UBC Graduate Research

Unplanned : Urban Heterotopias Puente Flores, Valia F. 2020-04

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IValia F. Puente FloresB. Environmental Design, UBC, 2017Committee:Bill PechetThena TakFernanda HannahSubmitted in partial fulfillment of  the requirements for the degree ofMaster of  ArchitectureIn The Faculty of  Graduate Studies, School of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramThe University of  British Columbia April 2020©UnplannedUrban Heterotopiasii iiiAbstractThe first impression one gets from walking through the commercial streets of  Vancouver is that their sole purpose is that of  transition and consumption, a result of  their embedded prescriptiveness and predictability. A closer inspection, however, reveals spaces that escape this rigid logic. These places are often overlooked and undervalued, but they offer a moment of  respite and promote the latency of  the imagination.iv vThe RippleThe UnplannedThe PlannedThe SignifierThe LocationThe InventoryThe HeterotopiasEndnotesBibliography02040608101779152154ContentsList of  FiguresFig. 1. Ripple  02Fig. 2. Variation  04Fig. 3. Grid  06Fig. 4. Street  08Fig. 5. City of  Vancouver 10Fig. 6. Zoning  12Fig. 7. Users  14Fig. 8. City of  Vancouver - Streets Analyzed  17Fig. 9. Public Realm - Main Street 19Fig. 10. Current Efforts - Main Street 20Fig. 11. Streetscape - Main Street 21Fig. 12. Section and Plan (Move) - Main Street 22Fig. 13. Photographs (Move) - Main Street 23Fig. 14. Section and Plan (Stay) - Main Street 24Fig. 15. Photographs (Stay) - Main Street 25Fig. 16. Section and Plan (Consume) - Main Street 26Fig. 17. Photographs (Consume) - Main Street 27Fig. 18. Section and Plan (Generate) - Main Street 28Fig. 19. Photographs (Generate) - Main Street 29Fig. 20. Public Realm - Commercial Drive 31Fig. 21. Current Efforts - Commercial Drive 32Fig. 22. Streetscape - Commercial Drive 33Fig. 23. Section and Plan (Move) - Commercial Drive 34Fig. 24. Photographs (Move) - Commercial Drive 35Fig. 25. Section and Plan (Stay) - Commercial Drive 36Fig. 26. Photographs (Stay) - Commercial Drive 37Fig. 27. Section and Plan (Consume) - Commercial Drive 38Fig. 28. Photographs (Consume) - Commercial Drive 39Fig. 29. Section and Plan (Generate) - Commercial Drive 40Fig. 30. Photographs (Generate) - Commercial Drive 41Fig. 31. Public Realm - West Broadway 43Fig. 32. Current Efforts - West Broadway 44Fig. 33. Streetscape - West Broadway 45Fig. 34. Section and Plan (Move) - West Broadway 46Fig. 35. Photographs (Move) - West Broadway 47Fig. 36. Section and Plan (Stay) - West Broadway 48Fig. 37. Photographs (Stay) - West Broadway 49Fig. 38. Section and Plan (Consume) - West Broadway 50Fig. 39. Photographs (Consume) - West Broadway 51Fig. 40. Section and Plan (Generate) - Commercial Drive 52Fig. 41. Photographs (Generate) - Commercial Drive 53Fig. 42. Public Realm - West 4th Avenue 55Fig. 43. Current Efforts - West 4th Avenue 56Fig. 44. Streetscape - West 4th Avenue 57Fig. 45. Section and Plan (Move) - West 4th Avenue 58Fig. 46. Photographs (Move) - West 4th Avenue 59Fig. 47. Section and Plan (Stay) - West 4th Avenue 60Fig. 48. Photographs (Stay) - West 4th Avenue 61Fig. 49. Section and Plan (Consume) - West 4th Avenue 62Fig. 50. Photographs (Consume) - West 4th Avenue 63Fig. 51. Section and Plan (Generate) - West 4th Avenue 64Fig. 52. Photographs (Generate) - West 4th Avenue 65Fig. 53. Public Realm - Cambie Street 67Fig. 54. Current Efforts - Cambie Street 68Fig. 55. Streetscape - Cambie Street 69Fig. 56. Section and Plan (Move) - Cambie Street 70Fig. 57. Photographs (Move) - Cambie Street 71Fig. 58. Section and Plan (Stay) - Cambie Street 72Fig. 59. Photographs (Stay) - Cambie Street 73Fig. 60. Section and Plan (Consume) - Cambie Street 74Fig. 61. Photographs (Consume) - Cambie Street 75Fig. 62. Section and Plan (Generate) - Cambie Street 76Fig. 63. Photographs (Generate) - Cambie Street 77Fig. 64. City of  Vancouver - Main Street 79Fig. 65. Main Street 80Fig. 66. Main Street - Splits 81Fig. 67. Ruptures  82Fig. 68. Split 1-4  83Fig. 69. Split 5-8  84Fig. 70. Website - https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/ 85Fig. 71. Split One  87Fig. 72. Split One - Map 88vi viiFiguresFig. 73. Split One - Context 89Fig. 74. Split One - Photographs 90Fig. 75. Split One - Elements 91Fig. 76. Split One - Portrait 92Fig. 77. Split Two  95Fig. 78. Split Two - Map 96Fig. 79. Split Two - Context 97Fig. 80. Split Two - Photographs 98Fig. 81. Split Two - Elements 99Fig. 82. Split Two - Portrait 100Fig. 83. Split Three 103Fig. 84. Split Three - Map 104Fig. 85. Split Three - Context 105Fig. 86. Split Three - Photographs 106Fig. 87. Split Three - Elements 107Fig. 88. Split Three - Portrait 108Fig. 89. Split Four  111Fig. 90. Split Four - Map 112Fig. 91. Split Four - Context 113Fig. 92. Split Four - Photographs 114Fig. 93. Split Four - Elements 115Fig. 94. Split Four - Portrait 116Fig. 95. Split Five  119Fig. 96. Split Five - Map 120Fig. 97. Split Five - Context 121Fig. 98. Split Five - Photographs 122Fig. 99. Split Five - Elements 123Fig. 100. Split Five - Portrait 124Fig. 101. Split Six  127Fig. 102. Split Six - Map 128Fig. 103. Split Six - Context 129Fig. 104. Split Six - Photographs 130Fig. 105. Split Six - Elements 131Fig. 106. Split Six - Portrait 132Fig. 107. Split Seven 135Fig. 108. Split Seven - Map 136Fig. 109. Split Seven - Context 137Fig. 110. Split Seven - Photographs 138Fig. 111. Split Seven - Elements 139Fig. 112. Split Seven - Portrait 140Fig. 113. Split Eight 143Fig. 114. Split Eight - Map 144Fig. 115. Split Eight - Context 145Fig. 116. Split Eight - Photographs 146Fig. 117. Split Eight - Elements 147Fig. 118. Split Eight - Portrait 148viii ixx xiA mis padres,Por su cariño y apoyo incondicional. Gracias, les debo todo, sin deberles nada.Luis Puente,Por ser mi gran mentor, continua inspiración y el mejor compañero de aventuras. |“Creo que no nos quedamos ciegos, creo que estamos ciegos, Ciegos que ven, Ciegos que, viendo, no ven”   José Saramagoxii xiiiAcknowledgmentsA special thanks to, Sarah,  For your compatible awkwardness and always being there. Emily,  For your infectious optimism and selflessness. Hussam,  For the laughter, unparalleled perceptiveness and kindness.  Vince,  For sharing movies, endless references and all your support. Zeke,    For the great conversations and entertaining intuitiveness. Luis,  For your wit and refreshing candor. Arnold.  