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Back to the Woods : The Seymour Forest College Jones, Colin 2020-05-13

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The Seymour Forest CollegeBack to the Woods:Colin JonesMay 13th, 2020Graduate ProjectMaster of Landscape ArchitectureFaculty Advisor: Fionn ByrneGP2 Instructor: Susan HerringtonGP1 Instructor: Kees LokmanSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaiiiThis project questions Vancouver’s cultural relationship with the forest, pushing it beyond the realm of recreation, management, extraction, and industry – towards a coexistence.  Today, Vancouver is obsessed with looking at the forests recovering from industrial extractive logging on the North Shore Mountains.  Consumption of this visual backdrop of nature, its views protected in bylaw and commodified in advertising, sustains the exploitation of the greater forest landscape which began with prioritizing the value of timber over all else in the woods. On the site of the Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve, the Seymour River is condemned to be dammed a second time, by mid-century, for an additional drinking water reservoir.  Ancient groves and monoculture tree plantations alike will be removed or inundated, and recreational access likely limited.  The following proposal, of a Seymour Forest College, is positioned as a counter-narrative to the plans in place for this continual extraction.  Instead, students can live, interact, participate, and learn experientially through applying local knowledge and their labour towards a respectful relationship with and within the landscape of the forest.Abstractivi Title Pageiii Abstractiv Table of Contentsvi List of Figures1 1. Back to the Woods2 2. City at the Edge of the Forest3 Vancouver’s Nature Myths3 Looking, Imag(in)ing3 Hollow Semiotics4 3. Landscape Architecture and Forests in the Anthropocene4 Seeing the Forest, Through the Trees4 Uncertainties of Designing with Living Beings5 Scientific Forestry6 Growing Apart6 Urban Forestry in a Global City7 Preservation Versus Participation8 4. Local Contexts8 Construction of Colonial Natures8 Capital Defecit9 Our Home on Native Land10 Fallacy of Control12 5. Precedent Studies12 Fairy Tales to Forest13 Constructed Forest14 Vegetation House16 6. Project Site16 Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve18 Site and Urban Context20 Site History One: Logging22 Site History Two: Homesteading24 Site History Three: Water Extraction26 Site History Four: Conservation28 Site History Five: Housing Development30 Site History Six: Recreation32 Current Conditions34 Future Conditions37 7. Proposal37 The Seymour Forest College38 Find Your Calling40 Calling One: Tree Farm Remediation40  Schedule and ResponsibilitiesTable of Contentsv42  Perspective44  Processes and Implementation46  Diagrams and Tools48  Tree Plantations and Forest Disturbance50  Area of Operations52  Example Area55  Existing Condition56  Intervention Begins57  Future Condition58 Calling Two: Streamkeeping58  Schedule and Responsibilities60  Perspective62  Processes and Implementation64  Diagrams and Tools66  Streams in Recovering Forests Near Floodplain68  Area of Operations70  Example Area73  Existing Condition74  Intervention Begins75  Future Condition 76 Calling Three: Mushroom Cultivation76  Schedule and Responsibilities78  Perspective80  Processes and Implementation82  Diagrams and Tools84  Deciduous Trees and Forest Disturbance86  Area of Operations88  Example Area90  Example Area Detail93  Existing Condition94  Intervention Begins95  Future Condition 96 Calling Four: Permaculture96  Schedule and Responsibilities98  Perspective100  Processes and Implementation102  Diagrams and Tools104  Diagrams106  Winter Solstice Solar Exposure108  Spring Equinox Solar Exposure110  Suitable Slope and Sunlight in Areas of Low Sensitivity112  Area of Operations114  Example Area117  Existing Condition118  Intervention Begins119  Future Condition120 8. Referencesvi3 Figure 1: Photograph, Bicyclists in front of the Hollow Tree, ca. 1902, Major Matthews    collection, AM54-S4-: St Pk P69, City of Vancouver Archives, https://searcharchives.   vancouver.ca/bicyclists-in-front-of-hollow-tree. 11 Figure 2: Chart, Past and Projected Temperature for Vancouver, adapted from Climate Atlas    Canada (Rcp 8.5 Model - Business As Usual) by author, 2019.11 Figure 3: Chart, Past and Projected Precipitation for Vancouver, adapted from Climate Atlas    Canada (Rcp 8.5 Model - Business As Usual) by author, 2019.17 Figure 4: Photograph, Remnants of the Seymour Demonstration Forest, 2019, by author.18 Figure 5: Photomontage, Aerial view of Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve and urban    context, 2020, by author.21 Figure 6: Photograph, Loggers and men with 9’6” tree, ca. 1900, AM1376-: CVA 1376-229,   City of Vancouver Archives, https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/loggers-and-men-with-96-   tree.23 Figure 7: Photograph, Remnants of a homestead along the lower Seymour River, 2020, by    author.25 Figure 8: Photograph, Aerial view of Seymour Creek Dam, George Allen Aerial Photos, 1959,   Major Matthews Collection, AM54-S4-: Out P1191, City of Vancouver Archives, https://   searcharchives.vancouver.ca/aerial-view-of-seymour-creek-dam.27 Figure 9: Photograph, Goldstream River coming back nicely as visitors check out Open    House, Province of British Columbia, 2012, https://www.flickr.com/photos/     bcgovphotos/6939263340, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/  by-nc-nd/2.0, cropped from original.29 Figure 10: Photograph, 097 - Pair of Houses, srv007, 1974, https://www.flickr.com/photos/   savidgefamily/5230073807, CC BY-NC 2.0 licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-  nc/2.0, cropped from original.31 Figure 11: Photograph, Cyclists on the Seymour Valley Trailway, 2020, by author.32 Figure 12: Map, Current Conditions, 2020, by author.34 Figure 13: Map, Future Conditions, 2020, by author, with proposed reservoir adapted from    Reference Drawing WG-612 in Will Koop’s “SEYMOURGATE”, 38. 38 Figure 14: Digital drawing, Icons for four callings, 2020, by author. 40 Figure 15: Diagram, Seasonal schedules, 2020, by author.42 Figure 16: Multimedia, Perspective rendering on site photograph, 2020, by author. 44 Figure 17: Hand/digital drawing, Processes and implementation, 2020, by author.46 Figure 18: Hand drawing, Conifer life cycle, 2020, by author, adpated from Fenger, Mike et al.,   Wildlife & Trees in British Columbia. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing, 2006, 44. 46 Figure 19: Hand drawing, Diagram of overlapping interventions, 2020, by author.46 Figure 20: Hand drawing, Diagram of habitat connections, 2020, by author.47 Figure 21: Hand drawing, Tools, 2020, by author.48 Figure 22: Map, Tree Plantations and Forest Disturbance, 2020, by author.50 Figure 23: Map, Area of Operations, 2020, by author.52 Figure 24: Plan, Example Area, 2020, by author.55 Figure 25: Axonometric, Existing Condition, 2020, by author.56 Figure 26: Axonometric, Intervention Begins, 2020, by author.List of Figuresvii57 Figure 27: Axonometric, Future Condition, 2020, by author.58 Figure 28: Diagram, Seasonal schedules, 2020, by author.60 Figure 29: Multimedia, Perspective rendering on site photograph, 2020, by author. 62 Figure 30: Hand/digital drawing, Processes and implementation, 2020, by author.64 Figure 31: Hand drawing, Conventional off-channel salmon habitat creation, 2020, by author.64 Figure 32: Hand drawing, Dispersed manual salmon habitat creation, 2020, by author.64 Figure 33: Hand drawing, Conceptual diagram of off-channel pool creation, 2020, by author.65 Figure 34: Hand drawing, Tools, 2020, by author.66 Figure 35: Map, Streams in Recovering Forests Near Floodplain, 2020, by author.68 Figure 36: Map, Area of Operations, 2020, by author.70 Figure 37: Plan, Example Area, 2020, by author.73 Figure 38: Axonometric, Existing Condition, 2020, by author.74 Figure 39: Axonometric, Intervention Begins, 2020, by author.75 Figure 40: Axonometric, Future Condition, 2020, by author.76 Figure 41: Diagram, Seasonal schedules, 2020, by author.78 Figure 42: Multimedia, Perspective rendering on site photograph, 2020, by author. 80 Figure 43: Hand/digital drawing, Processes and implementation, 2020, by author.82 Figure 44: Hand drawing, Oyster mushroom, 2020, by author.83 Figure 45: Hand drawing, Steps for mushroom cultivation, 2020, by author.84 Figure 46: Map, Deciduous Trees and Forest Disturbance, 2020, by author.86 Figure 47: Map, Area of Operations, 2020, by author.88 Figure 48: Plan, Example Area, 2020, by author.90 Figure 49: Plan, Example Area Detail, 2020, by author.93 Figure 50: Axonometric, Existing Condition, 2020, by author.94 Figure 51: Axonometric, Intervention Begins, 2020, by author.95 Figure 52: Axonometric, Future Condition, 2020, by author.96 Figure 53: Diagram, Seasonal schedules, 2020, by author.98 Figure 54: Multimedia, Perspective rendering on site photograph, 2020, by author. 100 Figure 55: Hand/digital drawing, Processes and implementation, 2020, by author.102 Figure 56: Hand drawing, Hügelkultur garden bed section, 2020, by author.103 Figure 57: Hand drawing, Tools, 2020, by author.104 Figure 58: Hand drawing, Seasonal shadows in tree plantation level ground, 2020, by author.104 Figure 59: Hand drawing, Seasonal shadows in tree plantation SW slope, 2020, by author.104 Figure 60: Hand drawing, Seasonal shadows in tree plantation S slope, 2020, by author.106 Figure 61: Map, Winter Solstice Solar Exposure, 2020, by author.108 Figure 62: Map, Spring Equinox Solar Exposure, 2020, by author.110 Figure 63: Map, Suitable Slope and Sunlight in Areas of Low Sensitivity, 2020, by author.112 Figure 64: Map, Area of Operations, 2020, by author.114 Figure 65: Plan, Example Area, 2020, by author.117 Figure 66: Axonometric, Existing Condition, 2020, by author.118 Figure 67: Axonometric, Intervention Begins, 2020, by author.119 Figure 68: Axonometric, Future Condition, 2020, by author.viii1Our societies are often imagined as oppositional to nature, gaining many benefits from the forest while putting little real investment into our future coexistence.  Landscape architects have long understood and promoted the possibilities of working with the tree as a component of the forest in designing urban spaces, but the forest itself remains a hinterland — a world apart culturally and physically from the city. While stories of deforestation and industrial exploitation occasionally make the news, we remain bound in a relationship of dependence on products as varied as fiber, clean water, food, medicine, and structural materials taken from the woods.  Recently, with global warming nearing the tipping point of a climate tragedy,1 planting trees to counteract our follies is often proposed by politicians sustaining business-as-usual policy.2  Some may point to statistics of replanting and claim that trees are best grown in a monoculture crop with standardization and efficiency.  However, the consensus is that tree farms only benefit profit margins, and do not succeed 1 See: Jem Bendell, “Deep Adaptation: A Map for Navigating Climate Tragedy.” 2 Global News. “Trudeau Vows to Use Trans Mountain Pipeline Revenues to Plant 2 Billion Trees.”beyond three 80-year rotations of the ‘crop.’3  As Homo sapiens turns much of the world’s forests into dispersed factories for timber production, other knowing beings may never find a place to live again as their own requirements are displaced. Meanwhile, the environmental movement including conservation and preservation discourse often polarizes the debate — paradoxically leaving no place for humans to work in or with the forest.  This project asks, can our cultural relationship with the forest in metropolitan Vancouver move beyond the realm of recreation, management, extraction, and industry?  Can it become interactive, cooperative, and coexistent? An interrogation and critique of land management and infrastructural control policy in practice, finds threads within the landscape discipline which consider uncertainty, coexistence, and wholistic consideration of all forms of life as central to any design work in the forest at the dawn of the Anthropocene Era. The proposal builds on this research, allowing the inhabitation of a ‘wilderness’ protected area towards goals of education in coexistence. 