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Nocturne in Figments : A Cautionary Tale for Lost Sleep Wu, Sixue Amy 2020-05

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iiNocturne in Figments A Cautionary Tale for Lost Sleep by Sixue Amy Wu Honors Bachelor of  Science University of  Toronto 2015Advisor: Bill PechetCommittee: Nicolas Dagenais-LussierNiloufar Nelly Goodarzi Yan Luo Program Chair: Blair Satterfield Submitted in partial fulfillment of  the requirements for the degree of  Master of  Architecture in The Faculty of  Graduate Studies,School of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramThe University of  British ColumbiaMay 2020 © Sixue Amy Wu iiii. prelude                                                      on going to sleep“ I daresay you haven’t had much practice,” said the Queen. “When I was your age, I always did it for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.”-  Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland, 1865viabstract I could still remember waking up to Richard Sanderson’s Dreams are My Reality every Saturday morning playing on my dad’s Philips TDA 1541-DAC. Shifting between my own dreams and reality and in complete bliss, I had no concern for what was real and what was not. In those moments, I was perhaps fully experiencing what Bachelard and  other phenomenologists described as being in a transient space imbued with qualities that were thoroughly fantastical; a space where there was light and dark; “a space that could both flow like water and congeal like stone”...simultaneously (Bachelard, 6).  In the dream space, we consolidate our memories of  spaces and places we know (Bachelard, 6). In dream space our wildest imaginations become reality. In dream space, time is non-linear, sporadic, and leaves us with a confusing yet mesmerizing after-taste. In dream space, we are both deluded by what is real and what is not, and accepting of  perceptions and conceptions. In dream space, a parallel universe reveals more clearly about our inner most thoughts and feelings than any diary ever written. The project situates itself  in constant oscillation between work and rest. Why do we work? How much restful sleep is an ideal amount? Are we really in control of  our waking hours? Are we totally out of  control during our sleeping hours? Among many questions such as these, the project in its totality is a cautionary tale, a book within a book, a story of  a story about the way we sleep in our efficiency-obsessed, production-and-consumption-tethered, 24/7 world. “Dreams are my reality,The only kind of  real fantasyIllusions are a common thingI try to live in dreamsIt seems as if  it’s meant to be” - Richard Sanderson, Dreams are my Reality, 1980 viivii viiixi xiv2632363440444254607086164170sleeping across time bed typologiescircadian rhythmsii.   movement one: on space, time, and the bodyenvironmental conditionsbody and spaceritualizing sleepiv.   outro: on end matterworks citedtable of  contentsMovement I: The Corporationiii.   movement two: on the bedtime storyacknowledgment  i. prelude: on going to sleepabstracttable of  content and list of  figuresfunctions of  a bedimagine a 24/7 bedretreat, relax, get back to workdefinitions and instructionsMovement II: The NocturneMovement I: The Corporationviiilist of  figuresFig. 1 diagram of  various sleep cycles (cover page)Fig. 2 we spend nearly 1/3 of  our lives sleeping.Fig. 3 The Princess and the Pea,  Edmud Dulac, 1911Fig. 4 In Bed,  Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1893Fig. 5 Visit to the Sick, Tacuinum Sanitatis, 1390Fig. 6 A Maid Asleep, Johannes Vermeer, c.1656-57Fig. 7 The Artist’s Bedroom in Arles, Vincent van Gogh, 1888Fig. 9 bedFig. 10 bunk bedFig. 11 tatami roll up bedFig. 12 hybrid bedFig. 13 convertible bed Fig. 14 engulfed bedFig. 15 enclosed bedFig. 16 cooling bedFig. 17 heated bedFig. 18 women  in bed on phoneFig. 19 light pollution in Hong KongFig. 20 stages of  sleep diagramFig. 21 Uberman sleep cycle diagramFig. 22 various sleep cycle diagramFig. 23 sleep work diagramFig. 24 bodies superimposed on one anotherFig. 26 body morphologies during sleepFig. 26 Matisse at workFig. 27 Melinkov’s golden bedroom Fig. 28 the golden bedroom in color Fig. 29 Sonata of  SleepFig. 30 Dream House roomsFig. 31 Dream House  exteriorFig. 32 Dream House interiorFig. 33 Dream House roomFig. 34 dream suitsFig. 35 Bed-In for Peace, 1969Fig. 36 Work, Body, Leisure InstallationFig. 37 Sleeperie, LondonFig. 38 Nap-GapFig. 39 New CircadiaFig. 40 site Fig. 41 site (animated)Fig. 42 proposed Amazon east elevation (animated)Fig. 43 man at work (animated)Fig. 44 man at home (animated) Fig. 45 man with Peter and LillyFig. 46 man dreaming Fig. 47 materials found on rooftopFig. 48 Peter and Lilly painting materialsFig. 49 canary yellow boxFig. 50 canary yellow box interiorFig. 51 canary yellow box in scaffoldFig. 52 flamingo pink change room Fig. 53 flamingo pink change room interiorFig. 54 flamingo pink change room in scaffold Fig. 55 mint green toilet room Fig. 56 mint green toilet room interiorFig. 57 merged shower roomFig. 58 merged shower room interiorFig. 59 orange odd spaceFig. 60 man sitting inside orange odd spaceFig. 61 orange odd spaces in scaffold Fig. 62 corrugated cobalt blue dormFig. 63 corrugated cobalt blue dorm interiorFig. 64 half  transparent half  corrugated snack barFig. 65 half  transparent half  corrugated snack bar interiorFig. 66 snow white saunaFig. 67 snow white sauna interiorFig. 68 the glass cutterFig. 69 coral reading corridorFig. 70 coral reading corridor interiorFig. 71 view inside south scaffold Fig. 72 view looking at snack bar and reading corridor Fig. 73 view looking from grand staircase looking at The NocturneFig. 74 view inside orange odd spaces on north scaffoldFig. 75 man looking at his own reflection...he, too, was a rabbit-manFig. 76 view looking from rooftop courtyard to north facade Fig. 77 view from inside canary yellow boxFig. 78 upclose view of  north scaffoldFig. 79 south elevationFig. 80 north elevationFig. 81 west elevationFig. 82 east elevationFig. 83 section axo of  the resistance spreadingFig. 84 The Nocturne (animated)Fig. 85 man back at the officeFig. 86 was this a dream?Fig. 87 Arkwright’s Cotton Mills by Night, Joseph Wright, c. 1782ixxacknowledgments I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor Bill Pechet and my committee Nicolas Dagenais-Lussier, Nelly Goodarzi, and Yan Luo for their thoughtful insights and continuous support during the completion of  this project. I am indebted in all that they have taught me. To Kim, Heesuk, Kaiyu, Jerry, and Blaike for their unwavering encouragement that created an atmosphere in which all doubts and unclarity turned into moments for opportunities and further explorations. Thank you. And to all my friends whom over the past couple of  sleep-deprived years, have consistently inspired, stimulated, shaped my growth with their empathy and intelligence: Kim, Heesuk, Divine, Shaheed, Micah, Arnold, Lisa, Amy, Karen, and of  course many others. SALA wouldn’t have been the same without you. xixiiFor the world’s strongest, boldest, yet most gentle person...Lan. xiiidefinitionsnoc·turne/näktrn/nounIs a short composition of  a romantic or dreamy character suggestive of  night.Typically has an A-B-A cyclical structure where part A is repeated after part·ter·im·age/after imij/nounAn impression of  a vivid sensation (especially a visual image) retained after the stimulus has ceased.xiv* in special cases disregard all of  the above steps and read a boring bookinstructions for sleep Step 2. Lower the temperature of  your sleep space to the ideal 18°C (65 °F)Step 3.  