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The Restorative Assemblage of Place : An exploration of the material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions… Crawford, Nicole P. 2020-05

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An exploration of the material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions of place within the restorative experience. This graduate project in Landscape Architecture is an exploration of the restorative potential of embedded place resources,through a concept of the restorative experience in which it is co-created by both individual and landscape.T H E  R E S T O R AT I V E A S S E M B L AG EO F  P L AC ENICOLE P. CRAWFORDGP1 + GP201an imagining of the restorative landscape experience(by author)contents GP11. Pre-Introduction 1.1. List of Figures in GP1 1.2. Acknowledgements 1.3. Projected Schedule2. Introduction 2.1. Abstract 2.2. Methodology: GP I 2.3. Definitions3. Discussion 3.1. Restoration is  3.1.1.  Restoration is relational  3.1.2.  Restoration is material  3.1.3.  Restoration is symbolic  3.1.4.  Restoration is embodied 3.2. Conclusion  3.2.1.  Principles  3.2.2.  Framework 3.3. Case Studies  3.3.1. The Guillamene  3.3.2. The West Coast Trail4. Referencesi-54i-vii - iiiiv v 1 - 82356 - 5310 - 31 11 - 15  16 - 2021 - 2526 - 3132 - 363334 - 3637 - 5338 - 4546 - 5355 - 591. pre-introductioni02an imagining of the restorative landscape(by author)GP2Introduction & Process01. The Concept 1.1. Conceptual Framework 1.2. Design Strategy02. The Site 2.1. Site Selection 2.2. Site Analysis 2.3. Opportunity Identification03. The Design 3.1. Opportunity Response 3.2. Response Typologies 3.3.  Conclusion04. References60 - 14760 - 6364 - 6765 - 66 6768 - 8169 - 72 73 - 808182 - 7084 85 - 125126 - 146147fig. 34fig. 35fig. 36fig. 37fig. 38the trail along a beach (Field & Forest, n.d.)the trail within the forest (Field & Forest, n.d.)a portion of the trail only accessible by ladder (Field & Forest, n.d.)an imagining of the restorative experience and environment (by author) an imagining of the restorative material landscape (by author)iiiiifig. 01 fig. 02fig. 03fig. 04fig. 05fig. 06fig. 07fig. 08fig. 09fig. 10fig. 11fig. 12fig. 13fig. 14fig. 15fig. 16fig. 17fig. 18fig. 19fig. 20fig. 21fig. 22fig. 23fig. 24fig. 25fig. 26fig. 27fig. 28fig. 29fig. 30fig. 31fig. 32fig. 33an imagining of the restorative landscape experience (by author)an imagining of the restorative landscape (by author)an imagining of the restorative landscape (by author)an imagining of the restorative experience (by author)an imagining of the restorative landscape (by author) an imagining of the restorative experience (by author)an imagining of the restorative landscape experience (by author)an imagining of the metaphysical landscape experience (by author)an imagining of the holy well assemblage (by author)an imagining of the restorative material environment (by author)an imagining of the restorative coastal heathland (by author)an imagining of the symbolic coast (by author)an imagining of the embodied coastal interaction (by author)an imagining of the restorative material environment (by author)an imagining of the body as a landscape of healing (by author)an imagining of the embodied restorative experience (by author)an imagining of the Guillamene and the West Coast Trail (by author)the Guillamene, viewed from the surrounding cliffs (LoneSwimmer, 2011)ramps and stairs into the water (O’Carroll, 2014)context map of the Guillamene (by author)the Guillamene, viewed from the surrounding cliffs (LoneSwimmer, 2011)deep water in  the cove (Llyod, 2010) the Guillamene on a sunny day (Llyod, 2010) textures of the Guillamene (O’Carroll, 2014)view from the beach (Llyod, 2010) the staircase down to the cove (LoneSwimmer, 2011) flowers at the top of the cliffs (LoneSwimmer, 2011)the trail as it opens onto a cliff (Field & Forest, n.d.)the trail within tree cover (Field & Forest, n.d.) context map of the West Coast Trail (by author) the trail along coastal cliffs (Field & Forest, n.d.)the forest as viewed from the trail (Field & Forest, n.d.)the trail along a beach (Field & Forest, n.d.)1.1. List  of  Figures in GP1vSept.        Oct.        Nov.        Dec.            Jan.        Feb.         Mar.         Apr.researchinitial explorationdefining the projectliterature reviewcase/precedent studiesdesign strategiessite analysissite explorationconceptual designframework refinementfinal designGP I GP II1.3. Projected Scheduleiv1.2. AcknowledgementsThank you to Patrick Mooney for your knowledge, feedback and guidance. Thank you as well to Fionn Byrne, and Daniel Roehr for your time and advice.  Thank you to my external advisor, Michelle Crawford, for the personally restorative strategies, and for your knowledge and persistent excitement. Thank you to Paul Crawford and Darragh Daly for always kindly listening. This GP1 project could not have been completed without the continued support of my friends and family, and I would like to express gratitude to all who gave their time to discuss this project with me. 2 This project, through a range of both phenomenological and empirical research, explores the restorative potential of the embedded resources of place, wherein these resources are accessed through relational encounters founded on one’s own distinct set of dynamic sociocultural-material-affective relationships. These resources are considered as: material, the physical assemblage of the place itself; symbolic, an outcome of how the place is understood to be restorative; and embodied, an outcome of the way in which individuals interact with the place. Resources of the restorative place are considered through the example of the coastal landscape as well as the practices of connection often associated with it. Dimensions of the place-assemblage are explored through these resources to develop a concept of the restorative experience in which it is co-created by both individual and landscape. One consideration to note is that the restorative experience is an intricate and complex relationship between health, personhood, and environment, and as this project approaches restoration as a relational outcome, that which is restorative for one individual may not be restorative for another. As well, though this project takes into consideration a diversity of literature, not all understandings of the restorative experience have been explored, as this project was approached exclusively through scholarly inquiry and the personal experiences of this researcher. It is this researcher’s hope, however, that one could be able to achieve restoration through a combination of the environments, experiences, and practices that follow, and that this project can make clear the many available dimensions of the restorative experience assemblage.  2.1. Abstract2. introduction103an imagining of the restorative landscape(by author)404an imagining of the restorative experience(by author)32.2. Methodology:  GP I The following sections develop a concept of the restorative place-assemblage through relational, material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions in the form of a literature review. Following this is an exploration of this concept within two place-based case studies.   relational, material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions in the form of a literature review. Following this is an exploration of this concept within three place-based case studies. hypothesis: relationality is integral to the conceptualization of landscapes as restorative, as the aective potentials of the restorative place-assemblage, within which there are material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions, can only be accessed through relational experiences or understandingsdesign hypothesis: designers can actively consider the material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions of the restorative place-assemblage within restorative landscape projects in order to design for greater relationality.relationalexplored throughexploring dimensions of the restorative assemblage that are:explored througharriving atmaterialdesign frameworkprinciplessymbolicembodiedliterature reviewcasestudies3. discussion605an imagining of the restorative landscape(by author)52.3. DefinitionsThe following section is a set of definitions of terms used throughout the project. These definitions outline how certain concepts are approached, and their relation to one another. Restoration is “…the process of recovering physiological, psychological and social resources that have become diminished” (Hartig, 2007, p. 164). In the context of this project, it can be further understood as the process of recovering these resources in across the spectrum of one’s well-being, in which well-being is conceptualized as ‘wholeness,’ an integration of body, mind, and spirit wherein each is indivisibly connected (Perriam, 2015). The focus within this project is on the connection between the body and the landscape within the process of restoration, with the understanding that this would lead to restoration in other intrapersonal, essential, or spiritual forms. Within this project, the terms therapeutic or healing will refer to the type of well-being afforded by the process of restoration.  The process of restoration centers around a relational interaction with the restorative, that which, in the form of environment, perception, or engagement, has the power to be therapeutic in this manner. A relational interaction is a form of connection that is fostered between a person and their environment that is founded on their own distinct set of dynamic socio-cultural relationships that are material, symbolic, and experiential (Conradson, 2005). An environment is the material component of place, which is itself an assemblage of material, conceptual, and relational qualities that form a system. In the context of this project, environment can be understood as synonymous with landscape, and therefore the terms will be used interchangeably throughout. Perception is one’s interpretation of place as approached through sensory comprehension and is, consciously or unconsciously, influenced by symbols or narratives that inform one’s experience of their environment.  Engagement is a way of experiencing one’s environment through one’s body, through practices, felt movement, or connection, with “an awareness of and responsiveness to bodily sensations” (Impett, Daubenmier, & Hirschman, 2006, p. 40).  In this case, a practice is a consciously or unconsciously conducted activity through which one experiences their body or the environment. 8“As commonly defined, stress arises from an excess of demands relative to the resources needed to cope with those demands. This formulation implies that stress becomes chronic when excessive demands persist and the person can neither acquire the new resources needed to obviate those demands nor more effectively apply available resources. Less obviously, stress may also persist when the person cannot access an environment that supports sufficiently rapid or complete restoration of needed resources diminished in efforts to cope.” (Hartig, 2007, pp. 1-2)06an imagining of the restorative experience(by author)73.1. Restoration is1007an imagining of the restorative landscape experience(by author)The landscape we enter:  an introduction To seek restoration is to feel a disconnect between the resources one has and the resources one needs, resources that are often depleted by everyday demands and activities. This disconnect may have a serious effect over time as physical, social, and psychological resources are exhausted while stressors remain. As environmental psychology professor Terry Hartig states, “Over the long run, an inability to renew depleted resources may have grave consequences for effective action, emotional well-being, and health in a broader sense, mental as well as physical.” (2007, p. 2). In light of this, the process of restoring these resources becomes highly important to consider.  Within landscape architecture, restoration has often been considered in terms of the affective potentials of the natural, material environment (Thompson, 2011; Gerlach-Spriggs, Kaufman, & Warner, 1998; Cooper-Marcus & Barnes, 1999); however, what has often not been made explicit is the relational nature of the restorative experience (Conradson, 2005). This project hypothesizes that this relationality is integral to the conceptualization of landscapes as restorative, as the affective potentials of the restorative place-assemblage, wherein the material landscape is but one component, are only accessed through relational experiences or understandings. The primary intention of this graduate project is to explore the ways in which spatial designers can consider the restorative experience in conjunction with the material landscape, and how a design might integrate all dimensions of the restorative assemblage.    9123.1.1. Restoration is  relat ional Restoration can be provided through interactions with environments in which restorative resources are embedded. However, rather than considering these environments restorative in isolation, they can instead be thought of as complex assemblages of place. This is notion is reflected within concepts such as ‘enabling places,’ as outlined by researcher Cameron Duff. In his research, Duff explores “the role specific places play in generating or enabling the conditions necessary for the experience of health and wellbeing” 08an imagining of the metaphysical landscape experience(by author)“… the experience of nature is always an experience of a historically and culturally situated subject. The very fact that we are bodies contextualizes us in a certain time and place, and in a certain bodily condition like age, sex or capability. “(Thorgeirsdottir, 2016, pp. 21-22)11restorative landscape assemblage. As Duff states, it is interactions with all ‘enabling resources,’ such as the material landscape, that produces the restorative effect of the ‘enabling place’ (Duff, 2012). These ‘enabling resources’ fall within three categories, these being the aforementioned material, “centred on access to goods, services and the physical environment,” the affective, “centred on feelings, disposition and action-potential,” and the social, “centred on intimacy, trust and reciprocity” (Kearns, Collins, & Conradson, 2015, p. 178).  The idea that places may enable the conditions for wellbeing through material, affective, and social resources is affirmed through the work of geographers such as Ronan Foley, who considers the restorative experience in the context of landscapes of ritual. Foley (2011) explores the resources of these landscapes as assemblages of material landscape elements, symbolic or affective narratives, and inhabited, social, performance-based interaction. In reference to one ritual landscape, Foley states:“One can see a piece of micro-landscape of healing and wellness that bears material objects in a rolling topography (wells, trees, rocks, crosses). One can also see a second layer on top of that, the complex culturally produced meanings embedded in and shaping those material objects; the identities, especially the health identities, invested in them, and the hue and shade of metaphor on the material. Finally one can see a third layer of people, not ghostly, but solid palimpsestic traces of embodied human occupation and the uses, meanings and constructions that those mobile inhabitations enacted on the site…” (2011, p. 477). This makes tangible the specific resources of the holy well as an enabling place, the qualities that allow for it to be restorative but are relationally accessed. The resources explored by these researchers outlines two principles of restorative places: First, that places are restorative through relational encounters with their embedded resources, wherein relationality, fostered between a person and their environment as a form of connection, is founded one’s own distinct set of dynamic sociocultural-material-affective relationships. Second, that these embedded resources can be material, the physical assemblage of the place itself; symbolic, an outcome of how the place is understood to be restorative; and embodied, an outcome of the way in which individuals interact with the place. Following these principles, the material, symbolic, and embodied dimensions of the restorative landscape-place will be explored in depth within the following sections. 1413(2011, p. 149). Through this, Duff presents a relational understanding of place that acknowledges place as not only spatially and geographically constructed, but socially, culturally, and affectively created as well. The concept of relationality expands beyond the propensity within some restorative, healing, and therapeutic landscape literature to describe landscapes and places themselves as fundamentally therapeutic on their own. In reference to this tendency, professor David Conradson states that “…while we now have a sizeable literature in health geography on therapeutic landscapes—paralleled by work on restorative settings in environmental psychology…and health-giving settings in landscape architecture…there remains a tendency to frame such settings as having intrinsically therapeutic properties.” (2005, p. 338). This is what makes relationality important to consider; as researcher Sigridur Thorgeirsdottir states, “contrary to the romantic notion according to which nature is the prime source of the values, it is the interaction of nature that presents itself, the event itself and the meanings we give to it that results in the cognitive content of the metaphysical experience of landscape.” (2016, p. 18).  