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[Im]Permanence in Architecture : and the many lived experiences of a home Norman, Monica 2020-05

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[ i m ] p e r m a n e n c e  i n  a r c h i t e c t u r ea n d  t h e  m a n y  l i v e d  e x p e r i e n c e s  o f  a  h o m e[ i m ] p e r m a n e n c e  i n  a r c h i t e c t u r ea n d  t h e  m a n y  l i v e d  e x p e r i e n c e s  o f  a  h o m e--Monica NormanBachelor of Science in Civil EngineeringUniversity of New Brunswick, 2017Graduation Project Final ReportSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Architecture,in The Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture ProgramCommittee MembersBlair Satterfield (Chair)Bryan BeçaMalen Fernandez---------------------------------------Blair Satterfield; Associate Professor and Chair, ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaMay 2020© Monica Normaniiiii“It is better to live in a state of impermanence than in one of finality.”-- Gaston Bachelard; The Poetics of Spaceivva b s t r a c tFor most, the home is where our lives are cultivated. It is where we start our days and where we return to when we need comfort. Rooted in domestic space, this project considers the home a safe haven, where we feel stable and secure, and where we are able to be our most vulnerable selves. Our home reflects our inner being. It fosters our hopes and aspirations and grounds us in place. The utilitarian purpose of architecture is quite different from the metaphysical need of architecture. Typically designing in a functional space, the suppression of our emotions by architecture has hindered the user’s ability to create meaningful experiences that engage both the body and the mind. There is a divergence here that gives architects an opportunity to both ground the user in reality and uphold their thoughts and desires.This thesis argues that the home is not static. Spaces morph and change by projecting our emotions, thoughts, and memories back on to us. We experience that which is perceptible, whether it exists in reality or merely as a figment of our imagination. The house, then, is able to reside in the space between the material world and the imaginative realm.[Im]Permanence in Architecture operates at the intersection of what we take for granted and what we truly experience in a home. This project challenges the understanding of architecturally designed instances -- in the same home under differing external conditions -- as an investigation into how the impermanence of our inner being translates to a space that is perceivably not static. The physical space we occupy may have an aura of permanence and rootedness, but our memories, emotions, and imaginations carry with them an impermanence that allows us to experience space in new and meaningful ways. viviic o n t e n t sa b s t r a c t    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . vc o n t e n t s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . v i il i s t  o f  f i g u r e s     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . i xa c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . x iI N T R O D U C T I O N    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1a  c o l l e c t i o n  o f  t h o u g h t s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5e m o t i o n     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5P e r c e p t i o n  a n d  i m a g i n at i o n    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7m e m o r y  a n d  s p a c e    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 8t h e  o b s ta c l e     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 0t h e s i s  s tat e m e n t    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 1e m o t i o n a l  a r c h i t e c t u r e s     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 3u n d e r s ta n d i n g  e m o t i o n  i n  a r c h i t e c t u r e     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 3c o n n e c t i n g  e m o t i o n  a n d  s p a c e    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 5p r o j e c t  f r a m e w o r k    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2 0d e s i g n  m e t h o d o l o g y    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2 0[ i m ] p e r m a n e n c e  i n  a r c h i t e c t u r e    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2 5A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  M a s t e r  S u i t e    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2 6T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  K i t c h e n  L i v i n g  D i n i n g    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 3 6A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  B e d r o o m s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 4 6G o n e  H o m e  - -  E n t r a n c e  a n d  e x i t     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5 6h o u s e  i n  f l u x  - -  a m a l g a m at i o n    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 6 6c o n c l u d i n g  r e m a r k s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7 1s u m m a r y     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7 1i m a g i n i n g  a  f u t u r e    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7 2r e f e r e n c e s    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7 5a p p e n d i x    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7 7viiiixl i s t  o f  f i g u r e sF i g  .  1  S h i f t i n g  H o u s e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . x i vF i g  .  2  A  W i n d o w  o f  Y o u r  R e f l e c t i o n ;  A u t h o r 2 0 2 0  .  p . 4F i g  .  3  T h e  C o g n i t i v e  P r o c e s s i n g  o f  E m o t i o n a l M e m o r i e s ;  A u t h o r  2 0 1 9  .  p . 8F i g  .  4  B o d y  w i t h  M i n d ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 1 1F i g  .  5  A  F l i p p e d  P e r s p e c t i v e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 1 2F i g  .  6  P r o c e s s  o f  R e s e a r c h  a n d  U n d e r s ta n d -i n g  E m o t i o n a l  E x p e r i e n c e s  i n  A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d  A r c h i t e c t u r a l  S p a c e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 1 9  .  p . 1 4F i g  .  7  I c o n i c  R e p r e s e n tat i o n s  o f  E m o t i o n a l P h e n o m e n o n :  ( a )  A n o m a ly,  ( b )  L i g h t  +  S h a d -o w,  ( c )  C o n t r a s t  +  C o n t r a d i c t i o n ,  ( d )  D e ta i l , ( e )  I m a g i n at i o n ,  ( f )  C o m p l e x i t y,  ( g )  C o l o u r , ( h )  M o v e m e n t  +  T i m e ,  ( i )  R e p e t i t i o n ,  ( j )  M at e -r i a l  +  T e x t u r e ,  ( k )  S c a l e  +  P r o p o r t i o n ,  ( l ) B e a u t y  +  N at u r e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 1 9  .  p . 1 6F i g  .  8  D i a g r a m m at i c  P l a n  R e p r e s e n tat i o n s  o f D o m e s t i c  S p a c e  C o n f i g u r at i o n s  - -  M a s t e r S u i t e  ( L e f t ) ,  B e d r o o m s  ( M i d d l e ) ,  K i t c h e n  L i v -i n g  D i n i n g  ( R i g h t ) ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 1 8F i g  .  9  D e s i g n  M e t h o d o l o g y  a n d  Q u e s t i o n s A s k e d  D u r i n g  t h e  D e s i g n  P r o c e s s ;  A u t h o r 2 0 2 0  .  p . 1 9F i g  .  1 0  H a n d  S k e t c h e s  o f  D e s i g n  E l e m e n t s ;  ( a ) D e e p  S l i t  W i n d o w s ,  ( b )  T h i c k  W i n d o w  S i l l ,  ( c ) D o o r  i n  a  D o o r ,  ( d )  S t e p  i n  a  D o o r ,  ( e )  A r c h O p e n i n g s ,  ( f )  D e ta i l e d  D e c o r at i v e  A r c h w ay, ( g )  G r o i n  Va u lt  C e i l i n g ,  ( h )  H a n g i n g  S ta i r s , ( i )  W o r k s p a c e  S ta i r s ,  ( j )  D e e p  S i t t i n g  S t e p s ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 2 1F i g  .  1 1  C o l l a g e  E x p l o r at i o n s  o f  M o o d  a n d  A t-m o s p h e r e ;  ( a )  R o m a n t i c ,  ( b )  A d v e n t u r o u s , ( c )  F o c u s e d ,  ( d )  A n x i o u s ,  ( e )  M e l a n c h o l i c , ( f )  P l ay f u l ,  ( g )  G r o u n d e d ,  ( h )  C o n t e n t,  ( i ) U n e a s y ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 2 3F i g  .  1 2  [ I m ] P e r m a n e n c e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  .  p . 2 4F i g  .  1 3  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  T h e  B e d ;  A u t h o r 2 0 2 0  p . 2 7F i g  .  1 4  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  T h e  M o v e m e n t; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 2 9F i g  .  1 5  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  T h e  L i g h t  a n d t h e  D a r k n e s s ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 1F i g  .  1 6  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  T h e  H a l l w ay ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 3F i g  .  1 7  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  M a s t e r  S u i t e  i n t h e  L i g h t;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 4F i g  .  1 8  A  H a u n t e d  R o m a n c e  - -  M a s t e r  S u i t e  i n t h e  D a r k n e s s ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 5F i g  .  1 9  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  T h e  A c t i v i t y ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 7F i g  .  2 0  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  T h e  M o v e -m e n t s ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 3 9F i g  .  2 1  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  T h e  W a l l ;  A u -t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 1F i g  .  2 2  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  T h e  C o m p a n y ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 3F i g  .  2 3  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  K i t c h e n  L i v i n g D i n i n g  f o r  E n t e r ta i n m e n t;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 4F i g  .  2 4  T h e  F e at  a n d  t h e  F e e t  - -  K i t c h e n  L i v i n g D i n i n g  f o r  F a m i ly ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 5F i g  .  2 5  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  T h e  C u b e ;  A u -t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 7F i g  .  2 6  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  T h e  D r e a m ;  A u -t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 4 9F i g  .  2 7  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  T h e  L i n k ;  A u -t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 1F i g  .  2 8  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  T h e  W a r r i o r ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 3F i g  .  2 9  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  B e d r o o m s  i n Y o u t h ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 4F i g  .  3 0  A  S o l e m n  A d v e n t u r e  - -  B e d r o o m s G r o w i n g  O l d e r ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 5F i g  .  3 1  G o n e  H o m e  - -  T h e  D o o r ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 7F i g  .  3 2  G o n e  H o m e  - -  T h e  O b j e c t;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 5 9F i g  .  3 3  G o n e  H o m e  - -  T h e  A c t i v i t y ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 1F i g  .  