3  Derrick Jensen and George Draffan, Strangely Like War: The Global Assault On Forests, 46. Chris Maser, The Redesigned Forest, 94. Herb Hammond questions the economic feasibility of a second rotation in Simpson, 3.A Common Ground1. Back to the Woods2Vancouver, British Columbia, is well known for its proximity to the forest.  In an online image search for the query ‘Vancouver’, most results are of the downtown core from the air or a distant perspective, with forested mountains in the background.1  Stanley Park figures prominently in these results, the patchwork of ancient trees and managed plantations that make up this forest next to downtown are a familiar scene engrained in the minds of locals and tourists alike.2 Across the waters of Burrard Inlet from Vancouver, forests recovering from extractive logging on “the mountains that rise above the flanks of the city and stretch northward for 1,500 kilometres to Alaska”3 create a backdrop of ‘nature’ so beloved that their image as viewed from specific locations in the city is protected in bylaw.  Here tall buildings serve as the visual frames which create twenty-seven defined view corridors beyond the metropolis to the forests which it was built from and which it remains obsessively attached to in image and mythology.  1 “Vancouver — Google Search.” Google Images.2 See: Sean Kheraj, Inventing Stanley Park: An Environmental History.3 John Baldwin, Mountains of the Coast, 8.Vancouver’s Nature Myths Looking, Imag(in)ing2. City at the Edge of the ForestIn this manner, the “image produced by the city … is that of looking natural, looking at nature”4, reminding us, as published on the City of Vancouver website, that views of these forested mountains “signify our connection to nature and align with our sustainability goals.”5  Reaching goals of sustainability certainly require a connection to (or with) nature, specifically a fundamental understanding of the limits of natural systems which may inconveniently clash with an economic model of perpetual growth.  However, a relationship with nature based on looking at far-off forests — in full dialectic opposition to the built environment of the city — does not engender connection in any meaningful way.  It continues to objectify and commodify the forest within a colonial relationship to the land. This relationship, after the erasure of indigenous culture from the landscape proceeds with the measuring and quantification of timber (potential boards for sale, within living trees) contained within a cadastral grid projected over the landscape, and now persists in the form of real estate speculation and development shaped by proximity to the locations within the city where glimpses of distant forests are available for visual consumption.4 Christa Min, “View,” 173.5 Vancouver, City of. “Protecting Vancouver’s Views”3Hollow SemioticsThe Hollow Tree in Stanley Park presents another example of this relationship.  “Historically, it was the most obsessively documented tree in the city.”6  Here, the image of the tree as photographed, reproduced, and preserved for many lifetimes was not sufficient to satisfy a desire for looking at the object itself after it was damaged in a December 2006 windstorm.  Long dead before then, now its “corpse has been reduced to a series of planks bound together by aircraft wire and desire”7 since “concerned citizens formed the Stanley Park Hollow Tree Conservation 6 James Eidse, “Trees”, 155. 7 Eidse, 157.Society and stepped forward with a plan to stabilize the tree in a project funded entirely by private donations.”8  The use of the word ‘conservation’ here is astounding – a mockery of its already confused status with ‘preservation’ in a landscape sense.  Visual artist Douglas Coupland memorializes the Hollow Tree in a 2016 full-size gilded replica, presented as a public art piece Golden Tree outside the Intracorp MC2 condo development in south Vancouver.9 8 Vancouver, City of, “Landmarks in Stanley Park”9 Douglas Coupland, Golden Tree.Figure 1: The most popularly photographed tree in the city.Photograph, Bicyclists in front of the Hollow Tree, ca. 1902, City of Vancouver Archives.4On the history of landscape architecture, a relatively young discipline, Ian Thompson determines that “a lot of new thinking turns out, upon inspection, to be a recycling or representation of ideas that have been around for centuries.”1  The tree has enjoyed a fundamental place within the discipline as a primary form-making element with its experiential, cultural, aesthetic, and functional qualities expressed through the work of innumerable designers. In the words of Rosetta Elkin — landscape architect, researcher, and teacher with a focus on plant behaviour and intelligence — “Trees delight the imagination and have helped link humans to their land — have helped build nations.”2  The following investigation moves in scope and scale from an early ameliorative project within an urban centre framing nature as a panacea to the pitfalls and health hazards of the industrialized landscape, to the beginnings of scientific forestry in designing a colonized continent, to questioning the conflation of industry and the conservation movement, and ultimately towards acknowledging the human cultural role of interacting with nature and natural systems with an awareness of the inherent agency of plants and trees to shape their environments too. Through this, we may 1 Ian Thompson, “Urban Parks A History: 1839-2012.”2  Rosetta Elkin, “The Prefixes of Forestation,” 10.Seeing the Forest, Through the TreesUncertainties of Designing with Living Beings3. Landscape Architecture and Forests in the Anthropoceneplot ways which the landscape architectural project aspires to turn an assumed purpose of stewardship towards addressing global issues of biodiversity loss and our human-induced global warming climate crisis. The quintessential work of Olmsted and Vaux in designing Central Park, New York City, at the dawn of landscape architectural discourse in North America, provides an example of how intention to employ both aesthetic and functional qualities of trees in a design may be thwarted by popular aesthetic opinion.  In its design, trees are considered for beauty, wonder, and seasonal interest — the specimen objectified through placement above a neutral backdrop of green lawns in a picturesque aesthetic.  Functional attributes relate to their holistic functioning — achieving goals of sanitation, health, real estate development and perhaps even gentrification.  Jane Hutton’s investigation of Central Park observes that while Olmstead’s predecessor Humphrey Repton long practiced “the act of thinning woods to create ‘elegant and comfortable habitation [and] the ever-varying effects of light and shade,’” New York City maintenance managers in the decades to follow construction (completed in 1876) bent to public outcry against 5the mandated removal of any trees, to the detriment of those planted closely together.3 Roxi Thoren also examines the park history post-construction.  With the first trees planted eighteen years prior, Thoren highlights that in 1876 at completion, “Olmsted proposed recovering the weather conditions, maintenance regimes, and tree health for that period, and tracking that data into the future” in a plan to use the park as a forestry laboratory.  This opportunity would not be realized through the publicly funded park board, bound to public opinion.4  To give context, through investigating contemporaneous cultural perceptions of trees drawn in popular cartoons, Sonja Dümpelmann finds that “at the beginning of the twentieth century, trees were considered shrewd and ‘cunning as a rat,’ with ‘a degree of intelligence worthy of the animal kingdom.’”5In 1888, Olmsted began design work on a private project, the Biltmore Estate in North Carolina, which would provide the opportunity to incorporate “forestry as a means of ecological restoration, material and economic productivity, recreation, and education.”6  Frederick Olmsted’s work here is significant, not alone but in collaboration with Gifford Pinchot — who would become instrumental in founding the contemporary conservation ethic of stewarding the landscape as the first Chief of the U.S. National Forest Service.7  In the words of Thoren in “Deep Roots: 3 Jane Hutton, “Substance and Structure I: the Material Culture of Landscape Architecture,” 123.4  Roxi Thoren, “Deep Roots: Foundations of Forestry in American Landscape Architecture.”5 Sonja Dümpelmann, Seeing Trees: A History of Street Trees in New York City and Berlin, 4.6 Thoren, “Deep Roots.”7 With the title Father of (their respective discipline) often applied to both of these figures, it is worth quoting Düempelman here on the related instrumentality of first-wave feminists during this era: “Women’s clubs were instrumental […] in lobbying Congress for the conservation of forests in the northeastern and western United States …” “In [Lydia] Adams-Williams’s view, men were the spenders and industrious developers, while women were the conservers and savers who through their ‘concern for the welfare of the home and the future’ and their education of their husbands and children could save the country’s resources.” (Seeing Trees, 69)Scientific ForestryFoundations of Forestry in American Landscape Architecture”:Gifford Pinchot, the man Olmsted selected to oversee forestry at Biltmore, was at the time a young and inexperienced forester; the first (and at the time only) U.S.-born, trained forester; an ambitious twenty-six year old with a national vision for forest productivity and conservation.  Pinchot saw a lax attitude in the United States towards natural resources, and he championed the nascent conservation movement, calling for governmental protection, on the European model, of natural resources from corporate abuse. Dümpelmann comments on this European model in Seeing Trees: A History of Street Trees in New York City and Berlin:Scientific forestry, as developed since the seventeenth century in France and in the German states, was geared toward the production of timber.  Although monoculture and the depletion of timber resources in the late nineteenth century led German foresters to pay greater attention to forest ecology and aesthetics, their aim continued to be a sustainable timber yield.  (25)While this germinal project at Biltmore remains multifaceted in its provisions of educational and recreational possibilities, a latent disciplinary divide begins to appear between designing in collaboration with plants and designing to exploit plants for human needs only.  To draw a metaphorical comparison here to the underground collaborations between fungi and trees Elkin argues “[t]he nuances of these different interactions are exactly what is at stake in design fields that rely on industrial processes that objectify plants as units.  They completely ignore that the rhizosphere is a busy social space and instead treat the soil as an inert medium or a physical support in which to insert the ‘tree object.’”8  Assuming the practice of scientific 8 Tsing, Anna and Rosetta Elkin, “The Politics of the Rhizosphere,” 51.6forestry follows Darwin’s theories on the origin of species, the reduction of us all to a common ancestor should help in thinking socially, culturally, across the taxonomic divide of species.9  Allowing all life agency allows benefits to flow bilaterally. During the 1920’s Benton MacKaye, in proposing the Appalachian Trail, an inspirational work for the benefit of the commons, became an outspoken proponent of trees being a shared public resource since the timescale of a forest is so far beyond that of a human lifetime, not to mention “the short-term motivations of speculative capital.”10  Meanwhile, as forestry during the twentieth century has primarily directed the management of large tracts of land outside of the city, commodification and standardization of the treed landscape into a factory system for generating a profitable monoculture ‘crop’ paired with a societal quest for endless profit growth has shifted its course away from the ideals of early visionaries. In the decades to follow, the arrogance of science backed by unfettered capitalism without a culture of respect or much aesthetic sensibility beyond deceptive devices allowed for our societal separation from the tree as a living entity.  