The material landscape itself, rather than being inherently restorative, can instead be understood as a “…geographic metaphor for aiding in the understanding of how the healing process works itself out in places (or in situations, locales, settings, milieus)” (Gesler, 1992, p. 743). Geographer Kathleen Wilson, exploring concepts of health and landscape in the context of Anishinabek culture, provides examples of this notion, stating:“It is important to recognize that the land represents more than just a physical location of healing. It must be understood as part of an intricate relationship in the everyday lives of Anishinabek between the physical, spiritual,and symbolic realms of Anishinabek identities. In addition, relationships to the land do not just exist solely on the ground but also in the minds of individuals” (2003, p. 89). Nuanced relationships such as these contribute to a richer understanding of what it means for a landscape to be restorative. In this way, the restorative experience can be seen as an assemblage of interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal relations between individual and environment, in which the importance of one’s socio-cultural background cannot be discounted (Conradson, 2005; Foley, 2011; Bell et al., 2015); therefore, the restorative landscape becomes not place-bound, but rather place-affected (Doughty, 2012). This is to say that the material landscape imbued with restorative qualities is but one resource within the “Place…needs to be understood as an embodied relationship with the world. Places are constructed by people doing things and in this sense are never ‘finished’ but are constantly being performed.” (Cresswell, 2004, as quoted in Ryan, 2016, p. 89)161509an imagining of the holy well assemblage(by author)resource that is easily depleted through the use of directed attention, attention that requires effort, and can subsequently be restored through stimulation of involuntary attention, which is effortless (Kaplan, 1995). As involuntary attention is “evoked by something interesting or exciting in the environment” (Kaplan, 1992, p. 135) and is more readily evoked in natural environments than others (Kaplan, 1995), it becomes integral to consider the qualities of the material environment when considering restoration. These environments, whether they are conceptual or physical, have four essential components: fascination, being away, extent, and compatibility.   Fascination is where involuntary attention is harnessed, and is pleasurably, softly, easily, and possibly aesthetically, engaged. One is able to function without directed attention, as the experience does not require it. Of particular interest is the notion that fascination can be derived from both environment, the experiential setting by which one is fascinated, and process, the way by which one engages with what fascinates them. This expands the possibilities of that which invokes fascination, and the practices that allow one to participate within and receive from their environment (Kaplan, 1992, 1995). Being away is a “sense of physical separation from your everyday world or a sense of being removed from your everyday activities” (Krinke, 2005, p. 133). It is primarily a conceptual transformation, a shift in the perception of one’s environments, not necessarily a shift in the environment itself. It is a sense of being in a setting that is ‘other,’ a setting that allows for new thoughts or ways of thinking (Kaplan, 1992). Extent is an experience of the environment that as “rich enough and coherent enough so that it constitutes a whole other world” (Kaplan, 1995, p. 173). It must have scope, wherein the environment is experienced as large enough to not interrupt the other world that one has entered, and connectedness, wherein the environment is experienced as a component of a larger whole. With these qualities, the environment would therefore feel expansive and abounding, with “enough to see, experience, and think about” (Kaplan, 1995, p. 173) that the experience of the environment allows one to be transported. Compatibility is achieved when what one wants to do and what one is trying to do are supported and even needed by the environment. The intuitive inclinations of the visitor align with the qualities of the environment, and the relationship between the two is effortless (Kaplan, 1992, 1995).  These four qualities are reflected in work on the settings of restorative experiences with nature. David Conradson, in the process of interviewing the guests of a rural respite center on the English coast, found that they discussed four main themes within self-declared shifts in their sense of wellbeing. First, that the centre, “…afforded them some distance from everyday routines and domestic demands.”; second, 18 Psychologists Rachel and Stephen Kaplans’ Attention Restoration Theory, or ART, provides a useful tool to deepen our understanding of the effects of depleted resources, and the role of the material environment in their restoration. Though this theory mostly considers restoration in terms of restoring one’s ability to concentrate, the environmental qualities described have resonance for the restoration of other resources as well (Conradson, 2005; Krinke, 2005). This theory posits that attentional ability is an integral 3.1.2. Restoration is  material1710an imagining of the restorative material environment (by author)2011an imagining of the restorative coastal heathland(by author)“…visiting allowed them to come close to the natural environment in uncommon ways. The opportunity to watch a rich variety of different bird species nesting and flying over the estate and to encounter deer and other wildlife in a natural habitat was especially valued”; and third, the centre “…provided an opportunity for both solitude and, if desired, the development of new friendships,” (2005, p. 342). These first three themes relate directly to the qualities outlined by the Kaplans, wherein distance, coming close to nature, and choice can be categorized as being away, fascination and extent, and compatibility, respectively.   The fourth theme found was that “…as a result of imbrication in this ecology of place, some individuals spoke of the emergence of new dimensions of selfhood.” (Conradson, 2005, p. 342). This affect “…may reflect a physiological response to the setting and relative absence of pressure. Equally, however, the landscape may function as a broader interpretative framework within which the individual reflects upon her life situation” (2005, pp. 340-341). This connects to a further assertion made by the Kaplans, which is that the restorative experience is not only environmental, it is also temporal. They state that the amount of time that one spends in the environment allows for four differing stages of restoration, each correlating to an increased interaction time. These four stages proceed from “clearing the head”, to “the recovery of directed attention”, to “the recovery of cognitive quiet”, and finally to “reflections on one’s life” a stage that may include “a concern for meaning, for tranquillity, and for relatedness” (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, pp. 196-197).  This speaks to the deep effect that a restorative encounter can have and how the environment can allow for this effect. Within this case study, the four qualities of ART can be understood to be embedded within the material environment, the place itself, as the respite centre is a nature-based, coastal retreat set in an expanse of heathland. In this way, the environment can be understood as an ‘enabling place’ (Duff, 2012). However, though fostered by the environment, these qualities are only accessed through interaction with this environment and are only restorative because the visitors understood them to be so. This leads to a discussion of the symbolic and narrative resources of restorative landscapes. 19 Perception plays a significant role within the restorative experience, as there is often a symbolic dimension to the relationship between place and healing that is interwoven within greater cultural narratives regarding the restorative potential of certain landscapes (Conradson, 2005; Gesler, 1992). The ‘metaphors’ and ‘identities’ of ritual landscapes that were discussed in section 3.1.1. through the work of Ronan Foley (2011) are examples of how narrative can inform one’s perception of the restorative qualities of place, as “where people seek or experience healing relates to their expectations of particular spaces, their imaginings 3.1.3. Restoration is  symbolic2212an imagining of the symbolic coast(by author)“Healing occurs along a symbolic pathway of words, feelings, values, expectations, beliefs, and the like which connect events and forms with affective and physiological processes” (Kleinman, 1973, as cited in Gesler, 1992, p. 739)21The spatiality of the coast is further illustrated within work conducted by researcher Sarah L. Bell et al., in which they conducted interviews with residents of coastal towns about their everyday restorative experiences with the surrounding landscape. They found that “the physical extent and broad horizons of the sea afforded a sense of spaciousness, which participants felt helped to ‘clear the head’, suggesting feelings of cognitive release or ‘internal spaciousness’” (Bell, Phoenix, Lovell, & Wheeler, 2015, p. 61), and that “for some participants, encountering these open horizons conferred a sense of perspective and feelings of connection to ‘something bigger’” (p. 62).  This is affirmed by further work done by Ronan Foley, who, in studies of restorative coastal interactions, found that “…swimming locations or places have wide cultural and emotional resonance and are intriguing examples of what we might conceptualize as therapeutic blue spaces, where water and sky are components of a wider environment producing health and well-being” (2015, p. 218). In this research, Foley found that “…we can identify a set of processes that are anticipatory, immersive and reflective and that take place before, during and after the activity” (2015, p. 224). He goes on to state that, “these are not momentary acts in isolation, and the importance of a life-course engagement with swimming in a range of relational places is potentially significant for health and wellbeing” (p. 224). This is a key concept within the discussion of the symbolic resources of restorative places: that regular interactions have a restorative affect that is not limited to a single instance, but instead translates between immediate positive effects and longer term benefits, wherein frequent encounters have a “…pre-reflective embodied response and a subsequent interpretative element” (Conradson, 2005, p. 340) to form “…an accumulation of ‘fleeting traces’… (Foley, 2017, p. 47). The regularity of embodied and relationally restorative experiences results in them becoming a “habitual and neurologically sedimented phenomenon.” (Macpherson, 2010, p. 6); as one internalizes restorative experiences, they inform one’s identity, and the affect of short-lived, relational and restorative 24of light, sound, presence, absence, surface, depth and texture are continually (re)worked and become apparent as alternating activities of construction, destruction and reconstruction. These movements are regular, rhythmic and constant, but are also interspersed by moments of intensity. Nothing is static. Nothing remains the same. These spatial natures of the coast thus tangibly highlight the  fluidity of the world – its ongoing and ever-emergent dynamic. People are drawn to the coast – to the paradoxical regularity of its ever-moving and elusive characteristics” (2016, p. 9). of how healing may occur there and the narratives of others, circulating and informing” (Perriam, 2015, p. 31). Places of nature exemplify the emplacement of these narratives, as nature-based environments as a broad category have cross-cultural, historical and contemporary reputations of healing. Nature is perceived to provide what the non-natural cannot, particularly in an increasingly urbanized world, and “one of the reasons that modern people seek refuge in nature is precisely the fact that one can have experiences in nature that, almost for a lack of better word, are termed as metaphysical” (Thorgeirsdottir, 2016, p. 13). An example of a nature-based landscape with embedded narratives of restoration is the coastal landscape. In many cultures, the embedded properties of water have held and continue to hold significance for healing (Serbulea & Payyappallimana, 2012; Gesler, 1992); as geographer Wil Gesler states, “mineral springs, rivers, and other water bodies have provided curative and restorative powers since classical Greek and Roman times. Water often symbolized purification and absolution, and could take on mystical powers” (Gesler, 1992, p. 737). In Western cultures, there have been various shifts in interpretation of the coastal landscape, “…from its enjoyment amongst the Ancient Greeks and Romans as a place of pleasure and beauty, to its avoidance throughout the Middle Ages as ‘wild and untamed’” (Bell, Phoenix, Lovell, & Wheeler, 2015, p. 56). The rise of the Romantic landscape movement was the catalyst for another narrative shift, in which people “…turned their bodies towards rather than away from the sea and embraced it in a specifically experiential way” (Foley, 2010, p. 112). The coast became a place of healing, wherein the medical potentials of the sea were explored through thalassotherapies (cures from the sea), a setting for recreation or retreat, and more contemporarily, a place of both physical and perceptual connection to nature for coastal communities (Foley, 2010; Bell, Phoenix, Lovell, & Wheeler, 2015). Notions of healing potentials have remained contemporarily, as in environmental psychology, “...aquatic elements are associated with positive mood effects, attractiveness, and perceived restorative abilities in both built and natural environments. Both the sounds of water (e.g. breaking waves) and immersing oneself into water (e.g. to bathe or swim) are often considered calming and restorative” (Finlay, Franke, McKay, & Sims-Gould, 2015, p. 98). The symbolic restorative potential of the wider coastal landscape is exemplified within experiential accounts. Author Anna Ryan writes about the coast, stating,23“When sea meets land, a particular intensity of encounter is set up. The physical properties of the coast as meeting point can be wrapped up in a sense of unceasing mobility: dynamics “I argue that it is precisely the body, our embodied existence that provides an important link between nature and our capacity to reflect metaphysically about it. It is the body, as a sensory apparatus and as embodied consciousness that allows us to enter into conversation with ourselves as nature. It is also our body as the locus for the socio-historical context in which we are situated that makes us experience nature differently in different times and different places.” (Thorgeirsdottir, 2016, p. 15)262513an imagining of the embodied coastal interaction(by author)landscape encounters expand beyond their temporal extent. One becomes attached to the place that they perceive to have provided restoration, therefore the capacity of the place to provide restoration increases because of the way these attachments contribute to identity (Hartig, 2007; Korpela, Ylen, Tyrvainen, & Silvennoinen, 2008). In this way, over time, places become embedded within the body, a part of identity wherein the presence and potential affect of the landscape become intuitive (Casey, 2001; Conradson, 2005). This embodied emplacement is explored within the following section. interpersonal encounters originate, as well as the site of all transpersonal and intrapersonal dimensions of selfhood. Within matters of place, “the body serves both as point of departure and as destination” (Lefebvre, 1991, p. 194). The body produces spatial understandings, bodily knowledge of an environment that emplaces the body within the qualities of that knowledge. Our sphere of environmental perception is governed by our embodied relation to the landscape, the locus of any greater comprehension. Through this, one can understand their embeddedness within the landscape, as “like organism and environment, body and landscape are complementary terms: each implies the other, alternately as figure and ground” (Ingold, 1993, p. 156).  The body is embedded within the landscape materially, while perceptions are produced sensorially. This is often written about in terms of the visual; however, vision can have a distancing effect, and this “repeated and prioritized engagement with the distancing view in studies of landscape has resulted in an overlooking of the fullness of our bodily sensibilities, and thus a significant academic challenge emerges to communicate this wholeness of our embodied spatial experience” (Ryan, 2016, p. 73). A haptic or kinaesthetic understanding of the embodied landscape experience moves beyond the partitioned model of the five senses toward a more holistic conception. Researcher Elizabeth Straughan states that, “the various aspects of place cannot be experienced without kinaesthetic sensation, for it acts to effect perception.” (2012, p. 22). Embodied sensation also has affect beyond the perceptual, as it “traverses the divide between the aesthetic, in the larger sense of the term as the sensory body, and the material, and encompasses those embodied feelings of tactility along with emotional feelings of touch - of being affected” (Paterson, 2005, p. 164). This is further exemplified within the research conducted by Sarah L. Bell et al. (2015) that was mentioned in the previous section (3.1.3.), wherein they found that “…several participants illustrated the importance of internally felt bodily sensations at the coast, conveying the importance of ‘haptic’ restorative sensory experiences” (Bell, Phoenix, Lovell, & Wheeler, 2015, p. 61). These experiences are fostered through active engagement with the body, and in research concerning bodily experience of the coast, these engagements are often presented in the form of movement, of walking or swimming, examples of the familiar and recognizable practices that contribute to the “…simultaneous and ongoing shaping of self, body and landscape…” (Wylie, 2007, p. 166). Researchers have found that, “on the whole, movement as a necessarily inseparable dimension of sensate being is an area that has met inadequate attention in studies of therapeutic practices and spaces” (Doughty, 2012, p. 140). 