For your guidance and company over tacos. Kusaka,  For being a great partner, and better friend.                  This is too cheesy, but this year wouldn’t have been great without you.Bill Pechet, thank you for the dedication and encouragement, and fueling my ideas; always seeing the possibilities of  this project in my times of  uncertainty.Thena Tak, for showing me to adapt an alter ego and for all your support and guidance.Fernanda Hanna, gracias por tus consejos y amistad.To my friends at SALA, for the Good Times.xivUnplannedUrban Heterotopias2 3The knowledge gathered can offer a new way of  looking at the streets and the value of  unplanned spaces. Streets have an impact and effect on urban communities, their widths and arrangements, their edges and lighting; they can create a number of  ways for the public to engage.  Streets should be more flexible, allowing more interpretation from its users. We are meant to interact and navigate with spaces in a way that is unique to each others’ experiences. It is a challenge to redesign North American cities as they have been developed for the vehicle, but we can re-imagine how streets in Vancouver are thought of  and designed through the analysis of  its current conditions. By rethinking these conditions, we can challenge the cities inherited from the modernists, where spaces were designed to maximize efficiency and utility without regard for its users. For example, Le Corbusier’s Radiant City model, the automobile city, the North American suburbs, and other similar environments; these models proposed dramatic changes, concentrated on new buildings and movement, avoiding streets as urban living spaces.Taking standard streets in Vancouver, studying its well known commercial streets and concluding that their use is mainly for circulation and consumption can comment on what exactly makes a thriving street in this city. Even though the street is a public space, the existing infrastructure does not offer more than a transitory and utility space. The majority of  the city’s streets are focused on efficiency, order and displacement. Although streets should provide efficiency, it does have drawbacks in the urban experience. People are less exposed to chance or trying new things; behaviour becomes planned such that there are no discoveries or surprises. Chance can lead to new behaviours, new patterns, new ideas and structures. It can change behaviour and respond to context and moments. “Accidentally discovering something wonderful in the course of  a search for something unrelated.”02 This lead to the discovery of  Spltis.Streets make up the city’s main public realm, while one can find plazas and squares in Canadian cities, the use patterns, lack of  density and, to some extent, the weather renders them less vital, making streets and sidewalks the urban living room. For this reason, many have written on the importance of  creating successful city streets, capable of  hosting diversity and sociability, places to gather, play, consume, interact, spaces to foster a community. Nevertheless, most streets in Canada and the United States continue to be defined as corridors, meant to move people in the most efficient way with their standard streetscapes, defined by roads, buffer streets, and generic setbacks mainly focused on the flow of  goods and people rather than on creating spaces which can promote latency of  the imagination. There is a strictness on how the city allows streets to be used by individuals.  Gathering information on the streets of  Vancouver can lead to an understanding of  the homogeneity and lack of  activation of  sidewalks. Currently, Vancouver is focused on its downtown area as the place for people to encounter a more pedestrian centred experience. However, downtown’s population is one-sixth of  Vancouver’s population, and the entire city is composed of  streets.01 The RippleFig. 1. RippleThe Neighbourhood Catalysts of  Chance The Intersection The StreetThe ComponentsGP2The Edges The Users The Infrastructure The Scales The Location 4 5 “Active chance...accepts the aleatory as a critical part of  all architecture, irrespective of  place, period and style. It asks how buildings and places perform in time and society, rather than how they are as objects. This is a social kind of  chance, underlined by non-finality and the possibilities of  co-making. It values the inhabitants of  architecture as co-designers and generally accepts all performative expressions of  everyday chance.”03  The exploration of  the unplanned is a route to be explored when observing sidewalks as spaces of  imagination. The way inhabitants experience the city is not prescribed; it is defined differently by each individual. The encounter of  people, places, structures, moments cannot be planned. It is in these encounters that people can find the unexpected and can pursue life without an agenda. While streets are consistently designed as circulation ducts of  the city, streets can be rethought as destinations, as spaces to encounter unexpected moments. Bernard Tschumi advocates for unplanned situations; the role of  the event in experiencing the city as encounters that surpass the limits of  form, events that are not designed, and result as one experiences space.The Unplanned “He argues that there is no cause-and-effect link between form and function because the actions and events that take place in cities and buildings are unpredictable, contradictory, conjoined and disjoined simultaneously.”04   Architectures’, and correspondingly streets’ fundamental disjunction between space and use, induces instability; these two oppose and exclude each other05, generating opportunities for a variation of  the two to occur. The existing conditions of  streets are systematic and reject the unpredictability of  public life. Public space offers fixed functions in conditioned spaces where certain things are tolerated and others prohibited, the freedom public space offers is limited to the organization of  society imposed by institutions. Activists such as the Situationists believed temporary actions in the public realm were evidence of  freedom; however, even they abandoned these notions as it became clear that spontaneous acts in the city could not alter society06. These acts served to challenge the rules but could not