Lie comfortably on a soft surface and take a deep breath         ...5...4...3...2...1hold your breath...5...4...3...2...1exhale...3...2...1Step 4. DreamPrepare your body for relaxation. Take a hot shower/bath, ritualize your pre-sleep routine. If  needed, find inspiration from examples like these: 1.xvxvi“ The study of  sleep is wonder; the study of  beds is fear.” -  Anthony Burgess, On Going to Bed , 1982, pg. 95xviixviiiFig. 2  We spend nearly 1/3 of  our lives sleepingSLEEPWORKxix“Nobody but a princess could be so delicate”-  Hans Christian Andersen, The Princess and the Pea, 1835xxFig. 3 Princess and the Pea,  Edmund Dulac, 1911xxiFig. 4 In Bed,  Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1893xxii“The original notion of  a bed was  something upon which to lie [horizontally] and rest.”-  Anthony Burges, On Going to Bed, 1982, pg. 28xxiii    ii. movement one                                                                                        on space, time, and the body    26    Beds in the ancient world were sophisticatedly engineered. In ancient Egypt, royalties’ beds were draped with mosquito nettings to protect them from unwanted pests; while commoners raised their beds as high as possible off  the ground to avoid crawling bugs. Raising the ‘sleeping condition’ from the ground plane was considered a major change in how our ancestors slept. Tectonically, it meant for a structure to be designed and built so that the body could be adequately supported through the course of  the night. It also meant that a form for the ‘bed’ began to take shape. No longer were people sleeping on top hay stacks that changed shape every time the body flipped to get in a comfortable position. As pragmatism began to emerge around the conversation of  sleep, the bed and the bedroom could not brush away from their weighted symbolism.  According to Greek researcher, Herodotus of  Halicarnassus (fifth century BCE) at the top of  the Tower of  Babel was a bedroom for gods to commune with an earthly maiden. This was known as the seventh room or “house of  bed.” (“The Tower of  Babel”).   sleeping across time ancient It was said that the primal bed took form of  a liquid (Terrence). Moses was reborn on the waters in a vessel that carried him onto shore, which symbolized the amniotic fluids in a mother’s womb that would flush the baby out into the world. Gently rocking baby Moses, the back and forth motion was later passed to all mothers, instinctually, for putting their most agitated child to sleep. (Burgess, 7-8, 14). The primal bed was a metaphorical one that suggested perhaps a newborn’s first bed was a cradle or a mother’s cradled arms that gently mimicked the rocking motion of  the waters. From here forward, beds took on a solid form.27The bed here not only had sexual connotations, but it also suggested that the room that held the bed was a secret chamber. It was a physical space that locked away our darkest secrets as humanity. Psychologically speaking, the bedroom was the most private room in a house, a reflection of  our inner most self  (Bachelard, 4).  On a lighter note, most beds and all bedding at the time were portable, could be carried from one location to the next easily, and often made of  wood. Saul ordered David’s bed to be carried up with David in it right before he slayed his son-in-law. Solomon had a bed carved from Cedar of  Lebanon, and Homer’s Odysseus slept in a bed carved intricately out of  the trunk of  an olive tree (Terrance).It has a solid central tower, one stadium square, with a second erected on top of  it and then a third, and so on up to eight. All eight towers can be climbed by a spiral way running round the outside, and about half  way up there are seats for those who make the ascent to rest on. On the summit of  the topmost tower stands a great temple with a fine large couch in it, richly covered, and a golden table beside it. The shrine contains no image, and no one spends the night there except (if  we may believe that Chaldaeans who are the priests of  Bêl) one Babylonian woman, all alone, whoever it may be that the god has chosen. The Chaldaeans also say -though I do not believe them- that the god enters the temple in person and takes his rest upon the bed.{{Herodotus, Histories 1.181-182; tr. Aubrey de Sélincourt}}“Rockabye baby on the tree-top. When the wind blows the cradle will rock”  - John Newbery, c. 176526   medieval Feudal beds existed in the same space for eating, bathing, and other domestic activities. There were no separate rooms for bathing and sleeping in commoners’ homes let alone in serfs’. Sleep was a  communal activity that happened around the fire, where families gathered in warmth. Only lords, their ladies, and the immediate family had dedicated rooms for sleep. Although sometimes, personal maids might have trundle beds underneath their master’s bed, a bedroom was still reserved for the wealthy (“Beds in Late Medieval and Tudor Times”). During this era, the sleep condition lowered back to the ground, sometimes in a form of  a simple blanket. As a symbol of  wealth, beds maintained its mobility and was a highly personal and valued object. Beds were disassembled when the lord left his castle and reassembled at the new destination, always traveling with its owner.   The bedroom served a different purpose during this time. As the most private room in a castle, it was also the safest. Lords and ladies would store their treasures here or host secret meetings. The bedroom was sometimes transformed into a meeting room where a right of  entry and a code of  conduct were strictly required. Fig. 5  Visit to the Sick, Tacuinum Sanitatis, 139027enlightenment Towards the end of  the Dark Ages, and as the middle class prospered, more and more people sought out comfort. Beds lifted once again from the ground, and were stuffed with soft materials such as feathers, wool, or straw. Pillows, originally thought to be used only by sick women, became a must-have item for a night of  restful sleep (“Beds in Late Medieval and Tudor Times”).  At the epitome of  luxury, King Louis XIV’s day began with the grand lever and ended with the grand coucher. The king’s bedtime ritual was regarded as a sacred ceremony that was performed twice a day, accommodated by a roomful of  onlookers. There were so many who wanted to view this daily act that the bedroom had a special extension with the enormous lit de parade as its centerpiece.In such a grand room, important meetings with the king’s Royal Council, in addition to sleep, were held here. However, the grand coucher had nothing to do with exhibiting the lavish bedtime routine or honoring the restorative value of  a good night’s sleep. It was highly political. Petty competitions among subordinates were common in the court, and the king deliberately encouraged them. The reason was for when the court spent their day competing for small honors, less time was spent on actual political issues! Fig. 6 A Maid Asleep, Johannes Vermeer, c.1656-57“Il fait caca dans sa chambre”  and moreover, used the curtains for wiping.- Ernst August, Elector of Hanover in a letter to his wife in 1712.28   victorian  During the prosperous Victorian era, machines for mass production of  goods led a surplus of  people packing into the overcrowded industrial city. Beds were once again shared by entire families rather than just by children. Wooden beds were replaced by metal beds, as hygiene and sanitation became a major concern against illness and disease.  