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Bad Practices : Politics, Program, and Public Space in a Time of Protest Walker, Christopher 2020-04

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GP1 REPORT • UBC SALA • DEC 2019B A D  P R A C T I C E SP o l i t i c s ,  P r o g r a m ,  a n d  P u b l i c  s P a c ei n  a  t i m e  o f  P r o t e s tC H R I S T O P H E R  W A L K E RiiiiiivF i g  2 .  “ M A N  W I T H  S I G N ”In what became a popular Intstagram account in 2019, One man stages a series of solitary protests  on the street corner, against life’s small annoyances, 2019 (Redacted)With deep appreciation and gratitude for the healthcare professionals and so-called “front line” workers, who have risked everything while we stayed at home making drawings.    v1.I N T R O D U C T I O N2.L I T E R A T U R E  R E V I E W  A N D  T H E O R E T I C A L  F R A M E W O R K2.1 Landscape and Protest  2.2 “Bad Practices”: Surveillance, Fortification, Privatization  2.3 Creeping Tyranny + The Programmatic Milieu 3.S I T E  A N A L Y S I S 3.1 Introduction to ML Estates4.D E S I G N  M E T H O D O L O G Y  A N D  P R O P O S A L4.1 Direct Practice  4.2 ML Estates “Master Plan”5.R E F E R E N C E S T A B L E  O F  C O N T E N T S...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13413151925262955viL I S T  O F  F I G U R E SFIG 1. (COVER) CCTV IN USE AT TRAFALGAR SQUARE, LONDON (AUTHOR)FIG 2. MAN WITH SIGN (REDACTED)FIG 3. PROTESTERSGATHER TO FORM THE SYMBOL OF EXTINCTION REBELLION, A CIVIL-DISOBIENCE CLIMATE MOVEMENT WHICH BEGAN IN 2019, (REDACTED)FIG 4. VIOLENCE ERUPTS DURING ECONOMIC PROTEST IN TEHRAN, IRAN, 2019 (REDACTED)FIG 5. THE AGORA, ATHENS (REDACTED)FIG 6. “SECESSIO PLEBIS” ENGRAVING BY B. BALOCCINI, 1849 (REDACTED)FIG 7. TAHRIR SQUARE - SITE/PROTEST (IMAGE: GOOGLE EARTHFIG 8. MASS DEMONSTRATIONS ERUPT IN HONG KONG, 2019 (REDACTED)FIG 9. SYMBOLS OF THE UMBRELLA MOVEMENT, 2014 (REDACTED)FIG 10. SINGLE PROTESTER STANDS OUT IN PRO-DEMOCRACY RALLY, 2019 (REDACTED)FIG 11. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HONG KONG PROTESTS - 2014 AND 2019. (REDACTED)FIG 12. ACTIVIST-DESIGNER MAPPINGS OF SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS AT GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS DURING HONG KONG PRO-TESTS, 2019 (REDACTED)FIG 13. MICHEL FOUCAULT (REDACTED)FIG 14. BENTHAM’S PANOPTICON (REDACTED)FIG 15. DESCRIPTIVE PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGIES.FIG 16. THE BEHAVIOURAL MILIEUFIG 17. “CREEPING TYRANNIES + THE SHRINKING MILIEU (SELECTED ANIMATION FRAMES)FIG 18. NORM FOSTER’S CITY HALL (AUTHOR)FIG 19. MATERIALITY + FORM (AUTHOR)FIG 20. MATERIALITY + FORM + SURVEILLANCE (AUTHOR)FIG 21. NORM FORSTER’S CITY HALL (AUTHOR)FIG 22. ON-SITE SIGNAGE(AUTHOR)FIG 23. HMS BELFAST (AUTHOR)FIG 24. ON-SITE FORTIFICATION (AUTHOR)FIG 25. SURVEILLANCE IN LONDON, ENGLAND (REDACTED)FIG 26. DIRECT PRACTICE METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWOKFIG 27. DIRECT PRACTICE GRAPHIC COMMUNICATION CONSIDERATIONSFIG 28. THE NORMATIVE SHIFTvii22.FIG 29. “MASTERPLAN” PHASINGFIG 30. SAMPLE SIGNAGFIG 31. SAMPLE QR CODE + ORGANIZATIONAL LOGO DESIGNFIG 32. TACTICAL WAYFINDING (SELECTED FRAMESFIG 33. DIY SEED DISTRIBUTIONS SYSTEM - CUT SHEETFIG 34. GEURILLA PLANTING (SELECTED FRAMES)FIG 35. MODULAR BOX PERMUTATIONSFIG 36. MODULAR BOX ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONSFIG 37. SITE FURNISHING (SELECTED FRAMES)FIG 38. EXPRESSIVE SKATE STOPSFIG 39. AN EASTER EGGFIG 40. POPULIST ART IN PUBLIC SPACE (SELECTED FRAMES)FIG 41. ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONFIG 42. SITE-WIDE REPLANTING SCHEMATICFIG 43. APPROPRIATED SITE-MATERIAL PLANTING DETAILSFIG 44. SUGGESTED TENT-CITY ZONESFIG 45. DIAGRAMMATIC TENT LAYOUTSFIG 46. CAMP LOGISTICAL ANALYSISFIG 47. DYNAMIC SITE PROGRAMMING (SELECTED ANIMATION FRAME)FIG 48. “NESTED” SITE PROGRAMMING DIAGRAMFIG 49. ONGOING OCCUPATION 1FIG 50. ONGOING OCCUPATION 2      11INTRODUCTIONIn 2019 each of these major urban centres was at the centre of a mass civilian uprising or protest movement, and as the 21st century progresses, global communities are taking to the streets in mass political actions on a scale perhaps greater than any point in history. Meanwhile, contemporary urban developments impose ever greater measures of societal control within the public realm - asymmetrically and undemocratically imposing constraints on public behaviour and eroding civic freedoms....  Santiago, Barcelona, Paris, Hong Kong, Tehran, Port au Prince, Tirana, Quito, Caracas, Addis Abba, Bogota, Beirut, Sucre, Khartoum, Algiers, Tbilisi. (Sydney, New York, Mon-treal, Auckland, Melbourne, London, Berlin, Milan, Rome, Toronto, Munich…)      2Through an interrogation of a prominent landscape adjacent to the Norm Foster designed City Hall in London (UK), this project seeks:1. To understand the behaviour-limiting impacts on public space, of contemporary trends in surveillance, securitization, and privatization, as well as their broader political and philosophical implications.2. To question whether the professional practice of landscape architecture is complicit in such developments, or constrained in its ability to deliver on its self-styled role of “champions” of public space.3. To imagine an alternative approach to spatial practice; hybridizing the tools of landscape architecture and activism, leveraging popular participation, and establishing a new site for political and public expression through radical acts of programming.F I G .  3  Protestersgather to form the symbol of Extinction Re-bellion, a civil-disobience climate movement which began in 2019, (Redacted)F I G .  4  Violence erupts during economic protest in Tehran, Iran, 2019 (Redacted)3LITERATURE REVIEW+THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKAs described in the previous section, this design proposal is built upon the convergence of two theoretical frameworks, each of which has a history associated with design and implications for the built environment. The first deals with protest, both as an integral part of human societies and as a practice with longstanding associations to culturally important landscapes. The second deals with an increasingly ubiquitious imposition of technological, legal, and infrastructural controls on the built envionment, which collectively erode civil liberties in the public realm. This section will detail those two threads in order; with 2.1 discussing a brief history of protest as it relates to landscape architecture, and 2.2 outlining the relevant impacts of the identified “Bad Practices”, and the conceptual frameworrk within which I propose Landscape Arhitecture should address such impacts.2F I G .  5  Perhaps the original instance of Landscape’s interaction with democratic processes in the  West: The Agora, Athens (Redacted)4LANDSCAPE AND PROTESTFor at least as long as democracy has existed as a form of societal organization, protest has been a key mechanic of public expression, and agent of both political and physical change in our urban environments.Without getting into a discussion about the relative democratic-ness of ancient Greece, the signifi-cance of the Agora in their  society indicate that true and open public space has been fundamental to democracy from its very inception, and the example of “secession Plebis”, and ancient roman protest practice in which the commoners would literally vacate the city, demonstrates the subver-sive and power-inverting capabilities of collective public behavior.In France, ancient Greece’s co-author in the book of modern democracy, protest has quite literally been elevated to an art form. Here we see examples in two slides, of how that country’s citizen took direct physical control of their cities during the French Revolution – appropriating environmental materials and reconfiguring entire neighbourhoods – and second of how the students of the Paris ’68 revolution leveraged design in order to fundamentally restructure societies concepts of author-ity. Another key development of 20c protests was the rise of mass marching and occupation – fa-mously visualized through images of epochal protests on America’s National Mall.In the 21st Century, two protest movements occured, which are worthy of describing in more detail here. Both are notable for their innovative engagement with the built environment, and for signal-ling the impact of technology on future protest movements. They are: 1. Tahrir Square and Egypt’s 2011 Revolution2. Hong Kong’s pro-democracy movements of 2014-2019 2.1F I G . 