alter the foundations of  society. The discovery of  spaces with unscripted use and interpretation can begin to offer respite from the prescriptiveness of  the urban fabric. Fig. 2. Variation6 7 “The ideology of  the modern, cleaned up, tidied, standardized city, had produced just the opposite, a chaotic, confused and totally degenerate urban sprawl that nobody cares for anymore because it has become totally run-down and hopelessly decayed.”07  The city’s needs are far more complex than designing carefully curated plans around mobilizing its inhabitants. Jane Jacobs, in the 1960s, emphasized the economic and social concerns surrounding cities and how planners response to solving city problems lied on solving problems relating to traffic as it is, in fact, easier to understand and satisfy the needs of  vehicles than those of  the public.08 These ideas from the 1960s are still being carried out. It is not just planners and figures in power responsibility to understand and encourage the needs of  a city beyond circulation, but of  all its inhabitants. Everyone is an active participant in the life of  the streets.The plan, for Le Corbusier, was a tool to shape space, understood through mass and surface.09 Earlier architecture attempted to slow down time through spatial considerations such as courtyards and enclosed squares; in contrast, the modernists pursued speed and movement, resulting in functional programming. The PlannedThis functional planning shaped the city, with its four functions being residence, work, leisure and transportation. This organization of  the city attempted to divide time into these particular functions, segregating spaces for each function: a house, an office, a road, but leisure remained amorphous, no specific space or time allocated for the spontaneous, for the unplanned. “Activities that did not fit the clearly defined categories of  work-rest patterns, which in turn had been consolidated in land use patterns, would be a major challenge to the functionalist desire for order and clarity.”10  It is in these activities that spaces and behaviour should dissolve the separations of  functional programming and the isolation of  public and private. For the Situationists, the notion of  derive meant to drop the agenda of  movement and functions, and instead be drawn by attractions and the spontaneous encounters.11 Capital and bureaucracy will no longer drive urban dynamics; instead will be driven by the publics’ participation.12 Fig. 3. Grid8 9 “There have been times when streets were a primary focus of  city buildings- streets rather than individual buildings. On such streets, the facades of  most structures are hardly seen, so it is the street, not the individual buildings, that prevails.”13  Streets’ purpose is to attract people to act and interact with space, their functions go beyond transitional corridors, carrying vehicles and pedestrians. Instead, they generate socialization and the participation of  its inhabitants, serving as destinations for expression.14 It is challenging to design streets, and even though the physical characteristics of  streets do not often prevail in what makes them successful, these pieces are still essential to determine what could attract and please the public. Seemingly banal considerations such as the widths of  the streets, placement and distance of  benches and trees matter, people will enjoy certain streets over others, for their physical characteristics and experiences that can be found, whether calming or active.15Streets allow for different people to be present at different times, performing distinct activities. Although they are not spatially flexible, they become places of  movement, housing people who may decide to stay longer or pass through. The Signifier“But those who are involved eventually move on to other places and activities, in turn, replaced by others, who may have equal claim to presence in the public environment.”16 Streets are diverse spaces and should adapt to the continually changing expressions of  the public. The right to the city and inherently the streets is an empty signifier; this right is dependent on who gets to claim the space, developers or the homeless have an equal right to the city, the question that must be confronted is that of  whose rights are being recognized17.Temporariness has emerged as a response to the failure of  public space and the city to respond to the myriad of  social, economic and environmental crises that are taking place in cities. These design efforts have been praised for their potential to generate leisure, culture, trade or tourism; however, they have also been condemned for their “role in economic growth agendas, place-marketing discourse and displacement.”18 Fig. 4. Street10 11Vancouver, designed around the modernist planning model, in its time, did not encourage unpredictability and the encountering of  people on streets, instead focused on the separation of  people and buildings, creating efficient roads for vehicle circulation. “They seem to have forgotten that communities are not made in automobiles, nor are people directly encountered.”19 Presently, with the increased support of  public life, the City of  Vancouver has created a series of  initiatives to improve public space. However, most are centred to Downtown’s public space, with reports like Gehl’s Public Space and Public Life Study- Downtown, the city demonstrates where the focus on public life lies. Vancouver’s downtown area is ~20 times less than the rest of  Vancouver. While density numbers Downtown are higher than the rest of  Vancouver, the city needs to consider public life in all of  Vancouver, as these spaces create community. This sentiment should resonate in all neighbourhoods. Walkability in Vancouver is 40%, and 56% in the Downtown area, improving streets and the inclusion of  a variety of  public spaces make a difference in citizens’ participation with the urban fabric. The LocationThe development of  large plazas and squares can be limiting. However, if  streets can be re-imagined as public destinations, rather than corridors, then the city can create a network of  accessible, social public spaces in an already existing infrastructure of  the public realm that takes up one-third of  the city. Every community has the right to public space that is not generic.  