While tree planting is touted as beneficial, corporate “claims to stewardship can be quite broad-ranging and even include the statement by Georgia-Pacific declaring, ‘Clearcutting the forest: it’s nature’s way.’”11  Meanwhile, the North American public is lulled into believing “that all is well in the forest, that it is being safeguarded for future generations”12  through the landscape design typology of visual buffers at the margins of clearcuts.  When conflated with the ideological mechanisms of 9 See: Dave Foreman, “Wild Things for Their Own Sake.”10 Garrett Dash Nelson, “An Appalachian Trail: A Project in Re-gional Planning.”11 Shaul E. Cohen, Planting Nature: Trees and the Manipulation of Environmental Stewardship in America, 145.12 Hough, Michael, Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape, 131.preservation, or “fortress conservation,”13  of a culturally constructed “‘uninhabited wilderness’ — uninhabited as never before in the human history of the place”14  — within a system of National and Provincial (or State) Parks these actions work to perpetuate a duality between nature and culture.  In contrast to the aforementioned example of designed landscape maintenance meeting with public resistance (Central Park), here the design shapes public opinion of the landscape. Michael Hough interrogates this archetype in Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape, stating: In many Canadian provinces, the establishment of what came to be known as the ‘Idiot Strip’ — those uncut and unmanaged reserves along publicly traveled roads and waterways — has long been established policy. Their purpose was to protect the public from the visual impact of logging beyond the reserves. ‘Out of sight, out of mind,’ of course, is a motto that applies not only to forestry but to other land management issues. (131)Considering the degradation of Pinchot’s earlier ideals of a forestry landscape working for more than profits, or at least for sharing those with the commons in perpetuity; Thoren poses that “there is an opportunity to recover the early collaboration of landscape architects and foresters and to integrate the two practices,” primarily in an urban context.15 Though ‘urban forestry’ overlays some of the same territory as landscape architecture, this term was first associated with arboriculture and its aesthetically driven practices, while the broader practice of forestry was a scientific venture with a production purpose.16  The shift towards a social mode of 13 Kyle A. Artelle et al., “Supporting Resurgent Indigenous-Led Governance: A Nascent Mechanism for Just and Effective Conserva-tion.”14 William Cronon, “The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature,” 10.15 Thoren, “Deep Roots.”16  Max Piana and Blake Troxel, “Beyond Planting: An Urban Forestry Primer.”Urban Forestry in a Global CityGrowing Apart7forestry began in the 1960’s, with Erik Jorgensen at the University of Toronto defining urban forestry as “‘a specialized branch of forestry’ that had ‘as its objectives the cultivation and management of trees for their present and potential contribution to the physiological, sociological and economic wellbeing of urban society.’”17  By the late 1970s, urban forestry had shifted course towards this type of wholistic practice though “based on ecological and biological premises.”18  Weller and Hands write a call to action at the dawn of the Anthropocene Era, “If we accept that ‘the city’ is now a continuous system of global exploitation and not merely the morphology of various residential and commercial densities, then any discussion of the ‘urban forest’ means that we should also scale up our thinking and discuss the ‘global city’ and its relationship to the ‘global forest.’”19  This gives us the space to now imagine a global forest with a participatory relationship, acknowledging it for more than being a storehouse of products to extract.  Along these lines, Neil Brenner sums up the ethical choice now required of landscape architects and designers, in order to balance out the throngs of those fixated on resource extraction:As they mobilise their capacities to shape this emergent terrain of intervention, designers confront an important ethical choice — to help produce maximally profitable operational landscapes for capital accumulation; or alternatively, to explore new ways of appropriating and reorganising the non-city geographies of urbanisation for collective uses and for the common good.20The challenge of reorganizing extra-urban areas towards a stewardship of the land, in an era when human activities are being felt detrimentally in ecosystems worldwide, comes full circle as the 17 Dümpelmann, 3.18 Ira Bruce Nadel and Cornelia Hahn Oberlander, Trees in the City: Habitat: A Series of Texts on All Aspects of Human Settlements.19 Richard Weller and Tatum Hands, “Building the Global Forest.”20 Neil Brenner, “The Hinterland, Urbanized?,” 126.Preservation Versus Participationpreservation movement (distinct from conservation although related) that Pinchot opposed still throws inertia towards being accountable to our cultural natures.  While meddling around with distant tracts of land valued for highly functioning intact ecologies, or representative of biological diversity found seldom elsewhere is not encouraged within the aforementioned discourse – with Weller and Hands plotting the worldwide extent of these areas – the problem is entrenched through the ideological polarization of productive landscapes at the far end of a spectrum from idealized imaginary natures void of human influence.  Specifically, in North America, there is a cultural practice of those privileged with the time and money to afford outdoor recreation seeking out experiences far away from places where labour works the land.  This leaves but little room for human participation in the processes and experiences of the forest beyond looking at it or extracting its products.In regards to this William Cronon pointedly asks, in The Trouble with Wilderness: “What are the consequences of a wilderness ideology that devalues productive labor and the very concrete knowledge that comes from working the land with one’s own hands?”21  Indeed labour is fundamental to a meaningful relationship with the land – a labour now aware of the many modes by which plants and trees depend on fungi, soils, and even humans for survival. May we be reminded, in the words of Rosetta Elkin in “The Prefixes of Forestation,” that:As a plant-dependent species, our livelihoods and health are determined by the achievement of plants. Acknowledging the whole plant requires that particular attention be paid to its longevity and temporarlity, as well as to its social rhizosphere, which plays out in the delicate horizons of the Earth. (11)A future in which our cultural relationship to the forest is participatory and mutually beneficial therefore must include labour, moving beyond typologies of passive recreation and preservation of examples of ecosystems elsewhere exploited.21 William Cronon, “The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature,” 15.8colonial surveys in the nineteenth century. In creating the Canadian state, land was either occupied villages to eventually enter the reserve system under the Indian Act, or uninhabited territory to be claimed for exploitation of its minerals, trees, animals, and now water.2  This colonial duality between wilderness and industry is still perpetuated by the preservation movement (for example, broadly under the National and Provincial Park jurisdictions) and some facets of the environmental conservation movement which depict an imaginary fragile nature as other to human culture requiring our protection and exclusion of influence (a paradox in the Anthropocene). In British Columbia, forestry is now presented as ecologically motivated, ideologically greenwashed to create a narrative of replenishment and renewable resource management.  This is illusory and questionable when the majority of logging — the operation of tree extraction — targets ancient forests which provide higher quality wood with better profit margins for raw exports, also having suitable log dimensions to interface with existing local milling infrastructure.  The argument for clear cutting, and converting forests to tree farms, is often made on the premise that this operation, or “treatment” as jargon would have it, mimicks natural disasters such as fire and windstorms which periodically flatten large areas of the forest.3  Community activist, professional forestry consultant, and author on local practices Herb Hammond deconstructs this premise, logically stating that:[T]he crux of the problem with current forest practices, and why they are not sustainable, is that we are not keeping all the parts.  For example, at the stand level, one of the things that we always miss the point of is that dead trees are every bit as important as live ones.  Trees are not disposable parts 2 Bruce Willems-Braun, “Buried Epistemologies: The Politics of Nature in (Post)colonial British Columbia,” 12-14.3  Derrick Jensen and George Draffan, Strangely Like War: The Global Assault On Forests, 32.Situating the focus back on the west coast of Canada, here colonial cultural values of landscape predominate.  The collective imagination of the forest has long been based on its exploitation and the extraction of natural resources driven by global capital.  This is historically done on the backs of labourers hopeful for a bright future in a young country — and ultimately on the indigenous peoples which make up many First Nations communities with overlapping unceded, un-surrendered territories to the colonial state.  This latter oppression may be critiqued through fundamentally questioning and challenging the cultural construct of Canadian wilderness.  In reference to the early European settlers of this continent, Saul Cohen finds that:People had negative perceptions of the forest, seeing it as a nuisance, a hindrance to agriculture, a place of evil, and a savage wilderness beyond the realm of (Christian) civilization, but also lusted for the resource potential represented by the vast number of trees.1The construct of wilderness is originally expressed in Canada in mapping –  a method of classifying the land into two categories, the mission of 1 Shaul E. Cohen, Planting Nature: Trees and the Manipulation of Environmental Stewardship in America, 28.Construction of Colonial Natures Capital Defecit4. Local Contexts9lasers, drones, and data as new tools to analyze the health and growth of trees as a standardized product for harvest.6  While technological developments inevitably will improve the health and safety of workers in the woods, it is the corporations which reap the greatest benefits as profit margins inevitably increase through greater efficiencies and less requirements for boots on the ground.  In conclusion, with the true science on tree plantations well circulated, the prerogative of forestry executives will be to harvest more old growth forests, faster, in order to extract the benefits while they exist. Option two will not be stated by land managers. It is more truly aligned with the practice of landscape architecture, or perhaps stewardship, requiring a closer relationship between inhabitation and participation in the processes of cultivating the forest.  Visionary ecologists such as Dan Janzen ask us “to move beyond the image of pure wilderness and cultivate large areas of new wildlands as if they were gardens, places which have “all the traits that we have long bestowed on a garden – care, planning, investment, zoning, insurance, fine tuning, research and premeditated harvest.”  In other words, this could be to allow for labour, inhabitation, local knowledges, and cross-cultural collaboration to re-enter public forest lands currently set aside as fortresses of wilderness for the enjoyment of a priviledged few. In the report We Rise Together: Achieving Pathway to Canada Target 1 through the creation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas in the spirit and practice of reconciliation Co-Chairs of the Indigenous Circle of Experts Eli Enns and Danika Littlechilde reflect on the colonial violence embedded in a history of usurping lands towards the creation of the first National and Provincial Parks and protected areas.  