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Plants in Change : agency | aesthetics | globalization | managment Cress, Jasmine Pearl 2020-05-07

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PLANTS IN CHANGEagency  aesthetics  globalization  managmentGraduate Project Final ReportJasmine Pearl CressAdvisor: Cynthia GirlingMay 7th 2020RELEASE FORMLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaName: Jasmine Pearl CressUBC Student number: 94276169Graduate Project Title: Plants in ChangeIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Land-scape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws._________________________________________________________________Name Signature DateJasmine Cress May 6th 2020iHumans and plants have a long history of co-dependency. Today, the most interaction some people have with plant life is on their own properties or in urban spaces. Often the value of plants is reduced primarily to current ideas of what is aesthetic in these spaces, based on values from the 18th century, and landscape architecture has continued to uphold those values. Continuing to use the same plant species and insisting that certain vegetative communities belong in specific spaces and indicating unsustainable maintenance practices to preserve these aesthetics. This approach strips plants of their agency and reinforces a lack of public understanding of living, moving plant life and what that has to offer. In light of growing urban centers and their contribution to a changing climate we can no longer afford to place the same aesthetic value on our plants and landscapes. Through education and a switch in ideology and practice of designed landscapes, can allowing plants their agency create healthier, more biodiverse spaces, and dynamic experiences? This project will look at human-plant relationships in terms of varying comfort levels and expectations of different vegetal communities (such as horticultural, spontaneous, native, ‘natural’ etc…) as they relate to location. As well as the maintenance regimes, and ecological value, as it pertains to green infrastructure value of everyday spaces (such as domestic yards, boulevards, parks, and small urban spaces). With the aim to provide guidelines for new techniques for managing our landscapes (new and existing developments), that will allow plants their agency, leading to new forms, new experiences, and more ecologically robust landscapes. PROJECT STATEMENTiiINTRODUCTIONCRITICAL ESSAYplants/AGENCYplants/AESTHETICSplants/URBAN ECOLOGIESplants/ MANAGEMENTPRECEDENTSParc Henri MatissePROJECT STATEMENTTABLE OF CONTENTSYardWorksOne Drop at a TimeGrey to GreenNatur-Park SüdgeländeDESIGN METHODOLOGYPROJECTED SCHEDULEENDNOTESWORKS CITEDLIST OF FIGURES7135iii11725313336384042464895101108BIBLIOGRAPHY51107STREETS FOR CHANGE (GP2)TABLE OF CONTENTS1The world is moving faster. Our cities are growing, urban sprawl is increasing, the climate is changing, the landscape is changing. Faster than ever, urbanization and the movement of humans and materials are making their impact on the planet. Plants have been moved from place to place both intentionally and unintentionally, for better or for worse, invading and enriching the ecology of these places as they go.2 Yet our intentional treatment of landscape remains static, bound to our ideologies and misconceptions of ‘nature’, our desire for control, and arrogant view of our own place in the world. Some defining characteristics of cities are: dense human populations, impervious surfaces, and high temperatures. This leads to reduced land area for plants and animals, excess (often toxic) runoff, compacted soils, and temperatures in urban areas more closely related to those predicted with climate change over the next 20 or 30 years.3 Urban environments clearly cannot be considered the same way their surrounding ‘natural’ landscapes are or as they were before the city was in place.Plants act at the forefront of all this change. Their ability to transform and adapt places them in the center of the discussion of climate-based resilience.4Urban environments have dramatically altered soil profiles. The abundance of humans and hard surfaces does not allow for the regular processes of soil formation, and we are left with the other end of the spectrum, compacted toxic soils. Soils support all life, and the poor soil quality found in urban environments contributes to issues of runoff, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and human health. These environments inhibit growth of plant life, but there are some species that prevail (generally considered weeds) that are well adapted to these conditions and are the possible future of our cities if they can be accepted. The presence of these species has the potential to re-build soil health and mitigate some of the problems mentioned above.5The idea that developed land can be reclaimed and returned to the ecologies they were before colonization is an illusion. This is especially true in cities. Incentives for this sort of reclamation, meant to return these spaces to a ‘balanced state’ often requires the same amount of labor and inputs as one would do gardening, and are unsuccessful. Instead of looking to plants from the past for poor mitigation, we should look to the plants of the future for greater resiliency.6Other issues like habitat fragmentation and biodiversity loss can be alleviated if we collaborate respectfully with plant life. Plants create the structure for other species to move though and are a source of food and shelter. Spontaneous, unruly vegetation, especially in a range of secessional states, has been shown to support higher levels of insects, birds, and invertebrates then other urban vegetation types such as lawns and semi-natural forests.7Often ‘public green space’ is employed to mitigate the effects of urbanization and climate change but a large percentage of cities are made up of private property and residential yard space, with important roles to contribute to the health of cities. For example, in the United Kingdom yard space accounts for around a quarter of land area in cities. If these spaces can be linked and optimized, they can greatly contribute to the green infrastructure of an urban environment. As cities continue to grow these under-utilized spaces will become of greater importance to designers and policy makers.8INTRODUCTION2The world is moving faster. Our cities are growing, urban sprawl is increasing, the climate is changing, the landscape is changing. Faster than ever, urbanization and the movement of humans and materials are making their impact on the planet. Plants have been moved from place to place both intentionally and unintentionally, for better or for worse, invading and enriching the ecology of these places as they go.2 Yet our intentional treatment of landscape remains static, bound to our ideologies and misconceptions of ‘nature’, our desire for control, and arrogant view of our own place in the world. Some defining characteristics of cities are: dense human populations, impervious surfaces, and high temperatures. This leads to reduced land area for plants and animals, excess (often toxic) runoff, compacted soils, and temperatures in urban areas more closely related to those predicted with climate change over the next 20 or 30 years.3 Urban environments clearly cannot be considered the same way their surrounding ‘natural’ landscapes are or as they were before the city was in place.Plants act at the forefront of all this change. Their ability to transform and adapt places them in the center of the discussion of climate-based resilience.4Urban environments have dramatically altered soil profiles. The abundance of humans and hard surfaces does not allow for the regular processes of soil formation, and we are left with the other end of the spectrum, compacted toxic soils. Soils support all life, and the poor soil quality found in urban environments contributes to issues of runoff, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and human health. These environments inhibit growth of plant life, but there are some species that prevail (generally considered weeds) that are well adapted to these conditions and are the possible future of our cities if they can be accepted. The presence of these species has the potential to re-build soil health and mitigate some of the problems mentioned above.5The idea that developed land can be reclaimed and returned to the ecologies they were before colonization is an illusion. This is especially true in cities. Incentives for this sort of reclamation, meant to return these spaces to a ‘balanced state’ often requires the same amount of labor and inputs as one would do gardening, and are unsuccessful. Instead of looking to plants from the past for poor mitigation, we should look to the plants of the future for greater resiliency.6Other issues like habitat fragmentation and biodiversity loss can be alleviated if we collaborate respectfully with plant life. Plants create the structure for other species to move though and are a source of food and shelter. Spontaneous, unruly vegetation, especially in a range of secessional states, has been shown to support higher levels of insects, birds, and invertebrates then other urban vegetation types such as lawns and semi-natural forests.7Often ‘public green space’ is employed to mitigate the effects of urbanization and climate change but a large percentage of cities are made up of private property and residential yard space, with important roles to contribute to the health of cities. For example, in the United Kingdom yard space accounts for around a quarter of land area in cities. If these spaces can be linked and optimized, they can greatly contribute to the green infrastructure of an urban environment. As cities continue to grow these under-utilized spaces will become of greater importance to designers and policy makers.8When we neglect natural processes in city design, we not only risk the intensification of natural hazards and the degradation of natural resources, but also forfeit a sense of connection to a larger whole beyond ourselves.1   Anne Spirn3Though as simple as this proposal might seem it does not come without its challenges. In the first chapter of their book The Dynamic Landscape, by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, the authors proposed that in order to reap the benefits of landscape plantings, radical changes may have to be made so that both selection and maintenance of plants are more ecologically based. This includes allowing processes natural to plant life, such as regeneration, competition, death, and decay to take shape. The authors stress that for this to work, public acceptance much match the vegetation regime. They suggest a framework for allowing ecological processes within an urban context at a wide spectrum (as the term ‘ecological’ is easily interpreted in different ways). Three factors that determine the kind of vegetation one might find in an urban area are identified: resources for management, public acceptance (Aesthetics), and ecological value through the site itself, or public perception. They describe anthropogenic landscape (AL) and creative conservation landscape (CCL) as the middle ground where new opportunities lie, so long as public attitudes can be shifted in the future by finding different ways to ‘sell’ these ecologies.9 This project works within this triangle.Ecology: relative importance of nature conservationAesthetics: public acceptance of ‘wild’ vegetationResources: availability of resources for managmentand/or intensity of maintenanceLow HighLowHigh LowHighAL(anthropogeniclandscape)S(spontaneousvegetation)CCL(creative conservationlandscape)H(horticuturalvegetation)Fig. 145CRITICAL ESSAYThroughout the critical essay and precedent portions of this report highlighted text refers to the end of the section where they have been outlined as questions, objectives, and goals. They serve as a starting point to begin thinking about moving forward with the rest of the project.67In Western thought plants are more often than not considered to be lesser then that of animals;10 lesser in agency, in their ability to purposefully respond and make change to their environments. from this perspective, plants are subject only to what we prescribe to them as we study and attempt to control their every movement, categorizing them into boxes in an attempt to understand a very complex interwoven system.  