6  “Secessio Plebis” Engraving by B. Baloccini, 1849 (Redacted)5Tahrir Square, Egypt A longstanding addition to the town-square-as-protest-site canon, Tahrir Square in Cairo is relevant here both because it exemplifies hallmarks of the historic relationship between mass public demonstrations and urban design, as well as for marking the emergence of mass surveillant and commu-nication technologies as determining factors in public protest. The site is noted by architectural historian Nezar Alsayyad as a landscape loaded with cultural and historical significance, who links it with several key moments in the production of the modern Egyptian Nation State. It is also one of the oldest squares in modern Cairo, originally being laid out under the name Ismailia Square in the early stages of the city’s Haussmann inspired urban re-development. Following the July 1952 deposition of the country’s monar-chy and end colonial occupation by the English, the square was officially renamed Tahrir Square, which in English translates as “Liberation”. According to Alsayyad, it was not until the events of 2011 that the square would truly “earn its name”.In the spring of 2011 a sit-in protest began in Tahrir Square, which would spark revolution. Originating as a protest against police brutality under long-time Egyptian president Hosni Mubarek, the sit-in soon scaled into a mass demonstration and eventually resulted in the Mubarek’s ouster. Although protesters saw early success with this regime change, the subsequent years in Cairo would be marked by turmoil, military governance, violent crackdowns, and yet more revolution. Between 2011 and 2014, each key political moment was accompanied by a return of Egyptian citizens to Tahrir Square; creating a rhythmic spatial and visual narrative surrounding the demonstrations, and underscoring the potential inherent in the relationship between site and protest. This symbolic connection between landscape and ideology was a deliberate tactic employed by demonstrators, who combined an ideally situated site with emergent media platforms to produce imagery with the emotional power to rival the historic civil-rights protests at the Washington Monument. The following section will evaluate two distinct aspects of these events: first, the significance of Tahrir Square itself as the site of protest, and second the influence of these emergent media technologies as they relate to the broader topic of mass protests.First: site. Situated almost directly adjacent to the Nile river, Tahrir Square’s importance seems to stem as much from its site and adjacencies than any of its formal or compositional qualities. While today it is an irregular patchworked of broad, open plazas, covering approximately 20 acres and reach-ing across a network of roadways to connect various civic buildings and international hotels, Tahrir Square’s extents have rarely been fixed over the decades; instead shifting and finding definition through the development of adjacent sites. During the series of mass demonstrations which began in 2011, the largest part of what today would be recognized as the square was in fact a closed construction site. One constant element throughout the decades however, has been a roughly acre-sized patch of formally styled civic space, nested inside a large traffic circle and marking the convergence of broad axial boule-vards from each cardinal direction. It was this traffic circle that demonstrators began their sit-in in 2011, and which made Tahrir Square the symbolic heart of a revolution. Although it is not considered best practice in 2019 to hide your civic square behind 5 lanes of traffic, this artifact of city-beautiful planning provided protesters with an opportunity to creatively subvert a landscape of assigned civic significance in support of their cause; an action which carries a lesson for landscape designers regardless of their opinion on the legality or appropriateness of such protests. In a series of images which captured glob-al attention as the protests grew, one can see that as the network of plazas and roadways disappears under the mass of protesters, the traffic circle’s formal suggestion becomes the dominant focal point of site; providing both organizational and symbolic qualities. 6Further elevating the visibility and significance of this protest site are its architectural and programmatic adjacencies. Directly to Tahrir Square’s south sits The Mogamma, Cairo’s largest govern-ment compound and an ideal backdrop against which to site an anti-government demonstration. It is a grand early modernist government building, its imposing scale and form meant to be enhanced by the open clearing of the landscape leaning to its entrance. As with the traffic circle, the very design of this building and its surrounding landscape produced an ideal site for mass demonstration Bounding the remaining edges of the square are the national Egyptian Museum and a string of international hotels, each of which would play a significant role in the events of 2011. The museum was notably co-opted by the Egyptian military as a detention site, while it was from the roofs and balconies of the surround-ing hotels that images and media were uploaded to social media; fostering an instantaneous global response to the events, and a corresponding increase in scale.NEW SURVEILLANT TECHNOLOGIES AND PUBLIC PROTESTAlthough the revolution of 2011 has some features in common with other historic mass pro-test movements, it gains extra significance for being positioned at the beginning of what might be described as the era of social media (or depending on your perspective, the era of mass participatory surveillance). It is now commonplace to see recently recorded, civilian captured footage from protest all over the globe, however 2011 marked the first time that imagery and information could be cap-tured from the protest and distributed instantaneously, anywhere on earth. This collapse of space and time impacted the protest in several ways. First, constant distribution of imagery of the events had a reinforcing effect on participation, resulting in greater crowds travelling to the site from father away, and encouraging participants to remain on site. Second, the new ability of organizers on the ground to communicate visually in real-time produced a level of responsiveness to that point unassociated with mass public actions. This responsiveness on the part of protesters has increased exponentially in the decade since, as will be shown in the following section on the 2019 civil protests in Hong Kong. Lastly, the advent of social media gave protesters a new power of bottom-up surveillance – wherein any images of violent crackdowns were sure to be seen by observers around the globe. Although this did not prevent such violence from occurring in the case of Egypt, it has reduced the power-asymmetry of such conflicts and thus reduced the likelihood for abuse of powerIt much be said here although these technological developments are not inherently spatial, it is in their universal impact that they carry consequence for designers and urban thinkers. The fact is that although public protest movements are still carried out in physical space, they are equally fragmented, distributed, and played out online, and those online fragments can carry real-world consequences. Indeed, the battle for control of online narratives has become an important aspect of public activism, and there have been notable instances of internet services and social media platforms being blocked entirely in countries facing unrest, in an effort to quell civilian action. This blurring of boundaries be-tween digital and physical will only become more prominent as surveillant technology is increasingly deployed in the urban landscape.7251 - Tahrir Square - Central landscape2 - New plaza development (construction site during 2011)3 - El mogamma4 - national museum of egypt5 -  extent of 2011 occupation134F I G .  7  Tahrir Square - Site/Protest (Image: Google Earth)8F I G .  