfaction in taking own-ership of the individual tasks needed to sustain contemporary human life. Solitude / Community Although there is an increased sense of individual freedom that comes with living in such a remote area, there is also an increased sense of community. The sense of community comes from the necessity to rely and care for others without the safety nets of nearby governance. These intimate connections create tight-knit communities around the Fundy Footpath, characterized by a much deeper bond between neighbors than is present in city centers and more densely populated areas.  In remote settings, people know and help each other on a personal level. They feel comfortable interacting with one another on an almost family level of friendliness.Visiting Off-road usersThe Visiting off-road user-type has a lot of similarities with the local residents. The main difference is that visiting off-road users travel from far away and therefore their stay in the footpath’s vicinity is temporary. New Brunswick has over 3,126 km of off-road vehicle trail. This large network of off-road vehicle trails connects all corners of the province together. This allows for a large number of New Brunswickers to make day-long/ weekend trips from their homes far away and visit the Fundy Footpath area. In addition to the in-prov-ince visitors, the area gets a huge number of off-road visitors from Ontario, Que-bec, and Maine. The length of the stay and the distance traveled comes with par-ticular mindsets towards the landscape and the activity within it.  Home in Wilderness Unlike the wilderness adventurers who bring the fewest luxuries of contemporary life possible due to weight / volume necessity as well as personal preference, off-road users attempt to recreate as many of these luxuries of home as they can, in uncultivated landscapes. These off-road visitors in this remote setting attempt to create a comfortable setting in a wild remote landscape. It is both a challenge and a source of pride to come up with the most comfortable camp possible with the volume of storage in your vehicle. In recent years this idea of glamping has taken off. Glamping attempts to merge the luxury of a hotel with the natural immersion of camping. In many ways this also reverses our concepts of indoors and outdoors where the participant is bringing the spatial arrangement and services of their indoor space into the uncontrolled coastal environment. This fascinating juxtapo-sition attracts hundreds of off-road enthusiasts to this area. Tradition and Ritual“Campgrounds celebrate a unique form of American ingenuity in which intersect-ing narratives and desires (wilderness, individuality, access, speed, comfort, nos-talgia, profit) have become strangely and powerfully hybridized.” “Each “lone” campsite functions as a stage upon which cultural fantasies can be performed in full view of an audience of fellow campers interested in much the same “wilderness” experience. “ - Martin HagueClassic vehicle camping is an important tradition for millions of North Americans. It is a cultural ritual of repeated sequence of choreographed actions with a given set of props involved. Camping has deep routes in the historical narratives of North American culture. This narrative goes back to the idea of rugged European coloniz-ers setting up a camp in the wild terrain.Unsupervised PlayThe Fundy Footpath, due to its ungoverned geopolitical position, fosters an adult version of unsupervised play. Here, visitors are able to bring toys (fireworks, drones, off-road vehicles) and use them without governed restraint. The remote-20 21ness allows visitors to engage in an activity they can not do at home. Car TouristThe car tourist user-type is separated from the other user types due to their limited access to the landscape by paved roads and preference for quick accessible experiences in the landscape. This year the first fully paved road within the project boundaries is scheduled to open. This road, named “The Fundy Parkway,” will invite a massive influx of the car tour-ist user-type to the area. This user-type was previously confined to a small area in the Walter Glenn Park area. The car tourist user-type partakes in picnics, drives to scenic view stops, and short accessible hikes and other activities in nature where the user can return to their car and move from site to site at a very quick pace. Curated NatureThe car tourist experiences the landscape through a curated sequence of “natu-ral” experiences aided by constructed infrastructure and development. The Fundy Parkway, which was created from the Cape Breton Cabot Trail model, is a road whose sole function is a tourist attraction. In the creation of the road, the land-scape has been surveyed through the lens of balancing financial efficiency and optimizing entertainment value.  