Vancouver has a reputation of  being lonely, unfriendly and boring, with articles such as Vancouverites share their stories of loneliness from CBC20, Have your say: Is isolation and loneliness the new normal in Vancouver? From Vancouver Courier21, Vancouver study: A city of loneliness and unfriendliness? - Top issues are isolation and disconnection from Straight22, to name a couple. However, paradoxically, Vancouver is often listed as one of  the best places to live, ranked most recently by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the sixth most livable city.23  Fig. 5. City of Vancouver12 13Development by-laws and zoning regulate Vancouver’s development and use of  land. Commercial zoning, in particular, is classified under zoning district C; the streets analyzed in this report belong to this zoning district. Commercial zoning is composed of  distinct classifications (c-1 to c-8); these particular streets are located in zones C-2, C-2B, C-2C, C-2C1 and C-3A, each with their guidelines and regulations. While most of  the commercial zoning is centred in the promotion of  providing a wide range of  goods and services, some are focused on the needs of  local neighbourhoods and nearby communities, while others provide services to the city and larger neighbourhoods. Main street, Commercial Drive and Cambie Village are zoned C-2C, this particular district encourages pedestrianization for the shopping area by limiting office use and providing a higher residential component.24 A closer look at zoning C-2C guidelines, which focuses on pedestrians, can comment on what the city believes makes an engaging pedestrian realm. Any changes to the street character of  C-2B and C-2C must enhance the appearance of  a shopping area; these features include storefront canopies, display windows, outdoor signage and individuality of  business character. The street level is composed of  retail shops, food services, and small neighbourhood businesses. Businesses and offices which do not contribute to the local community are avoided. The frontage of  the building is “... located out to the street property line to encourage continuous retail frontage, which is a benefit to both the pedestrian and merchant. Slight articulation of  the building facade may be permitted, including ground-level setbacks, if  street continuity is preserved and pedestrian amenity provided. Outdoor extensions of  cafes and restaurants are encouraged.”25 Mixed-Use development can increase its front setback on the ground level if  it creates a space to benefit pedestrians, such as a courtyard. Although these streets are for commercial use, these are some examples on how the guidelines for these zones are centred on the exchange of  goods and services and not providing a variety of  pedestrian experiences in streets which are part of  the public realm and as mentioned before should do more than facilitate circulation. Zoning has led to streets being defined as corridors enhancing the needs of  zoning districts and the creation of  analogous guidelines that lead to the loss of  neighbourhoods’ individuality, limiting the publics’ expression in public space. Fig. 6. Zoning14 15Streets are used by everyone and are used for much more than walking and consuming. However, the average street user is more often than not treated as a consumer, creating what seems like private outdoor strip malls, with their corridors enclosed by shop fronts. Streets are publicly owned spaces maintained by the city and heavily regulated and controlled, blurring the conception of  them as public. “Public spaces are a key element of  individual and social well-being, the places of  a community’s collective life, expressions of  the diversity of  their common, natural and cultural richness and a foundation of  their identity. The community recognizes itself  in its public spaces and pursues the improvement of  their spatial quality.”26 Users fill streets with a variety of  activities. City planners adapt standard guidelines (such as the Streetscape Design Guidelines), which lead to the atomization of  streets and the detachment of  individuals from their community. Instead, they need to observe the details of  everyday life eccentricity and the varied cultures and demographics that traverse streets and consider their uniqueness. Streets need to become forums for social exchange and expression, placemaking spaces. For the city of  Vancouver, the requirements for a great street are:     “visual and environmental enhancements, like street trees and boulevard gardens, inclusive elements that provide accessibility to everyone, high-quality solutions that last, from paving materials to street fixtures and amenities.”27 These requirements for a great street are focused on providing a green buffer, a circulation passage and fixtures. However, with streets comprising most of  the public realm, there is a necessity to provide opportunities for these spaces to enhance social well-being and interactions. Fig. 7. Users16 17Streets observed:Main Street, Commercial Drive, West Broadway, West 4th Avenue and Cambie StreetThe InventoryFig. 8. City of Vancouver - Streets Analyzed 18 19The Inventory operates as an investigation of  the main four elements that compose a street: Move, Stay, Consume and Generate The photographic documentation represents the austerity of  the streets, while providing samples of  positive spaces for the public realm.Main Street [Public Realm]Fig. 9. Public Realm - Main StreetPublic Gardening PotParkletParkletPublic Open SpaceNarrow Alley With PlantersPatch For PlantingPublic Table With SeatsPatios20 21Main Street [Current Efforts]Public Gardening PotPatiosParkletPublic Open SpaceParkletNarrow Alley PlantersMain Street [Streetscape]Road Buffer Setback Fig. 10. Current Efforts - Main Street Fig. 11. Streetscape - Main Street22 23Main Street [Move]Main Street [Move]Fig. 12. Section and Plan (Move) - Main Street Fig. 13. Photographs (Move) - Main Street24 25Main Street [Stay]Main Street [Stay]Fig. 14. Section and Plan (Stay) - Main Street Fig. 15. Photographs (Stay) - Main Street26 27Main Street [Consume]Main Street [Consume]Fig. 16. Section and Plan (Consume) - Main Street Fig. 17. Photographs (Consume) - Main Street28 29Main Street [Generate]Main Street [Generate]Fig. 18. Section and Plan (Generate) - Main Street Fig. 19. Photographs (Generate) - Main Street30 31Commercial Drive [Public Realm]Fig. 20. Public