8  Mass Demonstrations Erupt in Hong Kong, 2019 (Redacted)9HONG KONG Part precedent, part case study, the ongoing pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong represents the most well documented instance so far of the evolving nature of public protest in the landscape, and an early cue as to how designers might conceive of such actions in the future.In June 2019, residents of Hong Kong took to the streets in mass numbers, in direct response to a proposed extradition law between Hong Kong and Mainland China. Although first manifest as a popular march against an unpopular law, the protest soon expanded its scope to include calls for deep democratic reforms. At the same time, protesters adopted innovative tac-tics which signify an evolution in the fundamental conception of the public square as the primary site of protest; an evolution largely driven by an increasing reliance on digital technologies by both citizen and state actors, and in response to the tremendous capabilities of modern AI driven surveillance technologies in law enforcement. As this evolution continues to play out in real time, new and novel forms of mass occupation arise in urban space, with so far under explored impli-cations for the role of designers in public life.A good starting point from which to analyze the 2019 protests in Hong Kong is by con-trasting it with the 2014 Umbrella Movement in that same city. Although ultimately unsuccessful in achieving its demands for reform, the 2014 student and academic led 79 day sit-in captured global attention with its images of hundreds of thousands of Hong Kongers occupying the main roads in the city’s Admiralty and Causeway Bay neighbourhoods. Although a captivating story, of particular note here is the contrast between the Umbrella Movement’s manifestation as a centralized, highly visible, and permanent occupation of a significant public space, with the more fluid tactics on display in Hong Kong today. If the tactics of the Umbrella movement were remi-niscent of famous historic protests such as the previously discussed Tahrir Square revolution of 2011, today’s actions in Hong Kong more closely resemble the guerilla tactics made famous by the South American revolutionaries of the 20c. The tactics employed in 2019 have been loosely defined by the Bruce Lee philosophy “be water”, and represent a departure from engagement with the urban landscape over the 2014 protests in 4 distinct and interrelated ways: Occupation, Distribution, Mobility, and Appropriation.F I G . 9  Symbols of the Umbrella Movement, 2014 (Redacted) F I G . 1 0  Single Protester Stands out in pro-democracy rally, 2019            (Redacted)10OCCUPATION: The most notable difference between the 2014 and 2019 protests is in their approach to occupying space. Although the relative permanence of the 79 day sit in of the earlier events allowed for a continuous presence and visibility in the landscape, it also notably allowed Chi-nese state law enforcement and media a wide berth to prepare for and control aspects of the demonstration, including narrative. In 2019 Hong Kong’s protestors have forgone the symbolism of a singular long-term demonstration, in favour of temporary “flash mob” style demonstrations. These gatherings are organized “on the fly” using online forums and encrypted digital commu-nications software, and vary significantly in terms of scale and duration. Individual actions can range from fewer than 100 participants to over 1 million, and can last hours or days, making it much more difficult for law enforcement to predict, prepare for, and thus control demonstrators.DISTRIBUTION: In conjunction with the new approach to occupation, the 2019 protests represent an evolution regarding the value of a centralized vs. spatially distributed protest movement. In 2014 the mass protests were restricted to 3 locations, with the protesters’ primarily occupying the (main road) through Admiralty and Causeway Bay. This emphasis on centrality has been aban-doned in 2019, and actions of varying scales and demonstrations are being held in neighbour-hoods throughout the city. In addition to creating difficulties for law enforcement in attempting to quell these actions, the protestors see this spatially distributed approach to demonstration as a valuable tool for increasing awareness of state sponsored violence among the non-protesting members of Hong Kong’s population.MOBILITY: Enabling the unpredictability of both these shifts in occupation and distribution has been a new focus on the city’s transit system as both a site of demonstration and a means of rapid egress. Protesters have been noted for their guerrilla-esque preparedness, distributing both train tickets and incognito outfits at “flash mob” style demonstrations, after which the protesters disappear into the crowds of the mass transit system. This use of a key piece of urban infrastruc-ture places the state in a difficult predicament, unable to restrict the free mobility of protesters throughout the city without negatively impacting those who aren’t directly involved with the demonstrations, and thus risking increasing public approval of the protests. APPROPRIATION: Finally, the 2019 protests in Hong Kong have seen a continuation of the creative, almost architectural approach to demonstrators’ acknowledgement and uses of urban infrastructure of 2014. Although not all individually representative of innovations in public protest, this collective repurposing of urban infrastructure speaks to a creative agency and willingness to engage with the landscape with the potential to inspire response from designers. According to this mindset, construction fences are repurposed as barricades, street signs become makeshift shields and body armour, lamp posts serve as armatures for tents and banners, construction scaffolding and buildings become message boards, and more. Lauded as “unique expressions of message in objects and space”,these interventions have inspired mapping projects from architects and de-signers around the globe – both descriptive of the 2014 protests, and generative in their shaping of protesters actions in 2019. One prominent example of this is the mapping and distribution through social media of a CCTV network adjacent to the one of the primary protest by a group of Hong Kong landscape architects known as the At-Grade project.112 0 1 92 0 1 4F I G . 1 1  Spatial Distribution of Hong Kong Protests - 2014 and 2019. (Redacted)12 Such efforts compliment more traditional responses to the embedded surveillant technology, which have typically involved wearing facemasks and utilizing groups of umbrellas as “shield walls” (thereby blocking CCTV cameras and spotters from tracking their identities or activities). Interestingly, there have also been instances wherein makeup and clothing designers have developed patterning which disrupts the facial recognition abilities of AI enabled surveillance cameras, with possible implica-tions for anti-surveillance efforts beyond direct civil disobedience scenarios. The most active and “of-fensive” measure used by HK protesters however, has been their use of high-powered laser pointers to neutralize the CCTV cameras identified through their collective mapping efforts; translating work by activist-designers into direct on-the-ground action.Conclusion: Taken collectively these shifting tactics indicate a dramatic reconceptualization of urban civil action, and in their striking contrast to the 2014 protests suggest that these changes are driven by something more than specific cultural context alone (although that certainly has played a part). In-stead, it seems that Hong Kong’s position as one of a few truly global cities has put it at the forefront of an increased blurring of the lines between technology, civic performance, and landscape, and that the shifting tactics of 2019 signify an ongoing process of adaptation and response – which if it scales globally will certainly have long term implications for designers of urban spaces and systems.F I G . 1 2  Activist-Designer Mappings of Surveillance Networks at government buildings during Hong Kong Protests, 2019 (Redacted)13The next thread in this story are the so-called  “bad practices” identified earlier on. Surveillance, Fortification, and Privatization. Again, this treatment will have to brief – as each topic is worth of a GP on its own, and their most important relevance to this project is how they collectively impact the concept decribed in the next section – The Program-matic Milieu2.2“BAD PRACTICES”Surveillance, Fortification, and PrivatizationF I G . 1 3  Michel Foucault (Redacted) F I G . 