The Fundy Parkway has 8 stops through its run, which have been chosen as the most suitable stopping points for this constructed tourist sequence. This carefully filtered experience of a large landscape can be compared to a very selective edit of an uncontrolled performance into a short film which is as much about the editor as the landscape. Accessible NatureThe sequence of the car tourist is different from the other user-types’ sequences due to its unique level of accessibility. The car tourist route and corresponding trails have been designed and constructed to allow the maximum amount of de-mographics that is feasible to interact with the landscape. This focus on accessi-bility makes the car tourist user group the largest and most inclusive of the us-er-types. Demographics such as the disabled, the elderly and small children are now able to see and be in areas of the landscape they would otherwise have been unable to visit. The accessible nature of this experience is one that attracts a lot of people to the area. Eco WorkerThe eco-worker user-type is comprised of predominantly gov-ernment-funded workers who come to the area for the purpose of employment in the ecological domain. The majority of these eco-workers in the Fundy Footpath area work in the fields of hab-itat rehabilitation and landscape conservation. The eco-worker sees the landscape as both a workplace and a complex ecosystem.  Landscape as Threatened HabitatThe eco-worker is most concerned with preserving as much of the ecosystems found in this area as possible. Due to the specialization of ecological scientists, eco-workers will often  see the landscape through a lens focused on their partic-ular professional concentration. For example, in the Fort Folly Habitat Rehabilita-tion Center, they are focused specifically on salmon populations. The people who would work at Fort Folly would most likely see everything from plants to water temperature in relation to the specifics of salmon, whereas an ecologist in the area whose focus is in a particular bird population sees the landscape in relation to the particular bird. Industrial WorkerThe industrial worker user-type is comprised of those who come to the area as a result of their employment. The primary occupations of the industrial worker is the forestry and construction sectors. Their lens and experience of the landscape is specific to the tasks asked by their employer. One would infer that the majority of this user-type would see the landscape in terms of its ability to sustain enjoyable and profitable work.Landscape as lumberForestry workers in the Fundy Footpath area see the landscape through the lens of maximizing financial gain from the landscape. The goal of the forestry worker is to maximize efficiency for the sake of rewards from their employer. There has been a vast amount of activity logging in close proximity to the Fundy Footpath since the 19th century. Due to the political control of the logging companies in the area and continuous profit, logging is likely to remain a favored activity in the foreseeable future. Landscape as InfrastructureWorkers in the construction sector see the landscape in terms of its ability to be cultivated into infrastructure and development. The main construction employ-ment in the area is from the creation of the Fundy Parkway tourist route. Some of these jobs involve quarrying gravel to create the roads from local rock, the defor-estation of trees to create open space needed to build the road, and the paving and bridge construction needed for the route. These construction workers are the most temporary of the user-types mentioned as their presence in the area is only during periods of new development. Considering the Fundy Parkway has been the only major construction project in the area for decades, it is not likely that this user-type will be a predominant fixture in the future.  S T U D Y  O F  C U R R E N T  U S E R SFundy FootpathFundy Kayak RouteFundy FootpathFundy ParkwayFundy ParkwayFundy Kayak RouteOff-road Route 819Fundy FootpathFundy Kayak RouteOFF-ROAD USERS BACKPACKERS KAYAKERS CAR TOURISTSC h a p t e r  5 :  S I T E SS I T E  S E L E C T I O N1.2.341. SEELY BEACH 2. WOLF BROOK 3. MARTIN HEAD FACE 4. MARTIN HEAD BEACH 5. GOOSE CREEK BEACHP4P4P3P2P2W/CF1HIGH TIDE 2070S E E L Y  B E A C HLight lineHigh tide 2070Fundy FootpathMixed tree canopyPebble beachGrass and ground coverOcean high tide2 Sleeper ShackP 23 Sleeper ShackP 34 Sleeper ShackP 4The WharfF 1F2P1HIGH TIDE 2070W O L F  B R O O KP1W/CLight lineHigh Tide 2070Mixed tree canopyPebble beachOcean high tideFresh waterThe CocoonP 1The StandF 2F3P4HIGH TIDE 2070M A R T I N  H E A D  F A C ELight lineHigh Tide 2070Fundy FootpathMixed tree canopyOcean high tideGrass and ground coverMedium sized shrubsGranite cliff face4 Sleeper ShackP 4The ChapelF 3P4M A R T I N  H E A D   B E A C HHIGH TIDE 2070W/CP3P2F4Light lineHigh Tide 2070Mixed tree canopyOcean high tideGrass and ground coverPebbles and beachProposed natural plantingMedium sized shrubATV trail2 Sleeper ShackP 23 Sleeper ShackP 34 Sleeper ShackP 4The WharfF 4P5HIGH TIDE 2070G O O S E  C R E E K  B E A C HLight lineSea level 2070Mixed tree canopyOcean high tideGrass and ground coverPebbles and beachThe BeaconP 4C h a p t e r  6 :  S T R U C T U R E S40 41CHAPTER 6.1: PROJECT PRECEDENTS“Shelters by the Sea”LUMO architectsThese little shelters termed ‘Blue Landmarks’, have been located strategically from the south eastern peninsula of the central island of Syddanmark to its Ar- chipelagos. There is a total of 50 of these shelters, which function independently or collectively to accommodate different recreational activities. The overarching goal is to facilitate environmental inclusivity. There are five different types of shelters, all of which have been derived from a common older precedent – the fisherman’s storehouse. Each building embraces