283.1.4. Restoration is  embodied Through a relational understanding of the restorative experience, it becomes necessary to think about the specificity of the body within each relational assemblage, as the manner of relation can have as much influence as the qualities evoked by the material landscape or the symbolic dimensions of place. The body is a crucial way in which one relates to their environment, as “our first and foremost, most immediate and intimately felt geography is the body, the site of emotional experience and expression par excellence” (Davidson & Milligan, 2007, p. 523). The body is how we exist in material space, a point from which all 2714an imagining of the restorative material environment (by author)each movement is echoed and felt through the water. This awareness has implications, as embodiment as a restorative affect is not solely embedded within environmental interactions themselves; an awareness of place through the body also brings an awareness of and responsiveness to sensations of the body, and this has restorative implications as well.  Researchers who study embodiment have found that “internal awareness of bodily signals is an important aspect of self-knowledge and emotional experience. Greater awareness of one’s feelings and bodily desires may increase the self-confidence necessary to make decisions that feel right, contributing to positive emotions and psychological well-being” (Impett, Daubenmier, & Hirschman, 2006, p. 40). Through embodied experiences, one affirms that they are deserving of both restoration and connection to their body and that they have the ability to achieve them through active participation in these experiences (Rhodes, 2015; Perriam, 2015). This participation allows these experiences to be “…not a passive surrender of the body…but a taking-part in the healing process” (Perriam, 2015, p. 29). Other researchers have found that “in identifying the body as a site of experience, performance and feeling, bodies themselves could be transformed into landscapes of healing, expressed in inscription on the body as well as imagined from within it” (Foley, 2010, p. 8). In this way, in a similar manner to how places become embedded within the body a part of intuitive, restorative identity, the restorative potentials of embodiment become embedded. As one becomes aware of the sensations of the body in place, the body becomes the place of restoration and subsequently, landscapes that provide for this awareness have an increased capacity to provide restoration.30 The bodily experience of walking or moving through the landscape “…brings human beings into the world and life into motion, temporally and spatially – “it sets the rhythm” (Lund & Willson, 2016, p. 97). There is a wider social comprehension of walking as a restorative practice, and when it is enacted and felt as restorative within the body, this symbolic dimension gains affective significance as an embodied practice (Doughty, 2012). This is exemplified by writer Rebecca Solnit, who states, “walking, ideally, is a state in which the mind, the body, and the world are aligned, as though they were three characters finally in conversation together, three notes suddenly making a chord (quoted in Lund & Willson, 2016, p. 97). In this way, walking can be thought of as a practice of heightened sensitivity, a direct connection to ground and space negotiated between body and landscape. The landscape is felt, tactile and sensorial, incorporated directly into the bodily experience; at the same time, it is viewed as a perspective, shifting through bodily rhythms, speeds, and postures (Lund, 2005, 2012; Ingold, 1993). The body’s formation of spatial understandings has a direct connection to the landscape, distances measured in steps, space in body width and height. Leaves brush against the arm, twigs snap underfoot, the smell of earth rises from a fresh footprint, the horizon flashes through a gap in tree cover as one passes, and the body is directly emplaced in this production of haptic understanding.   This direct emplacement has even more resonance within the practice of swimming. In the research on restorative coastal interactions that was mentioned in the previous section (3.1.3.), Foley (2015) found that “…the relationship between the swimmer and the body emerged as a sort of internal embodiment, developed almost incrementally through familial and place proximity to the sea” (Foley, 2015, p. 223). In subsequent research, the individuals interviewed described that swimming provided a connection to nature that was much deeper than that achieved through other practices, as through immersion in water, they became “literally part of nature” (Foley, 2017, p. 48). In this way, the relationship between person as viewer and landscape as object is altered, as through entering the water, “…the swimmer literally shifts from being a subject to becoming a co-subject within the object and indeed, given the difficulties in breathing in choppy seas, often swallows and absorbs the water into their own bodies such that the object permeates the subject” (Foley, 2017, p. 49). The effect of immersion has great implications for the sensorial experience. The sensation of water in contact with skin stimulates proprioception, “ a perceptual system based on the sensory returns from nerve endings in the muscles, so that as part of one’s embodiment the position of the body and limbs are felt” (Paterson, 2009, p. 769). The landscape is felt directly, sensorially rich and deeply available. The water moves with the body, the salt dries on the skin, the smell of the sea permeates every pore, and one is emplaced, fully, within the landscape. This also brings a greater awareness of one’s body, as 293.2. Conclusion3216an imagining of the embodied restorative experience (by author)15an imagining of the body as a landscape of healing(by author)3134relationalityprinciples considerations potential methodsmaterialitysymbolismembodimenttemporalitythe assemblagefascination site analysisbeing awayextentcompatibilityembeddenesssensorykinaestheticemplacedemplacedprescribedattachmentpotential usersresearchnarrativeresearchfrequent visitsresearchfrequent visitsresearchfrequent visitsnarrativedesigners own relationality phenomenological mappingcase study analysisphenomenological mappingcase study analysisWithin the four previous sections, this research developed a concept of restoration that followed four central principles, that restoration is: relational, material, symbolic, and embodied. As well, throughout this concept, a fifth influencing principle emerged: that restoration is temporal. These principles are summarized below:1.  Restoration is relational:  restoration takes place in a complex place-assemblage of interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal relations between individual and environment. In this manner, places themselves become restorative through relational encounters with their embedded resources, wherein relationality is founded upon one’s own distinct set of dynamic sociocultural-material-affective relationships.2.  Restoration is material:  restorative qualities, such those that establish the conditions for fascination, being away, extent, and compatibility, can be emplaced within the material environment, the landscape itself. These can be understood as embedded resources with which one can have a relational experience. 3.  Restoration is symbolic:  as one becomes attached to the place that they perceive to have provided restoration, the capacity of the place to provide restoration increases because of the way these attachments contribute to identity; places become embedded within the body, a part of identity wherein the presence and potential affect of the landscape become intuitive.4.  Restoration is embodied:  within a haptic or kinaesthetic conception of the embodied landscape experience, the body is embedded within the landscape materially, while perceptions are produced sensorially through felt bodily sensations. These sensations are fostered through active engagement with the body, and these engagements are often conceptualized in the form of movement. 5.  Restoration is temporal:  the amount of time that one spends in the environment allows for differing stages of restoration, each correlating to an increased interaction time. As well, regular interactions have a restorative affect that is not limited to a single instance, but instead translates between immediate positive effects and longer term benefits, wherein the affect of short-lived, relational and restorative landscape encounters expand beyond their temporal extent.The next section outlines the ways in which these principles will provide the framework for the design explorations within GP II. It is also through these principles that a selection of case studies will be explored.3.2.1. Principles335.  Design for temporality: The designer should consider how they might be prescriptive in engagement, in which individuals are encouraged to or desire to visit the site frequently or for longer amounts of time, to allow for greater restoration. The designer should also consider how this might be emplaced, so that it is built into the site rather than placed upon. The designer should consider the cumulative affect of the site, and how it might continue to fascinate even with regular visits. 36This section translates five principles of restoration into an initial design framework. This framework will be the starting place for site analysis and design in GP II, and will be refined through exploration throughout the next semester.1.  Design for relationality: the designer should consider the entire assemblage of place. This means that the existing relationship of people to the place needs to be accounted for and maintained through the design. Though one cannot predict all potential users of the design, thought should be given to who might visit this place and why, as well as how they might form an understanding of it. The design should actively consider material, symbolic, and embodied components with equal weight, and the designer should investigate their own relationality in-place throughout the design process. 2.  Design for materiality: the designer should consider the different ways in which they can design for restorative qualities. This should first be approached through site analysis and phenomenological mapping, in order to understand the ways in which the site already provides for these qualities and how they might be enhanced. An analysis of case studies in which these qualities are embedded will also provide an understanding of how other individuals have considered and designed for them. 3.  Design for symbolism: the designer should consider they ways in which the site provides restoration for them, and their own intuitive attachments to the place, as even if it is not a place with which the designer is intimately familiar, they can still have symbolic understandings of it. Through frequent visits, the designer should investigate the ways in which the place becomes embedded in their body and consider how to translate that into their design. The designer should investigate the greater symbolic attachments to the place at several scales and should also consider the symbolic potential of each design intervention. 4.  Design for embodiment: the designer should consider their own felt bodily sensations within the site, the types of movement through which their body is engaged, and how the sensory aspects of the site can be enhanced. Within each design intervention, the designer should consider the kinaesthetic impact, the multisensory potential, and the potential body affect. The designer should consider how they might allow individuals to be more aware of their bodies and the sensation of being in place. 3.2.2. Framework353.3.1. The Guil lamene38The Guillamene is a beautiful sheltered cove, framed by rocks and large cliffs, with deep, clear, cold water and a second, more shallow cove right beside (Newtown cove). The road from Tramore follows the cliffs on one side and is edged by houses on the other, which eventually fade into a blend of small agricultural plots and heathland. The road leads to a small parking area at the top of the cliffs, where the cove can be clearly seen. There are steps, railings, and ramps that lead down to and eventually into, the water, where the surfaces are composed of large stone platforms that blend into the rocks. From the cove, one can look far out into the sea, and see Brownstone Head across the horizon. Location:  on the southeast coast of Ireland, along the Atlantic Ocean, a short distance from the seaside village of Tramore, in County WaterfordKey dates:  in the early 1900’s, the Newtown and Guillamene Swimming Club is established; 2010, significant built work is undertaken by the club (new ramps, platforms, steps, railings, and diving board)Landscape type:  swimming cove1819ramps and stairs into the water (O’Carroll, 2014)the Guillamene, viewed from the surrounding cliffs (LoneSwimmer, 2011)3.3. Case Studies3717an imagining of the Guillamene and the West Coast Trail (by author)*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.40the Guillamene, viewed from the surrounding cliffs(LoneSwimmer, 2011)deep water in  the cove(Llyod, 2010)212239context map of the Guillamene1 : 20 000 500 mNewtown WoodsNewtown HillRiverstownBallycarnane WoodsClarinwoodTramoree GuillameneNewtown coveIreland20*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.42the Guillamene on a sunny day(Llyod, 2010)textures of the Guillamene(O’Carroll, 2014)view from the beach(Llyod, 2010)23242541The immersive practices in this space are decidedly variable yet demonstrate the high level of the compatibility, as laid out by the Kaplans (refer to section 3.1.2.), available in this place. In work on ‘therapeutic blue space’, Ronan Foley relays the observation notes from one participant: The fine summer’s day seems to have brought out all sorts. Young children tentatively jump from the diving board under supervision from anxious yet proud parents. Older teenage boys, dive from crude diving stones into the water with a vigorous thunk, depending on size and weight. They are not especially good swimmers, being content to doggy-paddle back to the dive zone. Most of the children wear light wetsuits. Older adults take more leisurely swims in the swell, content to look around them; happily moving at their own speed. They tend to be dressed in togs. An old man, too frail to get in to the water, brings a bucket so he can at least douse himself in the fresh sea-water, a process he calls a ‘shower of freshness’.” (Foley, 2015, p. 221)This demonstrates the openness, playfulness, and an availability of this place that has allowed it to have such resonance for the community. There is a connectedness, to other swimmers, to place, and to nature. In further work by Foley (2017), one participant stated:“I suppose when you are swimming, when you are out in the sea, in the ocean you know, there's nothing else there and you really connected with nature and they're beautiful stunning spots…you swim out maybe five hundred yards from the beach…look back at the cliffs and the fields and the mountains and shoreline it's an amazing experience and you obviously have that nice cold shock as well, gets every sensation in your body going…you feel really alive and you also feel connected I think to the Universe and connected to family” (Foley, 2017, p. 47). Another participant noted that they often had otherworldly experiences within their immersion in this place, stating: “When I dive in the water and I open my eyes, it’s like when Judy Garland in Over the Rainbow, it’s like when she opens the door or whatever or she wakes up, and the *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.44the staircase down to the cove(LoneSwimmer, 2011)flowers at the top of the cliffs(LoneSwimmer, 2011)262743These accounts relay the relational capacity of this place, wherein visitors, through their encounters, are able to access embedded resources, which range across the material, symbolic, and embodied. Its material resources are: location, wherein the site is easily accessible to locals but removed enough from the town that it provides a sense of being away; extent, wherein the site is connected to a larger coastline, which can be seen from multiple points on the site, as well as a larger water body, which can be seen and felt but is not overwhelming due to the protected nature of the cove; place, wherein the site feels contained enough to have its own character, this character extending being embedded throughout the place’s history; compatibility, wherein there is enough variance in water access, surfaces, and spaces so as to provide many types of experiences across a range of needs and desires; fascination, wherein there is enough to look at and interact with that the visitor is captivated.  The site also holds symbolic resources, which are those commonly associated with the coast and thalassotherapy (see section 3.1.3.), but also those held by the locals. The Guillamene, as well as Newtown Cove, are “famous for their deep and clear waters, they are regarded by many as two of the best outdoor swimming spots in Ireland” (Newtown Cove Caravan Park, n.d.). Guillamene is noted to be “…where 'real swimmers' from Tramore and beyond come to socialise and swim,” and to explore the “deep,” “lovely,” and “clear” waters (Llyod, 2010). This speaks to this place’s reputation as an outdoor swimming spot in Ireland, and to a greater culture of outdoor swimming in the country. Writer Lisa Regan says of all-season swimming in her county, “there is an entire community of swimmers…It’s very welcoming, and there is a knowing smile and a “jaysus, you’re a bit mad too!” nod that you get every day from your companions at the shore” (Regan, 2019). There is a temporal affect to these symbolic resources, as when swimming becomes a regular activity, swimming spots can become embedded within the body; this allows these spots to become film goes from black and white to colour it depends you see on the day the water could be brown, it could be aquamarine, it could be green, it could be vivid blue, it could be if the sea is agitated it could have sparkle. There’s so many different colours and it’s always a wonder to know well it isn’t a wonder so much as a surprise when you open your eyes before you come up and whether we all came out of the sea or all crawled out of the sea or not I dunno, but certainly there’s some kind of a personal rapport or wonderment to the colours” (Foley, 2017, p. 48).