1 4  Bentham’s Panopticon (Redacted)14Fortification and Surveillance can be described together here, as both have become ubiquitous elements in urban environments, and are typically implemented under well-intentioned umbrella of “safety”.Safety is great, but both of these practices carry broader damaging implications for democratic societies in their own right. In the case of surveillance, French philosopher michel Foucault outlined its insidious morally compelling and freedom reducing impact – using the architectural metaphor of the panopticon to describe  what he saw as a kind of society of control. Similarly, robust and physically dominant fortification elements, which have become a popular environmental response to terrorist attacks, have also been shown by John Coaffee (and others) to be of questionable value in preventing future danger. Such fortifications simply shift attacks from one space to another, and on a socie-tal level can be described as protecting property, rather than people. Thus, in their rashly conceived or poorly designed implementation in public spaces, these safety features risk becoming little more than present reminders of authority and societal control, and undermining the ideals which underpin the very spaces they are thought to protect. In both cases, the societal concerns brought about in the search of safety and security raise real questions of “throwing out the baby with the bath water” as it were.Privatization is problematic on a different level, and in this context by privatization, I mean the increasing replacement of true public places, with POPS (or privately owned public spaces) – such spaces are even more insidious than surveillance, in that they pres-ent themselves as public spaces, but lack any of the democratic openness that underpins the fundamental value of public space to society. Such places operate under opaque and potentially arbitrary constraints on behavior, and at the behest of private interests who’s motivations are typically more concerned with reinforcing profit generating behaviour, than with supporting a free and open society. One way to describe the collective impacts of these “bad practices” is through the con-ceptual framework outlined in the next slides, which I call the “programmatic Milieu” – and it through operationalizing this framework that the proposal In the second half of the project is conceived.15“Creeping Tyrannies” and “The Programmatic Milieu”As an operative and conceptual framework, this project explores a notion of public program which I’ve called the “programmatic milieu”, which is described here as a contrast to the more conventional and behavior-specific notion of programming.According to the conventional concept of program, any given behaviour or set of behaviours can be quantified and arranged along any given number of descriptive spectrums. Such spectrums can be very useful in understanding specific behaviours, and in designing spaces for specific purpose – but it is my position that in it’s “duty to the public”, and in its self-described role as “champions of public space”, that Landscape architects need to adopt a more holistic notion of programming public spaces – which is concerned not with the specifics of any given behavior, but instead with the collective range and extents of all possible behaviours, and by extension with those things which impact that range of possibilities.The extents of this programmatic boundary can be identified somewhere along a descriptive spectrum of Norma-tive – Transgressive, which includes all distinct, physically possible behaviours. Under normal – or ideal – conditions, this “normative boundary” is determined through a kind of dialectic, in which as a given society progresses, certain behaviours are shifted beyond the normative limit, and others are brought “inside the fold”Programming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ Occupy gProtesting/ MarchingProgramming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multipl  axes can provide i sights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular m ment - as well as an image of cul ural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingProgramming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntr verted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behavi urs along multiple axes can provi  insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingResti gDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommuti gDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpi gHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingProgramming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviou , but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possib lities, and interactions.  Withi  this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in impor ant ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Trans ressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkiOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeninSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingProgramming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some d scriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingFIG.  15 Descr ipt ive pro ramming Methodolo ies.Programming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ Marching16Unfortunately, its also upon this edge that the so-called “bad practices” are shown to have their most debilitating effect. Such practices are often imposed unilaterally, and present asymmetric and undemocratically authoritative controls on public behavior. Increasingly, the healthy or “ideal” dialectic process is being replaced with this asymmetrical and opaque process which I’ve described here as “Creeping tyranny”. The result of this substitution is a net reduction in pos-sible behaviours, and thus an anti-democratic shrinking of the programmatic milieu. It is my contention that in order to be true champions of public space, landscape architects need to not just argue for more square footage – but also to take action in support of the democratic health of this programmatic milieu, and furthermore that an unwillingness or inability to prevent such “bad practices” from being implemented in (at the client’s request or otherwise) – suggests a fundamental tension or even complicity within professional practice.The following site-specific proposal is my attempt to imagine a response to this tension, and to imagine an venue for a landscape architect to use our skillset in earnest pursuit “duty to the public”, and in a way that pushes back against the asymmetrical shrinking of the programmatic milieu. The proposal takes place in a development called More London Estates – directly adjacent to London’s City Hall, and is achieved through the imagining of an alternative to professional practice, which for the purposes of this presentation I have titled “Direct-Practice”.FIG.16 The Behavioural  Mi l ieu17FIG.17 “Creeping Tyrannies + The Shrinking Mil ieu (Selected Animation Frames)18wFIG.18 Norm Foster ’s  City Hal l  (Author)193SITE ANALYSIS203.1MORE LONDON ESTATESThis proposal for a direct-practice intervention takes place at More London Estates – a landscape which perfectly and unfortunately embodies each of the “bad practices”, the im-pact of “creeping tyranny” on civic spaces + politics, and indeed the complicity of design in the implementation of such practices. It is also, in my subjective opinion, a poorly designed and unpleasant public open space, and is thus an ideal site in which to imagine the kind of intervention proposed by this project.More London Estates is a major commercial, political, and pseudo-civic development, con-structed in the early 2000’s, and centered on Norm Foster’s City Hall building.As illustrated in the accompanying photos, from a site visit in early 2020, the design of More London Estates lacks much of what today would be considered essential for a well-designed public space. It’s built to the scale of an important civic square, however through unnecessary and jarring grade changes, carefully avoids reinforcing any signals of collective public gathering which might be suggested by the amphitheatre at the project’s centre. An amphitheatre which, incidentally, is sunken below grade and turns its back on the river; abandoning expansive views of inner London in favour of a nearly 6 meter con-crete and glass wall. Despite being the some of only seating available at the More London Estates(which is major design issue in itself), I observed exactly 0 people in the amphithe-ater during my visits to the site. Furthermore, the combination of the design’s ubiquitous use of grey-toned hardscape materials, and huge architectural retaining elements caused by confounding grading choices, throws into sharp relief the Estate’s near total dearth of planting. Aside from a few obligatory oak trees which predate the development, there is only one small area with any notable tree or shrub planting (and it is of course dominated by boxwoods). In this critic’s opinion it is a landscape designed to frame Norm Foster’s architecture much more than it is for human inhabitation, which would be bad enough, but it gets