Rossetta Elkin is a Landscape Architect whose research involves bridging the gap between the natural and social sciences by looking at what we can do with plants, what plants are actually doing, and the agency they have on their own.11 She argues that this is due to the difficulty of evaluating the behavior of life that is different to that of humans and other animals, as it does not fit into the same criteria of that used to study humans and other animals that plant life is often belittled in its agency. But to overlook plants as intelligent, active participants in their environments limits us from the creative collaborations we could otherwise have with them.12Why do we view plants as void of agency?The word plant come from two Latin origins, with two distinctly different meanings. Planta, to sprout, and Plantare, to fix in place; Performance and permanence.13 It is possible that due to the performance of plants materializing differently to that of animals we have become fixated on the later. We do not tend to see being fixed as an advantage, but where animals have evolved to have legs, plants have evolved unique chemical communications as well as relationships with the soils which they move and exploit amongst other resources, constantly in competition with one another, just like that of animals.14Most fields involving the study of plants today, such as horticulture and landscape architecture, study and learn about plant life based on Linnaeus’s classification system ‘binomial nomenclature’ from the 1700s. The problem with this system is that is reinforces the hierarchy of ‘the human who is studying the plant’, it does not focus on collaborations between plants and humans.  It also enforces that idea of plant life exists in one form, as opposed to being a series of transformations.15plants/AGENCY8Science and plant agencyThe belief that plants have their own agency and should not be viewed as static and in one form is not new, science has been exploring and proving these ideas for a long time. In 1790, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who studied under Linnaeus took up the study of plant ‘Morphology’ as he called it. He believed that what made plants plants was their constant transformation in the form of a sequence that was assigned to each plant, and due to this it was beyond comprehension to see plants as static entities.16 He believed that Linnaeus’s system was limiting to plants as a whole.17 He saw each plant part as being in anticipation or progression of another plant part, only a moment in formation, creating a wide variety of forms on a single plant,18 never achieving an end point, always in a constant state of formation. He developed what is known as the Urpflanze, or Plant Archetype as being a basic plant form through which the variety of plant forms and combinations of forms could be derived from. These archetypes suggest a logic to the sequence of these transformations that are essential to the plant’s identification and not considered in nomenclature.19In 1896, Charles Darwin published The Power of Movement in Plants, outlining a series of experiments where a variety of plants, given different treatments of light, were covered by a sheet of glass. A thin glass filament was carefully fixed to a part of the plant and the plants movements were observed and traced along the glass plate. Theses experiments lead Darwin to conclude that “every growing part of every plant is continually circumnutating” and in turn equated this to actions preformed unconsciously by fig. 2The Urpflanze.animals.20 This experiment demonstrated that plants have the ability to move through their environment on their own accord, not due to external stimuli.21 Darwin confirms that plant movement is structured by physical laws but regulated the living organism itself, and that it is not the environment that shapes plants, but it is plants that shape the environment.229fig. 3examples of plant tracings on glassScience and plant agencyThe belief that plants have their own agency and should not be viewed as static and in one form is not new, science has been exploring and proving these ideas for a long time. In 1790, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who studied under Linnaeus took up the study of plant ‘Morphology’ as he called it. He believed that what made plants plants was their constant transformation in the form of a sequence that was assigned to each plant, and due to this it was beyond comprehension to see plants as static entities.16 He believed that Linnaeus’s system was limiting to plants as a whole.17 He saw each plant part as being in anticipation or progression of another plant part, only a moment in formation, creating a wide variety of forms on a single plant,18 never achieving an end point, always in a constant state of formation. He developed what is known as the Urpflanze, or Plant Archetype as being a basic plant form through which the variety of plant forms and combinations of forms could be derived from. These archetypes suggest a logic to the sequence of these transformations that are essential to the plant’s identification and not considered in nomenclature.19In 1896, Charles Darwin published The Power of Movement in Plants, outlining a series of experiments where a variety of plants, given different treatments of light, were covered by a sheet of glass. A thin glass filament was carefully fixed to a part of the plant and the plants movements were observed and traced along the glass plate. Theses experiments lead Darwin to conclude that “every growing part of every plant is continually circumnutating” and in turn equated this to actions preformed unconsciously by animals.20 This experiment demonstrated that plants have the ability to move through their environment on their own accord, not due to external stimuli.21 Darwin confirms that plant movement is structured by physical laws but regulated the living organism itself, and that it is not the environment that shapes plants, but it is plants that shape the environment.2210What does it mean for plants to have agency?To have agency implies purposeful action in a given environment.23 To say plants have agency is to say they are capable to making choices to change their environment, shape space, and exploit resources. This is attributed to the unique capabilities that plants have (and animals do not) through their ongoing transformations. It is these changes through form and lifecycle that give plants agency.24In root growth, plants deliberately and powerfully push through soil,25 changing its physical properties, exploiting water and air and forming relationships with fungi and other micro-organisms.By using manufactured soils, and limiting space, humans are preventing this.The upper structures of plants (leaves, stems, branches), move and grow to their own desire, exploiting air, water, and sunlight as they see fit, and creating a wide variety of forms and environmental conditions in their path.By choosing their placement and dictating their shapes, we strip them of this agency.When deciduous plants leaf out and in turn lose their leaves, they are doing so at a specific time. Allowing enough light to reach the ground for other plant life and organisms. It also adds organic matter to the soil already containing what they will need in the following months, and creates a place for animals and organisms to live.By removing this material or choosing evergreen plants over deciduous ones we are limiting this.Plants produce flowers, fruit, and set seed for reproduction. They do this at a specific time of year, and these take a specific shape and color so specific sources will pollinate and spread them (wind, animals etc…)By choosing plants that have been bred by humans for aesthetic benefits (be that to exaggerate or diminish) or by cutting them off prematurely, humans are limiting plants in this agency.11fig. 4the agency of plants12Questions Objectives GoalsWhat could creative collaborations between plants and humans look like?How could the concept of migrating gardens be incorporated into urban systemsDiscover creative collaborations between humans and plants. Focusing on plants as a series of transformations.Allow plants their transformative agencyPromote soil health and space for plantsAvoid prescribing exact locations and forms for plantsLeave decaying material in the landscapeAvoid plant cultivars bred by humansAvoid dictating placement of plantsAllow plants to form at their will Landscape architecture and plant agencyToday in landscape architecture plants are treated as tools.26 The sciences have managed to impress on the profession that the purpose of plants is to service humans.27 Plant use focuses on features such as showy leaves, flowers, and canopy structure for beautification, or ‘green’ incentives and directed to be managed in a way that suggests and maintains them as predictable, continually reinforcing the static image.28 Plants act at the intersection of life and matter, space and time, nature and culture, and in landscape architecture, theory and practice.29 We need to move away from these scientific views of working with plant life in spatial practice and move towards collaborations with plant life that allows them their aliveness and transformations, or agency, so they are no longer defined by human involvement.30 But by their potential for formation.31 How landscape architects dictate plant life within practice can be rethought and redesigned.32 Some places to start could be to consider specifying plants at the scale of ecological systems, not often done as it contradicts the static image.33 Or to consider the idea of migrating gardens/ landscapes where plant life and materials are allowed movement a crossed space and time.34 13 What we perceive to be aesthetic is a strong reflection of our history and collective cultural values. What we perceive as aesthetic uses of plants in our landscapes today has strong ties to the picturesque landscapes of the 18th century.35 This aesthetic is tended and constrained, often consisting of open grassy areas and groupings of trees doted throughout the landscape, with a mellow body of water in the distance, today we might think of this as being ‘park-like’.36 It is believed and well referenced that humans prefer landscapes that (at least in our early days) were beneficial for survival. Large open areas meant we could see for long distances and predators could not creep up on us. Today I would argue that shrubby, layered, disorderly vegetation of high ecological quality should be what indicates our survival.37In Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames, Joan Nassauer famously recognizes that signs of care are very important when people evaluate the attractiveness of a landscape. This translates to the neat, tended landscapes of the picturesque, and other landscapes we see on a regular basis, be it agriculture, recreational, or in photographs, beauty is perceived from the landscapes we interact with the most.38picturesque landscapefig. 