*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.3.3.2. The West Coast  TrailLocation:  within the traditional territory of the Huu-ay-aht, the Ditidaht and Pacheedaht First Nations, along a 75-kilometre stretch of the coastline of what is now known as Vancouver IslandKey dates:  Ancient trails and paddling routes were used for trade and travel by First Nations for countless generations; Over 200 years ago, foreign sailing ships began to reach the region, often wrecking along the coast; in 1907, lifesaving stations were established and a former telegraph route was upgraded to become the Dominion Life Saving Trail; in 1970, the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve was established; in 1973, the Lifesaving Trail was included in the national park reserve as a recreational hiking trail (Parks Canada, n.d.)Landscape type:  multi-day hiking trail 46The West Coast Trail is located on the traditional territory of the Huu-ay-aht, the Ditidaht and Pacheedaht First Nations. Ditidaht First Nations Chief Councillor Jack Thompson says, in introduction to the trail, that “as you walk the West Coast Trail you will experience our rich culture, our rich history. These lands that you walk on, we 28the trail as it opens onto a cliff (Field & Forest, n.d.)29the trail within tree cover (Field & Forest, n.d.)a part of one’s greater place identity wherein the presence and potential restorative affect of these landscapes become intuitive. The Guillamene also holds embodied resources, in its immersive potential and ability to produce perceptions through felt bodily sensations as one moves through the landscape. There is the walk down to and into the water; the sensation of immersion while swimming in the salt water; the roughness of the rocks contrasted with the smoothness of the concrete stairs, ramps, and platforms; the cold metal railing in the cool water; the spongy mosses along the surfaces; the textures of light on water, of plants against rock, of cliff above water and below sky. The textural nature of the place creates necessary engagement with the body to navigate: there is a sense of potential danger and excitement while jumping off the sharp rocks or high diving board, a sensation of salty air and water against skin and hard surfaces underfoot, a negotiation of body down and up smooth stairs and ramps wherein one might need the railing for support. It is an assemblage of potential sensation and subsequent affect that requires engagement with place.  The Guillamene is a significant example of a place-assemblage with many embedded resources of restorative potential. The designed additions, such as the path, stairs, ramps, railings, and diving board, serve to enhance the available compatibility of the site while maintaining the places nature-based identity and immersive potential. It is a place of cultural relationality, and as demonstrated by the first-hand accounts of the site, is also a place of individual relationality for many. For this researcher, this was a helpful case study in order to examine embedded resources with a higher level of specificity and begin to understand the greater affect of restorative places such as this. 45*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.48the trail along a beach(Field & Forest, n.d.)the forest as viewed from the trail(Field & Forest, n.d.)the trail along coastal cliffs(Field & Forest, n.d.)333231Port San JuanNitinaht Lake Gordon River AccessPachena AccessVancouver Islandcontext map of the West Coast Trail1 : 400 000 5000 m3047*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.50the trail along a beach(Field & Forest, n.d.)34have lived here since time immemorial and will continue to do so into the future” (Parks Canada, 2011). Before the trail was primarily known for leisure hiking, the trails of this area were used for trade and travel by First Nations since time-out-of-mind. After colonial ships began sailing the region, there were many shipwrecks along the west coast of the island, and after the steamship Valencia was wrecked in 1906, the Canadian government conducted work along these trails to establish a life saving trail from which to conduct rescue missions. As this lifesaving trail became less necessary and the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve was established, the trail was included in the national park reserve as a recreational hiking trail in 1973 (Parks Canada, n.d.). Contemporarily, “Parks Canada, the Huu-ay-aht, Ditidaht and Pacheedaht First Nations work collaboratively to ensure the protection, preservation and presentation of these lands” (Parks Canada, 2011). This trail is known for its unparallelled beauty and sense of place. It shifts and changes exponentially over the 75 kilometres, providing fascination and extent, while still maintaining a sense of place through a continued character. The landscape of and around the trail is a comprehensive example of what settlers and visitors think of when considering West Coast beauty, as:“It's constantly changing at every glance. Everywhere you look you spot a work of art in the form of a splayed tree over a river valley or a sudden gap in the forest revealing the ocean a thousand feet below. A swirling morass of green water and white, swirling foam churned up by the waves crashing from the Pacific” (Hike West Coast Trail, n.d.).There is also opportunity for interaction with many other-than-human beings, to see life beyond the human-centric at a large scale. T’Sou-ke Nation Chief Gordon Planes says, “what I appreciate the most about being out here is the atmosphere, the scenery, you get the killers whales or any whales that pass by, you got eagles soaring, you got wolves and cougars passing through. You get everything that you can think of ” (Parks Canada, 2011). It is materially textural, its type beauty shifting from one place to the next, and for visitors, it consistently provides a sense of being in a place that is ‘other,’ one that can transport from the everyday to the otherworldly.  The West Coast Trail is also “…much more than a breathtakingly beautiful hike – it is the remnants of history that takes you through in the footsteps of the First People” (The West Coast Trail, n.d.). This place holds significance as part of the ancestral, traditional territory of the Huu-ay-aht, the Ditidaht and 49*Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.a portion of the trail only accessible by ladder(Field & Forest, n.d.)the trail within the forest(Field & Forest, n.d.)36355251Pacheedaht First Nations, as a landscape with deep, generational meanings for many. Nadine Crookes, the First Nations Program Manager for Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, says in reference to the landscape, “The Nuu-Chah-Nulth have no word for wild or wilderness. There’s only home. And that’s the basic philosophy of Nuu-Chah-Nulth people. And that’s how we live on the landscape” (Parks Canada, 2011). This relationality is hugely important to bear in mind when regarding restoration in this place, wherein restoration may not be considered in terms of the affect of embedded resources, but of a complex, layered relationship with nature that has cultural specificity. Each person may approach this place with their own distinct set of dynamic sociocultural-material-affective relationships and understandings, but there is also space to hear the experiences of the peoples who have known and cared for this land since time immemorial. There are interpreters and maintenance crews from all three nations who do their work along the trail, and as Gordon Planes states: “When you come across an interpreter or maintenance person, they’re more than happy to come by and help and assist and give you a little bit of information that you might need to get to your next campsite. And then also they’ll give you a perspective on their traditional territories, their old ways of life and the way of their ancestors and living off the land and taking care of mother earth” (Parks Canada, 2011).In this way, the symbolic meaning of this place and restorative potential of being in a landscape as beautiful as this is not limited to settler knowledge, but includes more ways of knowing that can deepen ones understanding of place and the meanings of place for others.  The West Coast Trail is also a very physically demanding hike, requiring careful preparation and planning: “The terrain is uneven, and you must be prepared for slippery conditions on muddy trails, wooden surfaces, boulders and rocky shorelines” (The West Coast Trail, n.d.). It requires a deep bodily awareness, a consciousness of ground, body in space, conditions, surroundings. The material embeddedness of the body produces perceptions through felt bodily sensations, and through the length of the trail, one may feel in more tune with these sensations of their body. The West Coast Trail, for experienced and prepared hikers, takes 5-7 days to complete. It has a temporal affect that would potentially allow one to enter all four of the differing stages of restoration spoken about by the Kaplans (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; refer to section 3.1.2.), which may also produce deep bodily connection. The body is actively engaged in the process of hiking, of negotiating through diverse spaces and conditions that may challenge endurance. It is an assemblage of *Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.53potential hazard, sensation, and subsequent affect that emplaces the body. One account of this experience states:“The trail is brutal. It's invariably raining, so you are often soaking wet. This makes you soggy and crabby, tired and exhausted. The treacherous trail in this wet is muddy, slippery and requires your full attention at every step. This mesmerizes you as you hike. You focus completely on your next step and your mind relaxes into a meditative state. This is when it happens. You look up, catch a glance of what's around you, and it's marvellous. This is it.” (Hike West Coast Trail, n.d.).  The West Coast Trail is a significant example of a place-assemblage with a deep history of engagement and a form of embodied interaction that has spanned thousands of years. 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For example, the everyday experience of being a university student can be extremely stressful; this continuous stress may have serious health effects over time if one is not able restore the personal resources that support their well-being. There is significant research, and examples dating back thousands of years, which indicate that restoration of one’s well-being can be supported through contact with natural environments. In the context of this project, these environments are defined as enabling places, these being nature-based landscapes that enable the conditions necessary for the experience of restoration. This project explores the concept of the enabling place within a section of the Foreshore trail, through the lens of a UBC student in need of access to restorative experiences. The many dimensions of this place are considered through its embedded resources, and because the notion of these resources is conceptual, the responses are diverse.W H E N  S E A M E E T S  L A N D : A N  I N T R O D U C T I O N62LITERATURE REVIEWCASE STUDIESGP1THE CONCEPT01THE SITE02THE DESIGN03PRINCIPLES1.1 CONCEPTUAL F R A M E W O R K2.1  SITESELECTION2.2  SITE A N A LY S I S2.3  OPPORTUNITYI D E N T I F I C AT I O N3.1  OPPORTUNITYR E S P O N S E3.2  RESPONSET Y P O L O G I E S1.2  DESIGN S T R A T E G Yintentiongoalsobjectivesmethodsenhancement through character extensiveintensiveenhancement through interventionenhancement through detailsmappingcategorizationsegmentidentificationT H E  D E S I G N  P R O C E S S63THE CONCEPT011.1 CONCEPTUAL F R A M E W O R K1.2  DESIGN S T R A T E G Yintentiongoalsobjectivesmethods641.1  C O N C E P T U A L  F R A M E W O R KSo, why is the process of restoration important to consider? Psychologist Terry Hartig states that, “As commonly defined, stress arises from an excess of demands relative to the resources needed to cope with those demands.” (Hartig, 2007, pp. 1-2). The disconnect between available and required resources can have a serious health effect over time as personal resources are exhausted while stressors remain. As Hartig states, “Over the long run, an inability to renew depleted [personal] resources may have grave consequences for effective action, emotional well-being, and health in a broader sense, mental as well as physical.” In light of this, restoration can be considered as crucial for the maintenance of one’s wellbeing. How can we approach restoration? In the context of this project, the key hypothesis is that deep engagement with a landscape that has embedded place resources can enable restoration, which I am defining as the process of recovering personal health resources that support us across the spectrum of our well-being. What are embedded place resources? These are the qualities and materials that enable the conditions necessary for the experience of restoration. Within this project, I am defining a landscape’s embedded place resources as either material, symbolic, or embodied. Material resources are the physical assemblage of the place itself. A material landscape that would enable restoration would be coherent and legible, which is to say able to be read and understood by the individual so that they feel comfortable and safe. However, it should also be intricate and intriguing, or complex, interesting, and detailed enough that it encourages exploration and therefore deeper engagement. Symbolic resources are an outcome of how the place is understood to be restorative. Perception plays a significant role within the restorative experience, as there is often a symbolic dimension to the relationship between place and healing. Therefore, the landscape should have embedded indicators of its healing potential, based on the place and its particular landscape type. Embodied Resources are an outcome of the way in which individuals interact with the place. Engagement with place through the body brings an awareness of and responsiveness to sensations of the body, and this has restorative implications. Researchers have found that “in identifying the body as a site of experience, performance and feeling, bodies themselves could be transformed into landscapes of healing…” (Foley, 2010, p. 8). The landscape should have the potential for engagement that is both multi-sensory and active, so that the individual may participate in their own restoration.65WELLBEINGDEEP ENGAGEMENT WITH A LANDSCAPER E S TO R AT I O NE M O T I O N A L S P I R I T U A LM E N T A LP H Y S I C A Lthat has  embedded place resourcesthese  embedded place resources are defined as:If a landscape is able to provide for all of these resources, this would foster deeper engagement, and therefore greater restorationof the personal resources that support can lead to M A T E R I A LTHE PHYSICAL ASSEMBLAGE OF THE PLACE ITSELFthe landscape should be:coherent and legible, so that it is able to be read and understood by the individualyet intricate and intriguing enough that it encourages exploration and deeper engagementS Y M B O L I CAN OUTCOME OF HOW THE PLACE IS UNDERSTOOD TO BE RESTORATIVEthe landscape should have embedded narratives of the restorative potential of:and the healing potentials of its particular landscape typethe place and associated nature E M B O D I E DAN OUTCOME OF THE WAY IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS INTERACT WITH THE PLACEthe landscape should have the potential for engagement that is:and active, to allow the individual to participate in their own restorationsensory, to bring awareness to the body1.1 C O N C E P T U A L  F R A M E W O R K :S U M M A RY66the landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethods1.2  D E S I G N  S T R AT E G Y :I N T E N T I O N   T O  M E T H O D SG OA L :To increase the restorative potential of embedded place resources that are:I N T E N T I O N :To explore and increase the restorative potential of a chosen landscape through its embedded place resources.note:the four material objectives of coherence, legibility, intricacy, and intrigue are based upon Rachel and Stephen Kaplan’s landscape preference matrix, as discussed and outlined in “Planting Design: Connecting People and Place” by Patrick Mooney, pages 14-18.67THE SITE022.1  SITESELECTION2.2  SITE A N A LY S I S2.3  OPPORTUNITYI D E N T I F I C AT I O Nmappingcategorizationsegmentidentification68As I am interested in the affect of a landscape as it pertains to relationality, I am approaching this project through a personal lens, as a student in need of access to restorative experiences. As I do most work on the UBC campus, I would like the site to be on or adjacent to it. Therefore my criteria for a site is:• close to the UBC campus, so that it is easily accessible• already has restorative potential, yet is not consistently restorative, so the design may have a significant impact• is nature-based, so that there may be a direct comparison between the site before and after the design• is large enough in scope and complexity to explore many ideas, yet can be broken up into smaller components in order to deepen the explorationOne site that fits this criteria is the Foreshore Trail, a coastal walk located on the western side of the UBC campus. This is the site on which the design will be developed.2.1  S I T E  S E L E C T I O N : C R I T E R I A691 : 20 000Chancellor BlvdW 4th Avee Univeristy of British ColumbiaPacic Spirit Regional ParkTrail #3, Tower Beach StairsNW Marine DrWestbrook MallSW Marine DrW 10th AveW 16th AveUniversity BlvdWreck BeachPoint GreyTower BeachAcadia BeachSpanish BanksJericho Beach ParkForeshore ParkTrail #6:Wreck Beach StairsTrail #7:connects beach area with Marine DriveForeshore TrailheadBritish ColumbiaVancouverTrail #4:connects beach area with Chancellor Blvd500 m2.1  S I T E  S E L E C T I O N :C O N T E X T  M A P70The trail is known for its beauty, views, makeshift nature, and challenging terrain; this is not an accessible walk, as it there are stairs, rocky portions, and uneven ground throughout. For most of the walk, there is no laid-out path, but simply a shoreline to follow, which can be challenging, but is also part of what allows for a unique sense of place. It has the embedded qualities of: fascination, with shifting, nature-based beauty; extent, with enough length and seclusion to provide a feeling of place; being away, as it has a feeling of ‘otherness’ compared to the adjacent built areas, and variation within itself. As one visitor states, “besides the odd fishing boat going by, there isn’t anything to suggest that you are in the middle of a large city – the views are mostly of far away forested mountains and of open ocean.” (Eyton, 2015). What is  the Foreshore Trail?Where is  the Foreshore Trail?2.1  S I T E  S E L E C T I O N :I N T R O D U C T I O NThe Foreshore Trail is actually several trails extending along the Point Grey coastline from the cliffs at Spanish Banks to Wreck Beach.  