3 4  G o n e  H o m e  - -  T h e  D e m a r c at i o n ;  A u t h o r 2 0 2 0  p . 6 3F i g  .  3 5  G o n e  H o m e  - -  E n t r a n c e ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 4F i g  .  3 6  G o n e  H o m e  - -  E x i t ;  A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 5F i g  .  3 7  H o u s e  i n  F l u x  - -  T h e  S p a c e  B e t w e e n ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 7F i g  .  3 8  H o u s e  i n  F l u x  - -  A m a l g a m at i o n  O n e ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 8F i g  .  3 9  H o u s e  i n  F l u x  - -  A m a l g a m at i o n  T w o ; A u t h o r  2 0 2 0  p . 6 9F i g  .  4 0  S a i n t  J o h n  C o u r t h o u s e ,  S a i n t  J o h n , N e w  B r u n s w i c k ;  P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r  2 0 1 9  .  p . 7 8F i g  .  4 1  B a s í l i c a  d e  l a  S a g r a d a  F a m í l i a ,  B a r c e -l o n a ,  S p a i n ;  P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r  2 0 1 7  .  p . 7 9F i g  .  4 2  W at  S r i  S u p h a n  [ T h e  S i lv e r  T e m p l e ] , C h i a n g  M a i ,  T h a i l a n d ;  P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r 2 0 1 7  .  p . 8 0F i g  .  4 3  M i l l e r  H o u s e ,  M a k u p o  V i l l a g e ,  M a l a w i ; P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r  2 0 1 6  .  p . 8 1F i g  .  4 4  Ta b l a o  C o r d o b e s ,  B a r c e l o n a ,  S p a i n ; P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r  2 0 1 7  .  p . 8 2F i g  .  4 5  M y  B at h r o o m ,  G r av e n h u r s t,  O n ta r i o ; P h o t o g r a p h  b y  A u t h o r  2 0 1 9  .  p . 8 3xxia c k n o w l e d g e m e n t sGetting to where I am today would not have been possible without the support of everyone around me. It’s been an emotional rollercoaster and your encouragement has meant the world to me.First, thank you to my professors for sharing your intelligence and always challenging my mind and abilities.A very special thank you to my thesis chair and committee members, Blair Satterfield, Bryan Beça, and Malen Fernandez. Your critical feedback and thoughtful advice was instrumental in the shaping of this project.Thank you to my family for encouraging me to stick with this journey, even in times of great doubt. I would have not made it through without you.And finally, thank you to my peers for your kind hearts and for helping me to learn and grow as both a person and a designer. Thank you to Emily Kazanowski, Luis Yanez Hernandez, Sarah Klym, and Jenna Ratzlaff: your feedback and support has been invaluable and will never be forgotten.xiixiiiFor Grandma Brenda,Who always made her house a home and shared her love with everyone around her. Your compassion and kindness continues to inspire me every day. I love you.1The counteraction to logical thinking and rational decision making is our emotions. Often times, our emotions are nonsensical and unexpected reactions to what we sense, both within and outside of ourselves. They can be evoked by something we see, something we hear, smell, or touch, or they can be evoked by a thought or memory. Our emotions and how we process and react to information are part of our being; they constitute who we are, our needs, our fears, and our dreams. If not for our emotions, we would not understand what makes us happy or upset, who the people are that we care about, or how we want to fit in with the world around us. Our intuitions -- fired by a judgement of our surroundings that functions beyond our intellect -- help us to formulate meaningful relationships to others, to ourselves, and to our environment. Our emotional reactions I N T R O D U C T I O Ntend to ground us and help us to define where we are in the world, both physiologically and psychologically. This rootedness gives us the ability to perceive in our consciousness and better understand our thoughts. Despite the rapid evolution of science and technology, areas reliant on logical and judicious processes, we as human beings are not purely rational and in part rely on our emotions and intuitions in everyday life. The way in which we engage with the world is highly individual; our understanding of space and time is internalized through our experiences, while our senses, emotions, and memories effect how we perceive and encounter the space around us. We tend to accept the world as a series of dimensional images, making us believe that we are perceiving “Something inside us tells us an enormous amount straight away. We are capable of immediate appreciation, of a spontaneous emotional response, of rejecting things in a flash.”-- Peter Zumthor; AtmospheresFig. 1 Shifting House; Author 2020.2something as a whole; the focus and capturing of a single moment makes us feel as though we are perceiving all aspects concurrently. However, it is impossible for us to perceive the whole in two dimensions. We view the world in perspective as a collection of partial experiences1, and only through mental construction and imagination are we able to perceive the whole. We have an intuitive response to our senses that allows us to appreciate or reject that which is being perceived. By this intuitive response, confronted with something that awakens our emotions, we remember what we just became aware of.Though perception goes beyond the five senses. Sensations of gravity, balance, movement, time, contrast, scale, illumination, and imagination are all considered by the body in order to perceive the whole2. These haptic senses are what give us rootedness in reality and allows us to perceive in our consciousness in both the logical and imaginative realm, for it is impossible to “conceive of a thing that could be neither perceived nor perceptible”3. How and what we perceive -- as well as our acceptance of it -- is greatly affected by our past experiences. Each moment changes the way in which we experience new things; the knowledge we gain and the memories we make imprint a thought in ourselves that is carried with us through time. Because of this process, the spaces we encounter shift and change depending on the experiential dimension in which they occur. They are not static; though the physical space may be permanent, our memories, emotions, and imaginations are not. The memory of a space creates a unique relationship to it. The memory retains the qualities of that space that most resonate with us, whether particularly beautiful or ugly, wildly textured, powerfully coloured, or out of place, while the expected and mundane wither. Our constant physical relationship with space contributes to the embodied experience; as such, the perceptions of the physical world that excite our senses and awaken our emotions tend to be the most remembered. Our intricate and intimate relationship with architecture is unavoidable. The things we make memories of and the places we make memories in are a product of the atmosphere around us. We associate space with complex qualities and conflicting sensations. The evolution of the spaces, sensations, and memories is what ties us to the past, helps us to make decisions and experience things in the present, and anticipates our future aspirations. With an everlasting relationship between humans and the built environment, these interactions accumulate and constitute a crucial part of our everyday experiences. It is necessary then to consider the deep remembrance of architecture in design.Architecture holds the condition of providing utilitarian purposefulness, to provide shelter and comfort from the environment in such a way that helps ourselves and society function. However, there is a thread in this declaration that can quickly unravel. The utilitarian purpose of architecture is quite different from the metaphysical need of architecture4; where the former comforts only our skin, the latter comforts our thoughts and experiences. There is a divergence here that has the potential to both ground us in lived reality and uphold our imaginations and desires5.1   Steven Holl et. al., “Questions of Percep-tion - Phenomenology of Architecture,” in Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture (San Francis-co: William Stout Publishers, 2006), 42.2   Juhani Pallasmaa, “Space, Place, and Atmosphere. Emotion and Peripheral Perception in Architectural Experience,” Lebenswelt: Aesthetics and Philosophy of Experience, (2014), 231.3   Maurice Merleau-Pon-ty, Phenomenology of Perception, trans. Donald Landes (Oxon:Routledge, 2010), 334.4   Juhani Pallasmaa, “New Architectural Horizons,” Architectural Design 77, 2, (2007): 21.5   Ibid., 17.3We as humans are dependent on the many layers of design. Where so much of our lives are spent in and around the built environment, it is necessary that design amount to more than pragmatism. The ability of design to engage our thoughts and emotions is critical in the shaping of the human experience. The modernist logic and perfection by which we tend to design is removing all sensation from the built environment. Architecture is no longer sensual. The sensibility of material, light, and texture in the forming of atmospheres has been diluted by synthetics6. Efficiency prevails and experience fades into the background. Function predominates and emotion is left buried in the depths of ourselves. This suppression of our emotions by architecture has hindered the user’s ability to create meaningful experiences that engage both the body and the mind. This thesis argues that the home is not static. Spaces morph and change by projecting our emotions, thoughts, and memories back on to us. We experience that which is perceptible, whether it exists in reality or merely as a figment of our imagination. [Im]Permanence in Architecture operates at the intersection of what we take for granted and what we truly experience in a home. This project challenges the understanding of architecturally designed instances -- in the same home under differing physical and physiological phenomena -- as they transform to reflect our memories and emotions.6   Steven Holl, “Phenome-nal Zones,” in Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture, Steven Holl et. al. (San Francisco: WIlliam Stout Publishers, 2006), 91.45e m o t i o n Emotions work in opposition to the rational mind; they are unexpected reactions to the environment surrounding our bodies and the things that we sense, whether internal or external to our skin. They skew the logical thinking and decision making that our brains were programmed to undertake and interpret situations in new and meaningful ways. Often times, our emotions are nonsensical and we are unable to justify these feelings. They can be evoked by something we sense, or they can be evoked by a thought or memory that is uncovered from the past. Our emotions and how we process and react to information are part of our being; they constitute who we are, our needs, our fears, and our dreams. Our emotions are what helps us to a  c o l l e c t i o n  o f  t h o u g h t sunderstand our likes and dislikes, who the people are that we care about, or how we want to fit in with the world around us. “We are likely to process emotional information in regard to ourselves, a type of processing that is thought to elicit particularly deep, elaborative processing operations. We are likely to try and find meaning in emotional experiences. We are likely to think about the experience’s broader significance to our personal lives or to our broader environment”7.Emotion is both a response and an action. It awakens deep feelings within us and in turn evokes a desire to react in a particular way. This physiological phenomenon is not necessarily characteristic of a specific emotion, however, can be connected through rationality8. The physiological response is rational Fig. 2 A Window of Your Reflection; Author 2020.