Enns and Littlechilde remind us that in the “early days of parks creation in Canada, Indigenous Peoples were understood as obstacles to the enjoyment of nature.”  Now, “the time has 6  BC Forest Discovery Centre, “BC Forest … Industry Exhibit“Our Home on Native Landof the ecosystem like conventional forestry would have us believe.  In fact, dead trees are homes for bacteria and fungi that fix nitrogen for the soil and, as snags, are homes for various species of birds which can help keep so-called forest pests in check.4 There is consensus around the fact that tree farms, based on the premise of growing trees as quickly as possible for maximum profit returns, do not succeed beyond three 80-year rotations of the ‘crop.’5  The concept of sustained yield is touted as scientific gospel, influencing how government calculates and sets an Annual Allowable Cut rate.  However, there is a chasm of indifference between these plans and the reality of allowing the continued liquidation of old-growth forests which have had over 10,000 years, since deglaciation, to accumulate a wealth of biotic soil mass which supports tree growth.  Chris Maser exposes the facts through an economic analogy in Redesigned Forest:We have not practiced ‘sustainable yield forestry’ in the Pacific Northwest because our ‘sustained yield’ has come from old-growth we inherited from Nature (sic) and for which we can claim to credit.  As we propose to practice it, it is by and large short-term economic exploitation.  We harvest the principal of soil-nutrient capital we inherited without reinvesting sufficient capital in the forest, either within or between rotation, to at least balance the account.  We violate ecological principles of diversity, process interaction, and time in order to practice exploitive forestry, and then we anoint our diminishing return by the name ‘sustained yield.’ (94)With land managers at a crossroads in the forest, there seem to be two future options available.  Option one, from within the hegemony of colonial capitalist exploitation of the land, is the promotion of public education on a technological panacea — 4 Bob Simpson, “Herb Hammond: Prophet of the New Forestry (Interview),” 2.5  Jensen and Draffan, 46. Chris Maser, The Redesigned Forest, 94. Herb Hammond questions the economic feasibility of a second rotation in Simpson, 3.10come for Indigenous knowledge systems, legal traditions, and customary and cultural practices to be appropriately recognized as equally valid and binding versus other frameworks.”7  Through the process of regional gatherings in the home territories of four First Nations across Canada, the committee engaged with the locals, listened to truths about “the impact of past conservation and protection measures on their lives, livelihoods and connections to lands and territories, and gathered ideas towards future collaborations.”8 In the spirit of truth and reconciliation, the report sheds light on how aesthetic notions of landscape such as the picturesque, and pristine wilderness, lead to the dispossession of varied indigenous populations across Canada from lands depended on for food, medicine, ceremony, clothing, and cultural practices.  The creation of protected wilderness areas was complicit in enforcing oppression and violence on these communities. Optimistic about the future, the report leads towards a proposal to create a legal framework for Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas in Canada which would allow local communities to be involved with the conservation and stewardship of traditional lands, with a range of possibilities for collaboration with other levels of government including cross-boundary conservation strategies.Shaul Cohen writes on the topic of attempting to control the natural world in Planting Nature: Trees and the Manipulation of Environmental Stewardship in America:The governmental- industrial timber complex justifies itself by claiming that its policies and practices are sustainable and environmentally beneficial.  At a deeper level, conveyed via outreach to and 7 Eli Enns and Danika Littlechilde, “Foreword” in We Rise Together: Achieving Pathway to Canada Target 1 through the creation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas in the spirit and practice of reconciliation, iii.8 We Rise Together, 14.through the nonprofit planting and other environmental organizations, the message is that we are and must be in control of nature, directing it for our benefit and that of all other constituents of the natural world. (150)As human-caused global warming accelerates we may expect growing tensions between those who wish to have more control over the natural world, and those wishing to operate more within its rules and bounds.  In 2016, the BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations tabled and released a summarized overview of “projected climate changes, impacts to ecosystems and potential adaptation strategies.”9  Information relevant to forestry operations in Southwestern BC are quoted below:Climate is changing an order of magnitude faster than Canada’s tree species can migrate or adapt.(3)Seemingly small increases in mean values of climate variables can substantially increase the probability of an extreme event.  For example the 10% increase in precipitation predicted for the Georgia Basin in the 2080s could increase the frequency of slope instability by 165%.(4)Mountain ranges are particularly important for conservation of biodiversity.  Relative to gentle terrain, mountains accommodate more climatic zones within close proximity; thus, as the climate changes, populations in lower elevation zones may find suitable climatic conditions by migrating upwards.(9)Human response to increased disturbance (e.g. extensive salvage harvest) can exacerbate impacts of climate change.(9)Many tree species will be unable to migrate quickly enough to follow the climate envelopes to which they are adapted.  Uncertainty about climate projections leads to uncertainty about which trees may be best-suited to changing conditions.  9 Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change in the West and South Coast Regions, 1.Fallacy of Control11Suitable trees at any given point in time may become maladapted by rotation age, creating additional uncertainty and complexity for management.(9)Simplistic predictions in complex systems cannot replace long-term interdisciplinary research and monitoring.(10)It is necessary to modify management activities – planning, practices, and monitoring - to address the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. Adaptation strategies will vary depending on the ecosystem, the direction of climatic variables, the degree of certainty in projected changes, the urgency (risk and vulnerability), and the likelihood of adaptation practices achieving desired outcomes.  Hence, management activities under a changing climate will need to be flexible and proactive.(10)Increase stand-scale species diversity (e.g., retain and plant a variety of species, including broadleaf; expand breadth of “acceptable” species in young stands.)(15)When trees are harvested 50-120 years after they are planted, the climate could be 3-5 degrees warmer, exposing the trees to maladaptation and health risks.  Moving populations of trees today (assisting migration) from their current location is one potential solution; growth and health are better when seeds are transferred to match the climate in which they evolved.  However, trees have complex symbiotic relationships with many ectomychorrizal fungal species in the soil and in some cases these bonds are tightly linked to local nutrient and climate conditions.  Improved understanding of these interactions in specific ecosystems may increase success.(16)Perhaps an alternate future may be proposed, where control and management are reliquished for learning, participation, labour, and close interaction within the wholistic forest landscape in order to adapt to future changes both expected and unexpected. 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080SUMMER200400600800100012001400160018002000SPRINGAUTUMNWINTERPRECIPITATION (millimetres)YEARPast and Projected Precipitation for VancouverADAPTED FROM: CLIMATE ATLAS CANADA (RCP 8.5 MODEL - BUSINESS AS USUAL)ANNUAL1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080YEARPast and Projected Temperature for VancouverADAPTED FROM: CLIMATE ATLAS CANADA (RCP 8.5 MODEL - BUSINESS AS USUAL)MEAN TEMPERATURE (°C)681012141618Figure 2: Business as usual projections for climate change caused by anthropogenic global warming assume almost a 4 degree rise in mean temperature over the next 70-year period for Vancouver, BC. Chart, Past and Projected Temperature for Vancouver, adapted from Climate Atlas Canada (Rcp 8.5 Model - Business As Usual), 2019.Figure 3: Precipitation forecasts in a business as usual scenario show an annual increase of about 100 millimetres per year for Vancouver, BC over the next 70 years. A decrease during summer is observed. The intensity of rainstorms is expected to increase especially during autumn and winter, bringing larger amounts of precipitation in shorter periods of time.Chart, Past and Projected Precipitation for Vancouver, adapted from Climate Atlas Canada (Rcp 8.5 Model - Business As Usual), 2019.122017 ASLA Student Awards: Honor — Research CategoryDesigner: Amy TaylorAdvisor: Jacob BoswellOhio State UniversityAmy Taylor’s research-based design project examines how cultural values of the forest landscape are communicated and passed down through generations, resulting in a toolkit of archetypes available for designers to work with the forest in creating experiences.  Many children learn of the forest through narratives written and illustrated in books before experiencing it firsthand.  The experiential qualities of forest as narrated in popular children’s literature run the gamut from tranquil and friendly to imposing and ominous.  As nature is a cultural space imag(in)ed by us all, the project presents a valuable counterpart to typical forest planning resources which value economic or ecological functions over experiences and emotional responses. Identifying and studying 112 award and honour winning (or widely read) books for children which include the forest in their narrative, the project proceeds with a methodology of analyzing the content for its representation of forests in text and illustrations.  The content is classified two ways, by spatial quality and by character or Fairy Tales to Forest5. Precedent Studies“personality”.  Spatial qualities as categorized are the single tree forest, open forest, edge forest, layered forest, forest as an ecosystem, dense ordered forest, impenetrable forest, enclosed canopy forest and see the sky forest.  Character categories identified are the nocturnal forest, ominous forest, uninviting forest, happy forest, enchanting forest, guardian forest, and tranquil forest.  Combinations between the two categories are noted if they appear in three or more of the books, resulting in 21 archetypes of forest. These archetypes of forest landscapes are presented through colour illustrations and line drawn axonometric and section diagrams.  Density of trees and the distinction between deciduous and coniferous species are indicated in abbreviated plan view.  Together, the images allow one to inhabit each archetype and recall personal experiences in specific familiar forests. In a local context, the “tranquil single tree forest” may well be at Trout Lake or Jericho Beach in Vancouver.  