5plants/AESTHETICS14Aesthetics and ecological qualityThe problem with this aesthetic of picturesque ‘neat’ landscapes is that they often imply a certain amount of ecological functioning that is not there.39 One example being that a large amount of decaying dead wood left in a forest is an important component of ecological management, but people do not tend to like this, seeing it as messy and disorderly. Removing the dead wood increases the aesthetic value but decreases the ecological value,40 but what people still see is a forest (a picturesque version of a forest), and the general perception of what that holds, as they have been conditioned to do. We can only see ecological quality through our own cultural lenses.41 Aesthetic preference often comes before ecological quality.42Yet, as Elizabeth Meyer states in her infamous manifesto Sustaining beauty: the performance of appearance ‘Concern for beauty and aesthetics is necessary for sustainable design if it is to have a significant cultural impact.’ She makes the claim that aesthetics are necessary to provoke strong feelings of care for the environment and advocates for an ‘immersive aesthetic experience’ she is not equating these aesthetics to the visual and formal, but through the immersive experiences of the sites natural processes and infers that we need new techniques to employ this beauty found through experience.43fig.6“The difference between function and appearance demonstrates that applied landscape ecology is essentially a design problem.”                 Joan Nassauer15Moving forwardWe need a shift in the common perception of what is aesthetic in the urban landscape. A shift to something that more closely relates to the values and issues of our time. This involves designing and carrying out our lives in spaces that better reflect the processes around us, rooted in the normative processes of nature and of living.44 Often landscape architects look to architecture for form and spatial thinking which holds us back from the forms of natural processes and disorder45. New forms for this new aesthetic need to come from the original source of inspiration, the natural world, or culture, that reflect current knowledge, beliefs, and values.46 We should celebrate the processes that sustain us. One example of this from ancient Rome (though very architectural in form) are the aquaducts that brought water into the city. Celebrated for their contribution to the health of the city and a link between the people and the processes that sustained them.47 We could develop a similar appreciation and celebratory attitude towards the transformative forms of natural processes and plant life that sustain our species and make our urban spaces healthier places.Joan Nassauer suggests that to express ecological function we must ‘frame ecological function within a recognizable system of form’ that is, neatness. I argue that this is not enough. It is a starting point, but this requires a cultural shift and continuing to use the same cues and forms from the past will not do this.To achieve this celebratory, transformative, dynamic, aesthetic and forms rooted in the processes of the place away from the traditional idea of a designed landscapes and gardens will require re-educating of the public eye and active, immersive participation from citizens.48 “This aesthetic encompasses both nature and culture…. Celebrates motion and change, encompasses dynamic processes rather than static objects and scenes, and embraces multiple rather than singular visions. This is not a timeless aesthetic, but one that recognizes both the flow of passing time and the singularity of the moment in time, and that demands both continuity and revolution.”             Anne Spirn16Questions Objectives GoalsCould a slow shift in urban vegetation strategies (where people see plants the most) promote a shift in ideas of beauty?How do we create immersive experiences of natural processes?How can we shift common ideas of what is aesthetic?Promote beauty through immersive experiences of natural processes Produce spaces that better reflect the processes around usProduce new forms that better reflect the values of todayPromote layered disorderly vegetationPublic educationEncourage immersive participation from citizens17Urban ecology can be defined as “the study of ways that human and ecological systems evolve together in urbanizing regions.”49 A complex mix of culture, history, and ecological processes.50 They are novel ecosystems with high levels of disturbance and fragmentation, dominated by humans.51Humans, whether ecologists are willing to except it or not are an integral part of ecological processes. Our inability to see ourselves as incorporated in these systems has led us to where we are today.52 With humans comes imported materials, making cities literal melting pots for plant life from all over the world.53 History, globalization, and now climate change have made it possible that plant life from all over the world are able to conjoin in our urban environments.54 Some of these introductions were intentional, such as the introduction of many of our horticultural plants. Others were unintentional, brought in on ships and peoples clothing. Whether intentional or unintentional these plants have had desirable and undesirable impacts on our landscapes.55Botanist Peter Del Tredici recognizes three broad categories of urban vegetation.56Remnant native Managed horticulturalAbandoned ruderal (spontaneous) These three types can be identified he says by the nature of their soils, past land use, the types of vegetation, and levels of maintenance.57NativeFact of the matter is that these spaces will never return to their pre-colonial states. High levels of disturbance are not limited to our cities, direct or indirectly there is not a place left on the planet that has not been impacted by humans in some way.58The introduction of native vegetation into urban ecosystems is a hot topic and trend these days. It is seen as the most likely way to enhance urban ecology and to be good stewards of the land, by ‘restoring the balance of nature’.59 Interestingly, misconceptions around naïve plants began at the start of WWII when German native plant species were promoted as being superior, comparing exotic plants to Jews.60 Another example of culture and history playing out on our landscapes and morals today.While planting native vegetation is not ‘bad’ per say and does not come with the general benefits plants contribute to urban environments. It would be incorrect to believe that planting native species will eventually achieve the previous equilibrium, the transformations landscapes and plant communities have undergone is irreversible.61 The reality is that all planted spaces will require some level of management.62 Sometimes even more so in the case of native vegetation as they do not always appreciate manufactured soils and other characteristics of cites such as air pollution, road salt etc.. In areas previously overtaken by well adapted exotic species it could take years of weeding and applying chemicals before the natives are established, if that even works.63Horticultural Many of the exotic species in question are the result of an influx of European colonizers as early as 1600 to discovered new-to-them lands all over the world. They brought plants and animals with them for agriculture and ornamental use in an attempt to create a ‘New England’, beautifying these places to a European understanding and destroying and exploiting existing plant and animal communities in its place. Soon plants were being brought back to Europe and moved all over the world. It wasn’t until the 20th century that people began to take a step back and consider the identity of these places, and conservation came into play.64Transferred to these New England colonies were elements of the picturesque landscape such as lawns, clusters of trees, and plants from other movements within European garden design, as well as plants from other colonized countries. Many of which persist in our ornamental landscapes today. The forms of lawns, hedges, and flowerbeds can be found repeated throughout urban landscapes. The repeated use of the same plant life creates a homogenizing effect across the city.65 As many of us do not have a strong connection to Europe anymore these ideologies are no longer relevant.  