“Through their authority and aura, [buildings] evoke and strengthen our own emotions and project them back to us as if these feelings of ours had an external source.”-- Juhani Pallasmaa; Space, Place, Memory, and Imagination7   Elizabeth Kensinger, Emotional Memory Across the Adult Lifespan (New York: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2009), 56-57.8   William Lyons, Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 152-253.6in that the reaction is an extension of internal desires, that is, the body attempts to satisfy an emotion through action. On the other hand, the internal desires provoke certain physiological responses so as to become identifiable with the experienced emotion but not solely characteristic9. Cognitive sciences attempt to define emotion and emotive reactions, however the complexity and uniqueness by which we each experience emotional responses makes it quite challenging to agree on a single theory. Instead, for the purpose of this project, we must simply recognize that we as humans are susceptible to emotional responses; we are not purely rational beings and in part rely on our emotions in everyday life.  Many are reluctant to discuss the effect of architecture on our emotional selves because of the intricacy and complexity of doing so and for fear of not being able to rationalize the decisions or consequences. However, many architects have brought this conversation to light including John Ruskin, Peter Zumthor, Wim Van den Bergh, Luis Barragan, and Juhani Pallasmaa. Each speaks about emotion from a different point of view but are interested in many of the same ideas and impacts, namely, that the emotional experience is one of great profoundness and, with respect to architecture, allows us to feel connected to something greater than ourselves. Ruskin believed that emotion was present in all stages of construction; it found itself in the heart of the architect, in the hands of the craftsmen, and in the eyes of the public. He felt that emotion was projected by architecture on to the world and that the building itself was a relic of the passion put into the project by each of its participants10. Atmosphere and the sense of place are principles Peter Zumthor greatly values. Through architectural realization, Zumthor pursues a deeper  feeling and a lasting impression on its users. Similar to Ruskin, he believes that great architecture must “be capable of absorbing the traces of human life and thus of taking on a specific richness”11. He continues to note that when removing vision from the senses, the architecture should be equally as opulent and emotional and able to engage the human consciousness. In his lecture and essay ‘Luis Barragan: The Eye Embodied’, Wim Van den Bergh studies Barragan’s design approach and its evolution throughout his career. He describes Barragan’s work as “a type of architecture that involves us (often on a subconscious level) in a kine-aisthetic experience with all our faculties of perception and imagination, thus evoking emotions that in turn might spark within us an intuition of beauty”12. He continues to praise Barragan’s design process as one of creating sophisticated sensual realism through space and light, material and colour, smell and sound, and movement and time, but also through more personal attributes such as signs and symbols, obsessions and desires, and fears and fascinations13.Perhaps the most explicitly invested is Juhani Pallasmaa; his writings revolve around the embodied experience of architecture and the human connection, both physical and mental, with space. In his work, he argues that architecture has become a purely visual art but that the engagement of the entirety of human senses and intellect 9   Ibid., 145.10   John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (London: Smith, Elder, and co., 1849). As a common theme throughout his writings, and in particular this book, Ruskin speaks about the importance of craftsmanship, emotion, and timelessness in architecture.11   Peter Zumthor, Thinking Architecture (Basel: Birkhauser, 2010), 6.12   Wim Van den Bergh et. al., Luis Barragan: The Eye Embodied (Maastricht: Pale Pink Publishers, 2006), 1. See also page 89 for further discussion on Bergh’s ideas about kinesthetic and emotional experience in Barragan’s work.13   Ibid., 67-68.7is what makes the architectural experience unique and meaningful. He speaks about the great impact of our senses and the deepening of our emotions when we remove our vision and close our eyes14. In relation to architecture itself, the engagement of not only our senses, but also imagination is imperative in allowing the user to be emotional and human by nature. Our emotions are authentic; they are external manifestations of our internal thoughts and desires. Without the presence of our emotions, we would live in a lackluster world of banality. Our emotions give us intuitive responses, they foster our hopes and desires, and ground us in place. Some hide their emotions for fear of judgement, but what would happen to the world and our sense of being if we allowed each and every one of us to liberate our emotions and show our true selves?P e r c e p t i o n  a n d  i m a g i n at i o nWhat sets architecture aside from other arts is its experiential quality; not only do we see and admire from afar, but we also hear, smell, move through, and touch the space around us. Our perception is what translates these senses into something our conscious can recognize, and as Maurice Merleau-Ponty theorizes, “(…) our body does not have the power to make us see something that does not exist, it can only make us believe that we see it”15.The flattening of two-dimensional images tends to make us believe we are perceiving something as a whole; the capturing of a single moment makes us feel that we are perceiving all aspects concurrently. However, it is impossible for us to perceive the whole in two dimensions. More often than not, we view the world in perspective as a collection of partial experiences16; our mind and imagination work together to construct what we believe to be the whole. Conversely, perception is not purely visual. “We can close our eyes or cover our ears, but we can’t stop feeling the world around us”17. The visual sense allows us to appreciate the beauty before us, but only at a distance, whereas touch and proprioception are more intimate means of perceiving our surroundings18. These haptic senses are what connect our bodies to reality; they ground our imaginations and define at any given moment where we are in the world. This rootedness then allows us to consciously perceive in both the logical and imaginative realms, for it is impossible to “conceive of a thing that could be neither perceived nor perceptible”19. For example: a tree in your backyard is both perceived and perceptible because you can see its shape, touch its bark, and hear its leaves rustling in the wind. A tree in a forest that you have never visited is perceptible, but not perceived, simply because you imagined it. Our perceptions have changed over time as can be seen through the evolution of styles, architectural and otherwise. What once was accepted and qualified as beautiful now may be looked upon with confusion or disgust. As technology and trends develop, there is a striving towards faultlessness. However, this has resulted in a preoccupation with the need to present a perfect image, which has worsened over time. Contemporary society has a 14   Juhani Pallasmaa, “An Architecture of the Seven Senses,” in Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture, ed. Steven Holl et. al., (San Francisco: William Stout Publishers, 2006), 34.Pallasmaa discusses this concept as a central theme in many of his texts. See also The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses (2012) and “The Extended Domicile - Culture, Embodied Existence and the Senses” in Cognitive Architectures, ed. Maria Ferreira (2019).15   Merleau-Ponty, Phe-nomenology of Perception, 29.16   Holl et. al., “Questions of Perception “ in Questions of Perception, 42.17   Barbara Erwine, Creating Sensory Spaces: The Architecture of the Invis-ible (New York: Routledge, 2017), 85.18   Pallasmaa, “An Architec-ture of the Seven Senses,” in Questions of Perception, 34.19   Merleau-Ponty, Phe-nomenology of Perception, 334.8nonsensical need to project an image of perfection. Everything needs to be clean, everything needs to be orderly and logical, and everything needs to present itself as flawless. Our architecture tends to follow the same principles: clean, smooth, simple, orderly, and pragmatic delineations. When presented in contrast to what seems like your chaotic life, a momentary mishap, or just a troubling day, the image of perfection can seem daunting and unnecessary. When presented adjacent to similar settings, the monotony, if noticed at all, can seem banal and uninteresting. The issue is then a matter of intuitive and emotional response. That which is perceived as mundane does not excite our senses, does not elicit an emotional response and is likely not to be committed to memory. To be human is to have flaws and the perception of such flaws are what makes us true individuals. How and what we perceive -- as well as our acceptance of it -- is greatly affected by our past experiences. Each moment has an effect on how we experience new things; the knowledge we gain and the memories we make from such experiences remain in our minds as we encounter similar or entirely new scenarios. We have an intuitive response to our senses that allows us to appreciate or reject that which is being perceived. By this intuitive response, confronted with some thing that awakens our emotions, we remember what we have just become aware of.m e m o r y  a n d  s p a c eTo be human is to be a collection of memories. Our habits, our knowledge, our decisions, and our experiences are all shaped by the parts of the world around us that resonate with us and are gathered in our memory stores. The information we retain originates from our environment and is interpreted through sensory memory systems, imparting a transition between that which is perceived to that which is remembered20. Short  Term Long  TermT ime0  |  Emot i onal   exper i ence   o ccurs5  |  D eta i l s   b eg i n  to   fade3  |  C u es  tr i gger   r emembrance6  |  P ercept i on  o f   emot i onal   v i brance   d ecl i n es2  |  P ercept i on   o f  emot i on   i s  v i v i d7  |  C lar i ty  o f   exper i ence   d im i n i s hes4  |  Emot i on  i s   s usta i n ed1  |  T ransfer  from   short  t erm  to   l ong  t erm  storageFig. 