Realm - Commercial DriveStreet Turned Into Small PlazaNarrow Alley With MuralPublic Seating And Planting PatchesLarge MuralEngaging PavementAdorned Trees32 33Public Seating and Planting PatchesNarrow AlleyStreet Turned Into Small PlazaAdorned TreesLarge MuralEngaging PavementCommercial Drive [Current Efforts]Fig. 21. Current Efforts - Commercial DriveRoad Buffer Setback Commercial Drive[Streetscape]Fig. 22. Streetscape - Commercial DriveCommercial Drive[Move]Fig. 23. Section and Plan (Move) - Commercial DriveCommercial Drive[Move]Fig. 24. Photographs (Move) - Commercial Drive34 35Commercial Drive[Stay]Fig. 25. Section and Plan (Stay) - Commercial DriveCommercial Drive[Stay]Fig. 26. Photographs (Stay) - Commercial Drive36 37Commercial Drive[Consume]Fig. 27. Section and Plan (Consume) - Commercial DriveCommercial Drive[Consume]Fig. 28. Photographs (Consume) - Commercial Drive38 39Commercial Drive[Generate]Fig. 29. Section and Plan (Generate) - Commercial DriveCommercial Drive[Generate]Fig. 30. Photographs (Generate) - Commercial Drive40 4142 43West Broadway[Public Realm]Fig. 31. Public Realm - West Broadway44 45Plaza Leveled With SidewalkPatch for PlantingSmall Green Pocket with BenchesPublic SeatingPublic SeatingEntrance to Large CourtyardWest Broadway[Current Efforts]Fig. 32. Current Efforts - West BroadwayRoad Buffer Setback West Broadway[Streetscape]Fig. 33. Streetscape - West BroadwayWest Broadway[Move]Fig. 34. Section and Plan (Move) - West BroadwayWest Broadway[Move]Fig. 35. Photographs (Move) - West Broadway46 47West Broadway[Stay]Fig. 36. Section and Plan (Stay) - West BroadwayWest Broadway[Stay]Fig. 37. Photographs (Stay) - West Broadway48 49West Broadway[Consume]Fig. 38. Section and Plan (Consume) - West BroadwayWest Broadway[Consume]Fig. 39. Photographs (Consume) - West Broadway50 51West Broadway[Generate]Fig. 40. Section and Plan (Generate) - Commercial DriveWest Broadway[Generate]Fig. 41. Photographs (Generate) - Commercial Drive52 53West 4th Avenue[Public Realm]Fig. 42. Public Realm - West 4th Avenue54 55Mural Local Photographic MomentPublic ParkletPublic BenchesCommunity Garden to be DevelopedSmall Commercial Courtyard56 57Mural Public ParkletPublic Benches Commercial CourtyardCommunity GardenWest 4th Avenue[Current Efforts]Fig. 43. Current Efforts - West 4th AvenueRoad Buffer Setback West 4th Avenue[Streetscape]Fig. 44. Streetscape - West 4th AvenueWest 4th Avenue[Move]Fig. 45. Section and Plan (Move) - West 4th AvenueWest 4th Avenue[Move]Fig. 46. Photographs (Move) - West 4th Avenue58 59West 4th Avenue[Stay]Fig. 47. Section and Plan (Stay) - West 4th AvenueWest 4th Avenue[Stay]Fig. 48. Photographs (Stay) - West 4th Avenue60 61West 4th Avenue[Consume]Fig. 49. Section and Plan (Consume) - West 4th AvenueWest 4th Avenue[Consume]Fig. 50. Photographs (Consume) - West 4th Avenue62 63West 4th Avenue[Generate]Fig. 51. Section and Plan (Generate) - West 4th AvenueWest 4th Avenue[Generate]Fig. 52. Photographs (Generate) - West 4th Avenue64 65Cambie Street[Public Realm]Fig. 53. Public Realm - Cambie Street66 6768 69Public ArtPublic CourtyardPublic GardeningSemi-PrivateCourtyardCommunityGardenPublic Seating Cambie Street[Current Efforts]Fig. 54. Current Efforts - Cambie StreetRoad Buffer Setback Cambie Street[Streetscape]Fig. 55. Streetscape - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Move]Fig. 56. Section and Plan (Move) - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Move]Fig. 57. Photographs (Move) - Cambie Street70 71Cambie Street[Stay]Fig. 58. Section and Plan (Stay) - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Stay]Fig. 59. Photographs (Stay) - Cambie Street72 7374 75Cambie Street[Consume]Fig. 60. Section and Plan (Consume) - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Consume]Fig. 61. Photographs (Consume) - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Generate]Fig. 62. Section and Plan (Generate) - Cambie StreetCambie Street[Generate]Fig. 63. Photographs (Generate) - Cambie Street76 77The Heterotopias[Main Street - Splits]We walk through this city, where there are regulations, where design dictates the way we should behave, we tend to walk linearly from point A to point B where the uniformity of  commercial advertising and utilitarian infrastructure drowns our senses. We consequently move throughout the city without noticing its allure.Fig. 64. City of Vancouver - Main Street78 79Originally, I walked through Main Street with the intent of  finding places where we could insert moments of  surprise, for chance to be encouraged. After several strolls, I started noticing splits; narrow spaces that exist between two buildings within a single block.Fig. 65. Main StreetMain StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward Ave At first, I only noticed a few, but after several walks, I started noticing more, each different from the others. These spaces,  generally seen as empty, dirty, unproductive are actually spaces that offer respite from the prescribed streets. They break the predictability of  the retail strip, through their textures, uses, and incompleteness, while their emptiness promotes latency of  the imagination.28The interrelationship of  these concepts is what makes the gaps so valuable in understanding the undervalued conditions of  the city. By taking a closer look at their qualities one can discover the universe that exists inside these overlooked spaces. These often forgotten spaces loaded with memory exist outside the productive logic of  the city, serving as a rupture on the inscribed behaviour and infrastructure of  the urban fabric and commercial corridors. Fig. 66. Main Street - Splits80 81The role of  the designer is challenged, as they are often imposing order into unproductive spaces, filling voids to serve as rational and efficient spaces. These voids literally and metaphorically break the regularity of  the retail street wall. They become spaces that some people have discovered and appropriated in a number of  ways. Because of  their ambiguous boundaries it is Fig. 67. Rupturesdifficult to define their ownership and their use, therefore, their very vacancy allows them to be imbued with meaning. They are, as Foucault would argue, heterotopias.29 These spaces then become platforms for expression and discourse, respite, and temptation.The unplanned, banal, un-designed spaces that I noticed during my walks, offer