MonoculturesFor reliability of form and tolerance to the harsh environmental conditions found in cities as well as aesthetic preference, we often rely on cultivated clones and cultivars of a limited number of different plants. Urban monocultures can be defined as ‘large numbers of the same species growing in a relatively restricted area’.66 Often ornamental selections of plants across the urban landscape reflect this. Modernist planting designs often take this one step further specifying large blocks of the same species/ cultivar, treating plants as space fillers, or ‘green concrete’. One benefit to the visually dull performance of this is it requires only a basic knowledge of plant life.67The consequences of this could be dramatic. A classic example being Dutch Elm disease in eastern North America. A fungus specific to the American elm tree was introduced accidentally through processes of globalization. Nearly wiping out a dominating street tree across eastern north American cities.68 In an unpredictable world with a changing climate, relying on the same plant life (especially the repeated use of them contained to urban metropolises), not only creates visually dull, uninspiring spaces, but makes these plants more susceptible to pests and diseases. It is not sustainable.69However, horticultural plants create neat landscapes with the aesthetics of care.70 They dominate many of the more prevalent spaces in our cities, such as parks, ball fields, cemeteries, commercial landscaping, and of course, the domestic yard. Characterized by manufactured soils and high levels of maintenance.71 Do these species really belong here? Where some have taken well to the conditions presented in their new homes (and some arguably too well) others only persist under human propagation and constant care, having not been able to adapt.72plants/URBAN ECOLOGIES18Urban ecology can be defined as “the study of ways that human and ecological systems evolve together in urbanizing regions.”49 A complex mix of culture, history, and ecological processes.50 They are novel ecosystems with high levels of disturbance and fragmentation, dominated by humans.51Humans, whether ecologists are willing to except it or not are an integral part of ecological processes. Our inability to see ourselves as incorporated in these systems has led us to where we are today.52 With humans comes imported materials, making cities literal melting pots for plant life from all over the world.53 History, globalization, and now climate change have made it possible that plant life from all over the world are able to conjoin in our urban environments.54 Some of these introductions were intentional, such as the introduction of many of our horticultural plants. Others were unintentional, brought in on ships and peoples clothing. Whether intentional or unintentional these plants have had desirable and undesirable impacts on our landscapes.55Botanist Peter Del Tredici recognizes three broad categories of urban vegetation.56Remnant native Managed horticulturalAbandoned ruderal (spontaneous) These three types can be identified he says by the nature of their soils, past land use, the types of vegetation, and levels of maintenance.57NativeFact of the matter is that these spaces will never return to their pre-colonial states. High levels of disturbance are not limited to our cities, direct or indirectly there is not a place left on the planet that has not been impacted by humans in some way.58The introduction of native vegetation into urban ecosystems is a hot topic and trend these days. It is seen as the most likely way to enhance urban ecology and to be good stewards of the land, by ‘restoring the balance of nature’.59 Interestingly, misconceptions around naïve plants began at the start of WWII when German native plant species were promoted as being superior, comparing exotic plants to Jews.60 Another example of culture and history playing out on our landscapes and morals today.While planting native vegetation is not ‘bad’ per say and does not come with the general benefits plants contribute to urban environments. It would be incorrect to believe that planting native species will eventually achieve the previous equilibrium, the transformations landscapes and plant communities have undergone is irreversible.61 The reality is that all planted spaces will require some level of management.62 Sometimes even more so in the case of native vegetation as they do not always appreciate manufactured soils and other characteristics of cites such as air pollution, road salt etc.. In areas previously overtaken by well adapted exotic species it could take years of weeding and applying chemicals before the natives are established, if that even works.63Horticultural Many of the exotic species in question are the result of an influx of European colonizers as early as 1600 to discovered new-to-them lands all over the world. They brought plants and animals with them for agriculture and ornamental use in an attempt to create a ‘New England’, beautifying these places to a European understanding and destroying and exploiting existing plant and animal communities in its place. Soon plants were being brought back to Europe and moved all over the world. It wasn’t until the 20th century that people began to take a step back and consider the identity of these places, and conservation came into play.64Transferred to these New England colonies were elements of the picturesque landscape such as lawns, clusters of trees, and plants from other movements within European garden design, as well as plants from other colonized countries. Many of which persist in our ornamental landscapes today. The forms of lawns, hedges, and flowerbeds can be found repeated throughout urban landscapes. The repeated use of the same plant life creates a homogenizing effect across the city.65 As many of us do not have a strong connection to Europe anymore these ideologies are no longer relevant.  MonoculturesFor reliability of form and tolerance to the harsh environmental conditions found in cities as well as aesthetic preference, we often rely on cultivated clones and cultivars of a limited number of different plants. Urban monocultures can be defined as ‘large numbers of the same species growing in a relatively restricted area’.66 Often ornamental selections of plants across the urban landscape reflect this. Modernist planting designs often take this one step further specifying large blocks of the same species/ cultivar, treating plants as space fillers, or ‘green concrete’. One benefit to the visually dull performance of this is it requires only a basic knowledge of plant life.67The consequences of this could be dramatic. A classic example being Dutch Elm disease in eastern North America. A fungus specific to the American elm tree was introduced accidentally through processes of globalization. Nearly wiping out a dominating street tree across eastern north American cities.68 In an unpredictable world with a changing climate, relying on the same plant life (especially the repeated use of them contained to urban metropolises), not only creates visually dull, uninspiring spaces, but makes these plants more susceptible to pests and diseases. It is not sustainable.69However, horticultural plants create neat landscapes with the aesthetics of care.70 They dominate many of the more prevalent spaces in our cities, such as parks, ball fields, cemeteries, commercial landscaping, and of course, the domestic yard. Characterized by manufactured soils and high levels of maintenance.71 Do these species really belong here? Where some have taken well to the conditions presented in their new homes (and some arguably too well) others only persist under human propagation and constant care, having not been able to adapt.72a planting of native plantsan abandoned planting of native plantsfig. 719Urban ecology can be defined as “the study of ways that human and ecological systems evolve together in urbanizing regions.”49 A complex mix of culture, history, and ecological processes.50 They are novel ecosystems with high levels of disturbance and fragmentation, dominated by humans.51Humans, whether ecologists are willing to except it or not are an integral part of ecological processes. Our inability to see ourselves as incorporated in these systems has led us to where we are today.52 With humans comes imported materials, making cities literal melting pots for plant life from all over the world.53 History, globalization, and now climate change have made it possible that plant life from all over the world are able to conjoin in our urban environments.54 Some of these introductions were intentional, such as the introduction of many of our horticultural plants. Others were unintentional, brought in on ships and peoples clothing. Whether intentional or unintentional these plants have had desirable and undesirable impacts on our landscapes.55Botanist Peter Del Tredici recognizes three broad categories of urban vegetation.56Remnant native Managed horticulturalAbandoned ruderal (spontaneous) These three types can be identified he says by the nature of their soils, past land use, the types of vegetation, and levels of maintenance.57NativeFact of the matter is that these spaces will never return to their pre-colonial states. High levels of disturbance are not limited to our cities, direct or indirectly there is not a place left on the planet that has not been impacted by humans in some way.58The introduction of native vegetation into urban ecosystems is a hot topic and trend these days. It is seen as the most likely way to enhance urban ecology and to be good stewards of the land, by ‘restoring the balance of nature’.59 Interestingly, misconceptions around naïve plants began at the start of WWII when German native plant species were promoted as being superior, comparing exotic plants to Jews.60 Another example of culture and history playing out on our landscapes and morals today.While planting native vegetation is not ‘bad’ per say and does not come with the general benefits plants contribute to urban environments. It would be incorrect to believe that planting native species will eventually achieve the previous equilibrium, the transformations landscapes and plant communities have undergone is irreversible.61 The reality is that all planted spaces will require some level of management.62 Sometimes even more so in the case of native vegetation as they do not always appreciate manufactured soils and other characteristics of cites such as air pollution, road salt etc.. In areas previously overtaken by well adapted exotic species it could take years of weeding and applying chemicals before the natives are established, if that even works.63Horticultural Many of the exotic species in question are the result of an influx of European colonizers as early as 1600 to discovered new-to-them lands all over the world. They brought plants and animals with them for agriculture and ornamental use in an attempt to create a ‘New England’, beautifying these places to a European understanding and destroying and exploiting existing plant and animal communities in its place. Soon plants were being brought back to Europe and moved all over the world. It wasn’t until the 20th century that people began to take a step back and consider the identity of these places, and conservation came into play.64Transferred to these New England colonies were elements of the picturesque landscape such as lawns, clusters of trees, and plants from other movements within European garden design, as well as plants from other colonized countries. Many of which persist in our ornamental landscapes today. The forms of lawns, hedges, and flowerbeds can be found repeated throughout urban landscapes. The repeated use of the same plant life creates a homogenizing effect across the city.65 As many of us do not have a strong connection to Europe anymore these ideologies are no longer relevant.  