3 The Cognitive Processing of Emotional Memories; Author 2019.20   Alan Baddeley et. al., Memory (New York: Psychol-ogy Press, 2009), 6.9The psychology of the mind is complex, as is the process of storing and recalling memories. Both the collection of information by our senses and the recollection of this information can be either conscious or unconscious21. In general, the unconscious mind fosters habits and intuition whereas the conscious mind aids in logic and decision-making processes. This time-line diagram (Fig. 3) monitors the progression of an episodic memory in relation to an emotional state over time. In general, an event occurs to an individual and is put in the process of encoding. Then, the event is stored in memory, first in short-term stores and subsequently in long-term stores22. From storage, the memory can be accessed for retrieval. The retrieval process is cognitively complex, non-linear, and dependent on environmental, social, and emotional cues. The human mind re-experiences the emotion associated with a memory through the unearthing process. In that capacity, highly emotional memories are able to be recalled more frequently and with a higher degree of specificity. Through time, these emotional memories tent to persist longer than neutral memories.At the occurrence of the event, the human is in a particular emotional state; the information retained is likely to correlate with this emotion. The event itself also induces an emotion or holds an emotional importance. In the process of remembrance, the individual is more likely to recall the event when returning to the emotion experienced as a result of the event23. For events that hold particularly emotional content, the likelihood of constructing a memory with great precision and detail is high. That is, the individual will be able to recall the event more frequently, with a higher accuracy to truth and with a greater amount of detail. Over time, the clarity of the memory and the amount of detail able to be recalled lessens.  Likewise, although similar cues are introduced throughout time, the frequency by which the memory occurs also diminishes. In some cases, consciously or subconsciously, we begin to falsify the authenticity of a memory.Personal memory is mysterious and imperfect and the memories we store are not static. Our memories change over time and are reconstructed based on newly received information. On the other hand, the comprehension of these memories affects our present experiences. Our memories affect everything we do, everything we think, and everything we desire and in turn, our needs and desires affect what we remember and what is forgotten24. “Memories remain embedded in the form, remain to be unearthed, read, and decoded -- however imperfectly or incorrectly. Memories may metamorphose into meaning over time. But to these must be added the memories triggered by the built world that stimulates accumulation or recall”25.The memory of a space creates a unique relationship to it. The memory retains the qualities of that space that most resonate with us, whether particularly beautiful or ugly, wildly textured, powerfully coloured, or out of place, while the expected and mundane wither26. We remember not only with our eyes and mind, but also with our haptic senses. As described by Pallasmaa: 21   Ibid., 10.22   Ibid., 6.23   Kensinger, Emotional Memory, 24. See also Baddeley, Memory, 176.24   Baddeley, Memory, 148.25   Marc Treib, “Yes, I Remember: An Introduction,” in Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape, ed. Marc Treib (New York: Routledge, 2009), XI-XII.26   Eleni Bastea, Memory and Architecture (Univer-sity of New Mexico Press, 2004), 1.10“Human memory is embodied, skeletal and muscular in its essence, not merely cerebral”27. The embodied experience is made possible by our constant physical relationship to space. While we remember space through measurement, we tend to more vividly remember the aspects of the space that most excite our senses.There is no means of avoiding architecture; it is imprinted in nearly every aspect of our lives. How we experience the space around us and the associations we make from that experience live in both reality and our imagination. The intimacy we have with space and the haptic senses that are engaged show us that what we are perceiving is real in this moment, while the conscious and unconscious mind and the deep remembrance of space helps us to respond to our surroundings in such a way that aligns with our aspirations.t h e  o b s ta c l eWe are unique beings that have our own hopes and dreams, our own personalities and means of achieving those dreams, and our own memories and emotions that may or may not help us where we need to go. Nonetheless, our emotions are what give us sense of self and allow us to feel grounded as part of something greater than our own being. We interpret our world and our experiences in unique ways, dependent on the soul, the senses, and the mind. Our understanding of space and time is internalized through our experiences. We tend to embody our perceptions and store them in memories, as fragments of dimensional images. Our memories and emotions shape our being in the world and this embodiment is not only a result of the events we experience, but also the space and capacity in which they occurred. The previous sections have established a view on each of the constituent parts however, emotions, perceptions, and memory do not work alone; each is dependent in some manner on the other. We are made aware of our surroundings via our senses; the manner in which we interpret those surroundings is based on our memories, which affect and are affected by our emotions. If the surroundings we sense is our perception then what we feel is our emotions and what matters to us about those surroundings are our memories. The connection between these phenomena is essential; there is thus an inherent bond between perception, emotion, memory, and space. These associations allow us to feel deeply and experience genuinely in a way that informs both our actions and sense of self. With an everlasting relationship between humans and the built environment, these interactions accumulate and constitute a crucial part of our everyday experiences. Every inch of our world is designed, no object left untouched28. We as humans are dependent on the many layers of design, everything from the clothes we wear and the everyday objects we use,  to the cars we drive and the buildings we live in. It is impossible to avoid. There is a recognizable functionality in architecture; its basic operation is to provide safety, shelter, and comfort to our skin. It serves as a catalyst for our everyday lives, and importantly so, since so much of our time is spent in 27   Pallasmaa, “Space, Place, Memory, and Imagi-nation,” in Spatial Recall, 21.28   Beatriz Colomina and Mark Wigley, Are We Human? Notes on an Archaeology of Design (Switzerland: Lars Muller Publishers, 2016), 9.11and around the built environment. There is a utilitarianism and cleanliness about the modernist styles in which we tend to design that speaks to the social aspects of our time. The polished, plain, rectilinear surfaces projected and image of perfection in a world of underlying chaos, forgetting the past and making us feel one with the technological future. It is a basic need that architecture provides us with four walls and a roof;  though, it is not inherent that architecture provides us with a means of engaging our minds, our senses, and our emotions. With our emotions being all of the means and the end of our identity, how we experience and interpret the world, and the meaning we bring to ourselves from such experiences, the containment of our emotions by the built environment is then a shortcoming of design. These perfectionist and flawless design aspirations and intentions remove the sensuality from architecture. We are designing the world around us based on function and efficiency, rather than reaching in to ourselves and asking how architecture can help our minds and bodies function at a higher emotional level.t h e s i s  s tat e m e n tThe task, then, of architecture, is to contribute to the human experience in such a way that deeply acknowledges our ever changing perceptions, memories, and emotions. This project considers how architectural design is essential in reawakening our emotions and making us feel safe to do so. Through personal investigations of emotional architectural experiences and the exploration of designed elements, the project strives to strengthen the understanding of emotion in architecture and its impact on the embodied experience, placing significance in the [im]permanence of our memories, emotions, and imaginations in a home.Fig. 4 Body with Mind; Author 2020.1213e m o t i o n a l  a r c h i t e c t u r e s“The all-encompassing and instantaneous perception of atmospheres calls for a specific manner of perception -- unconscious and unfocused peripheral perception. (...) Our image of our world of perceptual fragments is held together by constant active scanning by the senses, movement and a creative fusion and interpretation of these inherently dissociated percepts through memory.”-- Juhani Pallasmaa; Space, Place, and Atmosphereu n d e r s ta n d i n g  e m o t i o n  i n a r c h i t e c t u r eThis project began with an interest in the relationship between architecture and our emotions, though it is quite difficult to quantify and categorize emotions. Their subjective nature lends itself to individuality and personal accounts. As such, the underlying methodology of the project relies on my own understanding of the subject and my personal emotional experiences with architecture. An exercise of personal recollection and reflection was undertaken in order to better understand emotional tendencies in architecture and their relationship to physical space. A repository of emotional experiences with architecture were retrieved from my personal memory29. The process of recollecting and exposing emotional memories is intensive, deeply personal, and emotional in itself. The memories that I chose to reflect on are those of particular vividness to me and had a strong impact on my emotional self, each being documented and analyzed in a similar manner. In each instance, the architecture contributed to or was the object of an intense emotion felt either intuitively upon first encounter, or through time and the development spatial and emotional relationships. These emotional encounters were experienced in a range of architypes and programs, from religious spaces, to performance spaces, to domestic spaces, though do not constitute an exhaustive portfolio.Journaling to reflect on these experiences asked three principal questions:29   The repository of emo-tional experiences as well as the journal reflections of the exercise is included in the appendix of this document.Fig. 5 A Flipped Perspec-tive; Author 2020.14PART  A :  R EPOS I TORY  O F  S E L FPART  B :  ANALYS I S  +  phenomenaRecount instances of personal emotional experiences with architectureDocument memoriesReflect on emotions and emotional aspectsDocument general information about the architectureDevelop repository of architectural attitudes and techniques with respect to emotionReflect on outcomes and identify an avenue for future studiesInclude photographs of memorable aspectsJournal and reflect: What emotions were felt? What aspects were most memorable?Analysis of experiencesSpatialize architectural attitudes and techniquesDefine repository terms Develop a framework for the repository to be created withinIdentify relationships between emotions and architectural aspectsDefine terms relating to the selected attributes for subsequent investigationSpeculate as to the aspects contributing to the emotion; identify prominent attributes15What emotions were felt?What specific aspects of the experience were most memorable?Is there any contextual information that is important to understand?The documentation then allowed me to reflect on those experiences: the commonalities, the differences, and any other findings that were unique or significant.c o n n e c t i n g  e m o t i o n  a n d s p a c eThe highly subjective recount of my personal emotional experiences and the more objective reflection of such encounters led to an archive of phenomena, prompted by the unique or significant findings in my recollection. The phenomena were then used to generate a series of iconic representations (Fig. 7). Each icon was created under a similar framework, using a 12’ x 12’ footprint as a starting point. This framework allowed for an initial exploration into the spatial and architectural qualities of these phenomena. These icons, and more importantly their definitions, were used as an aid in the line of inquiry of the design process for this project. -- Anomaly --[That which does not belong.]There is an appreciation for the little things that make a space feel cohesive. An artifact that does not belong, a moment that is out of place, or a datum that is offset is an anomaly. Deviating from the norm or from what is expected to be generates a uniqueness of the space that is sympathetic of the individualistic human condition. -- Light and Shadow --[That which allows the eyes to see or otherwise shades the view.]With great light comes great shadow elsewhere; they are equal and opposite in the perceptual magnitude. What is lit within greatly changes the feeling of a space without changing the spatial characteristics of it. The light brings forth a place of focus, while the darkness distorts our perception.