ruptures from our over-regulated  urban fabric. In this project they are documented as one typology, analyzing how they differ in access, boundaries, and dimension. They are also explored  from within, demonstrating the importance and meaning behind these spaces to re-define them as valuable assets Fig. 68. Split 1-4to the civic identity of  Vancouver to complement the rest of  the city fabric, allowing for different ecosystems, uses, and interpretations.82 83The project is an objective and subjective study on the representation of  the undervalued and overlooked. The work becomes a record of  their existence in a particular moment in time as their fragility increases with the rise of  developments. Rather than the tendency of  trying to incorporate them into the productive logic of  the city, they should remain untouched, yet observed. Fig. 69. Split 5-8I’ve observed and surveyed eight splits. They all follow the same structure,  consisting of  four distinct mediums of  documentation: It begins with text, photography, and drawings for the objective documentation and ends with a short film for the subjective documentation. The change of  mediums allowed me to discover different ways of  looking at these spaces. A website was designed Fig. 70. Website - https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/as part of  the documentation; the website format recognizes an open endless possibility as one can continue to find and document these ruptures.84 85Split One[Forensic Data]Located on 2749 Main Street, between 12th and 11th ave. It is 1.5m in width and 22.6m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 4m in height with a stucco finish, and the southern wall is 7m in height with a brick pattern and stucco finish. It is blocked from both sides by doors; the back door has a gap to peek through. It is a flat site with stones, dirt and vegetation covering the ground.  Fig. 71. Split One86 87Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveMain StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit One[Map]Fig. 72. Split One - MapHome StoreMain Street and 12th2749 Property ownership. Built year 1910.2741 Built year 1977.1.5m Split - Fence Thrift StoreAntique StoreSplit One[Context]Fig. 73. Split One - Context88 89Split One[Photographs]Fig. 74. Split One - PhotographsSplit One[Elements]Fig. 75. Split One - Elements90 91Split One[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 76. Split One - Portrait92 93Split Two[Forensic Data]Located on 3223 Main Street, between 16th and 17th ave. It is 1.2m in width and 19m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 4m in height with a stucco finish, and graffiti scribbles and the southern wall is 7m in height with a brick pattern and stucco finish and large graffiti murals. It is blocked from the front by 1.2m in height fence with large openings and easily climbable. It is blocked from the back by a private yard fence. It is a flat site fully vegetated with ferns and weeds covering the ground. The site has graffiti cans left behind. Fig. 77. Split Two94 95Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Two[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 78. Split Two - MapSplit Two[Context]Main Street and 16th3223 Property ownership. Built year 1914.3245 Built year 1960.Antique StoreClothing StoreClothing Store1.2m Split - FenceMassage TherapyFig. 79. Split Two - Context96 97Split Two[Photographs]Fig. 80. Split Two - PhotographsSplit Two[Elements]Fig. 81. Split Two - Elements98 99Split Two[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 82. Split Two - Portrait100 101Split Three[Forensic Data]Located on 3634 Main Street, between 20th and 21st ave. It is 1.5m in width and 14m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 9m in height with a stucco finish, and graffiti scribbles and the southern wall is a 8m high brick wall. It is blocked from the front by a wood board used as a communication panel. It is blocked from the back by a private yard fence. There is no way to see inside. The shadows of  the southern building are projected on the norths’ building wall. Fig. 83. Split Three102 103Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Three[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 84. Split Three - MapSplit Three[Context]Main Street and 21st3634 Property ownership. Built year 1910.3626 Built year 1986.Store Parking Clothing StoreClothing Store1.5m Split - Wood BoardFig. 85. Split Three - Context104 105Split Three[Photographs]Fig. 86. Split Three - PhotographsSplit Three[Elements]Fig. 87. Split Three - Elements106 107Split Three[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 88. Split Three - Portrait108 109Split Four[Forensic Data]Located on 3740 Main Street, between 21st and 22nd ave. It is 1.4m in width and 22.5m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 6m in height with a stucco finish with graffiti and paint, and the southern wall is 5m in height with a corrugated steel sheet cladding. It is completely open from both sides and accessible for all.  It is a flat site with a pervious concrete ground. The site has seven planters, two windows looking in from the southern building and one from the northern building.Fig. 89. Split Four110 111Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Four[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 90. Split Four - MapSplit Four[Context]Main Street and 21st3634 Property ownership. Built year 1910.3626 Built year 1986.Music StoreClothing StoreClothing Store1.4m Split - OpenFig. 91. Split Four - Context112 113Split Four[Photographs]Fig. 92. Split Four - PhotographsSplit Four[Elements]Fig. 93. Split Four - Elements114 115Split Four[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 94. Split Four - Portrait116 117Split Five[Forensic Data]Located on 3917 Main Street, between 23rd and 24th ave. It is 0.7m in width and 15.5m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 4m in height with a stucco finish, and the southern wall is 3m in height with wood siding. It is blocked from the front by a wood board plastered with event posters. It is blocked from the back by a private yard fence. There is a 1m elevation change between the storefront and the split. The ground is covered with rocks, and there is a small shed between the wallsFig. 