MonoculturesFor reliability of form and tolerance to the harsh environmental conditions found in cities as well as aesthetic preference, we often rely on cultivated clones and cultivars of a limited number of different plants. Urban monocultures can be defined as ‘large numbers of the same species growing in a relatively restricted area’.66 Often ornamental selections of plants across the urban landscape reflect this. Modernist planting designs often take this one step further specifying large blocks of the same species/ cultivar, treating plants as space fillers, or ‘green concrete’. One benefit to the visually dull performance of this is it requires only a basic knowledge of plant life.67The consequences of this could be dramatic. A classic example being Dutch Elm disease in eastern North America. A fungus specific to the American elm tree was introduced accidentally through processes of globalization. Nearly wiping out a dominating street tree across eastern north American cities.68 In an unpredictable world with a changing climate, relying on the same plant life (especially the repeated use of them contained to urban metropolises), not only creates visually dull, uninspiring spaces, but makes these plants more susceptible to pests and diseases. It is not sustainable.69However, horticultural plants create neat landscapes with the aesthetics of care.70 They dominate many of the more prevalent spaces in our cities, such as parks, ball fields, cemeteries, commercial landscaping, and of course, the domestic yard. Characterized by manufactured soils and high levels of maintenance.71 Do these species really belong here? Where some have taken well to the conditions presented in their new homes (and some arguably too well) others only persist under human propagation and constant care, having not been able to adapt.72green concretefig. 820Urban ecology can be defined as “the study of ways that human and ecological systems evolve together in urbanizing regions.”49 A complex mix of culture, history, and ecological processes.50 They are novel ecosystems with high levels of disturbance and fragmentation, dominated by humans.51Humans, whether ecologists are willing to except it or not are an integral part of ecological processes. Our inability to see ourselves as incorporated in these systems has led us to where we are today.52 With humans comes imported materials, making cities literal melting pots for plant life from all over the world.53 History, globalization, and now climate change have made it possible that plant life from all over the world are able to conjoin in our urban environments.54 Some of these introductions were intentional, such as the introduction of many of our horticultural plants. Others were unintentional, brought in on ships and peoples clothing. Whether intentional or unintentional these plants have had desirable and undesirable impacts on our landscapes.55Botanist Peter Del Tredici recognizes three broad categories of urban vegetation.56Remnant native Managed horticulturalAbandoned ruderal (spontaneous) These three types can be identified he says by the nature of their soils, past land use, the types of vegetation, and levels of maintenance.57NativeFact of the matter is that these spaces will never return to their pre-colonial states. High levels of disturbance are not limited to our cities, direct or indirectly there is not a place left on the planet that has not been impacted by humans in some way.58The introduction of native vegetation into urban ecosystems is a hot topic and trend these days. It is seen as the most likely way to enhance urban ecology and to be good stewards of the land, by ‘restoring the balance of nature’.59 Interestingly, misconceptions around naïve plants began at the start of WWII when German native plant species were promoted as being superior, comparing exotic plants to Jews.60 Another example of culture and history playing out on our landscapes and morals today.While planting native vegetation is not ‘bad’ per say and does not come with the general benefits plants contribute to urban environments. It would be incorrect to believe that planting native species will eventually achieve the previous equilibrium, the transformations landscapes and plant communities have undergone is irreversible.61 The reality is that all planted spaces will require some level of management.62 Sometimes even more so in the case of native vegetation as they do not always appreciate manufactured soils and other characteristics of cites such as air pollution, road salt etc.. In areas previously overtaken by well adapted exotic species it could take years of weeding and applying chemicals before the natives are established, if that even works.63Horticultural Many of the exotic species in question are the result of an influx of European colonizers as early as 1600 to discovered new-to-them lands all over the world. They brought plants and animals with them for agriculture and ornamental use in an attempt to create a ‘New England’, beautifying these places to a European understanding and destroying and exploiting existing plant and animal communities in its place. Soon plants were being brought back to Europe and moved all over the world. It wasn’t until the 20th century that people began to take a step back and consider the identity of these places, and conservation came into play.64Transferred to these New England colonies were elements of the picturesque landscape such as lawns, clusters of trees, and plants from other movements within European garden design, as well as plants from other colonized countries. Many of which persist in our ornamental landscapes today. The forms of lawns, hedges, and flowerbeds can be found repeated throughout urban landscapes. The repeated use of the same plant life creates a homogenizing effect across the city.65 As many of us do not have a strong connection to Europe anymore these ideologies are no longer relevant.  MonoculturesFor reliability of form and tolerance to the harsh environmental conditions found in cities as well as aesthetic preference, we often rely on cultivated clones and cultivars of a limited number of different plants. Urban monocultures can be defined as ‘large numbers of the same species growing in a relatively restricted area’.66 Often ornamental selections of plants across the urban landscape reflect this. Modernist planting designs often take this one step further specifying large blocks of the same species/ cultivar, treating plants as space fillers, or ‘green concrete’. One benefit to the visually dull performance of this is it requires only a basic knowledge of plant life.67Spontaneous Some of the plants that have been able to adapt quite nicely to their new landscapes and urban conditions are often referred to as spontaneous or ruderal, as they are often found in abandoned urban spaces with far from ideal conditions.73 These plants thrive with no maintenance or human care. In areas of high disturbance with thin compacted toxic soils. They can include native plants, introduced cultivated plants, or introduced, adapted ‘weeds’.74 The dramatically varying conditions in cities, in various states of disturbance has made for an array of highly diverse plant communities. Forming unique displays of the processes that have created, and are creating these spaces and pushing boundary’s between aesthetics, disorder, and ecology.75BenefitSpontaneous plant life provides many important ecological contributions to our cities and landscapes.76 Such as nutrient absorption, heat reduction, erosion control, soil and air remediation, food and habitat for wildlife, and (someday maybe again) food and medicine for people, amongst many others.77 Often theses are referred to as ‘ecosystem services’, which are essentially the benefits ecosystems provide to humans. This is problematic however for two reasons. 1) It does not really refer to a process, but an end product. 2) It leads to an anthropocentric understanding that the natural world does not include humans, is there to provide for us, and there for our disposal. When in fact the services are broad, contributed by everyone, for everyone (humans, plants, rocks, and animals alike) and for the planet. Spontaneous plants can achieve many of these services and quite possibly more considering they do not require any inputs or maintenance. What are often considered ‘waste spaces’ are often exceptionally high in biodiversity. So much so that some European researchers are suggesting some of these spaces that are more long standing be conserved.78SuccessionThe high levels of diversity in these communities is largely attributed to the allowance for the processes of succession to occur (due to being left without direct contact with humans). Ecological succession is ‘The change in the composition of plant and animal assemblages over time’.79 In general, in the case of spontaneous plant life it begins with small herbaceous legumes, annuals, and perennials that can best tolerate the poor soil conditions. As soil health builds these plant communities gradually fade out in favor of others. Often coming to a point where there is a stand of woody plant life that will be disrupted in some way and a fragment of the process begins again.80 This (contrary to popular belief) is an unpredictable cycle that is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem health. Though a lot of what we do today in traditional landscape management in cities aims at preventing this.81 Unfortunately, public perception of these spaces and plants is still stuck on them as ‘weedy’.82 Can we learn and take cues from the spontaneous plant life found in our urban environments, and include and incorporate these plants and processes into our managed landscapes?Gilles ClementGilles Clement is a French horticulturalist and landscape architect whose work revolves around the spontaneous dynamics of nature in urban landscapes.83 Clement has devised two main concepts throughout the course of his work. That of ‘The Third Landscape’ and ‘The Garden in Movement’. The Third Landscape refers to the marginal spaces that have been directly impacted by humans but are not directly in care of humans these are the spaces with high levels of diversity where spontaneous plant life is often found.84 The Garden in Movement refers to how these spaces change with minimal influence from humans. These spaces rearrange themselves unpredictably, in defiance of traditional garden design. To Clement these plant communities are high in aesthetic value due to the change they undergo, offering ‘wonder and enchantment’.85 Spontaneous urban plants are the current realities and futures of our cities, regardless of how people may currently feel about them.86 They successfully and positively contribute to urban ecologies in light of and despite the conditions they find there, that will only become more significant in the future. Due to the influence of cities in our changing climate we have a responsibility to work with spontaneous plant life in their agency towards the future of our planet.87The consequences of this could be dramatic. A classic example being Dutch Elm disease in eastern North America. A fungus specific to the American elm tree was introduced accidentally through processes of globalization. Nearly wiping out a dominating street tree across eastern north American cities.68 In an unpredictable