Toward the early 20th century, dreams during sleep also became topics of  interest when publications by psychologists Sigmund Freud and later Carl Jung were widely distributed. Fig. 7  The Artist’s Bedroom in Arles, Vincent van Gogh, 188829“Night is a dead monotonous period under a roof: but in the open world it passes  lightly, with its stars and dews and perfumes, and the hours are marked by changes in the face of  Nature. What sees a kind of  temporal death to people choked between walls and curtains, is only a light and living slumber to the man who sleeps a-field...” -  Anthony Burges, On Going to Bed, 1982, pg. 2830   bed typologiesFig. 9 bed Fig. 10 bunk bedFig. 14 engulfed bed Fig. 15 enclosed bed Fig. 13 convertible bedFig. 11 roll-up bedEverybody body goes to bed. Each has their own preference.Here is an non-exhaustive list of  bed types: 152637311.  Bed (single, double, queen, king)2. Bunk bed3. Roll-up bed(air mattress/tatami bed)4. Hybrid bed (chair-bed)5. Convertible bed (sofa bed, Murphy bed)6. Engulfed bed (hammock)7. Enclosed bed (cradle, cot)8. Cooling bed (Charpai bed) 9. Heated bed (Kang bed)Fig. 16 cooling bed Fig. 17 heated bedFig. 12 hybrid bed48 932    Environmental conditions such as temperature, noise, light, bed comfort, and electronic distractions play a significant role in one’s ability to get proper sleep, and subsequently in overall well-being.  For example, a group of  researchers found in a recent study that adolescents with excessive exposure to electronics during the day experience trouble sleeping during the night. They reported that those who have television in their bedroom went to sleep at a later time than those without television in their bedroom (Shochat, Flint-Bretler, and Tzischinsky, 1396). Noise disturbances during sleep, whether it is traffic on a busy street or loud neighbors next door can have a significant impact on the quality of  sleep and sleep-wake behaviors. Research shows that high-noise sound can increase the frequency of  wakefulness during the night and increase cortisol secretions (stress). Long term implications of  sleep loss due to noise pollution include heart disease. Furthermore, researchers have found that intermittent noise disturbance is more harmful than continuous noise. The occasional and sudden honking during sleep can severely impact one’s mental and physical health.  The ideal sleeping condition is different for everyone, and the Internet is filled with endless lists of  tips and tricks for sleep-deprived individuals desperately trying to find a solution that avoids taking sleeping pills. Below is a sample 11-step remedy for the sleep-desperate:  environmental conditionsFig. 18 women  in bed on phoneFig. 19 light pollution in Hong Kong331. Stick to a sleep schedule of  the same bedtime and wake up time, even on the weekends. This helps to regulate your body’s clock and could help you fall asleep and stay asleep for the night.2. Practice a relaxing bedtime ritual. A relaxing, routine activity right before bedtime conducted away from bright lights helps separate your sleep time from activities that can cause excitement, stress or anxiety which can make it more difficult to fall asleep, get sound and deep sleep or remain asleep.(“Healthy Sleep Tips”)3.  If  you have trouble sleeping, avoid naps, especially in the afternoon. Power napping may help you get through the day, but if  you find that you can’t fall asleep at bedtime, eliminating even short catnaps may help.4. Exercise daily. Vigorous exercise is best, but even light exercise is better than no activity. Exercise at any time of  day, but not at the expense of  your sleep.5. Evaluate your room. Design your sleep environment to establish the conditions you need for sleep. Your bedroom should be cool – between 60 and 67 degrees. Your bedroom should also be free from any noise that can disturb your sleep. Finally, your bedroom should be free from any light. Check your room for noises or other distractions. This includes a bed partner’s sleep disruptions such as snoring. Consider using blackout curtains, eye shades, ear plugs, “white noise” machines, humidifiers, fans and other devices.6. Sleep on a comfortable mattress and pillows. Make sure your mattress is comfortable and supportive. The one you have been using for years may have exceeded its life expectancy – about 9 or 10 years for most good quality mattresses. Have comfortable pillows and make the room attractive and inviting for sleep but also free of  allergens that might affect you and objects that might cause you to slip or fall if  you have to get up during the night.8. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and heavy meals in the evening. Alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine can disrupt sleep. Eating big or spicy meals can cause discomfort from indigestion that can make it hard to sleep. If  you can, avoid eating large meals for two to three hours before bedtime. Try a light snack 45 minutes before bed if  you’re still hungry.9. Wind down. Your body needs time to shift into sleep mode, so spend the last hour before bed doing a calming activity such as reading. For some people, using an electronic device such as a laptop can make it hard to fall asleep, because the particular type of  light emanating from the screens of  these devices is activating to the brain. If  you have trouble sleeping, avoid electronics before bed or in the middle of  the night.10. If  you can’t sleep, go into another room and do something relaxing until you feel tired. It is best to take work materials, computers and televisions out of  the sleeping environment. Use your bed only for sleep and sex to strengthen the association between bed and sleep. If  you associate a particular activity or item with anxiety about sleeping, omit it from your bedtime routine.11. If  you’re still having trouble sleeping, don’t hesitate to speak with your doctor or to find a sleep professional. You may also benefit from recording your sleep in a Sleep Diary to help you better evaluate common patterns or issues you may see with your sleep or sleeping habits.7. Use bright light to help manage your circadian rhythms. Avoid bright light in the evening and expose yourself  to sunlight in the morning. This will keep your circadian rhythms in check.34    Greek physician Hippocrates once wrote, “disease exists if  either sleep or watchfulness be excessive.” Anthropologist have found that during preindustrial Europe, bi-modal sleep was considered the norm. This was marked by second period in a sleep cycle taken usually between dusk and dawn. Sleep onset was not determined by a specific time, but by whether there were things to do. In A. Roger Ekirch’s book At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past, people went to bed a couple of  hours after dusk, woke up a few hours later for an hour or two and then slept till dawn. During this waking period, people would read, relax, ponder their dreams, do chores, or have sex. Ekirch found that this biphasic pattern slowly disappeared during the late 17th century. Interestingly, the appearance of  sleep problems started to appear as biphasic sleep disappeared. Although no causations could be made, it seemed that there may be unnecessary pressure on an individual to obtain continuous consolidated sleep at night (Kerkhof, 83).Biphasic is still evident in today’s society, however, in a less dramatic form. People take afternoon siestas in countries where the blazing sun makes working conditions too hot in the middle of  the day.  