worse – More London Estates also puts on display each of the 3 bad practices outlined earlier.211 – Privatization: This is a big one. The entirety of More London Estates it a privately owned public space, funded, developed, and operated by St. Martins Property Group – which is in turn owned by the sovereign wealth fund of Kuwait. In plain English, the landscape at the political heart of one of the world’s great cities, instead of being a vibrant and robustly political place on par with the agora, is in fact a for-profit venture owned and operated by a foreign national government.In line with most privately owned public spaces, citizen’s behavior here is determined by an opaque and inaccessibile set of rules operating IN ADDITION to the laws of the state. Signage clearly forbids active forms of mobility such as bicycles and rollerblades, as well as specifically directing parents to restrict the behavior of their children. My research also found anecdotal evidence of activities like photography, video filming, and conducting interviews to be deemed unacceptable. This is a very clear instance of an anti-democratically reduced public program.FIG.  19 Materia l i ty + Form (Author)222 – SurveillanceSimply put, More London Estates is blanketed with CCTV cameras. Given the private and opaque management of the landscape, visitors must take if on faith that the gaze behind the camera is conducting itself with good inten-tions…3 – FortificationHarbored just beside the development, and permanently fixed in the foreground of its views across the River is the HMS Belfast – a WW2 relic-turned tourist attraction, and a literally massive symbol of the coercive and powerful authority of the state.It is on this landscape that this project will speculatively implement a vision of Direct PracticeFIG.  20 Materia l i ty + Form + Survei l lance (Author)23FIG.21 Norm Forster ’s  City Hal l  (Author)FIG.22 On-Site Signage(Author)24FIG.24 On-Site Fort if icat ion (Author)FIG.23 HMS Belfast  (Author)254DEsign Methodology +Project ProposalF I G .  2 5  Surveillance in London, England (Redacted)264.1DIRECT PRACTICEIf Landscape Architecture is incapable of properly countering the “bad practices” from within the conventions of professional practice, then how might a designer pursue the “public good” outside of those conventions?For this I propose a kind of hybrid, activist, practice, which assumes, ex-pands, and synthesizes elements of both professional practice and popular protest. Direct Practice is similar to professional practice, in that it is both sited and “planned”. It borrows several methodoligical analogies – such as Site Analysis, Concept generation, Schematic Design, and Detailing, and utilizes many of the same toolsets – Technical Drawing, Mapping, Diagramming etc. It differs in key and meaningful ways, however. For instance, direct practice recognizes that the targets of its media (members of the public) are unlikely to be design or construc-tion professionals themselves – thus the end-state design drawing conventions of architecture are reduced in value relative to more accessible and instructional forms of communication, such as 3d images, animations, and assembly diagrams. This requires in the beginning, a corresponding reduction in the degree of tech-nical ambition or difficulty in schematic design interventions – once again in the name of broader accessibility. Further more,If the scope of a professional project is linear and closed, passing through professional hands from the Commission through Design, Construction, and Handoff, Direct Practice is non- linear, recur-sive, open sourced, and open ended. It’s owners, designers, builders, and users are all the diffuse body known as the public, it begins at the moment of professional project ends, the “Handoff”, and continues indefinitely – or as long as there is a societal will to pursue its goals.27Similarly, Direct Practice borrows many methodologies from Protest Movements. It requires antago-nism and resistance, broad organization, and direct, (occasionally illegal) activism. Like protest, it also relies on the kind of logarithmic power multiplication factor that comes with increasing scales of participation. By start-ing small, and through persistence and organization, building a base of citizen support, the practice capitalizes on the cultural phenomenon wherein a society’s expectations regarding a type of behavior are recalibrated and normalized, in accordance with the number of people performing that behavior. This “normative shift” is closely related to the kind of healthy or dialectical progress described in the programmatic milieu, and it is through leveraging this phenomenon, that direct practice seeks to create lasting cultural change. In this case the behavior being transitions from transgressive (and illegal) to normalized, is members of public taking direct intervening action in, and a controlling interest in the spatial and programmatic makeup of the public realm.METHODOLOGICAL ANALGOGIES“DIRECT”PRACTICEMonitoring + HandoffOCCUPATIONMONITORING+ITERATIONOrganizationMobilizationOutreachMonitoringACTIVATIONCommunicationLived ExperiencePerformative ParticipationOccupationIterationDEMONSTRATIONPerformanceCelebrationRE-CONSTRUCTIONMass OccupationCollectivizationCONSTRUCTIONModellingTestingTactical InterventionSite AlterationRecruitmentDisseminationCalling OutCommunicationRESISTANCEVisioningMonitoringSchematic DesignDetail DesignPlanningANALYSISScale of Public ParticipationPROFESSIONALPRACTICERFP/ CommissionContext AnalysisSite AnalysisSITE CONSIDERATIONSConcept Generation/ Schematic DesignDesign DevelopmentRezoning/ Development PermittingDetail Design“DESIGN”Building PermitTender CONSTRUCTIONMonitoring + HandoffOCCUPATIONNormailizationSite ChoreographyOCCUPATIONUnprogrammingSite OrganizationPOPULAR PROTESTOrganizationCollectivizationOccupationOutreachPlanningACTIVATIONCommunicationREVOLUTION?OCCUPATIONLived ExperienceDEMONSTRATIONPicketingVandalizingMarchingBoycottingRESISTANCEEvasionObstructionCalling OutFIG.26 Direct Pract ice Methodological  Framewok28A direct practice methodology allows the designer to act immediately in pursuit of their goals, and then to dramatically increase the ambition and potential impact of such actions, as organization and partici-pation increase.shift” is closely related to the kind of healthy or dialectical progress described in the program-matic milieu, and it is through leveraging this phenomenon, that direct practice seeks to create lasting cultural change. In this case the behavior being transitions from transgressive (and illegal) to normalized, is members of public taking direct intervening action in, and a controlling interest in the spatial and programmatic makeup of the public realm.A direct practice methodology allows the designer to act immediately in pursuit of their goals, and then to dramatically increase the ambition and potential impact of such actions, as organization and partici-pation increase.PLACE an ANimationQ1. Post-Construction Documentation2. Digital Organization Conventions3. Process Animations4. Assembly DiagrammingFIG.27 Direct Pract ice Graphic Communicat ion Considerat ions      294.2ML ESTATES “MAster plan”This escalating potential for change is illustrated in the 3 “phases” of the following speculative master “plan” which applies a direct practice methodology in order to expand the previously described conceptual boundaries of normative- possibility, elevate the visibility of political discourse in public landscape, and last but not least, inject some life and vibrancy into an otherwise drab and boring site.It’s aim is nothing less than site-wide spatial and programmatic revolution, constructed not with cranes and bobcats, but instead with programming itself. Through People – organizing, imagining, and performing radical acts of program, in a sustained, persistent, and tactical manner.The Master Plan begins with actions taken at the individual scale, and escalates from there - ending with a vision of More London Estates as a landscape completely transformed by occupation, in which radical expression and the free and open exchange of ideas replace City Hall as the symbolic heart of London’s Civic Politics.      30Time + InterationPhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Capacity for ChangeTime + InterationScale of ParticipationPhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Capacity for ChangeTime + InterationScale of ParticipationPhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Capacity for ChangeTime + InterationScale of Participation Moment of Transition?Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Capacity for Change Moment of Transition?Programming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing Drinking WatchingProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingProgramming - ReprogrammingA Framework for understanding Public behaviourA holistic vision of Public Program might be to understand it not as a list of discrete and independent actions or behaviours, but rather as a dynamic milieu or continuum  of agencies, possibilities, and interactions.  Within this milieu any discrete action can be understood as a specic instantiation of a particular set of characteristic responses within the comprehensive scope of possibilities and constraints placed on behaviour by a given culture; that is, relationally to the broad scope of possible behaviours. Furhtermore, any discrete action can arranged within the broad set along any number of quantitative or qualitative axes; with each axes providing  a deeper characteristic description of that behaviour within the overall milieu.Some descriptive axes might be:(Quantitative)Singular/Collective Isolated/ Sustained Passive/Active (Qualitative)Conservative/ RiskyUncritical/ CriticalIntroverted/ Extroverted    Apolitical/Political Although  a) some axes will be of limited analytical value (alone or in combination), and b) some axes will interact with eachother in important ways, c) it may be impossible to create an exhaustive list of axes, thisframework seems useful for understanding program for two reasons:1. Understanding a given behaviour IN RELATION to other behaviours helps to contextualize the specics of that behaviour, and thus frame judgements, actions, and responses2. Arranging sets of behaviours along multiple axes can provide insights into the shape of the overall milieu, providing a snapshot of a given culture at a particular moment - as well as an image of cultural shifts over time.If all possible behaviours are encompassed within this milieu, then its contours, extents, and shifts over time can be read as a reection of the conditions and constraints placed on public behaviour by a given society/ culture, and therefore it is critical for those engaged with public programming to concern themselves with not only those behaviours circumcribed by the boundaries of the behavioural milieu, but also the boundary itself.  Perhaps no descriptive axes it more useful in delimiting these extents than that of Normative/Transgressive.CONSERVATIVENORMATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVETRANSGRESSIVERISKYSINGULAR COLLECTIVEISOLATED SUSTAINEDPASSIVE ACTIVEINTROVERTED EXTRAVERTEDAPOLITICAL POLITICALCOLLECTIVESUSTAINEDACTIVEEXTRAVERTEDPOLITICALRISKYSINGULARISOLATEDPASSIVEINTROVERTEDAPOLITICALCONSERVATIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVENORMATIVESCALE OF PARTICIPATIONTRANSGRESSIVESleepingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSittingNormative TransgressiveHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectingOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingExistingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingSleepingSittingDog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuyingFundraisingPerformingSleeping Sitting Dog-WalkingOccupyingMarchingRollerbladingDancingBuying Fundraising PerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingHuggingVisitingGatheringMeetingPicnickingGardeningSquattingSleepingCampingSittingRestingDog-WalkingSelf-ImmolatingLovingRiotingKissingAvoidingEvadingProtestingProtectinOrganizingEscapingLoiteringPreachingBombingMurderingPicketingDemonstratingOccupyingMarchingVotingFightingSkateboardingRollerbladingListeningSwimmingSunbathingGamblingCompetingPlayingSportingCyclingDancingCelebratingPartyingSingingFilmingPaintingSketchingDocumentingPhotographingExploringStrollingJoggingWalkingStealingConsumingBuyingShoppingWatchingSurveillingFundraisingPerformingTouringLearningCommutingDrinkingDiningHawkingVendingBeggingPerusingStumpingNude Sunbathing D inking WatchiProtesting/ OccupyingProtesting/ MarchingThe Normative ShiftFor any given non-normative program, a scale of partipation can be achieved at which societal norms shift to accomodate that behaviour.FIG.29 “Masterplan” PhasingFIG.28 The Normative Shift31PHASE 1These actions are designed to be carried out by the designer, or an individual with little means of production, and limited or no budget. As such – their ability to enact physical change to the site is of significally less impact than their value in organization and coa-lition building. Like famous counter-cultural movements of the past, graphic design and communication are the biggest tools here – where I imagine a series of signs deployed on site, which both call out the landscape’s deficiencies and serve as a tool of organiza-tion. Here – QR codes are proposed as a method by which site visitors can be directed to online forums for communication and coordination, as well as for the provision of materials like site maps, and linking to edifying media.This use of QR codes is imagined as a no-cost solution for delivering many aspects of the master plan – for instance a site-surveillance map, or the plans and assembly diagrams for a planter bed made from appropriated site materials, which could be accessed on-site, on-demand, by anyone with a smart phone (almost everyone)More Information:Brought to you by:DISSENTDISSENTYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:SLEEPYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAY THIS WAYTREESMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:SMILEOR DONTBody for     Democratic         ExpressionYOU’RE STILL BEING RECORDEDMore Information:Brought to you by:SEEYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionCCTV EVERYWHEREMore Information:Brought to you by:FUNYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:DISSENTDISSENTYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:SLEEPYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAY THIS WAYTREESMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:SMILEOR DONTBody for     Democratic         ExpressionYOU’RE STILL BEING RECORDEDMore Information:Brought to you by:SEEYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionCCTV EVERYWHEREMore Information:Brought to you by:FUNYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:DISSENTDISSENTYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Infor ation:Brought to you by:SLEEPYOUBody for     De ocratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAY THIS WAYTREESMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:SMILEOR DONTBody for     Democratic         ExpressionYOU’RE STILL BEING RECORDEDMore Information:Brought to you by:SEEYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionCCTV EVERYWHEREMore Information:Brought to ou by:FUNY UBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:DISSENTDISSENTYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:SLEEPYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAY THIS WAYTREESMore Information:Brought to you by:TREESBody for     Democratic         ExpressionTHIS WAYMore Information:Brought to you by:SMILEOR DONTBody for     Democratic         ExpressionYOU’RE STILL BEING RECORDEDMore Information:Brought to you by:SEEYOUBody for     Democratic         ExpressionCCTV EVERYWHEREMore Information:Brought to you by:FUNUBody for   Democratic         ExpressionARE ON PRIVATE PROPERTYFIG.30 Sample SignageFIG.31 Sample QR Code + Organizat ional  Logo Design32FIG.32 Tact ical  Wayfinding (Selected Frames)33SEED + SOIL DISTRIBUTOR A device to enable even distribution of seed, soil, and earth without attracting undue attention...Recommended Uses:- Planting of wildflower or native seed mixes in otherwise underutilized areas- Choreography of planter zone for future bed contstructionMATERIALS:An old BackpackHeavy Plastic Bag (Garbage bag or similar)Flexible Tubing (PVC, or Used Garden Hose)Elastic BandsScissors of OLFA KnifeSeed MixKitchen Funnel (Sized to match hosing)Coconut Mesh Sheashing or Loose Weave BurlapASSEMBLY AND USE INSTRUCTIONS:i. Using OLFA Knife, create small incisions at bottom of backpack (near hip height while wearing) and in bottom corner of garbage bagii. Using elastic bands, affix kitchen funnel to one end (top) of hosing, and run oppsite end of hosing through incision in garbage bag such that funnel rests within incision. Secure funnel in position using elastic bands on outside of bag.iii. Insert hose and liner into backpack, running hose bottom through and aligning funnel with incision. Trim bottom