There are four trails (trail #3, #4, #6, and #7), each with its own set of stairs that leads to the water. These are pieced together by shoreline beaches and pathways.It is located on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) people, along a 4.7 kilometre stretch of the coastline in the boundaries of what are now known as Pacific Spirit Park and the UBC Endowment Lands.Trail #7 as it opens onto the beachWhat is  the experience of  the trai l?What about the trai l  is  already restorative?Why design on a site that  already has restorative qualit ies?Who uses this  site  currently?What is  the key relationality within this  project?The trail is restorative through context. Throughout the trail, one has an expansive view of the ocean and coastline. The continuous curve of Point Grey provides a sense of being away from the city, as the skyline is often hidden by cliffs and forest, a feature that has led to this place being described as an “authentic” coastal walk. There are two reasons: firstly, though the trail is restorative through context, its arrangement is not always restorative, and at times it feels uncertain and/or unsafe; one is constantly taken out of their contemplative state to move over obstacles, find the lost trail, or to ensure their safety. Secondly, I am approaching this project through a personal lens, that of a UBC student in need of access to restorative experiences on or adjacent to campus, and this is a highly suitable site for this purpose, as it is close to campus yet arguably underutilized for restoration.It has many associated user groups, those being the Musqueam Nation, residents, tourists, nudists, and UBC students. Relationality is hugely important to bear in mind when regarding restoration in this place, wherein restoration may not be considered in terms of the affect of nature, or of embedded resources, but of a complex, layered relationship with nature that has cultural specificity. Within many relationalities, the knowledge of this place extends beyond its recreational value to have a deeper affect within interactions. I approach this project as a UBC student in need of restoration with full acknowledgement that this is only one possible response out of many. The restorative experience is an intricate and complex relationship between health, personhood, and environment, and as this project approaches restoration as a relational outcome, that which is restorative for one individual may not be restorative for another. I have chosen to approach it phenomenologically and experientially, based on my own relationality and documentation of my feelings within certain spaces, in order to truly immerse myself within the experience of the site and better understand the affective potential of the design.712.1  S I T E  S E L E C T I O N :I N T R O D U C T I O N72When sea meets land, a particular intensity of encounter is set up. e physical properties of the coast as meeting point can be wrapped up in a sense of unceasing mobility: dynamics of light, sound, presence, absence, surface, depth and texture are continually (re)worked and become apparent as alternating activities of construction, destruction and reconstruction.  ese movements are regular, rhythmic and constant, but are also interspersed by moments of intensity. Nothing is static. Nothing remains the same. ese spatial natures of the coast thus tangibly highlight the  uidity of the world – its ongoing and ever-emergent dynamic.People are drawn to the coast – to the paradoxical regularity of its ever-moving and elusive characteristics. is  owing mobility of the meeting of land and sea draws attention to multiple spatial sensations: as well as making the physical mobility of the world materially and visibly apparent, the coast also emphasises the  owing nature of the relationship between body and world. Ryan, A. (2016). Where Land Meets Sea: Coastal Explorations of Landscape, Representation and Spatial Experience. pg. 9. Oxon: Routledge.2.2  S I T E  A N A LY S I S : M A P P I N G  - R E L AT I O N A L I T Y1 : 20 000This site has many overlayed relationalities, some based in history, some being built contemporarily, but they are all ways of knowing this place, and each user may have a different understanding of what this site means to them.73LegendTrail #3Trail #4Trail #6Trail #7defined trailno defined trailrestorative spacesdistinctive change in charactersoundfernsconiferous treesmostly deciduous treesmostly deciduous shrubssand rocksgrasses/reedslogsmajor erosionwater (darker = more visible/louder/present)2.2  S I T E  A N A LY S I S : M A P P I N G  - C ATA L O G U E1 : 15 000742.2  S I T E  A N A LY S I S : S E G M E N T  I D E N T I F I C AT I O N 1 : 30 000Trail #3Trail #6Trail #7Trail #4The site can be broken up into three distinct segments, which can in turn be walked as loops. Each has their own particular embedded resources yet are all similar enough that walking one segment would be able to give an idea of the experience of them all. In order to more deeply explore the conceptual framework, I have chosen to design within a single segment, between trail #3 and trail #4, as it is a difficult portion to engage with, but is a very manageable length, being only 1.5 kilometers long.A R E A O F  F O C U SMUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYTrail #4Trail #3CECIL GREEN PARK HOUSENW MARINE DRIVEA R E A  O F  F O C U S1 :  6  000CECIL GREEN PARK ROAD75LegendTrail #72.2  S I T E  A N A LY S I S : C AT E G O R I Z AT I O N  - L A N D S C A P E  C H A R AC T E R01:  shaded forests1Trail #3Trail #6Trail #402:  open forest03:  rocky beach04:  coastal woodlands2s3s41 : 15 000After initial cataloguing and analysis of the existing site, I categorized it into a set of four landscape characters, all of which are present in the area of focus. This categorization allowed me to more fully understand the embedded resources of the site. The categories are: the shaded forest, the open forest, the rocky beach, and the coastal woodland. I will briefly go through the analysis of these characters, going over only one in detail.A R E A O F  F O C U S76level: flat spaces at the top of each set of stairslevel: a narrative of entering “nature,” a space separate from the everyday.  The affect of anticipation guided by the pathwaylevel: invites passive movement, has the dominant sensory element of sound with the crunch of the gravel pathstairs: sets of steps leading to the water, with steep hills on either sidestairs: a narrative of hiking through the forest, a manner of interaction with specific significance. The affect of immersion as one is engulfed by the cathedral-like canopystairs: invites active movement, has the dominant sensory element of touch as one uses the railings for supportlandings: flat spaces within the stairs, with one side bordered by steep hillslandings: a narrative of being in nature, as one is now immersed in the space through the topographical change. The affect of intrigue as the path continues into the forestlandings: invites rest, has the dominant sensory element of sight as one is able to pause and look aroundTrail #6: landingTrail #4: stepsTrail #7: entranceTrail #3: landingTrail #7: stepsTrail #6: entranceTrail #3 Stairsnts.s1The shaded forest character can be read as an assemblage of three types of spaces: These three types of spaces each have their own narratives and affective sensations:Each space invites certain types of activity, and has dominant sensory elements:L A N D S C A P E  C H A R A C T E R  01: T H E  S H A D E D  F O R E S TT H E  M AT E R I A L : A S S E M B L AG E T H E  S Y M B O L I C : N A R R AT I V E S  A N D  A F F E C T T H E  E M B O D I E D : AC T I V I T Y  A N D  T H E  S E N S E Sdense fern understorydappled lightsteep sets of stairscathedral-like canopy of coniferous and deciduous trees77Trail #4: open stairsTrail #3: enclosed stairsTrail #3: open stairsTrail #7: enclosed stairsenclosed stairs: stairs surrounded by dense tree canopies, with little view of the oceanopen stairs: stairs surrounded by thin tree canopies, with shoreline viewsL A N D S C A P E  C H A R A C T E R  02: T H E  O P E N  F O R E S TTrail #4 Stairsnts.s2The open forest character can be read as an assemblage of two types of spaces: These two types of spaces each have their own narratives and affective sensations:Each space invites certain types of activity, and has dominant sensory elements:T H E  M AT E R I A L : A S S E M B L AG E T H E  S Y M B O L I C : N A R R AT I V E S  A N D  A F F E C T T H E  E M B O D I E D : AC T I V I T Y  A N D  T H E  S E N S E Senclosed stairs: a narrative of entering the coast as views begin to open. The affect of anticipation guided by glimpses of the shore.open stairs: a narrative of the wild coast, a narrative guided by colonial impressions of nature.The affect of openness as one is exposed to the coastal landscape. enclosed stairs: invites active movement, has the dominant sensory element of touch as one uses the railings for supportopen stairs: invites active movement, has the dominant sensory element of sight as one begins to see more of the coastlineblackberry thicket understorybright lighttall, thin trees 78sand: spaces with large expanses of sand, punctuated by rocks and logsboulders: spaces with large expanses of small-medium sized rocks, punctuated by large boulders and logsstones: spaces with large expanses of medium-large stones, with bouldered groynesbetween Trail #4 and #6near the Trail #4 stairsbetween Trail #4 and #6near the Trail #3 stairsnear the Trail #3 stairsbetween Trail #4 and #6Beyond Wreck Beachnts.s3The rocky beach character can be read as an assemblage of three types of spaces: These three types of spaces each have their own narratives and affective sensations:Each space invites certain types of activity, and has dominant sensory elements:L A N D S C A P E  C H A R A C T E R  03: T H E  R O C K Y  B E AC HT H E  M AT E R I A L : A S S E M B L AG E T H E  S Y M B O L I C : N A R R AT I V E S  A N D  A F F E C T T H E  E M B O D I E D : AC T I V I T Y  A N D  T H E  S E N S E Ssand: a narrative of the beach, a retreat from the everyday and a space in which to take a break. The affect of calm as one walks along the beach.sand: invites passive movement, has the dominant sensory element of sight as the coastline expandsstones: a narrative of the wild coast, a type of beach less dedicated to comfort and more to exploration. The affect of intrigue as walks along the curved coastline.stones: invites play, has the dominant sensory element of sound as one walks over the stones as the waves wash over the shoreboulders: a narrative of the wild coast, as one struggles to keep their balance and must be more present.The affect of uncertainty as the rocks never seem to end. boulders: invites active movement, has the dominant sensory element of touch as one clambers over the boulderslarge expanses of rocks and driftwoodbordered by densely forested cliffswide views79between Trail #6 and #7between Trail #3 and #4between Trail #6 and #7between Trail #6 and #7between Trail #6 and #7between Trail #3 and #4The Alder Woodlandnts.s4The coastal woodland character can be read as an assemblage of three types of spaces:These three types of spaces each have their own narratives and affective sensations:Each space invites certain types of activity, and has dominant sensory elements:L A N D S C A P E  C H A R A C T E R  04: T H E  C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N DT H E  M AT E R I A L : A S S E M B L AG E T H E  S Y M B O L I C : N A R R AT I V E S  A N D  A F F E C T T H E  E M B O D I E D : AC T I V I T Y  A N D  T H E  S E N S E Sopen: spaces with open views of the shoreline, where the woodland feels connectedsemi-open: spaces with broken views of the shoreline, where the spaces feel separatedenclosed: spaces with little to no view of the shoreline, where the space feels encompassedopen: a narrative of the secluded coast, a space to explore. The affect of intrigue as one discovers more types of spaces.semi-open: a narrative of the quiet woods, a type of space that invites contemplation.The affect of calm as walks through the trees.enclosed: a narrative of wooded overgrowth as invasive and untended plants take over. The affect of uncertainty as the view blocked in most directions and the path cannot be found. open: invites passive movement, has the dominant sensory element of sight as the coastline expandssemi-open: invites passive movement, has the dominant sensory element of sound as the birds chirp in the treesenclosed: invites passive movement, has the dominant sensory element of sight as one is overwhelmed by plantsmuddy pathwayslight deciduous trees and dense shrubspartial views80the landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethods2.3  O P P O R T U N I T Y  I D E N T I F I C AT I O NTHE MATERIAL THE SYMBOLIC THE EMBODIEDcan be analyzed in terms of: can be nalyzed in terms of:Overall, the site is coherent, as it can be broken down into specific landscape character types. There is opportunity to enhance site coherence through the enhancement of landscape characters.Overall, the site can be overlayed with many nature-based narratives, each associated with a specific type of landscape such as, the forest, the coast, the beach, the woods, the overgrowth. Some have of these narratives have the potential for more specific interpretations, based on ones own relationality. What is not present is visual indicators of these narratives. There is opportunity to overlay landscape narratives with interventions to allow for greater perception of the potentials of this site. Overall, the site invites mostly passive or active movement, with some areas of rest or play. Though these are positive ways to engage, the range of engagement types is lacking. There is opportunity to  add more ways to engage with the site.Overall, the site is legible, as each character type can be sub-categorized into distinct space types. There is opportunity to distinguish between specific spaces even more.Overall, the site has six potential affects, these being anticipation, immersion, intrigue, openness, calm, and uncertainty. Though overall positive, not all of these indicate potential for the higher levels of engagement that would provide greater restoration. The fact that there is uncertainty dispersed throughout brings one out of their contemplative state, making it more difficult to re-engage with the restorative aspects of the site. There is opportunity to resolve this by enhancing the uncertain points of engagement.Overall, the site has the dominant sensory element of sight, then sound and touch. The dominance of sight does not allow for full haptic engagement with the site, nor awareness of bodily sensations.There is opportunity to add sensory elements that engage multiple senses.Overall, the site is only somewhat intricate. Rather than appearing as a series of details, many aspects of the site blend together.  