95. Split Five118 119Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Five[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 96. Split Five - MapSplit Five[Context]Main Street and 26th3917 Property ownership. Built year 1951.3957 Built year 1949.RestaurantClothing Store0.7m Split - Wood BoardVeteran BuildingFig. 97. Split Five - Context120 121Split Five[Photographs]Fig. 98. Split Five - PhotographsSplit Five[Elements]Fig. 99. Split Five - Elements122 123Split Five[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 100. Split Five - Portrait124 125Split Six[Forensic Data]Located on 4250 Main Street, between 27th and 28th ave. It is 0.85m in width and 21.5m in length. Two walls enclose the split, both the northern and southern walls are 4m in height with a textured stucco finish. It is blocked from the front by the continuation of  the northern building facade but can see through the grid screen. It is blocked from the back by a locked gate but can see through it. It is a flat site with a concrete ground. The site has tools and bins.Fig. 101. Split Six126 127Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Six[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 102. Split Six - MapSplit Six[Context]Main Street and 27th4250 Property ownership. Built year 1929.4260 Built year 1950.Restaurant.85m Split -  FacadeChiropracticRestaurantFig. 103. Split Six - Context128 129Split Six[Photographs]Fig. 104. Split Six - PhotographsSplit Six[Elements]Fig. 105. Split Six - Elements130 131Split Six[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 106. Split Six - Portrait132 133Split Seven[Forensic Data]Located on 4560 Main Street, between 29th and 30th ave. It is 0.7m in width and 19m in length. Two walls enclose the split; the northern wall is 6m in height with a brick pattern with a stucco finish, and the southern wall is 6m in height with wood panel cladding. It is blocked from the storefront by a wood frame with an advertisement, but accessible from the back. There is a 2m elevation change from the storefront but a flat site when the split is accessed. The ground is covered with rocks and dirt, while vegetation such as weeds and ferns have found a way to grow in these conditions.Fig. 107. Split Seven134 135Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Seven[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 108. Split Seven - MapSplit Seven[Context]Main Street and 29th4560 Property ownership. Built year 1947.4554 Built year 1985.Electronic StoreGift Company0.7m Split - BoardBike StoreFig. 109. Split Seven - Context136 137Split Seven[Photographs]Fig. 110. Split Seven - PhotographsSplit Seven[Elements]Fig. 111. Split Seven - Elements138 139Split Seven[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 112. Split Seven - Portrait140 141Split Eight[Forensic Data]Located on 4722 Main Street, between 30th and 32nd ave. It is 2m in width and 20m in length. Two walls enclose the split, the northern wall is 8m in height with a brick pattern and paint, and the southern wall is 8m in height with a stucco finish. It is blocked from the front by a 2.5m in height wall with paint and graffiti. It is blocked from the back by a private yard fence. It is a flat site. The shadows of  an adjacent tree are projected to the wall as a canvas.Fig. 113. Split Eight142 143Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveSplit Eight[Map]Main StreetE. Broadway33rd Ave32nd Ave32nd Ave30th Ave29th Ave28th Ave28th Ave27th Ave26th Ave26th Ave24th Ave24th Ave23rd Ave22nd Ave22nd Ave21st Ave21st Ave20th Ave20th Ave19th Ave19th Ave18th Ave18th Ave17th Ave16th Ave15th Ave14th Ave13th Ave12th Ave11th Ave10th AveKing Edward AveFig. 114. Split Eight - MapSplit Eight[Context]Main Street and 32nd4772 Property ownership. Built year 1947.4728 Built year 1974.Restaurant Salon Sport StoreFor lease 2m Gap - WallFig. 115. Split Eight - Context144 145Split Eight[Photographs]Fig. 116. Split Eight - PhotographsSplit Eight[Elements]Fig. 117. Split Eight - Elements146 147Split Eight[Portrait]https://splits-puente.squarespace.com/portraitsFig. 118. Split Eight - Portrait148 149SplitsI was attracted to these spaces because their presence offered a break from the prescriptive and commercial character of  the street.  I walked in the streets and discovered these anomalies which generated curiosity and imagination. They are imbued with meaning and occur as a series of  fortunate accidents in our urban fabric, not concerned with appearances, but illustrating the value of  the incomplete and incompatible in this city and documenting them not as residual but as an unexpected part of  our daily lives. 150 151152 153Endnotes01 Jan Gehl and the City of  Vancouver. Public Spaces Public Life. Places for people. 2017/18. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/places-for-people-downtown-public-space-public-life-summary-report.pdf.02 “Interactions.” The design of  serendipity is not by chance | ACM Interactions. Accessed October 8, 2019. https://interactions.acm.org/archive/view/september-october-2010/the-de-sign-of-serendipity-is-not-by-chance1.03 Manolopoulou, Yeoryia. Architectures of Chance. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.04 Yeoryia. Architectures of Chance. 05 Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.06 McDonough, Tom. Guy Debord and the Situationist International: Texts and Documents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 2002.07 Ungers, Oswald Mathias. Ungers, The Dialectic City. Milan: Skira editore, 1997.08 Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities: Orig. Publ. 1961. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.09 Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications. 1986.10 Madanipour, Ali. Cities in Time: Temporary Urbanism and the Future of the City. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.11 Coper, David, Gerardo Denis, Paul Hammond, Libero Andreotti, Xavier Costa, and Ramon Prat. Theory of  the dérive and Other Situationist Writings on the City. Barcelona: Museu dArt Contemporani, 1996.12 Sadler, Simon. Situationist City (Sadler). Cambridge (Massachusetts): MIT Press, 1998.13 Jacobs, Allan B. Great Streets. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013.14 Allan B. Great Streets. 