-- Contrast and Contradiction --[Two things -- or more -- in proximity that are strikingly different from one another and represent opposite poles.]If one is in contrast to another, a friction is created. This friction catches our senses and allows us to contemplate each opposition. With contrast, there are thresholds that bound an experience that differs from another, either mentally or physically, with a barrier. Our mind must work to distinguish between the two.-- Detail --[A minor feature which does not go unnoticed.]It is the collection of details that bring together a space, much like a collection of words forms a coherent sentence. There is an appreciation for the care and attention that goes into the minute details of an entity. The detail begins to reveal the personality and intent of all the hands involved in its creation.Fig. 6 Process of Research and Understanding Emotional Experiences in Ar-chitecture and Architectural Space; Author 2019.1617-- Imagination --[A projection of that which lies beyond the horizon of our senses.]The imagination of what we cannot sense engages our minds and explores the uncharted territory of our dreams. The creation of what could be and what could have been piques our curiosity and fills our heads with possibility. Without imagination, the world would become flat and one-dimensional, and our senses would be diluted.-- Complexity --[An overwhelmingly disorienting place.]Complexity engages our logical mind while disorienting our bodies. It induces our senses to work in overdrive. This hyperactive state is interesting, distressing, and demanding of our emotions.-- Colour --[A reflection of light that distributes different sensations to the eye.]Out relationship to colour is both personal and universal. The emotional response to colour is fueled by knowledge and associations as well as the meaning we place on the colour, established by our own experiences and intuition30. The sensation of bright and highly saturated colours has one effect, while the saturation and lack of colour has another effect.-- Movement and Time --[The progress of our experience committed by the fluid act of moving.]We experience space through movement; we are not static beings. This movement both strengthens and skews our understanding of time. The means and methods by which we progress through architecture affects what we perceive and how we perceive it. Moving in a particular way directs our body towards certain aspects. On the other hand, the movement of architecture itself also begins to direct our gaze.-- Repetition --[The constant recurrence of a thing in the same means or form.]There is a comfort in understanding a rhythm and being able to project the forthcoming. It feels safe and predictable and has the ability to relax our minds. On the other hand, there is also a discomfort in monotony, leaving a space feeling dull and lifeless.-- Material and Texture --[The touch of a space by the hands and the eyes.]Our skin can sense and feel the surface created by materials and textures; touch excites our haptic senses. Our eyes can also feel the impression of a surface; the material and texture creates a depth in our vision that engages our perception.-- Scale and Proportion --[A shape relative to the body which is in perfect size and distribution or in perfect disproportion.]The human is used as a dimensioning tool in architecture. When the measurement is in proportion to the body, there is a closeness and comfort. 30   Elif Gunes et. al., “Color-Emotion Associations in Interiors,” Color Res Appl. (2019): 2.Fig. 7 Iconic Representa-tions of Emotional Phenom-enon: (a) Anomaly, (b) Light + Shadow, (c) Contrast + Contradiction, (d) Detail, (e) Imagination, (f) Complexity, (g) Colour, (h) Movement + Time, (i) Repetition, (j) Material + Texture, (k) Scale + Proportion, (l) Beauty + Nature; Author 2019.18When the measurement is highly disproportionate to the body -- either greatly large or exceptionally small -- there is a freedom or confinement that changes the feeling of the space. Both scale an proportion often give instantaneous excitement to our senses.-- Beauty and Nature --[A representation of the macrocosm as products of the earth and pleasing to the senses.]Nature reminds us of life and the importance of care and nurturing; especially in the present day, there is a responsibility towards nature. Nature and beauty calms the soul. It is a breath of fresh air. It cautions us that we are but a very small part in this large place we call the universe.Fig. 8 Diagrammatic Plan Representations of Domestic Space Configurations -- Master Suite (Left), Bedrooms (Middle), Kitchen Living Dining (Right); Author 2020.Fig. 9 Design Methodology and Questions Asked During the Design Process; Author 2020.19PART  A :  hab i tual  r e lat i onsh i p sPART  B :  exper i ent ial  i n stancesPART  C :  [ i m ] p ermanenceUnderstand spacial configurations in domestic architecture“Mutate” sequences considering external conditionsWhat spatial aspects contribute to the experience (scale, proportion, repetition, etc.)?identify specific instances for opportunities of heightened experienceIterate to develop relationships based on experiences, perceptions, memories, and emotionsHow do localized relationships contribute to the experience?What activities are typical and how does the body move through the sequence?Understand unique conditions of relationships andWhat ephemeral aspects contribute to the experience (light, shadow, texture, etc.)?What emotions are felt based on the conditions? What aspects are most memorable?How can specific instances be designed to contribute to the overall experience?20p r o j e c t  f r a m e w o r kThe program of the project lives in the domestic sphere. First, there is a delineating between ‘house’ and ‘home’. In this project, the house is considered an object; it is the physical building that you carry our your daily lives in. The home on the other hand is the ephemeral and subjective aspects of the house. It includes your thoughts, feelings, and memories of the space. It also embraces the significant and sentimental objects within the house that individualize the home. The home is made only by your being intimate and personal with the objective house.For most, the home is where our lives are cultivated. It is where we start our days and where we return to when we need comfort. Our homes are meant to be the most intimate, the most private, and the most comforting spaces, but they are also where we are most vulnerable. We have the capability to develop a relationship over time with these spaces and to allow that relationship to change based on the memories created and emotions felt. The house itself is universal, but also highly individualized, relating to the nature of our own experiences -- collective yet highly personal. This project is built on the foundation of a single family house and focuses on my own understanding of a home. It considers the home a safe haven, where we feel stable and secure, and where we are able to be our most vulnerable selves, though not all situations are the same. In working through domesticity, the thoughts of the inhabitants are brought more closely in to focus and the role of time becomes more prominent. The personal nature of the home, as well as our long-term relationship with it, begins to unravel our traditional experience of emotion in architecture and create a space that is uniquely grounded in our own being. The house in this project is internal to itself and is therefore site-less, however environmental phenomena such as day and night, illuminance, and temperature are considered in the process. This interiority helps to focus on the experiences of the spaces themselves and better understand the impermanence of our perception and memory of space.d e s i g n  m e t h o d o l o g yThe design process in this project investigates the translation of emotional tendencies to space. It favors a personal approach that considers the many points of view and versions of lived experiences that reside in our perceptions and memories. First, questions of activity, routine, and movement were asked in order to understand spatial configurations in domestic architecture and the relationships between adjacent spaces. These sequences were developed as a series of diagrammatic plans (Fig. 8) focusing on localized relationships in the house and the contribution of spatial aspects to the experience. How do the adjacent rooms functionally relate to one another? How does the body move through and between these spaces? What spatial aspects (such as scale, proportion, repetition, etc.) contribute to the experience of these spaces?Fig. 10 Hand Sketches of Design Elements; (a) Deep Slit Windows, (b) Thick Window Sill, (c) Door in a Door, (d) Step in a Door, (e) Arch Openings, (f) Detailed Decorative Archway, (g) Groin Vault Ceiling, (h) Hang-ing Stairs, (i) Workspace Stairs, (j) Deep Sitting Steps; Author 2020.2122Then, a series of detail sketches (Fig.10) were curated to explore specific experiences at the scale of the body and intimate with an embodied experience. The individual architectural instances and subsequent design consider and rely on the previously developed archive of phenomena (see Fig. 7) as phenomenological principles. The methodology operates between designing at the scale of the body and the scale of existential space, allowing for a qualification of atmosphere (Fig. 11) and an investigation of how the haptic aspects can contribute to an overall intensified experience, asking questions such as: What emotions are or could be felt in these spaces under certain conditions? How can specific instances be designed to contribute to the overall experience? What haptic aspects (such as light, shadow, texture, colour, etc.) can heighten