The “uninviting dense ordered forest” is the monoculture plantation dictated by scientific forestry all across southwestern BC, including in parts of Stanley Park’s interior, Pacific Spirit Park (excluding its western sliver along the Point Grey sand cliffs) and throughout Lynn and Seymour Valleys in North Vancouver. Useful in applying this research back to design is the Planting, Construction, Maintenance chart which suggests methods by which to achieve the aforementioned archetypes in an existing or proposed forest. This is a welcome counterpoint to the manuals of scientific forestry which prioritize maximum economic return from the landscape over all other uses. This project addresses its prioritization of human needs in the forest over those of other life forms through an argument of familiarity and engagement leading to co-existence. It is 13Constructed Forest2017 Master of Architecture ThesisDesigner: Aaron GriffioenAdvisors: Sarah Stevens, Kees Lokman, James HeumoellerSchool of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, UBCConstructed Forest examines issues surrounding past and current human relationships with nature in a Canadian context. Questioning concepts of wilderness and conservation, it proceeds to deconstruct the separation of culture from nature, identified as enabling rampant resource extraction through distancing us physically and metaphorically from the landscapes which provide materials used in constructing the majority of our buildings and homes. Considering more than the architectural object and its site, the project aims logical to assume that if more people feel positive emotional experiences in the forest, then the forest will become a place of play, adventure, excitement, awareness, and hopefully respect, learning, and participation. Taylor’s work presents an optimistic challenge to a discourse polarized by fragile nature and wilderness parks on one side and the government-industrial forestry complex on the other. As well, giving a broader cultural perspective (though assumed colonial North American, Eurocentric culture) to familiar forest landscapes is useful, as I am a lifelong inhabitant of the heavily forested region of southwestern BC and may not have the same range of sensitivity to some of the more negative emotions attached to experiencing these landscapes.  Particularly, in interrogating the aftermath of tree farming on the project site, these studies provide useful context in developing new aesthetics. to design spaces for industry and inhabitation to intermingle on a landscape scale. Sited uphill from the current edge of urban development on the south-facing mountainsides of West Vancouver, this area is selected because it is under consideration by Metro Vancouver as a place to build future housing under their Regional Growth Strategy 2040. This is in opposition to the District of West Vancouver’s draft plan to continue only recreational use above the 1200’ contour line — affluent residents of the nearby areas seek to protect their property values which are in part defined by proximity to ‘wild’ nature. Analysis includes visual timelines offering comparison between changing cultural worldviews of nature through colonial history, mapping of resource extraction histories, and opportunities and constraints around inhabitation. Urban forms existing and possible are explored and drawn. The design response considers long timescales, beyond the human, and speculates on future technologies which place industrial logging machinery in close proximity with spine-based urban development proposed across the site. An alternate, imaginary transportation and forestry system of an aerial funicular gondola grid is proposed across the site. Juxtaposing industry, recreation, and urbanity provides a starting point on which to consider our future cultural aspirations for stewardship when we may now consider the entire planet affected by human actions. Challenges of population growth in the region are met with the new forms of housing development in Griffioen’s work. If growth is inevitably going to occur at the outer edge of the city, designers must consider the landscapes which the urban fabric may soon cloak and agglomerate. Further investigation into the spatial layout of the proposed neighbourhoods would have bolstered 14Vegetation House: House for Being the Medium of Plant Growth2011 ASLA Student Awards: Award of ExcellenceDesigners: Jheng-Ru Li and Chieh-Hsuan HuAdvisors: Yu-Tung Liu, Yuan-Rong Li, Shiau-Yun Lu and Chor-Kheng LimNational Chiao Tung University, TaiwanBlending landscape with architecture, this project sites its inquiry in Aodi, a rural district within the eastern jurisdiction of New Taipei City, Taiwan. Here, tourist activity is increasingly drawn outward from the metropolitan centre towards vacationing in this agricultural and fishing community with its natural landscape features including nationally protected forested areas and the golden sands of Fulong Beach. With the development of suburban vacation homes already pushing up against agricultural and forest lands the project critiques an imminent construction proposal, adjacent to Snow Mountain and its nationally protected forest, for its lack of consideration of the surrounding landscape. Responding to this, Vegetation House proposes balancing between increasing intensity of human demands and the existing landscape condition of a functioning ecology, through designing a novel architectural typology for the vacation home based on the requirements of plants. This typology merges the boundaries of building and landscape, layering native vegetation above and within the form of the dwelling to allow the architecture to participate in surrounding ecological flows. The siting of the building, and the positioning of its tallest side is considered in relation to directional storm-season winds. Locally existing vines, grasses, shrubs, and trees are first analyzed for their environmental requirements of humidity, solar exposure, and temperature. Form finding for the architecture is initially inspired by a stone in the forest covered in moss. This is hybridized with a consideration for incorporating the selected local plants into the structure. The result is a tri-lobed concrete building which loops over and onto itself. It is centrally hollowed out in multiple locations for rainwater collection, convective air currents driving ventilation and cooling, and most prominently to allow space for deep rooted trees at roof level to the proposal, especially with consideration of walkability and recreational use of the area which is so central to closing the nature/culture gap. A middle scale of drawing may have illustrated this issue within the neighbourhoods, as the axonometric phasing images only allude to where future residents may walk and experience the landscape, the mappings provide only the locations for preservation/industry/housing, and the rendering seems an improbable image of industrial machinery next to trail runners. It remains unmentioned whether the current hiking, running, and biking use of the second growth forest is the type of recreation proposed in the future condition, and what may happen to nearby ski resorts which no longer profit due to a lack of winter snowfall in a changing climate. While this project faithfully pushes past the divide between nature and culture, it is through the most often used lens – of management for resource extraction. Considering more than human forest dwellers may be central to uniting the aforementioned dichotomy. As well, making space for the sharing of local knowledges including indigenous voices, and showing the participation of residents in forest labour may have strengthened the project. While science is a common thread within forestry, too much emphasis on its vague ability to address shortcomings in planning runs the risk of the project being perceived as overly technocratic. 15reach down through the two-storey structure to the earth at its foundations. Shrubs are placed appropriately to their needs on top of the roof near the trees, on the balconies where solar exposure is appropriate, and surrounding the ground floor. Vines and epiphytes are allowed to grow on the exterior surface of the building, supported with an integrated release of irrigation water from the walls (assumed during the times of year when necessary). The local heavy seasonal rainfall is viewed as an asset which may be collected and utilized for aesthetic and ecological microclimatic purposes in a pool near an outdoor patio.This incorporation of vegetation and landscape ecology within an architectural form succeeds in fulfilling the objective of ethically developing an area for inhabitation where existing ecologies may be disturbed or disrupted by insensitive conventional typologies. The form logically expresses the concept of supporting plant life at multiple scales and beautifully blends landscape with a dwelling structure — resulting in a place for coexistence. Going beyond such integrations as Bosco Verticale, by Boeri Studio in Milan, Italy where the building becomes a scaffold for plants sustained through maintenance inputs (though solar-powered) and cut off from the soil below, Vegetation House integrates the land into and onto the building itself. Some consideration of the construction materials and process is included in the design proposal. The reasoning for an offsite manufacturing process of prefabricated major components before their ultimate assembly in place is sensible and its stated benefit of waste reduction is but one of a few. Perhaps also mentioning how this process would benefit in a reduced disturbance to the site soils would bolster the argument for novel methods in an industry driven by profit margins. The question of whether local materials beyond the plants could be incorporated into the design is left unmentioned. Likewise, it remains unaddressed whether high-tech, high-input materials such as concrete and plywood are appropriate when speaking to ecological flows and co-existence — though this paradox and ethical dilemma may be found throughout our built environment.The question of whether local materials beyond the plants could be incorporated into the design is left unmentioned. Likewise, it remains unaddressed whether high-tech, high-input materials such as concrete and plywood are appropriate when speaking to ecological flows and co-existence — though this paradox and ethical dilemma may be found throughout our built environment.  Overall, the project represents a typology of coexistence, where residents of the forest live in a way which is acommodating and respectful to the surrounding landscape. 16The Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve in North Vancouver provides a microcosm on which to interrogate these multi-scalar issues.  Design may be employed here as a method of examining and questioning imagined narratives of the forest which have played out on the landscape previously, and in presenting an alternative for the future — of coexistence. The site is popularly known as proxy for a wilderness park in the John Muir canon and enjoyed annually by 500,000 walkers, runners, and cyclists privileged with the time and abilities.1  However, these lands at the frontier of Vancouver’s urban space are either fully owned by the Greater Vancouver Water District or claimed by its drinking water supply tenure.  Behind the curtain, the lower valley is slated for future infrastructural exploitation and its removal from the surrounding ecologies.  Therefore, the “Reserve” is not just for conserving existing landscape features, rather, its “primary purpose […] is to provide for water supply infrastructure”2 and to remain available for the impoundment of additional drinking water supplies for Metro Vancouver behind a second dam further downstream on the 1 Lees + Associates, LSCR Trails Strategic Plan, 1.2 Greater Vancouver Regional District, Lower Seymour Conserva-tion Reserve Management Plan, ii.Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve6. Project SiteSeymour River.3 The Conservation Reserve designation, in 1999, stems from the efforts of a preservationist campaign led by the Western Canada Wilderness Committee to halt the industrial forestry public relations tool of the former Seymour Demonstration Forest, and behind-the-scenes old-growth logging throughout public watershed lands since 1961.4  While allowing the first public access to the lower valley in decades, the opening of the Demonstration Forest in 1987 symbolized to many a corruption of the founding principles for the Greater Vancouver Water District – its land holdings were gradually assembled from buying back timber and mineral rights from private owners.5  Will Koop’s investigation into the infiltration of management by forestry interests during the 1980s finds that “emergence of the Seymour Advisory Committee, and its evolving autonomous authority, with a series of sub-committees, launched the watershed management division into a distinctively new and somewhat shadowy era: public advertising through forestry ‘educational’ programming.”6 The Demonstration Forest, which laudably allowed a place for human labour within a recreational landscape still presented a troubling relationship of human control over nature based on dubious science.  