In early 1900s, psychiatrist Thomas Wehr conducted an experiment where he exposed the treatment group to a short photoperiod. The participants in this group were left in darkness for 14 hours everyday. It took them some time for their sleep to regulate, but by the fourth week, a distinct biphasic sleep pattern emerged. Participants slept for 4 hours, then woke for 1-3 hours before falling asleep for another 4 hours. As a result it was concluded that our innate biological rhythm was a biphasic one.(Breus, “The Science Behind Hacking Your Sleep Schedule). Although this study doesn’t conclude that we benefit from breaking up continuous sleep, it does evoke an exciting way of  understanding the nature of  sleep and the way we organize time our time spent in the unconscious.  More radically, routines known as the uberman sleep cycle have gained attention by workaholics and those who seek out a rest without a long period of  consolidated sleep. This new way of  sleeping hones in on the timing of  sleep onset. The uberman cycle commences sleep when there is a strong motivation to sleep. During a low circadian point, the ‘sleeper’ can fall directly into deep sleep (Legg, “What is Biphasic and Polyphasic Sleep” ). This polyphasic sleep cycle is marked by six 30-minute deep sleep cycles throughout the day, with a total of  a mere 3 hours! As studies have suggested that deep sleep (N3, see figure) has restorative properties, it does seem enticing for the pragmatic to jump directly into deep sleep without ‘wasting’ time in the other stages (“Stages of  Sleep”).STAGES OF SLEEPMonophasic Sleep Cycle REM sleep deep sleep wake light sleep NREM NREM REM circadian rhythmsFig. 20 stages of  sleep diagramonophasic sleep cycleNRE RENREMwake deep sleep RE  sleeplight sleepFor, as your brain waves elongate from beta to alpha to theta and to delta, you are slowly entering a space of  the unknown; a space where your physical body is paralyzed but your ‘body’ is flying across the universe; a space where your fluttering eyelids are shut, while your ‘eyes’ are seeing the world that could be. 35Uberman Sleep Cycle wake wake wakedeep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep wake wake wakeMONO-PHASIC SLEEP CYCLEBI-PHASIC SLEEP CYCLEPOLY-PHASIC SLEEP CYCLEUBERMAN SLEEP CYCLETRI-PHASIC DYMAXIONBI-PHASIC  SIESTABI-PHASIC TEDFig. 21 Uberman sleep cycle diagramFig. 22 various sleep cycle diagramberman sl ep cycleMonophasic sleep cycleBiphasic sleep cycleBiphasic tedBiphasic siestaPolyphasic sleep cycleTriphasicDymaxionUberman sleep cycleake wake wake wake wake wake deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep deep sleep36   monophasic cycle biphasic cycle polyphasic cycleSLEEPWORKWORKWORKSLEEP WORK WORKWORK WORKFig. 23 sleep work diagram3738   body and space The human body has always exerted an enigmatic allure on us. The way our bodies occupy and move in space have been the fundamental unit of  measurement for calibrating spatial design (Alberti, Vitruvius). However, these presumptions are only thought about under the conditions of  wakefulness. How we do occupy space when we are asleep? The following is a catalog of  different sleep positions that a body can morph into and over the course of  the night.39Fig. 24 bodies superimposed on one another40   sleep catalog41 Fig 25. body morphologies during sleep 42   Fig. 26 Matisse at work43“In bed, as Delmore Schwartz might have put it, begin responsibilities”-   Anthony Burgess, On Going to Bed, 1982. 44   ritualizing sleep45“At either end of  the long buildings were to be situated control booths, where technicians would command instruments to regulate the temperature, humidity, and air pressure, as well as to waft salubrious scents and “rarefied condensed air” through the halls. Nor would sound be left unorganized. Specialists working “according to scientific facts” would transmit from the control centre a range of  sounds gauged to intensify the process of  slumber. The rustle of  leaves, the cooing of  nightingales, or the soft murmur of  waves would instantly relax the most overwrought veteran of  the metropolis. Should these fail, the mechanized beds would then begin gently to rock until consciousness was lost”- Konstantin Melnikov, Sonata of  Sleep, 192546   “It was like a giant capsule and mirror, when we were kids and we would wake up, we opened our eyes and it seemed air had a color – you could touch air.”-   Viktor Melnikov4748    Two interlocking cylindrical towers, sprinkled with hexagonal windows marked the peculiar home that Konstantin Melnikov built in November 1929 for his family (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”). What made the house so special was the golden bedroom, which Melnikov was incredibly proud of. He would be so eager to show his guests the bedroom upon arrival, a room which was typically not shown to guests. The room, was, indeed special. Located on the second floor, every edge of  the room was rounded. Three platforms extruded from the floor served as beds with dividing screens between them. Each member of  the family occupied a platform-bed and they all slept together in this golden room (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”). According to the Melnikov House director, Pavel Kuznetsov, there were no other furniture or hooks to hang clothes, which suggested that the Melnikovs changed into their pajamas in another room beforehand. For Melnikov, sleep was a journey that restarts each night into the unknown. Nighttime was not only about resting, but about resurrection, and each morning was a rebirth. As ritualistic as the room was originally designed, the process of  going to sleep was highly regarded by the Melnikov’s family. Everything in the room was painted a golden-copper color, which was reminiscent of  the golden color used in religious icons. It was thought that Melnikov regarded this room as a portal for immortality (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”).  Fascinated with the idea that the golden bedroom was really a machine that can output rejuvenation, Melnikov experimented further at a larger scale—a giant sleeping chamber for exhausted workers of  the Soviet Union. As part of  the future proposal for a Green City, just outside of  Moscow, Sonata of  Sleep was designed as a pavilion that could accommodate hundreds of  people. Like his own home, the beds were calibrated to the single body, and fixed. The beds would rock gently in a room carefully monitored so that the temperature was always at the optimal threshold and the soothing sounds such as wind blowing would be played. Forest scents that changed according to season will be diffused into these quarters. Of  course like his own home,  workers would undress, wash, and change into pyjamas before entering the sleep chamber (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”). Melnikov strongly believed in the restorative properties of  sleep, and that it was the greatest of  all cures. If  the workers just had ample quality sleep, it would ease all pain and suffering. Additionally, collective and guided sleep would help bring about fundamental social change (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”). Sonata of  sleep was to be a place where workers of  Moscow were to conform to “a symbolic death in order to undergo the transformation that would allow them to emerge as citizens of  a socialized community.” (McGrane, “A Golden Bedtime Story”)  Sonata of  Sleep was never realized and remained a part of  Melnikov’s dream. The once celebrated architect was labeled as an “alien artist” and was banned from working. In 1941, a German bomb landed near the house, and broke all of  the windows. Unfortunately, the family burned all of  the bedroom’s sleeping platforms as firewood to keep themselves warm.  