utilitarian design, transforming functional features into atmospheric focal points capable of fostering unique and site-specific experiences. (Vyas 2019)(Vyas 2019)(Vyas 2019)(Vyas 2019)“Ghost Lab”MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple ArchitectsThe Ghost Laboratory structures are a series of architectural vignettes conceived in a design-build workshop led by the architect Brian MacKay-Lyons. The struc-tures are located around the ruins of a nearly 400-year-old Acadian village called Kingsburg on the Nova Scotian coast. MacKay sees himself as the “village archi-tect” of Kingsburg.These structures are contemporary and abstract, yet at the same time they em-body an awareness of place, local history and culture. Indeed, MacKay’s architec-ture undermines the apparent opposition between contemporary aesthetics and cultural rootedness. They are at once artistic and experiential quasi-sculptures, and practical utilitarian structures. Each building serves basic shelter-like func-tions for this settlement. They serve as boathouses, grain storage, observation towers, storage sheds, and guest houses. MacKay-Lyons has drawn his materials and detailing largely from the simple sheds, houses, and barns of his native Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. (Fisher)(Fisher)(Fisher)(Fisher)P R O J E C T  S T R U C T U R E S :  F R A M I N GFIXEDSTRUCTURESPORTABLESHELTERSP 1F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4P 2 P 3 P 4 P 5P R O J E C T  S T R U C T U R E S :  P O R T A B L E  S H E L T E R SFIXEDSTRUCTURESPORTABLESHELTERSP 1F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4P 2 P 3 P 4 P 5P 1  -  T H E  C O C O O NSection AFloor plan Roof planSection BP 2  -  2  S L E E P E R  S H A C KRoof planFloor planSection A Section BP 3  -  3  S L E E P E R  S H A C KRoof planSection BFloor planSection AP 4  -  4  S L E E P E R  S H A C KFloor planSection ARoof planSection BP 5  -  T H E  B E A C O NSection BRoof planSection AFloor planP R O J E C T  S T R U C T U R E S :  F I X E D  S H E L T E R SFIXEDSTRUCTURESPORTABLESHELTERSP 1F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4P 2 P 3 P 4 P 5F 1  -  T H E  W H A R FPlanSection ASection BF 2  -  T H E  S T A N DFloor PlanSection A Section BF 3  -  T H E  C H A P E LFloor Plan Section A Section BF 4  -  T H E  S M O K E H O U S EFloor PlanRoof PlanSection A98 99REFERENCESCaledonia Highlands Plateau. Government of Canada, 29 June 2019, https://   www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nb/fundy/decouvrir-discover/plateau.Fisher, Thomas. “Ghost 6.” MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects Limited, http://   mlsarchitects.ca/ghost6.htm.“Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy: Annual report 2016.” 2016. http:// fundyforce.ca/media-center/reports-and-presentations/.Guitard, Marc. Tents on Long Beach. https://www.flickr.com/photos/marc_gui   tard/3189629191/.“Hiking NB.” Hiking NB - Fundy Footpath - Fundy National Park to Quiddy     River  Section, https://www.hikingnb.ca/Trails/FundyEast/    FundyFootpath/FundyToQuiddy.html.Houghton, Monica. “Why Camping Is Rising in Popularity, Especially Among    Millennials.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 17 Apr. 2018, https://www.forbes.   com/sites/monicahoughton/2018/04/16/why-camping-is-rising-    in-popularity-especially-among-millennials/#20e266e816c0.Jones, Robert. “‘Tough to Take’: New Brunswick Grabs Unwanted Title as     Canada’s Poorest Province.” CBC News, 18 Dec. 2019, https://www.cbc.   ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/new-brunswick- poorest-province-   equalization-payments-1.5400170. Lisa, Ana. “Floating Observatory on the Dutch Flat Sands Changes Shape with the   Tides.” Inhabitat Green Design Innovation Architecture Green     Building, Inhabitat, 15 Aug. 2016, https://inhabitat.com/     floating-observatory-on-the-dutch-flat-sands-changes-shape-with-    the-tides/.McGrath, Sean. “New Brunswick’s 25 Best Hiking Trails.” Explore Magazine,    https://www.explore-mag.com/New-Brunswicks-25-Best-Hiking-Trails.Munson, Tracy. Fundy Fog. https://focusedoncanada.pixels.com/featured/fun   dy-fog-tracy-munson.htmlNew Bunswick Government, Tourism, Heritage and Culture: Tourism Growth    Strategy 2018- 2025, 2018.Norris, Craig, director. Surviving the Fundy Footpath. 2017, https://www.cbc.ca/   documentarychannel/m_docs/surviving-the-fundy-footpath.Pope. “Photos: Along the Fundy Footpath.” Canadian Geographic, 31 Dec. 2017,    https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/photos-along-fun    dy-footpath.“Ship Building.” The Albert County Museum & RB Bennett Centre, https://www.   albertcountymuseum.com/ship-buildingSmith, Phoebe. “What It’s like Whale Watching on the Bay of Fundy, Canada.”    Wanderlust, 28 Mar. 2019, https://www.wanderlust.co.uk/con    tent/whale- watching-bay-of-fundy/.“The Mi’Kmaq.” Yours To Explore, 2019, https://www.shubenacadiecanal.ca   the-mikmaq.“THE BAY OF FUNDY WEATHER.” Bayoffundy.com, 2019, https://www.bayoffundy.  com/about/weather/.Vyas, Khushboo. “Shelters by the Sea │ LUMO Architects.” Arch2O.Com, Arch2O,    3 Aug. 2019, https://www.arch2o.com/shelters-sea-lumo-architects/.Wheatley, Melissa. “Fog Blog.” Discover Saint John, 8 June 2016, https://www.   discoversaintjohn.com/fog-blog.

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