Its flaw was in attempting to prove that converting ecosystems to tree farms was not only beneficial to the forest but required for its health.  Today a mandate of Adaptive Management which apples to the Conservation Reserve addresses the shortcomings of the past, but it is likely that public opinion will not support the plan for future inundation and related reduction of access. In an alternate future the following design proposal will balance experiental education in land stewardship, the sharing of local knowledge including Indigenous voices, and inhabitation of the forest by students while effecting benefits for the landscape and its ecologies. This will question 3  Will Koop, “SEYMOURGATE: The Off-Catchment Lands of the Lower Seymour Valley,” 38.4 Joe Foy. “The Seymour Saga - Shared Vision.” Gabrielle Kahrer, From Speculative to Spectacular, 63.5 Kahrer, 39.6 “SEYMOURGATE,” 45.17both the popularly understood and master-planned narratives of the existing Conservation Reserve. The project will simultaneously respond to the former Demonstration Forest, subverting its human-centric top-down control and management practices through a social understanding of collaboration in wholistic living. Evolving past the dichotomous positioning of nature and culture found in the narratives of the Conservation Reserve – its sensitive ecosystems paradoxically awaiting termination, and the Demonstration Forest – nature requiring an input of management and extraction of timber to maintain its health – the proposal creates room for collaboration between anthropocentric needs for survival and what this entails for other beings across the scale of the ecosystem and the landscape.  With nature redefined as a space produced by culture, room for optimism is carved out from the conversation around climate anxiety, ecological grief, and denial. Rather than a fragile entity to be walled off from human influence, or an intensively managed factory designed for maximum profit margins, the forest here may be allowed to become a place of interaction and participation — effecting a feedback loop with our cultural imagination of the broader landscape. When considering current high drinking water consumption within the region, a lack of residential metering and use-specific billing, and the plethora of alternatives to infrastructural water distribution rising in prominence within architectural discourse,7 alternate futures for the site become much more appealing.  Metro Vancouver’s current Drinking Water Management Plan calls for municipalities, which are responsible with serving their constituent water users, to “[r]eassess the merits of developing residential water metering programs and municipal rebate programs for water efficient fixtures and appliances.”8  The provincial Water Conservation Guide highlights that over two thirds of municipal water is not required to be of drinking quality.  A conservation ethic may perhaps be conceptually dispersed across the region, towards drinking water use, rather than sited in support of the expansion of infrastructure.7 Recovery, reclamation, reuse or recycling strategies are all pro-vincially recommended strategies.8 Metro Vancouver, Drinking Water Management Plan, 13.Figure 4: Photograph, Remnants of the Seymour Demonstration Forest, 2019, by author.18Site and Urban ContextHere we see the relationship between the Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve, figuratively walled off from exploitation for close to twenty years, and the urban areas of Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver, and Burnaby. The surface area of Stanley Park, a more familiar forest to city dwellers, would fit within the boundaries of the Conservation Reserve fourteen times. While more distant from downtown, the Conservation Reserve is developed with an extensive road network leading beyond the dam and reservoir at its northern boundary near the top right corner. These roads, like those in the Capilano drainage to the west, were built for hauling logs – from clear cuts on steep mountainsides throughout Vancouver’s drinking water supply areas until less than twenty years ago.1920Inhabited for time immemorial, “[t]his territory was a land of plenty, with abundant fish and game to sustain the Tsleil-Waututh.”  “We never ceded or relinquished our responsibility for this territory.  But its resources have been exploited and damaged through industrialization and urbanization.”9  Colonial settlers arriving here in the late 19th century were cultured to see the landscape underused, a bounty of 300 foot tall trees to export for profit.  “A man could go anywhere on unoccupied Crown lands, put in a corner post, compose a rough description of one square mile of forest measured from that post, and thus secure from the Government exclusive right to the timber on that square mile, subject to the payment of rent of one hundred and forty dollars a year.”10  By the 1870s, the Moodyville Sawmill was “the largest single source of export revenue 9 Tsleil-Waututh Nation, “About Tsleil-Waututh Nation.”10 Martin Allerdale Grainger, Woodsmen of the West, 33.in the province,”11 monopolizing on ownership of multiple timber leases along the Seymour River.  Through the steam and gasoline eras, rapacious logging continued here, pausing in 1936 for two decades under Water Commissioner E. A. Cleveland’s commitment to drinking water quality for the municipal users.  Extensive logging continued again after his death – justified by treating an insect problem with removal of the forest ecosystem and replacement with monocultures. Then, with the Water District’s lease amended in 1967 to require ‘sustained yeild’ logging in perpetuity, the stage was set to liquidate the most valuable assets of the Metro Vancouver watersheds. This was stymied in 2004, in part to Will Koop’s investigative work12 and the activism of the Wilderness Committee. 11 North Vancouver Museum and Archives, “Ships Loading Lumber at Moodyville”; “Moodyville”12  Will Koop, “SEYMOURGATE: The Off-Catchment Lands of the Lower Seymour Valley.”Site History One: Logging21Figure 6: Trees of this size once filled the Seymour Valley.Photograph, Loggers and men with 9’6” tree, ca. 1900, City of Vancouver Archives.22Site History Two: HomesteadingWith much of the forests in the southern part of the valley cut and exported, and colonial government policy set on controlling the land through occupation, any man could post up, roughly survey an orthogonal area of land, and pre-empt it, or claim interest in ownership. With typical requirements of ‘improving’ the landscape with cleared forests, cultivation of crops, and construction of permanent structures, this policy displaced First Nations cultural use from these areas. Undoubtably requiring great physical labour, the payment to settlers willing to pre-empt land and follow through with a homestead was its eventual fee-simple ownership. By 1890, 14 claims were made in the lower Seymour Valley but records indicate only a few of these settlers succeeded in constructing permanent dwellings, including Niven and Scott.13  Recently, archeology professor Bob Muckle and students from Capilano University have excavated 13 Gabrielle Kahrer, From Speculative to Spectacular, 12,13.the remains of a Japanese settlement in the lower Seymour Valley for 14 years. They uncovered evidence of over a dozen cabins with a cedar boardwalk connecting them, a water supply from a hillside reservoir, and a communal bathhouse, garden plot, and shrine. Assumed to be a logging community established circa 1918, Muckle theorizes that it was inhabited by up to 40 or 50 people until 1942, when the federal government forced the detention of Japanese Canadians in work camps far from the coast. Many valuable items were left behind including a wood stove “deliberately hidden on the periphery.”14 14 Brent Richter, “Nikkei Secrets Unearthed on the Seymour.”23Figure 7: Few traces remain in the forest of the labours of early homesteaders. Photograph, Remnants of a homestead along the lower Seymour River, 2020, by author.24Site History Three: Water ExtractionWhen extensive logging upstream of Vancouver’s water intake on the Capilano River began to trouble city aldermen just 13 years after completion – siltation the concern – the City surveyed the Seymour in 1905 to locate a “suitable intake location” for a second supply. Piping clear water from the relatively unlogged upper valley became an opportunity to secure “provisions for the future.”15  Meanwhile, speculation on timber above the proposed intake was rampant, with expectations that “prices would rise in the future at the same rate or faster than they had been climbing in recent years.”16  The first water intake at Hydraulic Creek required 88,000 board feet of cedar for its timber crib weir, and the wooden stave pipeline 540,000 board feet of “clear, high grade fir”17 from the surrounding forests. As demand increased, the 15 Kahrer, 19.16 Peter Murray, afterword to Woodsmen of the West, 209.17 Kahrer, 20-24.Seymour River was dammed at Seymour Falls in 1928.  A survey of trout and salmon stocks three years following found them to be “materially reduced.”18  For pipeline upgrades in 1948, “Rice Lake was completely drained during the construction of the new pipe and remained ‘a hole in the ground’ until it was refilled during the 1950’s.” This feature allowed salamanders to be removed every year when the lake bed was cleaned out as part of the water supply system.19  Now impounding 40% of the regional drinking water supply, a second Seymour Falls Dam was completed in 1962.20 This higher dam prevents salmon from spawning in all of their usual spots. Despite climate change bringing rain, “the current forecast predicts expanding storage capacity in Seymour and Capilano Watersheds by 2050.”21 18 Kahrer, 50.19 Kahrer, 59.20 Canadian Consulting Engineer, “Seymour Falls Dam Upgrade.”21 Metro Vancouver, Drinking Water Management Plan, 12.25Figure 8: The second and current Seymour Falls Dam under construction, with clearcuts around the shores of the reservoir in background. Photograph, Aerial view of Seymour Creek Dam, George Allen Aerial Photos, 1959, City of Vancouver Archives.26Site History Four: ConservationFor time immemorial the Seymour River pink and chum salmon were sought after by Tsleil-Waututh families returning from the Fraser River run in the autumn to set up camps along its banks.22    Following the reduction of fish stocks in 1928 after the river was dammed, with “migrating fish being unable to access a significant portion of the […] upper part of the river [and] a significant part of the original spawning habitat for returning salmon and steelhead,” it would be 49 years before the British Columbia Institute of Technology opened a hatchery for students.  Its original purpose was to “replace fish that would have reared in the upper part of the river.”23  After ten years, in 1987 when “initial funding began to dissolve, the Seymour Salmonid Society (SSS) was established by a dedicated group of volunteers wanting to take over operations of the 22 Tsleil-Waututh Nation, “Our Story.”23 Seymour Salmonid Society, “Hatchery History.”hatchery.”24  Its core fish-rearing operations are now funded by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Metro Vancouver.  Each year, 30,000 steelhead, and 120,000 coho are raised and released; and every other year 500,000 pink, and 500,000 chum.  