of hose to just below ankle length.iv. At bottom of hose, use elastic bands to affix a cap of loose weave burlap or similar, to act as a regulating cap for seed flow.v. fill hosing and lined backpack with appropriate seed mix.TO USE:Wearing backpack, run hosing through pant leg and walk in area to be seeded. If secrecy is desired, the seeding of greater areas can be achieved through planning and choreography with multiple gardeners. For greatest success, seed in Springtime and just before a rain.Recommended Wildflower Seed Mix:Sanguisorba tenufoliaVeronica langifoliaVeronica bonariensisGeranium sanguineumLeucanthemum vulgareCardamine pretensisAster Nova-angliaeSilene flos-cuculiSeeds of ChangeFollowing the Lead of Geurilla Gardeners, a well-timed stroll turns into an act of spatial resistance...FIG.33 DIY Seed Distr ibutions System - Cut Sheet34FIG.34 Geuri l la  Plant ing (Selected Frames)35MP PHASE 2Over time, and assuming that the dynamic performance of phase 1 results in a coalition of engaged citizens – site interventions can take on increasingly ambitious goals. Here, the focus shifts from merely calling out the site’s inadequacies, to, like the tactical urbanists, “doing something about it”.One Person-One BoxAs a functional metaphor for the democratic values of direct practice, the designer publishes plans for the democracy box – a self-supporting 2’x2’ box which requires no fasteners, can be constructed with nothing more than a single sheet of plywoodand and a jigsa, and embodies the diffuse, flexible, and scal-ing potential of direct practice itself. It is a DIY, super-low cost, flatpacked site furnishing solution, which is also multi-functional, modular, and espansive. One Box can be a seat or a planter, 4 boxes a bench, 40 boxes makes a play structure, and by the time you have 4,000 members of the direct-practice movement, the box becomes a module for site wide landforming.iFIG.35 Modular Box Permutat ions36FIG.36 Modular Box Assembly Instruct ions37FIG.37 Site Furnishing (Selected Frames)3839POPULIST ARTYes, More London Estates technically has public art already – but austere, abstract, and conservative sculp-tures are not exactly suitable for promoting a lively civic discourse. For this project, direct-practice calls for Graffiti’s return to prominence – we don’t need Public Art, We Need Populist Art!London’s truest public artists are invited bring their art out of the nearby, undergound, inaccessible, and worst of all politically sanctioned Leake Street Tunnels – and into the public eye once more – and overtime More London’s harsh and poorly designed elevations become a canvas for experimental art and communica-tion.FIG.38 Expressive Skate Stops40FIG.39 An Easter Egg41FIG.40 Popul ist  Art  in Publ ic  Space (Selected Frames)4243Finally, after much organization and effort on the part of a few, and after breaking a few eggs in the process – the movement ignites. In a sweeping event, citizens occupy and set up camp at More London Estates, and through sheer mass of participation, establish a permanent revolution in public programming, and transfor-mation of site – and as with the earlier phases, the landscape architect’s toolbox once again makes valuable contributions to the process.In this final manifestation of the Master Plan – it is the landscape architect’s skill of master planning which comes to the fore, diagramming key guidelines will allow not only for a smoothly operating camp, but also pave the way for it’s wider acceptance within the broader public’s perception.FIG.41 Establ ishing an Occupation4445SOILIn identifying the East Lawn as the most ideal location for a tent-city, the master plan suggests emancipat-ing the site’s nearly 1500 cubic meters of topsoil from its grassy prison, and using it to redistribute planters throughout the rest of the site. If the occupation achieves nothing else, this move at least should go over well with the neighbours.It is also at this stage of mass participation that more permanent site changes can take place – such as follow-ing the cue of those barricade constructing protesters, and constructing large planter beds out of the site’s pavers – creating beauty even as they prevent unwanted vehicle access.FIG.42 Site-Wide Replanting Schematic (Selected Animation Frame)46REVISIONS AND ISSUESDRAWING TITLEPROJECTDRAWNDATEFILE NAMEDRAWINGNORTH SCALECopyright.  All rights reserved.  Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited.  This drawing as aninstrument of service is the property of the Consultant and may not be used in any way without thewritten permission of this office.PROJECT NO.REVIEWEDPLOTTEDNO. DATE DESCRIPTIONCB  0000ScaleSheet NADDRESSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON GRADE: TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRANULAR BASECAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHCOMPACTED SUBGRADEREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200WELDED WIRE MESHDRAIN ROCKREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHWELDED WIRE MESHCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSJOINTING SAND DRAIN ROCKARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSUNIT PAVERS ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 VARIESUNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANMIN 7525-40SAND SETTING BED80FILTER FABRICCOMPACTED SUBGRADESAND SETTING BEDGRANULAR BASEUNIT PAVERS ON GRADE: TYPE BScale: 1:20 200UNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANJOINTING SAND 25 - 40GROWING MEDIUM150TYP.LAWN PLANTING ON GRADE - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRASSCOMPACTED SUBGRADE GROWING MEDIUM300TYP.LAWN PLANTING ON SLAB - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 SLAB AND BUILDUP - DO NOT ALTERGRASSROOT ZONETYPICAL PAVING DETAILSScale: 1:20 GROUND COVER PLANTER BED IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 DRAIN ROCKSAND SETTING BEDFILTER FABRICMULCHGROWING MEDIUMENSURE FULL CONTACT BETWEEN ROOTBALL AND PLANTING MEDIUMEXISTING SLAB AND BUILDUP -ENSURE LINERS AND FILTER FABRICS REMAIN INTACTJOINTING SAND EXISTING UNIT PAVERSMINIMUM 2 PAVER WIDTHENSURE MINIMUM 50mm CLEARANCE FROM  GROWING MEDIUMREPURPOSED UNIT PAVERS AS PLANTER EDGINGSTRETCHER BOND STACKINGSAND SETTING BEDJOINTING SANDBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWING MEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT.REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE OF TRUNKDISH GROWING MEDIUM TO HOLD WATER, AS DIRECTEDFINISH GRADEBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWINGMEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT. MIN. 450MULCHNOTES:1. DUE TO UNCERTAINTY REGARDING UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, TREES AND SHRUBS REQUIRING MORE THAN 450MM SOIL DEPTH ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR GEURILLA GARDENING ON SLAB2. SHRUB SHOULD BE PLANTED WITH  ELEVATION OF TOP OF ROOTBALL OR POT LEVEL WITH FINISH GRADE ELEVATION.3. COMPOSTED BARK MULCH AT 50mm DEPTH SHOULD BE KEPT AT LEAST 125mm AWAY FROM STEMS OF SHRUB.4. PLANTING PIT MUST BE FREE DRAINING.50REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE STEMS OF SHRUB. REMOVE ALL 'ORGANIC' AND NON-ORGANIC POTS PRIOR TO PLANTINGREAPPROPRIATED PAVERS AS PLANTER SEATING EDGE480450PAVER LAYERS IN PERPEDICULAR ORIENTATIONAND STRETCHER BOND STACKINGDRAINGAGE ROCKSLAB AND BUILDUP - ENSURE ALL LINERS AND DRAINAGE MATS UNALTEREDFILTER FABRIC - DO NOT REMOVEPLACE RECLAIMED PAVERS BELOW ROOT BALL TO PREVENT SETTLING/ SHIFTINGTREE AND SHRUB PLANTING IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - ON SLOPEScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - TYPICALScale: 1:20 REVISIONS AND ISSUESDRAWING TITLEPROJECTDRAWNDATEFILE NAMEDRAWINGNORTH SCALECopyright.  All rights reserved.  Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited.  