the perception and experience of the space? The design is not born solely of atmosphere, though the project recognizes that conditions external to yourself -- weather, illuminance, social mood, etc. -- have a great impact on your perception of space. There is a friction in this project that lands somewhere between seeing space as ‘objectively there’ and space as a purely subjective experience. Early on in the project, the representation and focus of the space was changing, while the form remained intact. Working through the design and through iterations of the project, ideas of subjectivity became more prominent, where no one true space exists, only individual experiences of it. Thus, the idea that space is subjective to each user was followed to mutate and morph the spaces based on experiences, perceptions, memories, and emotions. To some degree, design decisions were made based on my own interests being explored in the project, as well as my personal emotional memories and experiences in a home. The design methodology -- like the designs themselves -- is not static. It is an iterative and cyclical process working between scales of the body, the surrounding space, and the overall experience. It is important that each reflects the other and that these scales work in conjunction with one another to produce a cohesive whole.The designs were imagined and are represented in such a way that the structure and form of the spaces begin to speak to the emotional and atmospheric qualities of the spaces. This final stage reflects on the         [im]permanence of space and operates within the fusion of imagination and reality. Fig. 11 Collage Explora-tions of Mood and Atmo-sphere; (a) Romantic, (b) Adventurous, (c) Focused, (d) Anxious, (e) Melancholic, (f) Playful, (g) Grounded, (h) Content, (i) Uneasy; Author 2020.232425[ i m ] p e r m a n e n c e  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e[Im]Permanence in Architecture works through the many lived experiences of a home in relation to emotive qualities. The focus of the design was put on experience -- how and what you might feel while moving through or pausing in the space and how those emotive qualities can both influence and be influenced by the design.  The project is presented as a series of diptychs. Each set represents a sequence of typical adjacent programming, depicting a fragment of a house. These fragmented percepts comprise most of the home. The house itself is shown only briefly as an amalgamation of the individual sequences; the arrangement of the fragments begins to reveal interesting spaces and frictions between the singly designed experience.The drawings themselves contain several layers, showing the spatial relationships and adjacencies, the details and specific architectural instances, as well as the atmosphere of the sequence in difference points of view. The drawings are layered to show that though we believe we perceive the whole, our conscious and unconscious minds are constantly arranging and rearranging the images of our experiences. Each diptych has a different focus on a type of atmosphere; these include both natural and social atmospheres. While shifting the focal point through contrasting scenarios, different experiences and emotional qualities are explored in each design. “In order to really see the world, we must break with our familiar acceptance of it.”-- Maurice Merleau-Ponty; Phenomenology of PerceptionFig. 12 [Im]Permanence; Author 2020.26The bedroom is a place of self-reflection, relaxation, and comfort; where the day wakes you and energizes you, and nightfall pulls you back to sleep. You have a cyclical relationship with your bedroom, parting with the space in the morning and always reuniting in the evening, amplifying the passage of time.A  h a u n t e d  r o m a n c em a s t e r  s u i t e27Fig. 13 A Haunted Romance -- The Bed; Author 202028The light brings privacy through your windows. You feel safe, nearly invisible. Your movements between the spaces are close and familiar, driven by your muscle memory, making your space feel comfortable. The lack of reflection in the night degrades your privacy. Your vulnerability as you move between the bedroom, bathroom, and closet is exposed, quickening your pace and shortening your breath. The bathroom seems much farther away. 29Fig. 14 A Haunted Romance -- The Movement; Author 202030You see the reflection of light as a luxuriousness in the golden window frames. It gives you the energy and the confidence you need to take on the day. You are vibrant and motivated.There is an aura of romance in the walls. The brick -- ever so slightly decaying -- brings up a nostalgia for the past. Who lived here before? Who will live here next? The walls imprint your own identity and will carry it through until the end of their time. You see your reflection in the window; as you stare into the darkness, you wonder if anyone is watching.The windows no longer feel luxurious. Without the natural sunlight, the window frames are dull. But still the brick is ever so slightly decaying. You feel as though you are in a haunted castle, trying to navigate your way around an unfamiliar place. 31Fig. 15 A Haunted Romance -- The Light and the Darkness; Author 202032The casting of sunlight brightens your day and is warm on your skin. It feels bright, open, and airy. The ceiling seems like it is levitating closer and closer to the sky above. The walls of the hallway and sitting room move outwards, giving you space to breathe and relax. As darkness creeps in while preparing for a good night’s rest, the space compresses around you. The room is still, quiet, dark, pulling you into slumber. The lack of depth in your vision feeling ominous and the shadows haunting your dreams.33Fig. 16 A Haunted Romance -- The Hallway; Author 202034Fig. 17 A Haunted Romance -- Master Suite in the Light; Author 202035Fig. 18 A Haunted Romance -- Master Suite in the Darkness; Author 202036The kitchen, living, and dining rooms are places of action and multi-tasking; they are filled with noise, smells, and life. The nature of preparation becomes a ritual in service of your day. At times, the rooms are left feeling still and empty. The spaces are their own separate entities, but often feel as though they are one, moving from one to the other at a moment’s notice.t h e  f e at  a n d  t h e  f e e tk i t c h e n  - -  l i v i n g  - -  d i n i n g37Fig. 19 The Feat and the Feet -- The Activity; Author 202038While entertaining guests, awkward conversations and small talk bring up anxieties. The hallway from the kitchen to the dining room seems to get longer and narrower every time you get up from the table, being careful not to spill the dinner. And on your own, without the social pressures, the demeanor of your movements change. You find yourself in high spirits while playfully dancing around the room, shifting with the rise and fall of the stairs.39Fig. 20 The Feat and the Feet -- The Movements; Author 202040A social tension is created. You put on a false self, trying to project an image of perfection and togetherness. The sharpness in the noise hides your quietness in the midst of chaotic movements. This is the calm between the storms. It gives you a place to rest and recharge while recovering or preparing for an anxious event. Your lightened mood is reflected by the walls around you: the smooth undulating touch and the vibrancy of the colours.41Fig. 21 The Feat and the Feet -- The Wall; Author 202042But when you forget about your anxieties, what you remember is the smiling faces, enjoying a meal and the company of others from afar. You feel as though you are on the outside looking in in your own home, defeated by the event and waiting for the noise to subside.You peer into the dining room, and all you can see is the feet.43Fig. 22 The Feat and the Feet -- The Company; Author 2020Fig. 23 The Feat and the Feet -- Kitchen Living Dining for Entertainment; Author 2020Fig. 24 The Feat and the Feet -- Kitchen Living Dining for Family; Author 202046A  s o l e m n  a d v e n t u r eb e d r o o m sThe bedroom is both a source of self-entertainment and a sanctuary. It is a place you can share or choose to be alone. Your bedroom is paired with another; they are equal and opposite so as not to choose favourites. The relationship between these rooms is long-lasting and changes from when you are a child as you grow older.47Fig. 25 A Solemn Adventure -- The Cube; Author 202048The adventures of a child run wild with your imagination, finding secret hiding spots in the depths of the walls, crossing rooms at great heights, and imagining what lies beyond. Your mind is free to roam without judgement. There is no end to the possibilities.As your mind grows older, you lose some of your imagination. You no longer dream of warriors and knights, but instead are lost in your thoughts and insecurities. The judgements get the best of you and your personality begins to recede.49Fig. 26 A Solemn Adventure -- The Dream; Author 202050The sound that travels to your room from the next reminds you that you are not alone. It makes you feel safe and clears away the monsters. Even with your young mind, the strength of sound enhances your awareness of the space: its depth, its height, and its thickness.As you grow older, you feel like you’re always being watched, constantly in the face of judgement. It’s difficult to have your own space and your own individuality. Though you appreciate the peace and quiet of your room.51Fig. 27 A Solemn Adventure -- The Link; Author 202052Never together and never apart, your lives are bridged by your imagination. But your sibling somehow always manages to get in your room. You forever feel like a warrior, confident and fearless. You’re able to take on any challenge thrown your way. No longer a warrior, you want to block out the distractions and live in your own world. The softness, calmness, and solemnity give you the time you need to yourself to reflect and recharge. Your time to yourself helps you feel rejuvenated.53Fig. 28 A Solemn Adventure -- The Warrior; Author 202054Fig. 29 A Solemn Adventure -- Bedrooms in Youth; Author 202055Fig. 30 A Solemn Adventure -- Bedrooms Growing Older; Author 202056The entrance of a home is the transition between the outside realm and your interior world. A transition that is two-directional, it reminds you of conflicting experiences: the sadness of leaving and the joy of coming home.The gateway to your life, your memories, and your being, it is where you have been and where you would like to go.It is both the beginning and the end -- bittersweet.g o n e  h o m ee n t r a n c e  - -  e x i t57Fig. 31 Gone Home -- The Door; Author 202058The moment you walk through the door of your home, there is an immediate sense of security, comfort, and warmth. There is a feeling of relief in the familiarity. The soft wood textures and warm colours of the fire relax your shoulders. You feel grounded.You anticipate leaving; there is a coolness in the air. The stone floor is cold on your feet, preparing you for the world outside of your home. In nature, you will no longer be protected. There is a heaviness to the rain, dampening your day.59Fig. 32 Gone Home -- The Object; Author 202060The objects inside help make your house a home. Each thing has its place. You carry them with you wherever home may be, and they give you a sense of belonging. As your life continues to evolve, the things contained begin to evolve as well. One by one, slowly