Another artist who has ritualized sleep is Marina Abramovic. In her interactive art installation, participants become an active part of  the art, and arguably an active part of  the artist’s dream. Following a strict series of  instructions, visitors enter a 100-year old traditional Japanese house in Tokamachi in the Nigata prefecture.   Fig. 27 Melinkov’s golden bedroom49Fig. 28 the golden bedroom in colorFig. 29 Sonata of  Sleep 50    Each booking accommodates four visitors as there are only four beds. As guests arrive, they change into eccentric sleep suits, in the colors of  red, green, blue or purple to match their respective rooms. These suits are feather-stuffed and lined with magnets which the artist believes promote blood flow to the brain. The suit covers the entire body, leaving only the face exposed. Talking is forbidden. The only form of  communication is passively listening to Abramovic’s recorded voice on a headset. The artist would give clear step by step instructions on how to go to sleep. A series of  movements, such as changing into the suit, putting on opaque glasses before climbing into the coffin-like bed are given over the headset. In the instructions, Abramovic would bring the guest’s attention to the temperature, the scent, or the incoherent writings on the wall. In a way, she is asking participants to meditate into the space, becoming aware of  the different sensory experiences that she has set up for them. As each guest climbs into their bed, they would notice that a crystal is placed where there should be a pillow. Abramovic believes that this crystal along with the magnets in the suit caress by the four walls of  the coffin-bed would induce vivid dreams and prevent nightmares. In subsequent mornings, each guest would record their dreams into a dream log, which is then compiled into the Dream Book. “In the dream,” Abramovic states, “everything is possible” (Abramovic, “Dream House”). Both Melnikov and Abramovic have ritualized the way we sleep. Sleep is no longer an automatic and unmindful condition that is antithetical to wakefulness, it requires an elaborate ritual that prepares us to enter dream-state. The bed, again, becomes a portal and a vessel to carry us into the unknown. Fig. 30 Dream House rooms51Fig. 31 Dream House  exteriorFig. 32 Dream House interiorFig. 33 Dream House roomFig. 34 Dream suits52   “the world for the most part so puritanical that it will not accept the conjunction of  bed and work.” -  Anthony Burges, On Going to Bed, 1982, pg. 5953We may not think about this much, but for many of  us, the moment we come into this world is on a hospital bed!  1. Birth  The bed becomes an altar, around which family and friends gather piously each night to say their prayers or to send their loved ones off  to the afterlife (Burgess, 90). 2. Prayer3. Sleep4. SexBreakfast in bed has become all meals in bed for the millennial, often accompanied by some sort of  video watching ritual.  5. Eat/feed Rossini composed many of  his operas from bed (Burgess, 59) On one occasion, finishing a duet for an opera to open that very night, he let the manuscript fall on the floor. Too lazy or comfortable to get up to retrieve it, he wrote the duet again. It was radically different from the first version. Fantin-Latour used to draw in bed, wearing an overcoat and scarf  and a top hat. Cecil Beaton used to draw on his bedside walls with bits of  charcoal affixed to a long cane (Burgess, 58). Thomas Hobbes drew geometric problems on the sheets or  on his own naked thigh (Burgess, 59) Truman Campote claimed to be a horizontal author, thinking and writing “ only lying down in bed or on a couch with a cigarette and a coffee” 6. WorkBeds became a place to gather for close friends and family (Cromely, 87) 7. Gather/SocializeBed is a theatre for children to relax and listen to parents and guardians sing lullabies or nursery rhymes or tell bedtime stories to lull them into a dream full of  joy. 8. TheatreFor a child, “go to bed” has a negative connotation. It is loaded with meanings of  punishment.9. DetentionTo die in a bed is all too common (Burgess, 69).  “More tragically, though, the bed is an ideal stage for suicides and deaths. Cato who chose to kill himself  in bed rather than to see Julius Caesar triumph. Cleopatra put the asp to her breast in bed. King Sardanapalus gathered his wives into his flaming bed rather than to surrender Nineveh to the Medes. Alexander de’Medici murdered in bed by his own cousin Lorenzino, and Lucretia raped by Tarquin in her own bedroom” (Burgess, 66). And of  course, the wicked wolf  hiding under grandmother’s bedclothes ready to eat Little Red Riding Hood (Burgess,78). 10. DeathThe bed, however, serves more than just to dream. The programs that take place on the site includes but not limited to: functions of  a bed54   imagine the 24/7 bed Fig. 35 Bed-In for Peace, 19695556    Melnikov’s idea of  communal (and to some extent public) sleeping did not completely vanish like his career. People of  today also suffer from lack of  sleep, with reasons perhaps not too different than those who lived during the Soviet Union. In the modern city, people experience a lack in hours of  sleep and/or a lack in the quality of  sleep due to increased stress from work, pollution, light, and noise. In our short-attention-spanned society, we have discovered that we work best  in short intervals, separated with periods of  rest. Offices renovate with compact sleep capsules scattered around the workplace so that employees can retreat and recharge; pharmaceutical companies create new formulas for sleep-inducing, efficiency-heightening pills all to increase productivity. Sleep has acquired a new meaning, one that is tethered to work…  For the 16th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice, architectural historian, Beatriz Colomina, staged a replica of  the Amsterdam Hilton hotel’s room 902 where John Lennon and Yoko Ono spent their honeymoon in 1969. Work, Body, and Leisure, was a homage to the Beds-In movement, but moreover a commentary on the future of  the bed and its significance in the contemporary city. The ceremony of  Lennon and Ono’s marriage only lasted a mere three minutes, but the honeymoon was a week-long Bed-In for Peace nonviolent protest from the 25th to the 31st of  March 1969. The two most public people in the world put themselves on display to the entire world where their bed not only was a destination for vacation, a political stance against the Vietnam War, a stage for the couple’s daily activities, but ultimately a factory for conceiving a baby—or a  fucktory as Colomina puts it (Colomina, 44). Lennon and Ono literally worked 24/7. In the exhibition, Colomina argued that the Bed-Ins protest went beyond two celebrities simply occupying a room. They along with all  their white-colored props, sold to the public an incredibly powerful image, one about peaceful resistance, but also one that has an undercurrent of  constant work. The 24/7 bed set the stage for what a bed is today.  