15 Ali. Cities in Time: Temporary Urbanism and the Future of the City.16 Ali. Cities in Time: Temporary Urbanism and the Future of the City.17 Harvey, David. Rebel Cities: from the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London: Verso, 2012.18 “Unpacking and Challenging Habitus: An Approach to Temporary Urbanism as a Socially Engaged Practice.” Journal of  Urban Design 19, no. 4 (2014): 456–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2014.923743.19 Allan B. Great Streets. 20 “You’re Not Alone: Vancouverites Share Their Stories of  Loneliness | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, November 20, 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/you-re-not-alone-vancouverites-share-their-stories-of-loneliness-1.4913290.Endnotes21 “Have Your Say: Is Isolation and Loneliness the New Normal in Vancouver?” Vancouver Courier, April 13, 2019. https://www.vancourier.com/news/have-your-say-is-isolation-and-loneliness-the-new-normal-in-vancouver-1.23790849.22 “Vancouver Study: A City of  Loneliness and Unfriendliness?” The Georgia Straight, April 3, 2014. https://www.straight.com/news/vancouver-study-city-loneliness-and-unfriendliness.23 Shepert, Elana. “Vancouver Ranked Sixth Most Livable City in the World by the Economist.” Vancouver Courier, September 4, 2019. https://www.vancourier.com/news/vancouver-ranked-sixth-most-livable-city-in-the-world-by-the-economist-1.23935691.24 Vancouver, City of. “Zoning and Land Use Document Library.” City of  Vancouver. Accessed December 11, 2019. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/zoning-and-land-use-policies-document-library.aspx#regulation.25 City of  Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines: C-2B, C-2C AND C-2C1 Guidelines, City of  Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines: C-2B, C-2C AND C-2C1 Guidelines § (2015).26 “Charter of  Public Space - Inu.” Accessed December 11, 2019. http://www.inu.it/wp-content/uploads/Inglese_CHARTER_OF_PUBLIC_SPACE.pdf.27 Vancouver, City of. “Streets and Sidewalks That Create Vibrant Communities.” Streets and sidewalks | City of  Vancouver. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://vancouver.ca/streets-transportation/streets-and-sidewalks.aspx.28 Mariani, Manuela, and Patrick Barron. Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.29 Michel Foucault. Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. Architecture/Movement/Continuite. 1984.Bibliography Bibliography154 155 “Charter of  Public Space - Inu.” Accessed December 11, 2019. http://www.inu.it/wp-content/uploads/Inglese_CHARTER_OF_PUBLIC_SPACE.pdf. City of  Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines: C-2B, C-2C AND C-2C1 Guidelines, City of  Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines: C-2B, C-2C AND C-2C1 Guidelines § (2015). Coper, David, Gerardo Denis, Paul Hammond, Libero Andreotti, Xavier Costa, and Ramon Prat. Theory of  the dérive and Other Situationist Writings on the City. Barcelona: Museu dArt Contemporani, 1996. Harvey, David. Rebel Cities: from the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London: Verso, 2012.  Imai, Kesaharu. Pet Architecture Guide Book. World Photo Press, 2003. “Have Your Say: Is Isolation and Loneliness the New Normal in Vancouver?” Vancouver Courier, April 13, 2019. https://www.vancourier.com/news/have-your-say-is-isolation-and-loneliness-the-new-normal-in-vancouver-1.23790849.  “Interactions.” The design of  serendipity is not by chance | ACM Interactions. Accessed October 8, 2019. https://interactions.acm.org/archive/view/september-october-2010/the-design-of-serendipity-is-not-by-chance1. Jacobs, Allan B. Great Streets. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities: Orig. Publ. 1961. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Jan Gehl and the City of  Vancouver. Public Spaces Public Life. Places for people. 2017/18. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/places-for-people-downtown-public-space-public-life-summary-report.pdf. Johung, Jennifer. Replacing Home: from Primordial Hut to Digital Network in Contemporary Art. Two: Reusable Sites: Gordon Matta-Clark’s Fake Estates and the Odd Lots Exhibition. University of  Minnesota Press, 2012.  Kaijima, Momoyo, et al. Made in Tokyo. Kajima Institute Publishing Co., Ltd., 2018. Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications. 1986. Madanipour, Ali. Cities in Time: Temporary Urbanism and the Future of the City. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. Manolopoulou, Yeoryia. Architectures of Chance. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013. Mariani, Manuela, and Patrick Barron. Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.  Michel Foucault. Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. Architecture/Movement/Continuite. 1984. McDonough, Tom. Guy Debord and the Situationist International: Texts and Documents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 2002. Sadler, Simon. Situationist City (Sadler). Cambridge (Massachusetts): MIT Press, 1998. Shepert, Elana. “Vancouver Ranked Sixth Most Livable City in the World by the Economist.” Vancouver Courier, September 4, 2019. https://www.vancourier.com/news/vancouver-ranked-sixth-most-livable-city-in-the-world-by-the-economist-1.23935691. Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. Ungers, Oswald Mathias. Ungers, The Dialectic City. Milan: Skira editore, 1997. “Unpacking and Challenging Habitus: An Approach to Temporary Urbanism as a Socially Engaged Practice.” Journal of  Urban Design 19, no. 4 (2014): 456–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2014.923743. Vancouver, City of. “Streets and Sidewalks That Create Vibrant Communities.” Streets and sidewalks | City of  Vancouver. Accessed December 10, 2019. https://vancouver.ca/streets-transportation/streets-and-sidewalks.aspx. Vancouver, City of. “Zoning and Land Use Document Library.” City of  Vancouver. Accessed December 11, 2019. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/zoning-and-land-use-policies-document-library.aspx#regulation. “Vancouver Study: A City of  Loneliness and Unfriendliness?” The Georgia Straight, April 3, 2014. https://www.straight.com/news/vancouver-study-city-loneliness-and-unfriendliness. “You’re Not Alone: Vancouverites Share Their Stories of  Loneliness | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, November 20, 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/you-re-not-alone-vancouverites-share-their-stories-of-loneliness-1.4913290.

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