In addition, the non-profit society provides full day, hands-on programs for up to 15,000 elementary school students annually, plus spawing and rearing habitat creation work funded solely through donations.25  The society also organized the funding and management of a significant mitigation project – over 5 years of work – to allow salmon to pass a large rockslide in the Seymour Canyon in 2014. Fish were captured and manually transported in backpacks and trucks past the slide as blasting operations periodically demolished the blockage. 24 Kieran Brownie, “Environment: Moving Mountains, Saving Salmon.”25 Seymour Salmonid Society, “Donate.”; “About Us.”27Figure 9: Releasing salmonids into a stream is an unforgettable hands-on learning experience for children. Photograph, Goldstream River coming back nicely as visitors check out Open House, 2012, Province of British Columbia.28Site History Five: Housing DevelopmentReal estate development proposals emerged in 1989 for two extensions of suburban neigbourhoods onto Greater Vancouver Water District lands in the lower Seymour Valley. These were named the Lake Forest Development and the Lynden Forest Development.26  Will Koop investigates collusion between the interests of the public Water District and the private forestry industry emerging in the 1980s with the autonomous Seymour Advisory Committee, alongside extensive roading and old-growth logging across public watershed lands. Koop reports that during a Seymour Advisory Committee meeting on February 6, 1986 “The possibility of real estate development in the southern zone was also entertained by Water District Commissioner Doug MacKay,” “who qualified that there would be no development ‘for at least 20 years.’ Housing development 26  Will Koop, “SEYMOURGATE: The Off-Catchment Lands of the Lower Seymour Valley,” 38.proposals suddenly appeared three years later, which created enormous public debate and the eventual cancellation of the proposal.”27  An explanation is found in Koop’s footnotes, attributing the withdrawl to the research of Paul Hundal finding a stipulation written by District Water Commissioner E. A. Cleveland on January 23, 1951 stating “this parcel will not be re-subdivided but will be set aside by the District of North Vancouver for park purposes.”28 With ninety percent of regional residents agreeing in 2019 that there is currently a housing crisis, and a majority somewhat agreeing that natural geography created a lack of available land,29 perhaps pressures of development may once again push up against this public landscape. 27 Koop, 37.28 Koop, footnote 3, 37.29  Ubels, Erin and Bailey Nicholson. “New survey finds 90% of residents agree there’s a housing crisis in Metro Vancouver.”29Figure 10: A quintessential North Vancouver residence under construction, on cleared forest lands. Note old growth stumps in background. Photograph, 097 - Pair of Houses, srv007, 1974.30Site History Six: Recreation500,000 walkers, runners and cyclists per year visit the Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve seeking a place to exercise out in the fresh air.30  The Seymour Valley Trailway is well known to road cyclists as a 10km stretch of sinuous pavement entirely free from cars.  It is popularly enjoyed as a round trip with the turnaround point at the gates to the closed watershed.  Here there are open views of the Seymour Falls Dam and the drinking water reservoir.  A lawn, gazebo, and picnic tables offer a pastoral setting familiar to any suburbanite. This green workout is best enjoyed in a group, moving together through the patchwork of manufactured landscapes planted for the efficiency and speed of their lumber crop.  Those who choose to venture beyond the picnic area at the dam will find themselves facing its dramatic face and spillway on the Bear Island Bridge. Also well enjoyed are the many circuitous 30 Lees + Associates, LSCR Trails Strategic Plan, 1.mountain bike trails of varying difficulty, established by enthusiasts and grandfathered into the official trail plans.  A more obscure network of foot paths leads through the forest, including an underused floodplain old growth trail loop south of the hatchery.  Access to the mountain ridges east and west of the valley is bushy and steep but available, though excluded from the trail plans and unmaintained. As well, during their campagn to stop logging in the watersheds and the associated Seymour Demonstration Forest regime, the Wilderness Committee flagged trails to remnant unlogged ancient groves of Douglas fir and redcedar on the steep mountainsides.  Record size trees here, identified and measured by Ralph Kelman, are “amongst the biggest trees in Canada.”31  While still plotted on commercial hiking maps today, these trails are all but reclaimed by the forest with only scraps of flagging tape remaining. 31 Joe Foy. “The Seymour Saga - Shared Vision.”31Figure 11: Photograph, Cyclists on the Seymour Valley Trailway, 2020, by author.3233Current Conditions3435Future Conditions36"Being able to imagine alternate temporal and spatial frameworks in which to implement a more benign human future - being able, even temporarily, to eliminate the sort of tyranny that the press of time or the limits of space can induce, producing despair instead of hope - seems to be a crucial part of conceiving of a future for H. sapiens that is not dystopian."Barry Lopez, Horizon, 303.37Critical of fortress conservation here in close proximity to the city – for excluding inhabitation, labour, and deep interaction from the site – the following design proposal is positioned instead to influence a cultural attitude shift towards the forest.  Rather than imagining the site as a fragile entity to be paradoxically walled off from human influence and enjoyed by those privileged with the free time to recreate within, as a timber factory designed for maximum profit, or, as a future source of water extraction for municipalities without residential metering, the forest here may become a place of interaction, participation, and experiential education.  Upon entering the program at the Seymour Forest College, students find their Calling – a vocation to be learned through the application of local knowledge, both indigenous and settler, to the landscape through the experience of their own labour through the seasons. Evolving past the dichotomous positioning of nature and culture found in the narratives of the Conservation Reserve – many of its sensitive ecosystems paradoxically awaiting termination and inundation, and the Demonstration Forest – nature requiring an input of management and extraction of timber to maintain its health – the project creates room for collaboration between anthropocentric needs for survival and adjacent benefits for other beings across the scale of the ecosystem and the landscape.  With nature redefined as a space produced by culture, room for optimism is carved out from the conversation around climate anxiety, ecological grief, and denial.  The forest here may be allowed to become a place of interaction and participation — effecting a feedback loop with our cultural imagination of the broader landscape. While student learning is individual, personal, and experiential, it depends on the social networks enabled by the Forest College.  These social interactions are spurred by the prescribed sharing of meals at the Permaculture Calling sites where members of every Calling share their experiences daily, as well as through local knowledge presentations, and the opportunity of regenerative education with learned students staying on to teach the next round of entrants. The Seymour Forest College7. Proposal38Calling One:Tree Farm RemediationCalling Two:StreamkeepingFind Your Calling39Calling Four:PermacultureCalling Three:Mushroom Cultivation40GoatkeepingJJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterTree FarmRemediationProcess TreesFell TreesSelect Treesto RetainSelect Plantsto TransplantCut LogsFor ExportPropagateShrubs by LayeringTransplantTrees & ShrubsVegetationManagementHigher Input FeedingEdible ShrubCultivationTransplantPropagateHarvestStoreThe Tree Farm Remediation Calling is centred around unraveling and mediating the aesthetic, spatial, and ecological implications of past monoculture tree plantations in the landscape. To the right is an annual schedule which catalogues the labour involved with this primary stream of work. Selective removal of the densely planted single-age conifers occurs from autumn to spring, when birds do not inhabit trees for nesting. In addition, students are responsible for two secondary streams of work and learning, shown above. The schedule of edible shrub cultivation dovetails well with the remediation work, as propagation and harvesting of fruit and nuts follows the heavier labour of late winter. Also during the summer, goatkeeping provides opportunities to use these domestic animals as mobile living weed whackers in the service of contributing food to the community. Calling One:Tree Farm Remediation41GoatkeepingJJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterTree FarmRemediationProcess TreesFell TreesSelect Treesto RetainSelect Plantsto TransplantCut LogsFor ExportPropagateShrubs by LayeringTransplantTrees & ShrubsVegetationManagementHigher Input FeedingEdible ShrubCultivationTransplantPropagateHarvestStoreSchedule and Responsibilities4243In Winter ...44Openings are made in the canopy by selectively removing whole trees, and creating snags and standing dead trees as future homes for many forest dwellers. Some wood may be exported. Monoculture tree plantations are dense, shaded, and lacking in understory vegetation. All trees are the same age and grow closely to encourage tall, straight trunks for timber extraction. Stage 1Existing Condition45The site approaches the state of a forest, with the oldest trees growing larger in more complex shapes conducive to a diversity of live. Food and shelter are available for all forest dwellers.A diversity of shrubs and trees not found in the plantation are transplanted here from surrounding areas. Others arrive spontaneously now that sunlight reaches the earth. Future ConditionStage 2Processes and Implementation46Figure 19: Each year, the area of intervention widens and eventually overlaps nearby starting points. Figure 20: Old growth remnants at higher elevation become connected to the river floodplain through remediation of tree farms.Figure 18: The conifer life cycle is seen to be cut short within a tree farm, before trees are allowed to become useful for wildlife. The actions of students in creating snags, or standing dead trees, within the tree plantations creates space for nesting and burrowing and accelerates the progression of the latter half of this diagram.  Diagram adapted from Fenger et al., 44. Conifer Life CycleTree Farm Cycle Useful for Wildlifeseedling sapling pole mature old growth death wildlife tree decayed47Diagrams and ToolsFigure 21: The students in this calling employ these tools in their work.rope & harnessspade axehatchet wedgesleverschainsawbow saw pruning saw files4849Tree Plantations and Forest Disturbance5051Area of Operations52537000 m2 per student annually.350 trees total.100 trees are removed.50 are modified.Example Area5455PhasingExisting ConditionFigure 25: An example tree plantation site, nearly 40 years old. 56PhasingIntervention BeginsFigure 26: The wall tent is placed, trees are selectively felled and snags created.57PhasingFuture ConditionFigure 27: Shrubs are planted, and felling operations moved to a new area.58JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterStreamkeepingTransport Fish Upstreamof DamMove FishCarcasses to ForestDig PoolsFish LadderConstructionMove LogsTransplantShrubsPropagateShrubsCarpentry& MaintenanceWhen Shedule AllowsSalmonHatcheryCoho SpawningChum SpawningPinkSpawningReleasePinkReleaseChumRelease CohoThe Streamkeeping Calling is responsible for returning and maintaining viable aquatic habitat to the many eroded watercourses within the valley, remnants of past logging and roadbuilding. The annual schedule to the right begins with individual work, followed with group participation in building a fish ladder past the existing dam, then back to the smaller streams where pools may dug during low flow conditions to create overwintering habitat for juvenile salmonids. In autumn, spawning fish are transported past the dam, then, carcasses moved judiciously into the forest to provide nutrients for plants.  