over time, your memories shift your focus of importance.Some leave the world behind them while others bring the outside world in, finding comfort in nature. The beauty in the organic prosperity is reflected in your own growth as you flourish in the confines of your home.61Fig. 33 Gone Home -- The Activity; Author 202062In the routine of leaving and returning, you contemplate the passage of time. It marks the momentum of your day. The repetition in your habits echoes in the structural grid, feeling safe and comfortable in its predictions.The walls crack open ever so slightly and the light shines in. It marks a pathway and breaks up the spaces with its contrasting light and shadow. A discomforting complexity is added to your routine. Your mind works in overdrive to avoid the disorientation.63Fig. 34 Gone Home -- The Demarcation; Author 2020Fig. 35 Gone Home -- Entrance; Author 2020Fig. 36 Gone Home -- Exit; Author 202066The house is in a constant state of flux; its spaces morph and change by projecting our emotions, thoughts, and memories back on to us. The relationships between spaces are a product of your day -- your emotions and your memories.There is a friction that exists in the spaces between sequences; the alignments are not always true and the gaps are often mysterious and nonsensical.h o u s e  i n  f l u xa m a l g a m at i o n67Fig. 37 House in Flux -- The Space Between; Author 2020Fig. 38 House in Flux -- Amalgamation One; Author 2020Fig. 39 House in Flux -- Amalgamation Two; Author 20207071c o n c l u d i n g  r e m a r k ss u m m a r yThis project explores the relationship between emotion and design. It is as much about the methodology as it is about the outcome. The intent is to understand and investigate how the impermanence of our perceptions translates to a space that is perceivably not static.The iterative methodology provides a more personal approach to design, where the experience of the user is brought to the forefront and the effect of both atmosphere and intentionally designed spaces contributes to the existential space.Rooted in domestic space, this project assumes our homes are where we carry out our lives. It is where we feel comfortable and where we allow ourselves to grow. Where we feel as though we are able to express our emotions, without the judgement of others.The building of this home resides in the space between reality and imagination. Its formal integrity and attention to detail allows it to live in the material world, while its atmosphere and duality of experience allows it to be perceived in the imaginative realm.To be human is to be a collection of memories, to have characteristics and flaws, and to have emotions. These aspects are what establish us as unique individuals. No two of us have the same memories, no two of us have the same reactions, and no two of us have the same aspirations. Our habits, our knowledge, our decisions, and our experiences are all shaped by the parts of the world around us that resonate with us. These constructions reflect back on to our present experiences and “We must understand the potential of architecture as a conceptual framework which generates a sort of metaphysical energy between the material world of building construction and the world beyond ourselves which we inhabit with our ideas and spiritual values.”-- Malcolm Quantrill; The Environmental Memory72shape how we view the world currently existing around us. What lies between an imperfect memory and an imprecise amalgamation of percepts allows for an inquiry into what lives beyond and what is hidden beneath the surface. Your reality is altered by your imagination. What you see and what you remember is the consolidation of your perceptions and memories, constantly arranging and rearranging themselves.Through the process of perceiving and embodying, the spaces we encounter shift and change depending on the experiential dimension in which they occur. The physical space we occupy may have an aura of permanence and rootedness, but our memories, emotions, and imaginations carry with them an impermanence that allows us to experience space in new and meaningful ways. i m a g i n i n g  a  f u t u r eMany lessons were learned in the executing of this project. Not only was a light shed on personal design intuitions, but methodological practices as well. The oppositional nature of the project begins to look at both ends of a spectrum, showing the great difference in our experiences based on a set of conditions. However, there is no binary in our experiences; they are not black and white. Typically, our thoughts, memories, and emotions reside in a grey space that is not entirely comprehensible and often quite messy. Though the project uses a diptych to distinguish between types of experiences, there is an acknowledgement that our feelings are often simultaneously conflicting. The project conveys a strong sense of dynamism and mood in the layering of these experiences. Though considered in the design, to add to the drawings another layer of textures and materiality would begin to create a vision of the true experience and challenge the representation of the drawings themselves. This project was intentionally internal facing, looking to only consider the experience within the home. In a future project, it would be interesting to consider the exterior, not only the exterior of the building but also the influences of climate, landscape, and orientation. The external influences of our environment -- such as weather, location, and nature -- have a great affect on our emotions. Furthermore, there is a question of translation in this project. How is it that this design process can translate to other users, to other designers, and to other building typologies? Using the methodology put forth in this project, there is an opportunity for designers to engage both the mind and body. This process focuses on creating opportunities for the for the user as opposed to prescribing an experience. By creating these circumstances, we are embracing the notion that each of us have different means of perceiving and remembering our experiences. In operating between the frictions of how the spaces interact with one another and how our experiences interact with one another, there is an ability to develop more heightened experiences. With careful consideration, the process of designing between the space of body and the space of mind could be translated to 73other projects, whether a single-family home, a multi-generational household, an apartment building, a community center, etc. The outcome of the project will change and there are certainly more points of view to inhabit, but the focus on creating opportunity for meaningful experiences remains intact.In the current discipline of architecture and design, there is a great focus on formal integrity and occupant safety. While important in our buildings, we do not solely engage with buildings in this manner. There is a metaphysical connection we have to the space around us that is not accounted for in our codes and standards; it is up to the architect’s discretion as to how to consider the questions of atmosphere and experience. There is a great deal of empathy the architect must inhabit in order to do so meaningfully.The subjectivity of design is something we should embrace. The morphing of spaces based on our memories is something we should harvest. The uniqueness of our thoughts and emotions is something we should embody. Even through technical applications and formal operations, I imagine a future in architecture that is filled with metaphysical and phenomenological opportunities to embrace our inner being as emotional humans. A future with endless possibilities.7475r e f e r e n c e sBachelard, Gaston. 1969. The Poetics of Space. Boston: Beacon press.Baddeley, Alan, Michael W. Eysenck, and Michael C. Anderson. 2009. Memory. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Bastea, Eleni. 2004. Memory and Architecture. University of New Mexico Press.Bergh, Wim H J Van den, Luis Barragan, and Kim Zwarts. 2006. Luis Barragan: The Eye Embodied. Maastricht: Pale Pink Publishers.Bohme, Gernot. 2017. Atmospheric Architectures: The Aesthetics of Felt Space. Translated by A. -Chr. Engels-Schwarzpaul. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Inc.Colomina, Beatriz, and Mark Wigley. 2016. Are We Human? Notes on an Archaeology of Design. Zurich, Switzerland: Lars Muller Publishers.Erwine, Barbara. 2017. Creating Sensory Spaces: The Architecture of the Invisible. New York, NY: Routledge.Gunes, Elif, and Nilgun Olgunturk. 2019. “Color-Emotion Associations in Interiors.” Color Res Appl. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) 1-13.Holl, Steven, Juahni Pallasmaa, and Alberto Perez-Gomez. 2006. Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture. San Francisco: William Stout Publishers.Jung, Carl G. 2014. The Collected Works: The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Edited by William McGuire. Translated by R. F. C. Hull. Vol. 9. New York, NY: Routledge.Kensinger, Elizabeth A. 2009. Emotional Memory Across the Adult Lifespan: Essays in Cognitive Psychology. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.Lyons, William. 1980. Emotion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 2010. Phenomenology of Perception. Translated by Donald A. Landes. Oxon: Routledge.Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2007. “New Architectural Horizons.” Architectural Design (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd) 77 (2): 16-23.Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2012. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Pallasmaa, Juhani. “Space, Place, And Atmosphere. Emotion and Peripheral Perception in Architectural Experience.” Lebenswelt: Aesthetics and Philosophy of Experience, 4 (2014): 230-245.Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2019. The Extended Domicile-Culture, Embodied Existence and the Senses. Vol. 94, in Cognitive Architectures, by Aldinhas Ferreira, 31-41. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Quantrill, Malcolm. 1987. The Environmental Memory: Man and Architecture in the Landscape of Ideas. New York: Schocken Books.Ruskin, John. 1849. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. London: Smith, Elder, and co.Treib, Marc. 2009. Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape. New York, NY: Routledge.Wheeler, Katherine. 2016. “’They cannot choose but look’: Ruskin and Emotional Architecture.” 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century (23): 1-19.Zumthor, Peter. 2006. Atmospheres: Architectural Environments - Surrounding Objects. Basel: Birkhauser.Zumthor, Peter. 2010. Thinking Architecture. 3rd, expanded ed. Basel: Birkhauser.7677a p p e n d i xThe subsequent pages are a documentation and reflection of my personal accounts of emotion in architecture. 78The treads were worn with a certain delicacy and authority. The grace by which the wooden handrail, aged to the touch, guided me up the staircase gave me a feeling of lightness and trust. The curving pattern of the balustrade paired with the spiral of the stair felt infinite. So beautifully and meticulously crafted, the wrought iron complemented the textures of the wood and stone. An engineering feat in itself, with few remaining in North America, the large cantilevered stone questioned my perception of gravity and of possibility, piquing my logical curiosity.  