world with a changing climate, relying on the same plant life (especially the repeated use of them contained to urban metropolises), not only creates visually dull, uninspiring spaces, but makes these plants more susceptible to pests and diseases. It is not sustainable.69However, horticultural plants create neat landscapes with the aesthetics of care.70 They dominate many of the more prevalent spaces in our cities, such as parks, ball fields, cemeteries, commercial landscaping, and of course, the domestic yard. Characterized by manufactured soils and high levels of maintenance.71 Do these species really belong here? Where some have taken well to the conditions presented in their new homes (and some arguably too well) others only persist under human propagation and constant care, having not been able to adapt.7221Spontaneous Some of the plants that have been able to adapt quite nicely to their new landscapes and urban conditions are often referred to as spontaneous or ruderal, as they are often found in abandoned urban spaces with far from ideal conditions.73 These plants thrive with no maintenance or human care. In areas of high disturbance with thin compacted toxic soils. They can include native plants, introduced cultivated plants, or introduced, adapted ‘weeds’.74 The dramatically varying conditions in cities, in various states of disturbance has made for an array of highly diverse plant communities. Forming unique displays of the processes that have created, and are creating these spaces and pushing boundary’s between aesthetics, disorder, and ecology.75BenefitSpontaneous plant life provides many important ecological contributions to our cities and landscapes.76 Such as nutrient absorption, heat reduction, erosion control, soil and air remediation, food and habitat for wildlife, and (someday maybe again) food and medicine for people, amongst many others.77 Often theses are referred to as ‘ecosystem services’, which are essentially the benefits ecosystems provide to humans. This is problematic however for two reasons. 1) It does not really refer to a process, but an end product. 2) It leads to an anthropocentric understanding that the natural world does not include humans, is there to provide for us, and there for our disposal. When in fact the services are broad, contributed by everyone, for everyone (humans, plants, rocks, and animals alike) and for the planet. Spontaneous plants can achieve many of these services and quite possibly more considering they do not require any inputs or maintenance. What are often considered ‘waste spaces’ are often exceptionally high in biodiversity. So much so that some European researchers are suggesting some of these spaces that are more long standing be conserved.78SuccessionThe high levels of diversity in these communities is largely attributed to the allowance for the processes of succession to occur (due to being left without direct contact with humans). Ecological succession is ‘The change in the composition of plant and animal assemblages over time’.79 In general, in the case of spontaneous plant life it begins with small herbaceous legumes, annuals, and perennials that can best tolerate the poor soil conditions. As soil health builds these plant communities gradually fade out in favor of others. Often coming to a point where there is a stand of woody plant life that will be disrupted in some way and a fragment of the process begins again.80 This (contrary to popular belief) is an unpredictable cycle that is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem health. Though a lot of what we do today in traditional landscape management in cities aims at preventing this.81 Unfortunately, public perception of these spaces and plants is still stuck on them as ‘weedy’.82 Can we learn and take cues from the spontaneous plant life found in our urban environments, and include and incorporate these plants and processes into our managed landscapes?Gilles ClementGilles Clement is a French horticulturalist and landscape architect whose work revolves around the spontaneous dynamics of nature in urban landscapes.83 Clement has devised two main concepts throughout the course of his work. That of ‘The Third Landscape’ and ‘The Garden in Movement’. The Third Landscape refers to the marginal spaces that have been directly impacted by humans but are not directly in care of humans these are the spaces with high levels of diversity where spontaneous plant life is often found.84 The Garden in Movement refers to how these spaces change with minimal influence from humans. These spaces rearrange themselves unpredictably, in defiance of traditional garden design. To Clement these plant communities are high in aesthetic value due to the change they undergo, offering ‘wonder and enchantment’.85 Spontaneous urban plants are the current realities and futures of our cities, regardless of how people may currently feel about them.86 They successfully and positively contribute to urban ecologies in light of and despite the conditions they find there, that will only become more significant in the future. Due to the influence of cities in our changing climate we have a responsibility to work with spontaneous plant life in their agency towards the future of our planet.87spontaneous urban vegetationfig. 922Spontaneous Some of the plants that have been able to adapt quite nicely to their new landscapes and urban conditions are often referred to as spontaneous or ruderal, as they are often found in abandoned urban spaces with far from ideal conditions.73 These plants thrive with no maintenance or human care. In areas of high disturbance with thin compacted toxic soils. They can include native plants, introduced cultivated plants, or introduced, adapted ‘weeds’.74 The dramatically varying conditions in cities, in various states of disturbance has made for an array of highly diverse plant communities. Forming unique displays of the processes that have created, and are creating these spaces and pushing boundary’s between aesthetics, disorder, and ecology.75BenefitSpontaneous plant life provides many important ecological contributions to our cities and landscapes.76 Such as nutrient absorption, heat reduction, erosion control, soil and air remediation, food and habitat for wildlife, and (someday maybe again) food and medicine for people, amongst many others.77 Often theses are referred to as ‘ecosystem services’, which are essentially the benefits ecosystems provide to humans. This is problematic however for two reasons. 1) It does not really refer to a process, but an end product. 2) It leads to an anthropocentric understanding that the natural world does not include humans, is there to provide for us, and there for our disposal. When in fact the services are broad, contributed by everyone, for everyone (humans, plants, rocks, and animals alike) and for the planet. Spontaneous plants can achieve many of these services and quite possibly more considering they do not require any inputs or maintenance. What are often considered ‘waste spaces’ are often exceptionally high in biodiversity. So much so that some European researchers are suggesting some of these spaces that are more long standing be conserved.78SuccessionThe high levels of diversity in these communities is largely attributed to the allowance for the processes of succession to occur (due to being left without direct contact with humans). Ecological succession is ‘The change in the composition of plant and animal assemblages over time’.79 In general, in the case of spontaneous plant life it begins with small herbaceous legumes, annuals, and perennials that can best tolerate the poor soil conditions. As soil health builds these plant communities gradually fade out in favor of others. Often coming to a point where there is a stand of woody plant life that will be disrupted in some way and a fragment of the process begins again.80 This (contrary to popular belief) is an unpredictable cycle that is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem health. Though a lot of what we do today in traditional landscape management in cities aims at preventing this.81 Unfortunately, public perception of these spaces and plants is still stuck on them as ‘weedy’.82 Can we learn and take cues from the spontaneous plant life found in our urban environments, and include and incorporate these plants and processes into our managed landscapes?Gilles ClementGilles Clement is a French horticulturalist and landscape architect whose work revolves around the spontaneous dynamics of nature in urban landscapes.83 Clement has devised two main concepts throughout the course of his work. That of ‘The Third Landscape’ and ‘The Garden in Movement’. The Third Landscape refers to the marginal spaces that have been directly impacted by humans but are not directly in care of humans these are the spaces with high levels of diversity where spontaneous plant life is often found.84 The Garden in Movement refers to how these spaces change with minimal influence from humans. These spaces rearrange themselves unpredictably, in defiance of traditional garden design. To Clement these plant communities are high in aesthetic value due to the change they undergo, offering ‘wonder and enchantment’.85 Spontaneous urban plants are the current realities and futures of our cities, regardless of how people may currently feel about them.86 They successfully and positively contribute to urban ecologies in light of and despite the conditions they find there, that will only become more significant in the future. Due to the influence of cities in our changing climate we have a responsibility to work with spontaneous plant life in their agency towards the future of our planet.8723Questions Objectives GoalsCan we begin to see ourselves as incorporated into the natural systems around us? Can we learn and take cues from the spontaneous plant life found in our urban environments, and include and incorporate these plants and processes into our managed landscapes?Work between the constraints for aesthetics, disorder, and ecologyEncourage succession Work with spontaneous vegetationSpontaneous Some of the plants that have been able to adapt quite nicely to their new landscapes and urban conditions are often referred to as spontaneous or ruderal, as they are often found in abandoned urban spaces with far from ideal conditions.73 These plants thrive with no maintenance or human care. In areas of high disturbance with thin compacted toxic soils. They can include native plants, introduced cultivated plants, or introduced, adapted ‘weeds’.74 The dramatically varying conditions in cities, in various states of disturbance has made for an array of highly diverse plant communities. Forming unique displays of the processes that have created, and are creating these spaces and pushing boundary’s between aesthetics, disorder, and ecology.75BenefitSpontaneous plant life provides many important ecological contributions to our cities and landscapes.76 Such as nutrient absorption, heat reduction, erosion control, soil and air remediation, food and habitat for wildlife, and (someday maybe again) food and medicine for people, amongst many others.77 Often theses are referred to as ‘ecosystem services’, which are essentially the benefits ecosystems provide to humans. This is problematic however for two reasons. 