This drawing as aninstrument of service is the property of the Consultant and may not be used in any way without thewritten permission of this office.PROJECT NO.REVIEWEDPLOTTEDNO. DATE DESCRIPTIONCB  0000ScaleSheet NADDRESSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON GRADE: TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRANULAR BASECAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHCOMPACTED SUBGRADEREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200WELDED WIRE MESHDRAIN ROCKREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHWELDED WIRE MESHCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSJOINTING SAND DRAIN ROCKARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSUNIT PAVERS ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 VARIESUNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANMIN 7525-40SAND SETTING BED80FILTER FABRICCOMPACTED SUBGRADESAND SETTING BEDGRANULAR BASEUNIT PAVERS ON GRADE: TYPE BScale: 1:20 200UNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANJOINTING SAND 25 - 40GROWING MEDIUM150TYP.LAWN PL NTING ON G ADE - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRASSCOMPACTED SUBGRADE GROWING MEDIUM300TYP.LAWN PLANTING ON SLAB - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 SLAB AND BUILDUP - DO NOT ALTERGRASSROOT ZONETYPICAL PAVING DETAILSScale: 1:20 GROUND COVER PLANTER BED IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 DRAIN ROCKSAND SETTING BEDFILTER FABRICMULCHGROWING MEDIUMENSURE FULL CONTACT BETWEEN ROOTBALL AND PLANTING MEDIUMEXISTING SLAB AND BUILDUP -ENSURE LINERS AND FILTER FABRICS REMAIN INTACTJOINTING SAND EXISTING UNIT PAVERSMINIMUM 2 PAVER WIDTHENSURE MINIMUM 50mm CLEARANCE FROM  GROWING MEDIUMREPURPOSED UNIT PAVERS AS PLANTER EDGINGSTRETCHER BOND STACKINGSAND SETTING BEDJOINTING SANDBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWING MEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT.REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE OF TRUNKDISH GROWING MEDIUM TO HOLD WATER, AS DIRECTEDFINISH GRADEBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWINGMEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT. MIN. 450MULCHNOTES:1. DUE TO UNCERTAINTY REGARDING UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, TREES AND SHRUBS REQUIRING MORE THAN 450MM SOIL DEPTH ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR GEURILLA GARDENING ON SLAB2. SHRUB SHOULD BE PLANTED WITH  ELEVATION OF TOP OF ROOTBALL OR POT LEVEL WITH FINISH GRADE ELEVATION.3. COMPOSTED BARK MULCH AT 50mm DEPTH SHOULD BE KEPT AT LEAST 125mm AWAY FROM STEMS OF SHRUB.4. PLANTING PIT MUST BE FREE DRAINING.50REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE STEMS OF SHRUB. REMOVE ALL 'ORGANIC' AND NON-ORGANIC POTS PRIOR TO PLANTINGREAPPROPRIATED PAVERS AS PLANTER SEATING EDGE480450PAVER LAYERS IN PERPEDICULAR ORIENTATIONAND STRETCHER BOND STACKINGDRAINGAGE ROCKSLAB AND BUILDUP - ENSURE ALL LINERS AND DRAINAGE MATS UNALTEREDFILTER FABRIC - DO NOT REMOVEPLACE RECLAIMED PAVERS BELOW ROOT BALL TO PREVENT SETTLING/ SHIFTINGTREE AND SHRUB PLANTING IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - ON SLOPEScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - TYPICALScale: 1:20 REVISIONS AND ISSUESDRAWING TITLEPROJECTDRAWNDATEFILE NAMEDRAWINGNORTH SCALECopyright.  All rights reserved.  Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited.  This drawing as aninstrument of service is the property of the Consultant and may not be used in any way without thewritten permission of this office.PROJECT NO.REVIEWEDPLOTTEDNO. DATE DESCRIPTIONCB  0000ScaleSheet NADDRESSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON GRADE: TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRANULAR BASECAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHCOMPACTED SUBGRADEREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200WELDED WIRE MESHDRAIN ROCKREFER TO PLAN FOR JOINT LAYOUT AND CONCRETE JOINTING DETAIL150200STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE - REFER TO LEGEND FOR FINISHWELDED WIRE MESHCAST IN PLACE CONCRETE ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 STRUCTURAL SLAB - REFER TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEER'S DRAWINGSJOINTING SAND DRAIN ROCKARCHITECTURAL BUILDUP - REFER TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGSUNIT PAVERS ON SLAB: TYPE BScale: 1:20 VARIESUNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANMIN 7525-40SAND SETTING BED80FILTER FABRICCOMPACTED SUBGRADESAND SETTING BEDGRANULAR BASEUNIT PAVERS ON GRADE: TYPE BScale: 1:20 200UNIT PAVERS - REFER TO PLANJOINTING SAND 25 - 40GROWING MEDIUM150TYP.LAWN PLANTING ON GRADE - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 GRASSCOMPACTED SUBGRADE GROWING MEDIUM300TYP.LAWN PLANTING ON SLAB - TYPICAL DETAILScale: 1:20 SLAB AND BUILDUP - DO NOT ALTERGRASSROOT ZONETYPICAL PAVING DETAILSScale: 1:20 GROUND COVER PLANTER BED IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 DRAIN ROCKSAND SETTING BEDFILTER FABRICMULCHGROWING MEDIUMENSURE FULL CONTACT BETWEEN ROOTBALL AND PLANTING MEDIUMEXISTING SLAB AND BUILDUP -ENSURE LINERS AND FILTER FABRICS REMAIN INTACTJOINTING SAND EXISTING UNIT PAVERSMINIMUM 2 PAVER WIDTHENSURE MINIMUM 50mm CLEARANCE FROM  GROWING MEDIUMREPURPOSED UNIT PAVERS AS PLANTER EDGINGSTRETCHER BOND STACKINGSAND SETTING BEDJOINTING SANDBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWING MEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT.REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE OF TRUNKDISH GROWING MEDIUM TO HOLD WATER, AS DIRECTEDFINISH GRADEBACKFILL WITH GROWING MEDIUM MIXTURE AS AVAILABLE. TAMP GROWINGMEDIUM TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS AND REDUCE SETTLEMENT. MIN. 450MULCHNOTES:1. DUE TO UNCERTAINTY REGARDING UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, TREES AND SHRUBS REQUIRING MORE THAN 450MM SOIL DEPTH ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR GEURILLA GARDENING ON SLAB2. SHRUB SHOULD BE PLANTED WITH  ELEVATION OF TOP OF ROOTBALL OR POT LEVEL WITH FINISH GRADE ELEVATION.3. COMPOSTED BARK MULCH AT 50mm DEPTH SHOULD BE KEPT AT LEAST 125mm AWAY FROM STEMS OF SHRUB.4. PLANTING PIT MUST BE FREE DRAINING.50REMOVE BURLAP AND ROPE FROM AROUND BASE STEMS OF SHRUB. REMOVE ALL 'ORGANIC' AND NON-ORGANIC POTS PRIOR TO PLANTINGREAPPROPRIATED PAVERS AS PLANTER SEATING EDGE480450PAVER LAYERS IN PERPEDICULAR ORIENTATIONAND STRETCHER BOND STACKINGDRAINGAGE ROCKSLAB AND BUILDUP - ENSURE ALL LINERS AND DRAINAGE MATS UNALTEREDFILTER FABRIC - DO NOT REMOVEPLACE RECLAIMED PAVERS BELOW ROOT BALL TO PREVENT SETTLING/ SHIFTINGTREE AND SHRUB PLANTING IN PAVERS - ON SLABScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - ON SLOPEScale: 1:20 FLATPACK BOX PLANTER DEPLOYMENT - TYPICALScale: 1:20 FIG.43 Appropriated Site-Materia l  Plant ing Detai ls47CAMPINGIn an occupation such as this, the key to facing unpredictability is to build-in flexibility. Thus, although the main camp is established on the East Lawn, a scheme is suggested in which satellite “neighbour-hoods” can develop according to need. Ideal tent layouts are provided as well, which are deemed most likely to produce a version of domestic bliss.FIG.44 Suggested Tent-City Zones (Selected Animation Frame)FIG.45 Diagrammatic Tent Layouts (Selected Animation Frames)48LOGISTICSAs with all aspects of society – success ultimately hinges on infrastructure and logistics. Here, an analy-sis of the existing site yields insight into how best to receive deliveries, provide and distribute informa-tion, social, health, and commissary services, key site circulation routes, and perhaps most-importantly, schematic plans for a 3 step septic system.FIG.46 Camp Logist ical  Analysis  (Selected Animation Frame)49PROGRAMFinally, we get to the heart of it. The master plan suggests an ideal conceptualization of site program-ming – which seeks to the goal of creating a sustainable space for open and radical expression of personal and political ideas, with the need to respect urban neighbours and win over public support. To this end, a concept of concentric, or nested, zones is recommended – with the site’s “radically open” core at it’s centre, and a gradual transition back towards main-stream culture at it’s outer edges. This arrangement has practical and symbolic benefits. On the practical level, this prevents friction along the site’s edges, as well as allowing visitors a degree of control over their experience. On a sym-bolic level, it positions the occupation’s programmatic and political heart in the amphitheatre adjacent to city hall –  putting the democratic project on full display in a counter-point to the closed architec-ture of city hall.In Conclusion – it is not simply the creation of a space “for” civic discourse which is a the ultimate goal of direct-practice, but fostering and participating directly in the discourse itself. In this manner spatially agency is, incrementally at first, and then exponentially, reclaimed as a powerful tool of pub-lic political expression.FIG.47 Dynamic Site Programming (Selected Animation Frame)50FIG.48 “Nested” Site Programming Diagram51FIG.49 Ongoing Occupation 15253FIG.50 Ongoing Occupation 2545REFERENCESAlsayyad, Nezar. “A History of Tahrir Square.” Harvard University Press Blog. 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