Built in 1829 and designed by architect John Cunningham, this neoclassical building has served as a courthouse for the Supreme Court and Court of Quarter Sessions. A devastating fire in 1919 fostered the rebuilding of the entire courthouse in 1924 save for the stone facade and the freestanding stone spiral staircase. In 1974, the building was designated as a National Historic Site.S a i n t  j o h n  c o u r t h o u s es a i n t  j o h n ,  n e w  b r u n s w i c kInspiration | Awe | Astonishment | NostalgiaFig. 40 Saint John Court-house, Saint John, New Brunswick; Photograph by Author 2019.79My initial reaction left me shocked and unable to comprehend my surroundings, but as I began to move through the space and observe I felt empowered and amazed. The complexity was overwhelming but the stunning execution of detail took my breath away; the play of light and shadow as it danced around the tree-like columns, the warm colours pouring in as if the world was on fire, the dynamism of texture ingrained in every inch. The incredible verticality made me feel so small in relation to the architecture but gave me a great sense of being in the world.    Laying of the cornerstone began in 1882; the lengthy construction of the Basilica expects completion nearly 144 years later in 2026. Originally conceived of by Antoni Gaudi, La Sagrada Familia has been led by many architects through the generations, all respecting the wishes of Gaudi’s original design despite the loss of the original drawings, photographs, and parts of scale models in an act of vandalism. The design of the temple carries a wide array of symbolism attributed both to nature and to the Roman Catholic religion. Hopefulness | Love | Overwhelmed | Uplifted | EnchantmentB a s í l i c a  d e  l a  S a g r a d a  F a m í l i ab a r c e l o n a ,  s p a i nFig. 41 Basílica de la Sagrada Família, Barcelona, Spain; Photograph by Author 2017.80The Silver Temple was a hidden gem in my tour of Thailand. The meticulous craftsmanship and attention to detail showed great care for the Buddhist religion and for the temple itself, making me appreciate the building all the more. The monotony of silver colour but wildly textured exterior blindly reflected the sun’s powerful rays, playing with both exposure and contrast. As a woman, I was unable to enter the temple’s small hall, which made me feel devalued but also instilled a great curiosity and sense of imagination of what might be waiting inside.   This Buddhist temple is the only of its kind in Thailand; clad entirely in silver, nickel, and aluminum, both inside and out, Wat Sri Suphan is known as the ‘Silver Temple’. It was originally built in the 16th century however, the temple’s current state is a result of many rebuilds and renovations throughout history. At each turn, local silver craftsmen bring their own techniques to the traditional Lanna design.w at  s r i  s u p h a nc h i a n g  m a i ,  t h a i l a n dEuphoria | Admiration | Surprise | Intimidation | NeglectFig. 42 Wat Sri Suphan [The Silver Temple], Chiang Mai, Thailand; Photograph by Author 2017.81I lived in this house alone for three weeks as I was engaging with the local community. The house for me was a means of protection in an unfamiliar and uncomfortable setting. The blankness of the walls and rattling of the window was unsettling. The roof was a comfortable home for insects, spiders, and geckos much to my protest. Although the house itself wasn’t able to lift my spirits, its presence within the landscape and its strong construction motivated me to become a part of the community. It made me believe I could help make a difference in the infrastructure of Makupo Village.   This home was built in 2014 by the local communities of Makupo and Chilanga for Montreal architect Doug Miller during his visits. It is one of the few homes constructed of concrete in this area. The house is situated in rural Malawi, surrounded by vast dry landscapes with rolling hills in the distance.Homesickness | Uneasy | Loneliness | Motivation | Protectionm i l l e r  h o u s em a k u p o  v i l l a g e ,  m a l a w iFig. 43 Miller House, Makupo Village, Malawi; Photograph by Author 2016.82The performance space was not overly exuberant upon first glance. What was a colourfully patterned entrance did not translate to the next room. The ceilings were low and vaulted, casting shadows and creating a space of tenseness and confinement. The intimacy of the gathering on simple wicker chairs showed the vulnerability of the audience. The performance added a layer of passion, sorrow, and freedom that was not present in the low blank arches. The vaulted ceilings produced a sound so pure and vibrant that no microphones or amplifiers were needed. In itself, the theater produced an oppressive atmosphere, but paired with the flamenco performance, the architecture began to come to life.  This building is home to Tablao Flamenco Cordobes, a well-known performance of flamenco dancing along the famous Las Ramblas. The space was inspired by Nasrid architecture of the late 15th century Andalusia with references to Arabic culture and Moorish architecture. The decoration was handcrafted by official restorers of the Nasrid Palaces of Southern Spain. The theater is meant to recreate an intimate gathering seating no more than 180 people in close proximity to one another.ta b l a o  c o r d o b e sb a r c e l o n a ,  s p a i nPassion | Anxiety | Anticipation |Limitation | VulnerableFig. 44 Tablao Cordobes, Barcelona, Spain; Photo-graph by Author 2017.83There is nothing special about this bathroom. The walls are plain but slightly saddening, the fixtures are typical, and the floor is cold beneath the feet. In the basement it is cut off from the hustle and bustle of the life upstairs. But this bathroom was my own; it was private and familiar showing traces of only myself having been there. My bathroom became a sort of sanctuary for me over time. It was where I was at my most vulnerable and the place I would go to contemplate. The cold floor was charming when I was feeling anxious. The plain walls were soothing when I needed to relax. The organized shelves and cabinets were comforting when all else felt chaotic. It was a place of solitude and meditation, but also of familiarity and rejuvenation. We moved into our home in Gravenhurst in 2009; it was newly built at that point, about a year old. Modest in size and relatively open, this house quickly became a home. On the edge of suburbia, it gave us close access to the town, schools, and activities, but also closely connected us with the Muskoka Lakes where we spent much of our time in the Summers. The house is currently for sale. Comfort | Vulnerable | Sadness |Vulnerable | Rejuvinationm y  b at h r o o mg r av e n h u r s t,  o n ta r i oFig. 45 My Bathroom, Gravenhurst, Ontario; Photo-graph by Author 2019.84r e f l e c t i o n sc o m p l e x i t y  o f  e m o t i o nThe process of unearthing personal emotions is intensive and intrusive; it forces us to be vulnerable and true to ourselves. This exercise for me required objective recollection of certain events and places in my life with patience and sincerity. The process in itself is emotional. It required a certain calmness and productive mindset to be able to recall past emotions and then to feel the authenticity of such emotions for the value of the process. Among the five documented memories, this unearthing revealed the complexity of emotion and often a contradiction of my feelings. I found myself saying “on one hand, this... but on the other hand, this”, where my mental state involved more than one opposing feeling. As humans we appreciate certain qualities of a space that contribute to positive feelings but also recognize the qualities of space that make us feel negatively. This duality is complex and often times messy but is necessary in our being and in our experience of architecture.t h e  p o w e r  o f  c i r c u m s ta n c eIn my life I’ve given the power of circumstance less credit than is due. In some cases, not always, the situation in which an encounter occurs, and my prepossession of emotion has an effect on the emotion I experience afterwards. In particular, if the scenario leading up to the encounter is difficult or uncomfortable, I find I am much more likely to feel elevated negative emotions in the space. Memory plays an important role; our preconceived ideas based on past experiences inform our behaviours, perceptions, and emotions in the present. Emotion plays an equally important role; our present emotion skews our understanding of an experience and subsequently of the memory. Moving forward, it is important to understand the circumstance and recognize the bias it is placing on the memory. That is not to say that this bias renders the memory invaluable, but that the experience can be more objectively understood when all components are accounted for.at t e n t i o n  t o  d e ta i lMany of my memories are recalled based on the intricate or minute details of the architecture; they become more vivid with the play of contrast, the relationship between light and shadow, the presence of colour, the texture of materials, or the intricate patterning and decoration. I do not only mean the technical details of architecture itself, but also the minute and mundane instances into which great care is invested.I am more likely to perceive and react if something is in contrast to another thing adjacent. My perceptions and emotions are amplified if the space is in the presence of great light, great shadow, or the combination.My emotions are particularly affected by bright colours, in most cases, positively. The lack of colour also has 85an interesting affect, usually negative. I am moved deeply - in any which way - if I can see or feel a tactile experience, whether projected by the material itself or by the presence of human use. I am appreciative of craft, the presence of individuality, and the notability of care and attention to detail. To see the hand of the craftsman in an architectural work is heartwarming. u n i q u e n e s s  a n d  o r i g i nEmotions stem from a place of internal being, that is, who we are greatly affects our emotional responses. Much like circumstance and memory, the origin and development of our personality plays a role in how we experience architecture. We are unique individuals; no two of us are alike. We may experience an event collectively, we may have similar beliefs or desires, but ultimately we each experience architecture in a distinctive manner. Where I may perceive the low ceilings of Tablao Cordobes as limiting and oppressive, others may understand as intimate and warm. The fiery light of the sun reaching through the stained glass of the Sagrada Familia may make me feel excited and alive while engendering anger in another. On the other hand, two people may both experience nostalgia in a certain architectural space however, the memories and condition by which and the depth and intensity by which the nostalgia manifests itself within these two beings composes an irreplaceable experience.This is one of the difficulties in discussing emotion. The uniqueness of our perceptions and emotions carry origin from our previous experiences and preformulated expectations; how we experience space is highly dependent on both our past and our temperament. But this is an aspect that makes our world rich and inviting, that challenges our minds and raises new intellect. 

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