While hatcheries are controversial, the opportunity exists here to participate in the rearing of fish before enough habitat exists within the forest. Carpentry and maintenance help is performed at the permaculture site. Calling Two:Streamkeeping59JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterStreamkeepingTransport Fish Upstreamof DamMove FishCarcasses to ForestDig PoolsFish LadderConstructionMove LogsTransplantShrubsPropagateShrubsCarpentry& MaintenanceWhen Shedule AllowsSalmonHatcheryCoho SpawningChum SpawningPinkSpawningReleasePinkReleaseChumRelease CohoSchedule and Responsibilities6061In Summer ...62Rocks are moved towards the banks and small pools dug by hand. Densely planted trees are felled and placed as weirs which slow and retain the flow, creating year-round aquatic habitat. Many streams and watercourses are eroded, devoid of vegetation and lacking slow moving pools. Storm surges scour out these channels, a legacy of industrial logging and roadbuilding here. Stage 1Existing Condition63Overhanging shrubs and decidous trees provide food for salmonids in the form of invertebrates falling into the water. Where the stream meets the river a larger pool is created. Large woody debris is placed at the sides of the pools and a diversity of vegetation transplanted from surrounding areas. The monoculture plantation is thinned streamside. Future ConditionStage 2Processes and Implementation64Figure 33: This conceptual diagram illustrates in plan view the possible implementation of off-channel aquatic habitat.  This takes the form of manually dug rows of pools as side channels parallel to the main flow on the the river floodplain. Figure 31: The past approach to creating off-channel juvenile salmon habitat on the site carries a prohibitory cost and environmental impact.  Figure 32: Dispersed methods of manual labour provide an experiential connection to the land and are without large inputs of petrochemical energy.  These methods may be applied to streams as seen on the previous page, or for creating off-channel habitat near the Seymour River, as described below.side channel and poolsside channel and poolsSeymour River65Diagrams and ToolsFigure 34: The students in this calling employ these tools in their work.spadeaxe shovelhatchetrakewedges levers bow saw pruning saw files6667Streams in Recovering Forests Near Floodplain6869Area of Operations7071100 m of stream per student annually.Two pools are excavated, and large woody debris adds aquatic habitat. Repeat after ten years. Example Area7273PhasingExisting ConditionFigure 38: An example eroded stream site within a tree plantation, 3:1 slope. 74PhasingIntervention BeginsFigure 39: The wall tent is placed, the bank is cut back and a log and stone weir creates a pool. Shrubs are planted poolside. 75PhasingFuture ConditionFigure 40: Pool area is increased and more shrubs planted to bring invertebrate life closer to the stream. The tent moves further along. 76JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterMushroomCultivationHarvestAutumnMushroomsHarvestSpringMushroomsCultivateMycelliumIndoorsSelectTreesProcessTrees FellTreesSoak LogsMove LogsCut LogsInoculateBeekeepingWeeklyInspectionProvide Early NectarSourceWeeklyInspectionExcludeQueenHarvestHoneyWeaving& BasketryCut WillowsDry & StoreRehydrateWeaveThe Mushroom Cultivation Calling focuses on the propagation and production of edible food mushrooms within the wholistic systems of the forest. Primary responsibilities are shown on the schedule to the right, beginning with seeking and harvesting autumn fruiting mushrooms. Through the winter, the student labour contributes to amplifying a dependable and repeating source of this food. Underground, the mycelial network of fungi is enhanced, bringing benefits of symbiosis and connection between plants in the forest. In the summer when most mushrooms are dormant, students participate in the art of weaving and basketry which provides beautifully functional objects for their community. This coincides also with the annual cycle for the care and responsibility of beekeeping. Calling Three:Mushroom Cultivation77JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterMushroomCultivationHarvestAutumnMushroomsHarvestSpringMushroomsCultivateMycelliumIndoorsSelectTreesProcessTrees FellTreesSoak LogsMove LogsCut LogsInoculateBeekeepingWeeklyInspectionProvide Early NectarSourceWeeklyInspectionExcludeQueenHarvestHoneyWeaving& BasketryCut WillowsDry & StoreRehydrateWeaveSchedule and Responsibilities7879In Spring ...80Stage 1Existing ConditionRed alder grows quickly for twenty years, then slowing substantially. A student selects, fells, and processes 80 medium-sized trees annually. Short logs are cut, then soaked streamside. Large groves of red alder (Alnus rubra) grow on areas of gravelly soil and recent disturbance within the valley including lowlands near the river floodplain and former industrial and extractive sites.81Future ConditionStage 2Mushrooms fruit on the logs for ten years. As alder and its symbiotic root nodes of nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria enrich soil, the forest is likewise nourished by the spent mushroom logs. After soaking for one week, the logs are drilled and fitted with dowel plugs containing the living mycelium, or roots, of edible fungi. After this inoculation, logs are stood upright in the forest. Processes and Implementation82Figure 44: This mushroom grows in groups, in a shelf-like form on dead hardwoods including cottonwood, willow, alder, aspen, and cherry. In cool weather, spring and fall, it fruits. As an example, it is delicious and easily cultivated, though there are many other species to choose from including shiitake and lion’s mane. Oyster MushroomPleurotus ostreatus83sterile glass jarthreaded ringlid with holeclothtablespoonmycellium (mushroom roots) have eaten grains and cover them in tendrilsFigure 45: The steps required to cultivate this mushroom.1. harvest mushroom4. place in cool shaded   area for 2-3 weeks7. drill holes in logs     every 20 cm5. inoculate hardwood       dowels with mycellium8. insert dowels 9. tap down dowels to     fill holes completely6. place in cool shaded    area for 2-3 weeks10. cover all dowels with beeswax2. slice a segment through      stalk inculding gillsclosed with cloth under hole in liddowels harbouring mycellium throughoutmushroom slice30 mm8 mm dia.2-3 mm thick3. sterilize whole grain growing         medium in a glass jar20 min.soaked hardwood dowelsdouble boilerbeeswaxbeeswaxdowel with mycelliumalder logDiagrams and Tools8485Deciduous Trees and Forest Disturbance8687Area of Operations88 N020 m contours25  50 m89N020 m contours25  50 m200,000 m2 per student.Coniferous trees are illustrated in grey.Decidous in white. Half of the decidous trees are harvested through a 20 year rotation. Example Area90916400 m2 annual area for felling 80 deciduous trees. This example contains the cabin and the log soaking pool, subsequent years of labour will reach outward. Example Area Detail9293PhasingExisting ConditionFigure 50: An example site of primarily decidous forest, including a small stream. 94PhasingIntervention BeginsFigure 51: The cabin is sited and built, and alder trees are in all stages of being felled, soaked, and inoculated. 95PhasingFuture ConditionFigure 52: Clearings made previously are regrowing with basal shoots from alder roots turning into young saplings. The cycle continues. 96JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterVegetableCultivationHarvestVegetablesMulchCut TreesPreparePlanting BedsPlantSeedsPlantSeedsStartSeedsIndoorsWeed& ThinWeed & ThinHarvestGreensHarvestGreensStakeMulchWaterStoreVegetablesTransplantPoultry-keepingVegetation & InvertebrateManagementHigher Input FeedingCarpentry& MaintenanceWhen Schedule AllowsThe Permaculture Calling is focused on the production of food for sharing within the community of students, through adapting sustainable agricultural processes to the aesthetic and ecological needs of the forest. The cycle of vegetable cultivation, as shown on the right, continues year-round. There is an opportunity each winter, while birds do not nest in trees, to expand the space of each permaculture site outward into the surrounding forest. Following this, the work of tending the soil and plants begins. Poultry-keeping provides a foil for the slow life of the plants, while creating an additional source of food, and nutrients for the soil. The birds may be employed to manage unwanted vegetation and insects. When time allows, carpentry and maintenance may be practiced from this stationary site in the forest.Calling Four:Permaculture97JJAMSAONDJFMSpring SummerAutumnWinterVegetableCultivationHarvestVegetablesMulchCut TreesPreparePlanting BedsPlantSeedsPlantSeedsStartSeedsIndoorsWeed& ThinWeed & ThinHarvestGreensHarvestGreensStakeMulchWaterStoreVegetablesTransplantPoultry-keepingVegetation & InvertebrateManagementHigher Input FeedingCarpentry& MaintenanceWhen Schedule AllowsSchedule and Responsibilities9899In Summer ...100The site is selected on an area of monoculture tree plantation, where the dense canopy, designed for efficiency, precludes understory plants and ecological diversity at ground level. To make space to cultivate food, plantation trees are felled near ground level. Branches are removed and set aside while the trunks are cut into short logs, easy to move around the site. Stage 1Existing Condition101Logs are arranged end to end in rows, across the slope, with stumps in line retaining the logs. Branches are arched atop. Soil excavated between rows completes the linear mounds. Like a nurse log in the forest, dead wood here soaks up water collecting between mounds during the rainy season and releases it slowly to nourish the edible plants cultivated on top. Future ConditionStage 2Processes and Implementation102Figure 56: The composition of a hügelkultur (mound culture) garden bed is shown in detail, both in construction and growing phases.topsoil placed in thin layerbranches arched over top of wooddead, rotting wood, full of moisturefreshly cut wood laid upslope of stumpremove bark from stumpstump retains other wood on slopeswale directs surface flow into spongy, dead woodwood chips on path surfacesaladgreenskalegarliconionsbeetscarrotstomatoesstrawberriesSHADED      BRIGHT103Figure 57: The students in this calling employ the above tools in their work. Diagrams and Toolsaxespadehatchetshovel digging forkbow sawrakepruning sawhoefiles trowel furrows104Level GroundWinter Solstice: 82 m shadow, sun is 17° above the horizon at noon Winter Solstice: 46 m shadow, sun is 17° above the horizon at noonWinter Solstice: 39 m shadow, sun is 17° above the horizon at noon3:1 Southwest Slope3:1 South SlopeWWWSSSNNNEEE105DiagramsFigure 58: A typical 25 m tall plantation tree casts a long shadow on level ground. This will have a negative effect on soil temperature and viability of vegetable cultivation here. Figure 59: The effect of shadow, especially in the darker months, is decreased almost by half when the site is located on a 3:1 southwest or southeast slope. Figure 60: While a 3:1 south slope is less common than one to the southwest or southeast in the Seymour Valley, the shadow cast by plantation trees is slightly shorter. Spring Equinox: 29 m shadow, sun is 41° above the horizon at noonSpring Equinox: 22 m shadow, sun is 41° above the horizon at noonSpring Equinox: 20 m shadow, sun is 41° above the horizon at noon106107Winter Solstice Solar Exposure108109Spring Equinox Solar Exposure110111Suitable Slope and Sunlight in Areas of Low Sensitivity112113Area of Operations1141156000 m2 per student.Food for four is produced  and shared here.Communal dining space is included in this cabin.1:3 population ratio to students in other callings. Example Area116117PhasingExisting ConditionFigure 66: An example tree plantation site, nearly 40 years old, on a 3:1 southeast slope.118PhasingIntervention BeginsFigure 67: The cabin with communal dining area is sited and built, several garden beds are operational, and felling and building continues.119PhasingFuture ConditionFigure 68: More hügelkultur beds are operational and felling and contruction operations continue. 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