There is significant opportunity to increase the intricacy of the site through details.Overall, the site is only somewhat intriguing. There are moments where the site encourages exploration, but much of the site is visible most of the time, thus creating less interest in its potential. There is opportunity to resolve this through developing a sequence for the site experience.can be analyzed in terms of the:the landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement heali g potentials land cape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the d signmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of e gagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintric cyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views planti gsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative otential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsThese categories of analysis stem from Section 1.2: Design Strategy.81THE DESIGN033.1  OPPORTUNITYR E S P O N S E3.2  RESPONSET Y P O L O G I E Senhancement through character extensiveintensiveenhancement through interventionenhancement through details82When all of this analysis is combined, there are several site-wide opportunities that can be identified. Overall, in terms of material resources, patterns can be established, however many aspects of site appear to blend together, and as most of the coastline is visible at once, there is less interest in its potential. In terms of symbolic resources, there is uncertainty dispersed throughout the trail as one sometimes feels lost or trapped. In several areas, one is brought out of their contemplative state, making it more difficult to re-engage with the restorative aspects of the site. There are also no tactile indicators of the healing potential of this site. In terms of embodied resources, the range of types of engagement is lacking, as it mostly invites passive movement. It also has the dominant sensory element of sight, while other senses are not engaged. Based on this site analysis, it is clear that parts of the trail are restorative through context, however, its overall arrangement is not. Significantly, one’s access to and ability to engage with qualities that are restorative is lacking. This leads to part three, the design.03.  T H E  D E S I G N : I N T R O D U C T I O N833.1  O P P O R T U N I T Y  R E S P O N S EThe responses can be categorized into three different typologies, along a gradient of extensive to intensive design, with each addressing a different set of opportunities that were identified in the previous section.A. ENHANCEMENT THROUGH CHARACTERmethods methods methodsa. physical materialsb. plantinga. intervention types a. views b. plantingc. viewsc. furnitured. plantingd. signagee. furniture e. physical materialsf. signageE X T E N S I V E I N T E N S I V EB. ENHANCEMENT THROUGH INTERVENTIONC. ENHANCEMENT THROUGH DETAILSthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that areby increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepat ernsspacesdetailssequencesphysical mat rials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through incr asi g awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment a ct of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencel gibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe lands ape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintrigupatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical m terials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingy s of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsf r it re signagedistinct spacesmethodsOPPORTUNITY: to enhance s te coherence through the enhancement of landscape charactersRESPONSE: a. / b.OPPORTUNITY: to distinguish between specific spaces even moreRESPONSE: a.OPPORTUNITY: to increase the intricacy of the site through detailsRESPONSE: b. / c. / d. / e.OPPORTUNITY: to resolve issues through developing a sequence for the site experienceRESPONSE: b.OPPORTUNITY: to overlay landscape narratives with interventionsRESPONSE: a. / c. / d.OPPORTUNITY: to resolve issues by enhancing the uncertain points of e gagement RESPONSE: c. / d. / f.OPPORTUNITY: to add sensory elements that engage multiple sensesRESPONSE: b. / c. / d. / e.OPPORTUNITY: to add more ways to engage with the siteRESPONSE: a. / c.  / e. / f.b. intervention locations84methodsphysical materialsplantingthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsOPPORTUNITY: to enhance s te coherence through the enhancement of landscape characters3.2  R E S P O N S E  T Y P O L O G I E SA  - E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  C H A R AC T E R85TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationshaded forest locationsA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  C H A R AC T E R C H A R AC T E R  T Y P E  01: T H E  S H A D E D  F O R E S TMix of tall coniferous and deciduous trees forming a cathedral-like canopy that allows dappled light, with a dense fern understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.shaded forestTall, thin deciduous tree canopy, that allows partial coastal views with blackberry thicket understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.open forestLarge expanses of open rock beach lled with boulders and driftwood, bordered by densely forested clis. ere is no set pathway.rocky beachLight deciduous tree canopy with dense shrubby understory, allowing partial coastal views. e pathway is thin and made of dirt. coastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial characters8601:  typical section - existing1 : 20pathway: fine gravel (~5mm)fence: cedar and thin steel cableplanted area feature: small boulders (~0.3-0.5m diameter)industrial wire mesh fence, separating remediation area from the trail, 2.3 mpoint of fascination: cedar and thin steel cable fence, with native twining climbers planted along, 1.7 mremediation plantingadditional native remediation plantingnew border with fragrant plantsinvasive ivy groundcoverinvasive ivy removed, replaced with new native groundcovernew rockssparse shrub layer, many tall coniferous trees new dense herbaceous/shrub layer, existing non-invasive trees and shrubs maintainedgravel pathway, 1.7 mpathway moved and widened to  2m, covered in fine gravel01:  typical section - proposed1 : 20T Y P E  01: T H E  S H A D E D  F O R E S T M AT E R I A L SAs you enter the site, gravel crunches beneath your feet. A delicate fence  runs along your left, a climber twining up and over it. Craggy stones peek through planted areas, forming small vignettes.87T Y P E  01: T H E  S H A D E D  F O R E S T P L A N T I N GYou are enclosed within  a dense canopy. These trees appear to have been here for a long time, and their impressive height makes you feel small. You look again at the delicate fence on your left, with its bright green vines. You spot a few small orange flowers beginning to bloom along it.  On your right, there are many shrubs and herbs forming a textural tapestry. The light peeking through the trees at the end of the path invites you further. B L O O M  T I M EThuja plicata  (Western red cedar)Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock)Acer macrophyllum  (bigleaf maple)Berberis aquifolium (tall  Oregon grape)Polystichum munitum  (sword fern)Lonicera cil iosa (trumpet honeysuckle)Athyrium f i l ix-femina  ( lady fern)Gaultheria shallon  (salal)Linnaea borealis  (twinf lower)Vaccinium ovatum  (evergreen huckleberry)Rubus parvif lorus  (thimbleberry)Ribes sanguineum  (red f lowering currant)Maianthemum dilatatum  (false lily-of-the-valley)88TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEopen forestNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexample site locationo en forest locationsMix of tall coniferous and deciduous trees forming a cathedral-like canopy that allows dappled light, with a dense fern understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.shaded forestTall, thin deciduous tree canopy, that allows partial coastal views with blackberry thicket understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.open forestLarge expanses of open rock beach lled with boulders and driftwood, bordered by densely forested clis. ere is no set pathway.rocky beachLight deciduous tree canopy with dense shrubby understory, allowing partial coastal views. e pathway is thin and made of dirt. coastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersexisting conditionlocationsA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  C H A R AC T E R C H A R AC T E R  T Y P E  02: T H E  O P E N  F O R E S T8902:  typical section - existing1 : 2002:  typical section - proposed1 : 20view of the islands and oceanview of ocean and islands framed by trees with pruned branchesnew groundcovers planted against railingsinvasive blackberry groundcovertextured stones embedded in sand in steps to add interest and greater supportrailings sanded and glazed, supports painted with textured greenery to blend into the new plantingssparse shrub layer, many tall deciduous trees point of fascination: trees wrapped with wire mesh for newly planted climbers to grow onnew dense herbaceous/shrub layer, existing non-invasive trees and shrubs maintainedsand-filled steps with wooden frame and wooden railingT Y P E  02: T H E  O P E N  F O R E S TM AT E R I A L Sstairs: wood-framed, with large textured stones (~0.5 m) set into sandclimber supports around trees: fine steel meshrailing feature: polished and finely sanded, supports painted with mossAs you walk down the steps, you are supported by large flat stones set into the sand. As you run your hand along the smooth, polished railing, you notice that the railing supports are covered in moss, making the railing appear as if it is floating.90T Y P E  02: T H E  O P E N  F O R E S TP L A N T I N GThe hills are covered in bright green shrubs, ferns and climbers. You notice that some trees are wrapped in dense greenery, the tops of which meet the line of the coast perfectly.B L O O M  T I M ERhamnus purshiana (cascara)Acer macrophyllum  (bigleaf maple)Berberis nervosa (low Oregon grape)Polystichum munitum  (sword fern)Lonicera cil iosa (trumpet honeysuckle)Crataegus douglasii  (black hawthorn)Gaultheria shallon  (salal)Rubus spectabilis  (salmonberry)Corylus cornuta  (beaked hazelnut)91TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSErocky beachNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  C H A R AC T E R : C H A R AC T E R  T Y P E  03: T H E  R O C K Y  B E AC Hexample site locationrocky beach locationsMix of tall coniferous and deciduous trees forming a cathedral-like canopy that allows dappled light, with a dense fern understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.shaded forestTall, thin deciduous tree canopy, that allows partial coastal views with blackberry thicket understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.open forestLarge expanses of open rock beach lled with boulders and driftwood, bordered by densely forested clis. ere is no set pathway.rocky beachLight deciduous tree canopy with dense shrubby understory, allowing partial coastal views. e pathway is thin and made of dirt. coastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial characters9203:  typical section - existing1 : 20view of the North Shore and oceanmany tall deciduous trees and invasive blackberry groundcovergroyne composed of large boulders, with some fallen trees and logs wedged within03:  typical section - proposed1 : 20additional boulder piled beside the walkway to frame the view of the mountainspoint of fascination: large, flat, textured stones forming a stairway over the groyne, the stones continuing pas the steps themselves onto the beachdense, colourful wayfinding planting added, creating a point of interest to guide the visitor over the stairwayT Y P E  03: T H E  R O C K Y  B E AC H M AT E R I A L Sboulders: large, rounded, ~0.5-1 m diameterstones: textured, flat, basalt, ~1 -2 m widthHaving reached the base of the stairs, you land on the rocky beach. It is covered in small stones and sea-smoothed logs. As walk along, you come upon a large stone set into the ground. You can see that this is followed by two more, which then lead to a small set of stairs made of the same large, flat, textured stones that is bordered by a boulder pile on one side, and dense plantings on the other. 93B L O O M  T I M ERhamnus purshiana (cascara)Alnus rubra  (red alder)Rubus parvif lorus  (thimbleberry)Holodiscus discolor (ocean spray)Polystichum munitum  (sword fern)Arctostaphylos uva-ursi  (kinnikinnick)Crataegus douglasii  (black hawthorn)Gaultheria shallon  (salal)Rubus spectabilis  (salmonberry)Corylus cornuta  (beaked hazelnut)T Y P E  03: T H E  R O C K Y  B E AC HP L A N T I N GAs you walk over the steps, you are surrounded by dense, textural planting, and you notice several small birds flitting through the shrubs. The smell of flowers wafts through the air. 94TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsex mple site locationcoastal  woodland locationsMix of tall coniferous and deciduous trees forming a cathedral-like canopy that allows dappled light, with a dense fern understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.shaded forestTall, thin deciduous tree canopy, that allows partial coastal views with blackberry thicket understory. e pathway is composed of a set of wood-framed steps.open forestLarge expanses of open rock beach lled with boulders and driftwood, bordered by densely forested clis. ere is no set pathway.rocky beachLight deciduous tree canopy with dense shrubby understory, allowing partial coastal views. e pathway is thin and made of dirt. coastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  C H A R AC T E R : C H A R AC T E R  T Y P E  04: T H E  C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N D9504:  typical section - existing1 : 2004:  typical section - proposed1 : 20pathway: decomposed granitepathway border: thin wooden edging, ~10 mmWalking along the sand path, you are surrounded on both sides by dense, layered, and textural plantings. planted area feature: small boulders (~0.3-0.5m diameter)T Y P E  04: T H E  C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N DM AT E R I A L Ssliced view of the North Shore and oceanmany tall deciduous trees and invasive blackberry groundcoversome grasses and deciduous shrubs dirt pathway that tends to become muddy view is obscured aside from at key points, to create greater intriguedecomposed granite pathway with embedded stones and thin wood edgingpoint of fascination: dense, colourful planting added, creating a point of interest to guide the visitor through the woodland96B L O O M  T I M ERhamnus purshiana (cascara)Alnus rubra  (red alder)Philadelphus lewisii  (mock orange)Amelanchier alnifolia  (serviceberry)Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)Polystichum munitum  (sword fern)Arctostaphylos uva-ursi  (kinnikinnick)Prunus emarginata  (bitter cherry)Gaultheria shallon  (salal)Rubus spectabilis  (salmonberry)Corylus cornuta  (beaked hazelnut)T Y P E  04: T H E  C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N DP L A N T I N GThe tall trees are flanked by many different shrubs, some bare and some in leaf. At the base of these are dark green groundcovers and a series of clumped grasses and ferns. You notice the small birds again, flitting in and out of the shrubs that surround you.973.2  R E S P O N S E  T Y P O L O G I E SB   - E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O Nmethodsintervention types intervention locationsviews plantingfurniture signagethe landscape poi ts of ngagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typesty es of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through incr asing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsOPPORTUNITY: to distinguish between specific spaces even moreOPPORTUNITY: to resolve issues through developing a sequence for the site experienceOPPORTUNITY: to resolve issues by enhancing the uncertain points of engagementOPPORTUNITY: to add more ways to engage with the site98 Each area of intervention is rst categorized into a type of spatial invitationan area of intervention designed to facilitate greater engagement. ese are the most intensely designed areas, and therefore have been further explored through typology and characterspatial invitationpoint of entry into/exit from the Trail, wherein one is prepared to pass a threshold and given context on the site. large scale map of the site, containing a narrative and locations of all invitations and optional programs for the restorative experiencetextural benchesstep elementsentrancearea of change from one type of character/one area to another, where the walking is dicult. ese areas are intended to slow down walking, and allow for more clear waynding. transitionarea wherein there is a full panoramic view of the site and greater context. ese create immerse one more fully into the site, create a pause, and create intrigue for the full site. active viewingarea of deep embodied engagement with the site. ese are immersive, playful, and actively work with the symbolic narrative of the healing coast. embodiment area of repose, separated from the trail by own short pathway/cleared area. In this area, one is invited to take a break, notice details, feel materials, look at the view, and immerse more deeply into the site. restCharacterized by: Characterized by: Characterized by: outcroppingsCharacterized by: stone elements Characterized by: colourful layered planting interactive narrative elementsinteractive narrative elementsspecific planting signage elementsbodily measurementspecific planting signage elementsspecific planting Each area of intervention is rst categorized into a type of spatial invitationan area of intervention designed to facilitate greater engagement. ese are the most intensely designed areas, and therefore have been further explored through typology and characterspatial invitationpoint of entry into/exit from the Trail, wherein one is prepared to pass a threshold and given context on the site. large scale map of the site, containing a narrative and locations of all invitations and optional programs for the restorative experiencetextural benchesstep elementsentrancearea of change from one type of character/one area to another, where the walking is dicult. ese areas are intended to slow down walking, and allow for more clear waynding. transition wh rein there is a full panoramic view of the site and greater context. ese c te immerse one mor  fully into th  site, create a pause, nd create in rigue for the full site. active viewingarea of deep embodied engagement with t e site. ese are immersive, playful, and actively work with the symbolic narrative of the healing coast. embodiment area of repose, separated from the trail by own short pathway/cleared area. In this area, one is invited to take a break, notice details, feel materials, look at the view, and immerse more deeply into the site. restCharacterized by: Characterized by: Characterized by: outcroppi gsCharacterized by: stone  Characterized by: colourful layered planting interactive narrative elementsinteractive narrative elementsspecific planting signage elementsbodily measurementspecific planting signage elementsspecific planting Each area of intervention is rst categorized into a type of spatial invitationan area of intervention designed to facilitate greater engagement. ese are the most intensely designed areas, and therefore have been further explored through typology and characterspatial invitationpoint of entry into/exit from the Trail, wherein one is prepared to pass a threshold and given context on the site. large scale map of the site, containing a narrative and locations of all invitations and optional programs for the restorative experiencetextural benchesstep elementsentranceof chang  from one type ofcharacter/one area to another, where thwalking is dicult. ese areas arintend d to slow down walkin , andallow for more clear waynding. transitionarea wherein there is a full panoramic view of the site and greater context. ese create immerse one more fully into the site, create a pause, and create intrigue for the full site. active viewingarea of deep embodied engagement with the site. ese are immersive, playful, and actively work with the symbolic narrative of the healing coast. embodiment of repose, separated fr m the trail byown short pathw y/cleared area. In thisarea, one is inv ted to take a bre k, noticdetails, feel materials, look t the view,nd immerse more deeply into the site. restCharacterized by: Characterized by: Characterized by: outcroppingsCharacterized by: stone elements Characterized by: c lourful laye d planting i t r ti  rr ti  l tsinteractive narrative elementss ecific l ti si e ele e tsbodily measurementspecific planting signage elementsspecific plantingB . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : I N T E RV E N T I O N  T Y P E Sthis is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is b st suited to specic materi l ch racters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces long the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets f stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invi ations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character are  of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previ s sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more op ions for e gagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the g oynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more p ions for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore.  re should be a spac  at each ntra ce, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character are  of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for e gagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invi ations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded for sentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types establis ed in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.is is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be re t spaces along the t irs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of e shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagem nt, tran itions from one pace to another (particularly ov r the groynes), an  invitations for embodi e t to allow for deeper e gageme t with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provi e more options for e gage e t, transitions from one space to a other (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the charac er types established in the previous sec ionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one sp ce to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.th s i  th character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more p ions for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site en rance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the st irs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the s ts stairs leading the shore.  re sh uld be r st spaces along the stair  t  a low for breaks.this is the character area f part ofthe shor line. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for e gagement, transitions from one sp ce to a other (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engag ment with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engag ment with the coast.shaded for sentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types establis ed in the previous sec ionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site en rance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to he shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the st irs to allow for breaks.is is the charac er area of part of the s ts  stairs leading the shore.  re sh uld be re t spaces along the tairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shor line. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagem nt, transitions from onespace to a other (pa ticularly ov r thegroynes), an  invitations mbodi t to allow for deeperengag me t with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engag ment with the coast.shad d forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the charact r types establis ed in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invita ion is best suited to specic material char cters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is t  character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leadi g to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of s airs leading the shore. er  should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character ar a of part of the shor line. ere should be rest sp ces to provide more options for ngageme , transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engage ent with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest tran ition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodiment to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen fo estrocky beachcoastal w odl ndth se are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of t e sets of stairs leading to th  shore. ere should be a space at e ch e trance, and rest spaces along the stairs t  allow for breaks.t is is the character area of part of the ets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagem nt, transitions from one space to another (pa ticularly ov r thegroynes), an  invitations  mbodi t to allow for deeperengageme t with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest transition active viewing embodimentopen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entrance areas and partially that of the ets of stairs lea ing to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.t is is the character area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be r st spaces along the stair  t  allow for breaks.this is the character area f part ofthe shor line. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly over the groynes), and invitations for embodi ent to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance est transition active viewing embodimentpen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material characters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:this is the character of the site entranc  areas and partially that of the sets of stairs leading to the shore. ere should be a space at each entrance, and rest spaces along the stairs to allow for breaks.is is the charac er area of part of the sets of stairs leading the shore. ere should be re t spaces along the tairs to allow for breaks.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagem nt, transitions from one space to another (pa ticularly ov r thegroynes), an  invitations  mbodi t to allow for deeperengageme t with the coast.this is the character area of part of the shoreline. ere should be rest spaces to provide more options for engagement, transitions from one space to another (particularly from the rocky beach), and invitations for active viewing to allow for deeper engagement with the coast.shaded forestentrance rest t ansition active viewing embodimentpen forestrocky beachcoastal woodlandthese are the character types established in the previous sectionmaterial charactersEach spatial invitation is best suited to specic material char cters:Most suitable character type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:Most suitable intervention type:shaded forest open forest rocky beach coastal woodlandEach intervention affords a certain type of engagement, and is therefore suited to specific character types.99TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROAD01B . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : I N T E RV E N T I O N  L O C AT I O N S1 :  40001802030704061112140809150513101617there are embodiment spaces in both segments of rocky beach there is an entrance space at both trail heads (#3 and #4)there are active viewing spaces in both segments of coastal woodlandthere is at least one rest space in each character area there are transition spaces over each groyne and in any area where the rocky beach intersects with the coastal woodlandTRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROAD100TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationother entrance loc tionB . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : T Y P E  01: E N T R A N C EE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  01Trail  #4 entrance,  depicted in spring011810101:  typical section - existing1 : 20view: framed planting and pathway planting: frames the entrance in order to indicate that one is entering a space that is ‘other’ / border the gathering spacefurniture: seating made of finely sanded cedar, which is polished by use over timesignage: stands at the entrance, composed of a wooden structure that opens to reveal an interactive map01:  typical section - proposed1 : 20smell fragrant plants T Y P E  01: E N T R A N C E D E F I N I N G  C H A R AC T E R I S T I C SE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  01touch bench/ signagehear gravel underfootsensory elements: tall coniferous tree canopysparse fern layer new gathering space framed by planting, including new signage and  furnituresome small decorative boulders 102TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationother rest locationsB . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : T Y P E  02: R E S TE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  03the terraced rest,  depicted in late spring03020710161710303:  typical section - existing1 : 20view: is either framed to make the view more dramatic, or blocked to allow for greater immersionplanting: is tailored to the character, but each rest space has at least three unique plantsfurniture: seating made of finely sanded cedar, which is polished by use over timesignage: inset into furniture, composed of a metal door that opens to reveal an instruction or quote in raised lettering03:  typical section - proposed1 : 20partial view of the islands and oceanframed view of the islands and ocean, made possible by trimmed branchesinvasive blackberry groundcoverdense, colourful, fragrant herbaceous plantings within retaining wallssparse shrub layer, many tall deciduous trees small bench along one side of a railing, facing stairsrough cut, polished cedar bench cantilevered along two sides of the landing, facing outwardnew rough cut cedar retaining wall along two sides of the landing, interactive panels embedded withinsmell fragrant plants T Y P E  02: R E S TD E F I N I N G  C H A R AC T E R I S T I C SE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  03touch bench/ signageview coast / listen to wavessensory elements: 104TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationoth r embodiment location 0513B . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : T Y P E  03: E M B O D I M E N TE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  05the stacked rest,  depicted in early winter 105view: is framed to make the space feel special planting: is tailored to the character, and allows for moments of fascination that change seasonallyfurniture: seating made of finely sanded cedar, which is polished by use over time, or textured flat stonessignage: made from rocks, which are either stacked as a sculpture, or laid flat as stepping stonesE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  0505:  typical section - existing1 : 2005:  typical section - proposed1 : 20T Y P E  03: E M B O D I M E N TD E F I N I N G  C H A R AC T E R I S T I C Ssmell planting touch seating/ play with stonesview coast / listen to wavessensory elements: dense, twiggy shrub layerframed view of the North Shorelight, colourful, fragrant plantings behind seatinglarge driftwood pieces / fallen logs are strewn throughout large, flat, textured stepping stonesstacked rock sculptures, designed to encourage engagement with the site106TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationoth r transition locations 041112140608B . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : T Y P E  04: T R A N S I T I O NE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  08the woodland steps,  depicted in spring 10708:  typical section - existing1 : 20view: is sliced, to provide glimpses of different segments of the siteplanting: is tailored to the character, but there are specific wayfinding plants that are used in every transition spacefurniture: steps are made of either rough cut cedar or textured flat stones, depending on the character one is transitioning into (into rocky beach = stones, into coastal woodland = cedar)signage: sits within the planting, made from angle-cut logs08:  typical section - proposed1 : 20brush plantsT Y P E  04: T R A N S I T I O ND E F I N I N G  C H A R AC T E R I S T I C SE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  08feel texture of steps underfootview framed path / signagesensory elements: framed view of the path aheadinvasive blackberry groundcover dense, colourful shrub plantingssparse shrub layer, many tall deciduous trees dirt pathway that one must clamber up to enter the woodland rough cut cedar logs embedded into ground to form stepsangle-cut wooden signage, giving information about the planting108TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROADexisting conditionlocationsexample site locationoth r active viewing locations0915B . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  I N T E RV E N T I O N : T Y P E  05: AC T I V E  V I E W I N GE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  15the rocky outlook,  depicted in late summer 10915:  typical section - existing1 : 20view: will be open in a complete panoramic planting: is tailored to the character, but there are specific wayfinding plants used in each active viewing spacefurniture: steps/walkway made of either textured flat stones or smooth concretesignage: carved into stones at the precipice of the viewing space15:  typical section - proposed1 : 20brush plants T Y P E  05: AC T I V E  V I E W I N GD E F I N I N G  C H A R AC T E R I S T I C SE X A M P L E  S I T E : I N T E RV E N T I O N  15touch stones/ signageview coast / listen to wavessensory elements: light, colourful planting  framing the pathtextured flat stone, jutting out from the pathway to act as a viewing platformcarved stone signage about the viewdense shrub layer, some tall deciduous trees dirt pathwayblocked view of the North Shore and ocean open, panoramic view of the North Shore and ocean110methodsa. views b. plantingc. furniture d. signagee. physical materialsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that areby increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepat ernsspacesdetailssequencesphysical mat rials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through incr asi g awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsthe landscape points of engagment aect of engagement healing potentials landscape typeM A T E R I A LIncrease the restorative potential of resources that are:by increasing the sites: through developing distinct: through:coherencelegibilityintricacyintriguepatternsspacesdetailssequencesphysical materials plantingcharacter typestypes of spaces views plantingsignage plantingtypes of spaces location of spacesfurnituretransitionsGOALobjectivesS Y M B O L I Cby increasing awareness of the restorative potential of: through developing : that speak to:the place visual indicators nature the landscape the designmethodsobjectivesobjectivesmethodsE M B O D I E Dby increasing the sites potential for engagement that is:through increasing awareness of ones: through:sensoryactivefive sensescapacity for restorationfurniture planting physical materialsfurniture signagedistinct spacesmethodsOPPORTUNITY: to increase the intricacy of the site through detailsRESPONSE: b. / c. / d. / e.OPPORTUNITY: to overlay landscape narratives with interventionsRESPONSE: a. / c. / d.OPPORTUNITY: to add sensory elements that engage multiple sensesRESPONSE: b. / c. / d. / e.3.2  R E S P O N S E  T Y P O L O G I E SC   - E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  D E TA I L S111TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROAD01C . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  D E TA I L S : D E TA I L  I N T E RV E N T I O N  L O C AT I O N S1 :  40001803070406111214081505101617detailed rest space: site 02, deep immersionthis is an area where one is completely enveloped by and immersed in a specific character type, wherein the space feels like a complete experience on its own and provides for greater engagementTRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSEshaded forestrocky beachopen forestcoastal woodlandNW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROAD020913detailed embodiment space: site 13, deep engagementthis is an area where one is invited to actively engage with the site through their body, as a guided activity is provided.detailed active viewing space: site 09, dramatic viewthis is an area where the sightlines open up into a full panoramic view of the coast, and one is completely immersed in the symbolic affect of the coastal landscape.Three areas of intervention are further developed into special spaces, in which the design is more fully developed into order to create unique and immersive experiences. 