In 2012, the Wall Street Journal reported 80 percent of  New York City young professionals worked regularly from bed (Colomina, 43). The meaning of  “office” was also significantly redefined over the past decades. As industrialization standardized the eight-hour shift, distinguishing between the home (rest) and the factory (work) (Colomina, 45).Post industrialization collapsed work into the home, and even further onto the bed. The whole world was now navigated through a small screen with the bed as a vessel that held only the physical, while the mind traversed into the virtual. To lie in bed was no long to rest but rather to move.  Work was hard work, but sleep was also hard work (Colomina, 45). Sleep experts tried tirelessly to provide solutions for a sound sleep cycle, all in the name for higher productivity during waking hours. Everything about sleep became imbued with work. Colomina (45) stated that Hugh Hefner,  arguably the most famous for blurring boundaries between work and sleep. Work was his life. And his life was constant work. Hefner was famous for almost never leaving his bed, let alone his house. In 1960, he created an entire empire right at the comfort of  his own home and in his iconic office attire —silk pajamas and robe (Colomina, 45)! Even architects set up offices in bed. Richard Neutra started working the moment he woke up with all the equipment needed for designing, writing, or even interviewing in bed! Neutra’s bed had “two public phones, three communication stations for talking to other rooms in the house, three different call bells, drafting boards, and easels that folded down over the bed. Electric lights and a radio gramophone controlled from a dashboard overhead” (Colomina, 45). Entirely for productivity, the bed was evidently designed so that every waking minute was spent working. Sleep for some was an impedance. Fig. 36 Work, Body, Leisure Installation57“we were thirsty for sleeping in our bedroom, we were eating and drinking sleep,” he wrote, “ our bedroom embraced us.”-  Konstantin Melnikov58   retreat. relax. get back to work.59Fig. 37   Sleeperie, London60   Late capitalism ended sleep (Crary). According to John Crary, every minute of  our lives, sleep or wake, is succumbed to production and consumption. In our waking hours, we work; in our sleeping hours, we still work (Crary, 31). In today’s workplace-fluid, efficiency-sensitive, technology-reliant city, the bed has a new meaning. In recent years, an emergence of  companies have started to commodify sleep. New ways of  sleep such as ZZZen Bar in Paris,  Siesta & Go in Madrid, Pop & Rest in London, or Nap Bar in Dubai are providing spaces for city dwellers and travelers to retreat from the buzz and catch some Z’s. Similar to Melnikov’s immersive sleep chambers, many of  these nap bars not only enforce a particular ritual before entering the sleep space, others also feature lullabies or “pink noises” that allegedly aid sleep. Architects such as Jürgen Mayer H, also believe that sleeping patterns could become “more nomadic” and believe that in the future as boundaries between work time and social time become blurred, boundaries between sleep and wake will also become flexible. He calls this concept “sleeping around” (Fearson, “Nap Gap”) In his installation at the Istanbul Design Biennale in 2014, Mayer H. created a room filled with pink light and ambient pink noise. Pink noise is understood to have sleep inducing properties. Nature sounds such as rain falling and wind blowing are considered as pink noise, which differs from white noise which is composed of  higher frequencies. At the University of  Toronto, Daniel’s Faculty new Architecture and Design Gallery, an exhibition curated by Professor Richard Sommer in partnership with Pillow Culture challenges the contemporary city to slow down and unplug. New Circadia (adventures in mental spelunking) transforms a gallery space into a cave-like space of  repose, a “soft utopia.” The space is meant to “regain the pleasures and benefits of  loosing ourselves in states of  reverie” (“New Circadia”).In other words, participants are encouraged to step away from their daily routine just to dream. This interactive installation is composed of  three zones. As visitors enter the “mouth of  the Fig. 38 Nap-Gap61cave,” they store their belongings and choose their preferred “spelunking gear.” These human-sized pillows are meant to caress the spelunker while he/she navigates  through the cave. The second zone, or the Dark Zone is a softscape filled with felted furniture that invites visitors to lay on to rest, sleep, or meditate. The final zone is a journey to the mythic underworld, a literal descension to the underground where magic, myths, and reverie become reality  (“New Circadia”).The idea of  sleeping nomadically and communally is enriched by Cristina Diaz Moreno and Efren Garcia Grinda of  amid.cero9. In their imaginary city, Nocturnalia, rest is interpreted as “the last form of  resistance, freedom, and collective existence.” Citizens of  Nocturnalia are so plugged into the virtual world, that productivity and connectivity govern their lives outside of  work, not so different than the cities we know in this world. In Nocturnalia, globalization engulfed the city, flooding away every trace of  domestic space. Inhabitants wonder around at night only to meet at the baptistery and to sleep communally. “Sleeping in public is no longer an indicator of  poverty, sickness or social exclusion, but a collective ritual. Sleep time is the only escape from production and consumption, but is ever so temporary” (Moreno and Grinda “Walking in Someone Else’s Dream”).Fig. 39 New Circadia 62   iii. movement two                                       on the bedtime story6364   WWWWWWW65WWWWWWWNocturne in Figments a Cautionary Tale of  Lost SleepSixue Amy Wu Dreams Publishing Companyest. 201666   WWWWWWWThis paperback edition first published by Dreams Publishing Co.  2019 First published by Dreams Publishing Co. 2016© Sixue Amy Wu 2016, 2020 All rights reserved. 5 0 10 8 9 7 3 5Dreams Publishing Co.Cloud 5: Door 7 W1A Dreams Publishing Co. is the imprint of  Deserted Dreams ISBN-13: 091-2-8912-029-1eISBN-13: 987-54268-412-8 (Cloud 5)eISBN-13: 987-54268-412-4 (CAN)Cloud Library Cataloging in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Cloud 5 Library Library of  the Cloud Has Cataloged the Hardback Edition as Follows Wu, Sixue Amy Nocturne in Figments ISBN 091-2-8912-029-1 (hardback) 1. Art and society 2. Time and art 3. Capitalism-Social aspects 4. Civili-zation, Modern - 21st century. 5. Dreams --Alternate reality I. Title. II. Title: Nocturne in Figments. N90.S8C891 2020234.2’09-dc23       20200507Typeset in Garamond by Robert SlimbachPrinted in Cloud 5 by Circle Press. 67WWWWWWW68    69 |__| Movement IThe Corporation70    Once a upon a time, the old Canada Post building on the corner of  West Georgia and Homer Street was primed to make way for Amazon’s arrival. An additional 416,000 square feet of  round-the-clock production was added to the existing 241,000 square feet of  campus space, making Vancouver the new Amazon HQ2. Fig. 40 site 71Apple HQVancouver Public LibraryHolyRosaryCathedralAmazon(2022)502 DunsmuirAmazon(2023)The PostQueenElizabethTheatreNew Vancouver  Art GalleryCurrent AmazonTelus Garden72   “Earth’s biggest selection” was going to fulfill capitalism’s ultimate prophecy—24/7 work and shopping. 