1) It does not really refer to a process, but an end product. 2) It leads to an anthropocentric understanding that the natural world does not include humans, is there to provide for us, and there for our disposal. When in fact the services are broad, contributed by everyone, for everyone (humans, plants, rocks, and animals alike) and for the planet. Spontaneous plants can achieve many of these services and quite possibly more considering they do not require any inputs or maintenance. What are often considered ‘waste spaces’ are often exceptionally high in biodiversity. So much so that some European researchers are suggesting some of these spaces that are more long standing be conserved.78SuccessionThe high levels of diversity in these communities is largely attributed to the allowance for the processes of succession to occur (due to being left without direct contact with humans). Ecological succession is ‘The change in the composition of plant and animal assemblages over time’.79 In general, in the case of spontaneous plant life it begins with small herbaceous legumes, annuals, and perennials that can best tolerate the poor soil conditions. As soil health builds these plant communities gradually fade out in favor of others. Often coming to a point where there is a stand of woody plant life that will be disrupted in some way and a fragment of the process begins again.80 This (contrary to popular belief) is an unpredictable cycle that is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem health. Though a lot of what we do today in traditional landscape management in cities aims at preventing this.81 Unfortunately, public perception of these spaces and plants is still stuck on them as ‘weedy’.82 Can we learn and take cues from the spontaneous plant life found in our urban environments, and include and incorporate these plants and processes into our managed landscapes?Gilles ClementGilles Clement is a French horticulturalist and landscape architect whose work revolves around the spontaneous dynamics of nature in urban landscapes.83 Clement has devised two main concepts throughout the course of his work. That of ‘The Third Landscape’ and ‘The Garden in Movement’. The Third Landscape refers to the marginal spaces that have been directly impacted by humans but are not directly in care of humans these are the spaces with high levels of diversity where spontaneous plant life is often found.84 The Garden in Movement refers to how these spaces change with minimal influence from humans. These spaces rearrange themselves unpredictably, in defiance of traditional garden design. To Clement these plant communities are high in aesthetic value due to the change they undergo, offering ‘wonder and enchantment’.85 Spontaneous urban plants are the current realities and futures of our cities, regardless of how people may currently feel about them.86 They successfully and positively contribute to urban ecologies in light of and despite the conditions they find there, that will only become more significant in the future. Due to the influence of cities in our changing climate we have a responsibility to work with spontaneous plant life in their agency towards the future of our planet.872425“Flowers sprouting in a path present the gardener with a choice: to conserve the path or the flowers”Gilles Clement“…The gardener works with this movement (evidently choosing, as far as possible, to conserve the flowers). Rather than plan the garden ahead of time on a drafting table with lists of species, she helps the garden to emerge in collaboration with the functional inventions of plants.”Jonathan SkinnerPeople maintain their landscapes. Whether for forestry, agriculture, recreation, or pleasure defining a space of land and maintaining it is central to who we are. We love it, we complain about it, we do it with purpose, and we do it with no thought at all. In the landscapes urban residences see and spend so much time in, subsequently being the places they often have the most interactions with plant life, the message of domination and control (as mentioned in previous sections) is prevalent in what we do and in what we see.It is said that the actions that lead to this aesthetic is an apparent need to communicate to other nearby residence intention and care over our spaces. A sort of social message to uphold a status, a way to be read by other people. Care and ‘neatness’ being a sign of good citizenship and thus aesthetically pleasing.88Whatever the message, gardening and maintenance should not be underestimated. It can be a political act, one between urbanism and environmental justice.89plants/MANAGMENT26Weeding: To remove unwanted plants from an area. This may be done for personal preference, aesthetic preference, or becuse they are causing some harm to other surrounding plants.Pruning: To selectively chose living or dead parts of a plant to remove. Sometimes to promote fruit production, but often (in this context) to ‘improve’ the health, shape, or appearance of a plant.Trimming/ Shearing: To remove a uniform amount of the plant from its outside edges. Done to reduce the size of a plant or make it a particular shape.Mowing: A type of pruning. Repetitive cutting, often of a herbaceous plant withing a few inches of the ground. In this context often resulting in a lawn.Mulching: To cover a surface of earth with an organic or inorganic material. Often done to suppress ‘weeds’, maintain soil moisture, add organics, or for decorative purposes. Raking: The collection of a material off the ground with a specific tool (rake). To move materials around and/or, more often to ‘improve’ the cleanliness and appearance of a space.Foundation plantings: The trend to plant low shrubs directly around the base of a building.Straight lines and patterns: The tendency for planting, plant forms, and bed layout to be uniform, and repetitive, with crisp strong lines. A strong indicator of human intention and dominance. Bright colors: A preference displayed throughout the urban landscape and reflected in plant cultivation and nurseries. Hardscape: Human made elements found throughout the urban landscape. Offering utility, or aesthetics.Typical maintenance and planting strategies often found today at an urban or residential scale often include…fig.1027Weeding: To remove unwanted plants from an area. This may be done for personal preference, aesthetic preference, or becuse they are causing some harm to other surrounding plants.Pruning: To selectively chose living or dead parts of a plant to remove. Sometimes to promote fruit production, but often (in this context) to ‘improve’ the health, shape, or appearance of a plant.Trimming/ Shearing: To remove a uniform amount of the plant from its outside edges. Done to reduce the size of a plant or make it a particular shape.Mowing: A type of pruning. Repetitive cutting, often of a herbaceous plant withing a few inches of the ground. In this context often resulting in a lawn.Mulching: To cover a surface of earth with an organic or inorganic material. Often done to suppress ‘weeds’, maintain soil moisture, add organics, or for decorative purposes. Raking: The collection of a material off the ground with a specific tool (rake). To move materials around and/or, more often to ‘improve’ the cleanliness and appearance of a space.Foundation plantings: The trend to plant low shrubs directly around the base of a building.Straight lines and patterns: The tendency for planting, plant forms, and bed layout to be uniform, and repetitive, with crisp strong lines. A strong indicator of human intention and dominance. Bright colors: A preference displayed throughout the urban landscape and reflected in plant cultivation and nurseries. Hardscape: Human made elements found throughout the urban landscape. Offering utility, or aesthetics.fig.1128 Through these practices plant life is often overlooked and ignored as the backdrop for humans and animals to go about their lives in front of.90 The static, superficial treatment of plants suppressed of their individuality only confirms this image. The term ‘plant blindness’ comes to mind, something I see in people daily. Plant blindness is simply, ‘The inability to see or notice the plants in one’s own environment” as well as the “Inability to appreciate the aesthetic and unique biological features”.91 I would argue that the previously mentioned procedures greatly impact this. Leading to the next part of plant blindness, “The inability to recognize the importance of plants in the biosphere and in human affairs”.92But people do, interestingly, notice plants when there are none around or when they are out of line, both of which receive negative reactions. Where humans do appreciate ‘nature’ there is also ‘too much nature’, often resulting in ‘too much care’.93 Opposing conflicts such as this between humans and plant life inevitably separate us more: weedy or beautiful, useful or useless, desired or despised94. We see divides like this causing conflict in our own human to human relationships. They need to be resolved if we are to collaborate with plant life in our care procedures towards them, to contribute positively towards environmental conditions.95  The current horticultural techniques promote the image of plants as immobile. Denying them transformations and belittling their potential at larger scales, yet it is often not questioned.96 Thinking of gardens as isolated and contained to (for example) a residential property and void of movement limits plant life the ability to contribute to natural processes as they should.97It is exactly due to conundrums like this that make gardens such powerful tools. The hands-on interaction people have with their gardens and the ability to relate and see change directly affected to them make gardens an ideal starting place to discuss and explore human-plant relationships.98There is a mistrust in allowing plants their transformations and change. Plants that do this are considered weeds, undesirable and uncared for. To re-think the stereotype of a ‘weed’ Peter Del Tredici suggests replacing the term with ‘cosmopolitan urban vegetation’.99 Re-thinking the concept of ‘a weed’ can perhaps assist us in how we think about management of all plant life, particularly spontaneous plants and the processes that support them. Welcoming and working with spontaneous plants in our urban environment will require a different kind of expertise and skill.100 But it may also assist in solving our dialectic relationship with plant life and enhance our spaces ecologically, socially, and aesthetically.101 There is an increased interest in including spontaneous plants and processes into design, projecting a long-term change in our attitudes towards such plant life and