112existing trees/ shrubsSITE PLANexisting contoursexisting stairsproposed pathproposed inset stonesproposed benchproposed signage elementsproposed contoursS3S2S1detail 01detail 02detail 03seating areaproposed stairsproposed retaining wall1 : 75C . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  D E TA I L S I T E  02: D E E P  I M M E R S I O N113S 1: PAT H  E N T R A N C E1:20S 2: M I D - PAT H WAY1:50S 3: S T E P S1:50featured plants: Athyrium f i l ix-femina (lady fern), Berberis aquifolium  (tall  Oregon grape), Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut), Gaultheria shallon (salal), Polystichum munitum (sword fern), and Thuja plicata  (Western red cedar) have all been documented to support steep slope stabilization.1.5 m wide decomposed granite pathway, 200mm depth0.2-0.8 m wide flat stones, embedded into pathway500 mm crushed stone base course planted signage (detail to follow) 1.5 m wide wooden stairs with 1.1 m high railing, set on stringer2 m high reinforced concrete retaining wallkey planting function: slope stabilizing02:  D E E P  I M M E R S I O NS E C T I O N S114S I T E  02:  D E E P  I M M E R S I O NS E AT I N G  A R E A P E R S P E C T I V E115It lives in the mountain where moss and the sedgesTouch with their beauty the banks and the ledges..rough breaks of the cedar and sycamore bowersStruggles the light that is love to the  owers- excerpt of Bell-Birds by Henry KendallB E N C H1:10B E N C H  S I G N AG Ents.S I T E  02:  D E E P  I M M E R S I O ND E TA I L  01carved drainage channel running along seat edge and down front  of bench, 10 mm wide, 20 mm deepbench is hand carved with a rippled texture, then finely sanded to a polishblack e-coated stainless steel hinged door, 5 mm depthblack e-coated stainless steel insert with raised lettering, set 5 mm into bench, 120 mm x 120 mmhand-carved cedar bench, seat is 0.4 m high, 0.5 m deep and is sloped at 1%, back is 0.3 m tall and 0.2 m deep, arm rests are 0.2 m wide 116Salal (Gaultheria shallon))is evergreen shrub is one of the most common in the Paciic Northwest. Its dark, juicy berries are an important traditional resource. )ey can be eaten alone or prepared as jam. )e young leaves can be chewed as an appetite suppressant. You can make a drinking cup by shaping the leaf into a cone.Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla))is graceful coniferous tree has bark with a high tannin content which can be used as a tanning agent or dye. It is of import to several Coast Salish Nations...D E TA I L  02: P L A N T E D  S I G N AG E1:2D E TA I L  03: H A N G I N G  S I G N AG E1:1S I T E  02:  D E E P  I M M E R S I O NS I G N AG E30 mm wide planted section around edge of sign, lined with filter fabriccarved wooden stump with 30 degree angled cut at top, 450 mm height and 200 mm diameterinformation about the tree that the sign is hanging from is burned into the woodplaned cedar sign, 10 mm deep, 70 mm wide, 150 mm long, attached to tree branch with thin steel wire117existing groynesS3S2S1existing trees/ shrubsexisting rocky beachexisting hilllegendexisting bouldersproposed pathwayproposed plantingcarved stone seatingconcrete slab walkwaylarge flat stones, arranged in tiers2 mdetail 011 : 200C . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  D E TA I L S I T E  09: D R A M AT I C  V I E W118S 2: O V E R L O O K  E N T R A N C E1:20S 1: C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N D  PAT H1:50S 3: O V E R L O O K  PAT H1:50S I T E  09: D R A M AT I C V I E WS E C T I O N Sfeatured plants: Gaultheria shallon (salal), Lonicera involucrata (black twinberry), Prunus emarginata (bitter cherry), and Spiraea douglasii (hardhack) are all  salt-tolerant, help with shoreline stability, have winter interest, and are uniquely used in this area.0.2-0.8 m wide flat stones, embedded into pathwaykey planting function: entrance framing1.5 m wide decomposed granite pathway, 200mm depthwooden edging500 mm crushed stone base course 119S I T E  09:  D R A M AT I C  V I E WV I E W I N G  WA L K WAY  P E R S P E C T I V E120S E AT  S E C T I O N1:10S E AT  P E R S P E C T I V E1:10S I T E  09: D R A M AT I C V I E WD E TA I L  01rough cut basalt slabs, textured for grip with acid, each approximately 2-3 m wide, 1-2 m deep, and 0.2 m in heightslab is cut around the seatreinforced concrete walkway (0.2 m in height) is set onto concrete support structure that is driven deep into the groundpolished concrete seat that will warm in the sun, cast-in-place onto granite boulderpolished concrete seat is 0.5 m above the ground, 0.5 m deep, and 0.6 m wide, sloped at 1%. All edges are roundedgranite boulder is set at least 0.2 m into the ground121existing trees/ shrubsexisting rocky beachexisting hilllegendexisting bouldersproposed pathwayproposed stone stepsproposed stone pathwayproposed plantingdetail 01S1S2S31 : 200C . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H  D E TA I L S I T E  13: D E E P  E N G AG E M E N T122S I T E  13:  D E E P  E N G AG E M E N TS E C T I O N SS 2: O V E R L O O K  E N T R A N C E1:20S 1: C OA S TA L  W O O D L A N D  PAT H1:50S 3: O V E R L O O K  PAT H1:50featured plants: Holodiscus discolor (ocean spray), Lonicera involucrata (black twinberry), Prunus emarginata (bitter cherry), Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry), Spiraea douglasii (hardhack) Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry) are all  salt-tolerant, help with shoreline stability, and are uniquely used in this area.key planting function: shoreline interest2-3 m wide flat stones, embedded into pathway200 mm sand500 mm crushed stone base course 123S I T E  13:  D E E P  E N G AG E M E N TS T O N E  PAT H WAY  P E R S P E C T I V E124S I T E  13:  D E E P  E N G AG E M E N TD E TA I L  01S T O N E  C A RV I N GN T Sexcerpts from local poetry carved into slabs, so that texture can be felt when one walks over. This particular text is an excerpt from “I’m Home Again” by Lee Maraclerough cut basalt slabs, textured for grip with acid, each approximately 2-3 m wide, set into ground125TRAIL #3TRAIL #4MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGYCECIL GREEN PARK HOUSENW MARINE DRIVECECIL GREEN PARK ROAD03.  T H E  D E S I G N : 3.3     C O N C L U S I O NA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H C H A R AC T E RA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H I N T E RV E N T I O NA . E N H A N C E M E N T  T H R O U G H D E TA I L SWhen all three response types (a. enhancement through character, b. enhancement through intervention, and c. enhancement through details) are applied over the site together, the site becomes a series of extensively and intensively designed spaces with which to engage as one travels through the trail. Through this, the restorative potential of the embedded place resources is increased significantly, and this place can be more robustly experienced as a restorative landscape.126The final piece of this design is a presentation of each area of intervention in sequence, to give an idea the experience of walking the trail. The arrangement has been specifically chosen, so that the affect of each space is enhanced by the one that comes before it.This is presented in the pages that follow. It is also available in video format accompanied by restorative sounds: https://vimeo.com/4160334393.1. C O N C L U S I O N : S E Q U E N C E127As you walk along Marine Drive, two bright green trees catch your eye. Looking closer, you see a gravel path that leads into the forest, which you follow to a peaceful space that is bordered by dense plants and wooden seats. You feel as though you have entered a space that is “other,” as you are immediately surrounded by greenery, full encompassed by it. There is a large map of a trail along the edge of the clearing. You notice a handle along its side and when you pull it, the map swings open to reveal a story of the place and its restorative potential. You move further into the site.trai l  #4 entrancedepicted in spring128Gravel crunches beneath your feet as you are enclosed within a dense canopy. These trees appear to have been here for a long time, and their impressive height makes you feel small. You spot a few small but bright orange flowers beginning to bloom. Ahead, the light peeking through the trees invites you further.the forest walkdepicted in summer129You soon come to a set of wood and stone stairs. You walk down, surrounded by a cathedral of trees. You come to a gap in the railing, and a dirt path leading away from the stairs and into the forest. Following this, you come to a clearing, where a carved wooden bench sits surrounded by colourful plants. You notice several small signs around the edge of the clearing, these detailing what the colourful plants are and that they are edible. After tasting a few berries, you sit on the bench. You touch its smooth, rippling texture, and look out at the view, which is framed perfectly by the trees. After a while, you get up and wander back to the stairs.the forest restdepicted in early  spring130As you walk down further, the forest begins to brighten, and tall deciduous trees begin take the place of the coniferous ones. You can now hear the ocean and begin to catch glimpses of the rocky beach below. You turn a corner and enter into a brighter space, no longer surrounded by a dense canopy. Instead, the hills are covered in bright green shrubs, ferns and climbers. As you run your hand along the smooth, polished railing, you notice that the railing supports are covered in moss, making the railing appear as if it is floating.the coastal stepsdepicted in winter131Eventually stairs lead to a landing with a corner bench. The view is framed beautifully by trees with clipped branches, and you can see a bright section of the coastline, bordered by dense green shrubs below and a blue sky above. As you lean against the retaining wall, you look up and see the bright plants that drape down from the top of the wall. the terraced restdepicted in late spring132Reaching the base of the stairs, you land on the rocky beach. It is covered in small stones and sea-smoothed logs. You take note of the texture of the ground as you walk along, smell the ocean air, and listen to the waves. As you do this, you come upon a set of large stones set into the ground, forming a trail to a set of stone steps.the wavebreak stepsdepicted in autumn133Climbing over, you come upon a portion of beach and walk over more large flat stones to reach a collection of carved wooden benches, and a series of large rock stacks. Intrigued, you sit on one of the benches, pick up stones, and make several stacks of your own. A large tree leans out over you, its canopy making you feel sheltered and immersed.the stacked playdepicted in early  winter134You exit the woodland back onto the beach, the pathway having been only a short interlude. As you walk along, you see a bench tucked in between the beach and trees. You walk up a shallow hill to a small landing, and sit. You look out at the framed view, now able to see a larger expanse of the coastline. You make a few stone stacks while you sit, and listen to the waves.the framed restdepicted in early  spring135You eventually reach a large log set into the ground. You see that this is followed by two more, which then leads to a set of carved wooden steps going into a woodland. As you walk over the steps, you are surrounded by dense, textural planting, and you notice several small birds flitting through the shrubs. The smell of flowers wafts through the air. You pass small vignettes of stones and planting, and reach a sandy pathway, where more logs are set into the ground, marking the transition from beach to woodland.the woodland stepsdepicted in spring136You are surrounded on both sides by dense, layered, and textural plantings. The tall trees are flanked by many different shrubs, some bare and some in leaf. At the base of these are dark green groundcovers and a series of clumped herbs and ferns. You notice the small birds again, flitting in and out of the shrubs that surround you.the planted coastdepicted in early  autumn137As you walk further through the woodland, you notice a sunbeam on the ground in front of you. You can see that there is a gap in the trees, and you move towards it. The gap turns out to be another small pathway that leads out into the coast, flanked by large trees and lined with shrubs and grasses. You walk out onto a stone-lined concrete o u t c r o p p i n g , where you can see a full panoramic view of the coast. You sit on a warm, smooth stone bench and look out at the view, surrounded by a series of stone terraces leading down to the rocky beach. You move onto one and lie down in the sun. You listen to the waves and feel the warmth on your face.the dramatic viewdepicted in early  autumn138You walk back into the woodland, bordered on both sides by low planting and a few large trees. The mix of colours and textures is beautiful, and you notice a few mossy rocks embedded within the plants. Ahead, a wire strung over the path with a climber twining over catches your eye. It frames the coastline ahead, and makes you want to go further towards it. the enveloped coastdepicted in winter139On your right, a smaller pathway branches off from the one that you have been traveling along. You follow it into the woods, and come upon a carved bench. As you sit, you are surrounded by dense, lush, fragrant plants, enclosed within the trees but with a view of the trail. You feel e n c o m p a s s e d by the greenery, c o m p l e t e l y immersed in the woodland, but you can still hear the waves beyond. Wanting to go back into the sun, you leave this space and rejoin the main pathway.the woodland restdepicted in spring140As you exit the woodland, you come once again onto the rocky beach. You notice more large, flat stones, but these ones lead into the water. Following them, you come to the waters edge, and stand watching the waves go in and out along the shore. You feel the ocean air on your skin and the sun warming your face, and hear the rocks clicking together as the waves hit them. You look down and see a poem carved into the stones ahead. You take off your shoes, wanting to feel the texture of the carved stones on the soles of your feet. You walk onto a cool stone within the water and feel the waves lapping against your toes. You feel fully immersed within the site.the embodied walkwaydepicted in early  summer141After the beach, you once again climb a small set of carved wooden steps to re-enter the woodland. You are almost i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d e d by dense, lush, colourful plantings, most prominent of which are the crabapple trees in full bloom. The delicate pink flowers shake in the ocean breeze. You notice that most other shrubs are also in bloom, their purple and pink, curved flowers acting as an intricate backdrop to the crabapple blossoms.the f loral coastdepicted in spring142As you walk further along the path, the sand slowly transitions to fine gravel. You hear it crunch underfoot, and as you round the corner, one side of the path completely opens up. You see that large flat stones are embedded in the side of the trail, leading onto the beach. As you hop from stone to stone, you notice the small plants in between. You look up to see the full panoramic view of the coast, this one completely different to the one you had before. You can clearly see the North Shore mountains, the view framed by colourful plantings. You see an old watchtower ahead, acting as a beacon.the rocky outlookdepicted in late summer143The trail once again goes into the trees, but this time the view is still visible, sliced and framed by the trees and shrubs. This area is lush and open, textures and colours overlapping. You step off the trail onto a log, and notice a small sign alongside it noting the different edible berries that surround you. You look out at the view, and want to explore more.  You pick a few berries as you walk further.the sl iced coastdepicted in early  spring144Following the path, you reach another set of wooden steps. You walk up a few steep flights, and reach a gap in the railing. You see that there is a small pathway leading from the steps into the woods. You follow this, eventually reaching a carved wooden bench. You sit and look at the view, perfectly framed by the tall trees that enclose you in this space. You feel the c a t h e d r a l - l i k e effect, and listen to the waves.the forest viewdepicted in summer145After wandering back to the wooden steps, you walk through another coniferous forest to reach the top. You exit into an open meadow, surrounded by a dense canopy of deciduous trees. As you walk along the gravel pathway, you listen to the sound it makes. You eventually reach another clearing, in which there is another map of the site. As you walk through a gateway of vine maples, you reach the road. You feel relaxed and invigorated by your visit, ready to visit again another day.trai l  #3 entrancedepicted in spring1464.  R E F E R E N C E SEyton, T. (2015, January 11). Coastal Hiking in Vancouver. Retrieved from Happiest Outdoors: https://happiestoutdoors.ca/coastal-hiking-in-vancouver/Foley, R. (2010). Healing Waters: Therapeutic Landscapes in Historic and Contemporary Ireland. Oxon: Routledge. Hartig, T. (2007). Three steps to understanding restorative environments as health resources. In C. W. Thompson, & P. Travlou, Open Space: People Space (pp. 163-180). Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.Kendall, H. (1869). Bell-Birds. Retrieved from https://learn.stleonards.vic.edu.au/yr9eng/files/2012/09/Bellbirds-by-Henry-Kendall2.pdf Maracle, L. (2013). Two Poems. Manoa 25(1), 17-20. doi:10.1353/man.2013.0012.Mooney, P. (2020). Planting Design: Connecting People and Place. Routledge. 147

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