73Fig. 41 site (animated)    74   Fig. 42 proposed Amazon east elevation (animated) 75Masking itself  in the name of  productivity, Amazon HQ 2 was depleting its workers and shoppers of  precious restful sleep. Day and night, the office tower above the market hall lit up, acting a beacon for the sleepless corporation.76   Fig. 43 man at work (animated) 77There was a man who worked at the corporation. During the day, he worked at the office. 78   Fig. 44 man at home (animated) 79And at night he worked on-call at home. For weeks on end, the man could not get restful sleep. One night his pager beeped. There was a bug that needed to be fixed right away on Amazon’s Web Services. The next night, a false alarm woke him up. The following nights the man woke up intermittently just to check on his pager. He was still young and barely starting out his career. The last thing he needed was a snooze that missed an important call. 80   He is always falling asleep at work...This is unacceptable at work...we should tell his team leaderFig. 45  man with Peter and Lilly   81The man was so exhausted during the day that sometimes at work, he would try to catch up on sleep.However, hawk-eyed Peter and Lilly always gave him trouble.Where does he think he is... home?What a lazy guy...he’s not getting paid to sleep here!82   Fig. 46 man dreaming83“If  only they would leave me in peace,” thought the man to himself, “If  only there were somewhere I could go to sleep just for a bit without anyone noticing.”84    85 |__| Movement IIThe Nocturne86   87One day the man came to work and noticed a few scrap materials on the rooftop of  the corporation. Metal rods and sheets, and plywood..“What are they building here now,” thought the man, “maybe they will be kind enough to build a sleep space of  some sort? ” He laughed at his own thought, “who am I kidding, the company letting its employees sleep during work? We barely have snacks other than granola bars and instant oatmeal!” As he made his way back inside the office, the sight of  the materials slowly drifted to the back of  his mind...Fig. 47 materials found on rooftop88   89The next day, when the man came to work, he saw some familiar faces painting the materials.“Is that Peter and Lilly?” He questioned softly. “At least they are spending their time building DIY projects instead of  whispering behind my back!” The man walked into the office without a second thought. Smiling to himself, he was relieved to find Peter and Lilly spending their working hours doing something more productive...Fig. 48 Peter and Lilly painting materials90   91At lunchtime, the man came down to the rooftop for a quick break. And to his surprise, a canary yellow box was built. Fig. 49 canary yellow box92   The man was so curious, he had to take a peek.Inside the box was a soft dark sleep space that fit a just single bed. A fellow employee was fast asleep. “Wow, that was quick,” thought the man, “Peter and Lilly are going to be so furious to find someone else had already moved into their box!” Fig. 50 canary yellow box interior9394   Slightly confused by how fast someone had already occupied the canary yellow box, the man stepped back and turned toward the office facade...        to find this.Fig. 51 canary yellow box in scaffold9596   97The next day, another volume appeared... this one had feet.Fig. 52 flamingo pink change room98   Inside was a flamingo pink change room. “Hey,” the person inside shouted, “do you mind?” “Sorry,” the man apologized and quickly shut the door.Fig. 53 flamingo pink change room interior99100   The man turned around, and this time it was apparent something was happening. People were coming in and out of  the flamingo pink change rooms dressed in comfortable clothes and headed toward the canary yellow boxes. They moved around scaffold structure entering and leaving the familiar yet strange volumes, unconcerned that all of  this was right against the exterior of  the corporation! Fig. 54 flamingo pink change room in scaffold101102   103“Surely someone ought to report this?” Questioned the man to himself, yet not moving a single inch. Fig. 55 mint green toilet room104   No one was surprised to see a canary yellow sleep room, a flamingo pink change room, and now a mint green toilet room on the rooftop? At the back of  his mind, the man thought that it was best to wait and see. After all, he was young and was only starting his career. Besides, now that more people were out here sleeping and resting, he could also slip Peter’s and Lilly’s watchful eyes and catch some z’. Fig. 56 mint green toilet room interior105106   107Then, the man noticed some of  these volumes began to merge.Fig. 57 merged shower room108   They transformed into new spaces for even more absurd activities. Fig. 58 merged shower room interior109110   111The man began to notice more and more people coming to add their own touches to the scaffold structure. Some people were definitely employees of  the corporation, but these days, new faces appeared. With them, came new forms.Fig. 59 orange odd space112   The orange odd spaces like the canary yellow boxes were appropriated by the people for their own restful needs.“This is the best spot for taking short naps and waking up to a view,” said someone in the orange space beside the man, “You won’t fall too deep into sleep because there are always someone walking by and the curved surface doesn’t allow you to lie flat!’ Fig. 60 man sitting inside orange odd space113114   “That is certainly true,” the man replied to the faceless voice, “the yellow boxes, though bright on the outside were dark and soft on the inside. A few days ago, I found a person cozied up in there. It seemed like he was in deep restorative sleep!” Fig. 61 orange odd spaces in scaffold115116   117The man became excited and eager to go to work. Each day, he would discover a new space for sleep. Today, it was a larger volume. A corrugated cobalt blue structure.Fig. 62 corrugated cobalt blue dorm118   Inside was a female-only dormitory. Sleep was soft and flexible here. Tatami mats, soft pillows, and lounge chair-beds were sprinkled around the room.“Excuse me sir,” a sultry voice spoke, “this is a women’s only space, if  you’d like there is co-ed sleep space up on the twenty-second floor on the west side of  the building that looks just like this.” The man thanked her quickly and left the dorm.Fig. 63 corrugated cobalt blue dorm interior119120   121As the man tried to find the co-ed dorm, he stumbled upon another volume. This space was a semi-transparent box with a corrugated cap. He could see people laughing, chatting and nibbling on something inside. It reminded him of  the snack bar that the office never had.Fig. 64 half  transparent half  corrugated snack bar122   On the fifteenth floor, a new snack bar inside the office extended into the half  transparent half  corrugated pavilion. “Feel free to grab a snack before you head back to work or to sleep,” a lady in spaghetti straps winked at the man, “just don’t tell anyone that we’ve sort of  reno-ed this part of  the office...” She was right. The extension took out a few glass panels from the existing curtain wall.Fig. 65 half  transparent half  corrugated snack bar interior123124   125After a hearty bowl of  pasta, which was really a full meal and a total upgrade from instant oatmeal, the man began to feel lethargic. As his body began to slow down, his mind also began to calm. “Wouldn’t it be nice to be in a warm heated room right now,” thought the man as his eyelids fell heavy.Fig. 66 snow white sauna126   As he thought those words, the man arrived at a snow white sauna space. The warmth came from the vents of  the building, and it had never felt so pleasant. The fabric walls trapped the heat well, and created a thin barrier between the warm inside and cool outside.zzzThe man dozed off...Fig. 67 snow white sauna interior127128   He woke up to a splitting sound and noticed someone with a glass cutter cutting into the curtain wall. Suddenly, he remembered the lady in the spaghetti straps telling him that the cobalt blue snack pavilion had already been through the same process. ”It’s okay,” the man took a deep breath, “maybe the corporation wouldn’t notice a few glass panels missing. Fig. 68 the glass cutter129130   131But would they notice a whole chunk of  floor missing as well? The following day, the man came back to check on the progress of  the glass cutter. A double height coral reading corridor was added.Fig. 69 coral reading corridor132   133There was something quite soothing about reading right before going to sleep. It was the man’s favorite past time, and he reminisced the times he would fall asleep reading, only to fall deeper into a dream about what he had just read.“Ahh,” he let out a sigh, “what a perfect way to fall asleep.” As he ran his fingers along the spine of  the books in the corral corridor, he looked out into the distance and saw a familiar sight.Fig. 70 coral reading corridor interior134   135Canary yellow boxes provided enclosed spaces for those who wanted uninterrupted deep sleep. Hammocks and tensile structures engulfed the body of  those who sought the warmth of  returning to a mother’s womb.Fig. 71 view inside south scaffold136   137The cobalt blue corrugated cap contained all the bedtime snacks that anyone could ever imagine. And the coral corridor shelved the world’s most boring books that could instantly put you to sleep. Fig. 72 view looking at snack bar and reading corridor138   139Flamingo pink change rooms, mint green toilets and shower rooms were arranged and rearranged around the scaffold to orchestrate the perfect bedtime routine.And for those who preferred sleeping in the company of  others, there were spaces for that too.Fig. 73 view looking from grand staircase looking at The Nocturne140   141And of  course, the orange odd spaces where footsteps and chit-chats could be heard. Oddly enough made for those who were still antsy about missing that 2pm meeting.Fig. 74 view inside orange odd spaces on north scaffold142   And as the man gazed out the window, a thin threshold, between the office and the brightly colored volumes, he could not help but notice how much they have altered the existing building. And as he stood inside the work space looking out to the sleep space, he could not help but notice something else was altered, too, in the reflection on glass pane.143Fig. 75 man looking at his own reflection...he, too, was a rabbit-man144   145At some point, the office was no longer just a mere podium tower. At some point, what seemed like a temporary structure became a permanent part of  the corporation. And at some point the scaffold could not be taken down, because the spaces that were built in it had already fused onto the existing building. Fig. 76 view looking from rooftop courtyard to north facade146   Fig. 77 view from inside canary yellow box147This new partial skin gave the building a new look, one that changed according to the needs and moods of  its users. 148   149Everyday, someone would bring their unique way of  going to sleep here.Fig. 78 upclose view of  north scaffold150   Fig. 79 south elevation151Everyday, something big or small was added or removed. 152   Fig. 80 north elevation153Everyday, the structure changed...154   And kept changing...Fig. 81 west elevation155156   Fig. 82 east elevation157It soon brought day-sleepers, night- sleepers, nappers, and hibernators from all over the city.158   159And right before our very eyes, the corporation was covered with sleepers and sleep spaces of  all kinds.Fig. 83 section axo of  the resistance spreading160   161This was The Nocturne. Fig. 84 The Nocturne (animated)162    163 |__| Movement I  The Corporation164   165There was a man who worked at the corporation. Fig. 85 man back at the office166   167THE ENDFig. 86 was this a dream?168   iv. outro                                                                      on end matter169“ And if  he left off  dreaming of  you...”-  Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass, 1871170   Take advantage of  your sleep. Reap its benefits. Because the world is losing it.171Fig. 87 Arkwright’s Cotton Mills by Night, Joseph Wright, c. 1782172   works cited Abramovic, Marina. Dream House. 2010.Bachelard, Gaston. Poetics of  Space. Beacon Press, 1964.“Beds in the Late medieval and Tutor Times.” Old and Interesting, Accessed 15, November, 2019. Borgess, Jorge Luis. Labyrinths Selected Stories and Other Writings, edited by Yates, Donald A., & Irby, James E. New Directions, 1962. Breus, Michael J. The Science Behind Hacking Your Sleep Schedule. Psychology Today. 2018, Accessed 10, December, 2019. Burgess, Anthony. On Going to Bed. Abbeville Press, 1982. Colomina, Beatriz. “24/7 Bed.” Domus,1026 Eros, July-August, 2018, pp. 42-45.Conran, Terence. The Bed and Bath Book. Crown, 1978. Crary, Johnatha. 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of  Sleep. Verso, 2014.Cromley, Elaabeth Collins. “Sleeping Around: A History of  American Beds and  Bedrooms.” The Banham Lectures Essays on Designing the Future. Berg, 2009,  pp. 85-97.Fearson, Amy. “Nap Gap” Dezeen. 2014, Accessed, 1, October, 2019.Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of  the Prison, translated by Alan Sheridan. Pantheon Books 1977.“Healthy Sleep Tips.” National Sleep Foundation. Accessed 10, December, 2019. Jonze, Spike. Her,  2014.Kerkhof, Gerald A. Inter-Individual Differences in Human Circadian Rhythm. Biological Psychology, vol. 20, no.2, 1985, pp. 83-112. Lang, Fritz, Metropolis, 1927.Lasch, KE, Abraham,L, Patrick J, Piault, EC, Tully SE, Treglia M. “Development of  a Next Day Functioning Measure to Assess the Impact of  Sleep Disturbance Due to Restless Legs Syndrome: the Restless Legs Syndrome Next Day Impact Questionnaire.” Sleep Med, vol 12, no. 8, 2011, pp. 754-61. Legg, Timothy J. “What is Biphasic Sleep and Polyphasic Sleep.” Medical News Today. 2017, Accessed 10, December, 2019.McGrane, Sally. “A Golden Bedtime Story.” Interwoven: the Fabric of  Things, Accessed, 29, November, 2019.Moreno, Cristina Diaz, Grina, Efren Garcia. “Walking Through Someone Else’s Dream.” Frac Centre-val de Loire. 2015, Accessed 5, December. 2019. “New Circadia.” University of  Toronto Daniel’s Faculty of  Architecture, Landscape, and Design. 2019, Accessed, 10, December, 2019. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Embodied Image. John Wiley and Sons, 2011. 173Shochat, T., Flint-Bretler, O., Tzischinksy, O. “Sleep Patterns, Electronic Media Exposure and Daytime Sleep-Related Behaviors Among Israeli Adolescents. Acta Paediatr, vol. 99, no. 8. 2019, pp. 1369-400. Speigel, K, Leproult, R, et al. “Impact of  Sleep Debt on Metabolic and Endorine Function.” The Lancet, no. 354, 1999, pp. 1435-39. “Stages of  Sleep.” Health Link BC. Accessed 10, December, 2019.“Tower of  Babel.” Livius, Accessed 15, November, 2019. `174   


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