the aesthetic they bring.102 As designers working with spontaneous plants may sound like a very hands-off approach when in fact it requires a more intimate relationship between the designer and the ground.103 Today, design in necessary for spontaneous processes to occur.104What are these new collaborations between the plant, the gardener, and the designer? How will they be achieved? What are their combined aesthetic? What new agency does the gardener have to contribute to the agency of the plant?105 How do we facilitate in the movement of plants? The way people interact with their landscapes and plants is in direct effect to all of these questions, beauty is in experience.10629Questions Objectives GoalsWhat new forms of expertise and skills will be required for working with spontaneous plants and processes. What are new collaborations between the plant, the gardener, and the designer?What new agency does the gardener have to contribute to the agency of the plant?Collaborate with plant life in our care procedures towards them.Re-think the stereotype of a weedRe-evaluate our dialectic relationship with plant lifePromote beauty as experienceHands on interactions between people and plants Through these practices plant life is often overlooked and ignored as the backdrop for humans and animals to go about their lives in front of.90 The static, superficial treatment of plants suppressed of their individuality only confirms this image. The term ‘plant blindness’ comes to mind, something I see in people daily. Plant blindness is simply, ‘The inability to see or notice the plants in one’s own environment” as well as the “Inability to appreciate the aesthetic and unique biological features”.91 I would argue that the previously mentioned procedures greatly impact this. Leading to the next part of plant blindness, “The inability to recognize the importance of plants in the biosphere and in human affairs”.92But people do, interestingly, notice plants when there are none around or when they are out of line, both of which receive negative reactions. Where humans do appreciate ‘nature’ there is also ‘too much nature’, often resulting in ‘too much care’.93 Opposing conflicts such as this between humans and plant life inevitably separate us more: weedy or beautiful, useful or useless, desired or despised94. We see divides like this causing conflict in our own human to human relationships. They need to be resolved if we are to collaborate with plant life in our care procedures towards them, to contribute positively towards environmental conditions.95  The current horticultural techniques promote the image of plants as immobile. Denying them transformations and belittling their potential at larger scales, yet it is often not questioned.96 Thinking of gardens as isolated and contained to (for example) a residential property and void of movement limits plant life the ability to contribute to natural processes as they should.97It is exactly due to conundrums like this that make gardens such powerful tools. The hands-on interaction people have with their gardens and the ability to relate and see change directly affected to them make gardens an ideal starting place to discuss and explore human-plant relationships.98There is a mistrust in allowing plants their transformations and change. Plants that do this are considered weeds, undesirable and uncared for. To re-think the stereotype of a ‘weed’ Peter Del Tredici suggests replacing the term with ‘cosmopolitan urban vegetation’.99 Re-thinking the concept of ‘a weed’ can perhaps assist us in how we think about management of all plant life, particularly spontaneous plants and the processes that support them. Welcoming and working with spontaneous plants in our urban environment will require a different kind of expertise and skill.100 But it may also assist in solving our dialectic relationship with plant life and enhance our spaces ecologically, socially, and aesthetically.101 There is an increased interest in including spontaneous plants and processes into design, projecting a long-term change in our attitudes towards such plant life and the aesthetic they bring.102 As designers working with spontaneous plants may sound like a very hands-off approach when in fact it requires a more intimate relationship between the designer and the ground.103 Today, design in necessary for spontaneous processes to occur.104What are these new collaborations between the plant, the gardener, and the designer? How will they be achieved? What are their combined aesthetic? What new agency does the gardener have to contribute to the agency of the plant?105 How do we facilitate in the movement of plants? The way people interact with their landscapes and plants is in direct effect to all of these questions, beauty is in experience.1063031PRECEDENTS Each precedent has the following 5 topics, found within the report, ranked from 1 to 5.(Based on my own judgements/assumptions)Agency: Refers to whether the plantsapparent agency is allowedAesthetics: Refers to the projectsquestioning of traditional aestheticsUrban ecologies: Is the projectcontributing to urban ecologies?Management: Does management workwith the natural processes of the site?Are innovative strategies employed? People: Is encouraging people plantrelationships important to the project? 3233Designer: Gilles Clement, in collaboration with Éric Berlin, ClaudeCourtecuisse and Sylvain FlipoLocation: Lille, FranceDate:       Completed 1995Parc Henri MatisseParc Henri Matisse is an 8-hectare park located in Lille, northern France. The project was a part of a larger city revitalization project that included a shopping mall, office and conference space and a high-speed rail hub, with several notable architects working on the project.107 The park itself consists of two main features. A large accessible lawn area, and, in the center, a large 2500 square meter raised concrete island, made partly from nearby construction waste and inaccessible to the public. The large concrete structure is often mistaken for a bunker left over from WWII.108This island is named Derborence island after the Deborence forest in Switzerland, one of the few remaining primary forests left in Europe, largely due to its remote location.109 This is more symbolic in the concept of the island then a reflection of its actual function. A top the 7-meter-high walls a variety of tree species were planted for their hardiness to urban conditions (not chosen in relation to the Deborence forest) some species are native to Europe while others originate from other parts of the globe. The island has intentionally been made inaccessible to the public to allow the processes of ecological succession to occur undisturbed. The only visitors are scientists who come to occasionally monitor biodiversity on this ecological experiment.110The island is considered to be a sort of seed bank that allows these species to colonize surrounding areas. Throughout the park and particularly around the edges, some of this vegetation has been allowed to naturalize. While other areas are only occasionally mown, creating edge-like effects for wildlife.111In his work Clement strives to incorporate spontaneous plants and dynamics processes into urban landscapes. Referring to them as ‘Gardens of Movement’ focusing on what he calls ‘The Third Landscape’ spaces that have been impacted by humans but are not in direct care of them either. Deborence island is a direct attempt to construct one of these spaces.112The merging of nature and culture within the park brings together several conversations and provocations. Introducing this ‘wild space’ that is being allowed to move within the urban landscape has brought about questions of aesthetics and new considerations for spatial arrangements more closely related to natural processes and questions how much the agency of nature should be included into urban design. Adding to the discussion of the role of culture in urban ecology.113Critique and take-away There has been lash back from the public over the aesthetic value of the island/ park, with people calling it ‘visual pollution’. It is obvious that this is not a conventional use of park space, and some believe it may be too quick of a leap. Some form of public awareness and education of the space would have benefited the parks intentions and possibly reduced negative attitudes. As a place to reflect upon the relationship of nature and the city it seems odd that the island is so inaccessible. Original plans for the park did include an education center with video monitoring at the top of the island. Elements such as this would likely have greatly increased the success of the project.114Where I love the intentions behind this park, and the concept of a seed bank feeding other spaces withing the city. The shear dominating nature of Deborence island makes a statement in itself, and where I think this is an interesting statement (over whom is governing whom), I question whether it is the message we want to be sending. Also, it isn’t only a lack of public awareness that I see missing within the park but a lack of public engagement. To disinclude people from a very dominating structure would be enough to form a sense of resentment, let alone create any sort of sense of ownershipfig.12AestheticsUrban EcologiesAgencyPeople and PlantsManagment34Parc Henri Matisse is an 8-hectare park located in Lille, northern France. The project was a part of a larger city revitalization project that included a shopping mall, office and conference space and a high-speed rail hub, with several notable architects working on the project.107 The park itself consists of two main features. A large accessible lawn area, and, in the center, a large 2500 square meter raised concrete island, made partly from nearby construction waste and inaccessible to the public. The large concrete structure is often mistaken for a bunker left over from WWII.108This island is named Derborence island after the Deborence forest in Switzerland, one of the few remaining primary forests left in Europe, largely due to its remote location.109 This is more symbolic in the concept of the island then a reflection of its actual function. A top the 7-meter-high walls a variety of tree species were planted for their hardiness to urban conditions (not chosen in relation to the Deborence forest) some species are native to Europe while others originate from other parts of the globe. The island has intentionally been made inaccessible to the public to allow the processes of ecological succession to occur undisturbed. The only visitors are scientists who come to occasionally monitor biodiversity on this ecological experiment.110The island is considered to be a sort of seed bank that allows these species to colonize surrounding areas. Throughout the park and particularly around the edges, some of this vegetation has been allowed to naturalize. While other areas are only occasionally mown, creating edge-like effects for wildlife.111In his work Clement strives to incorporate spontaneous plants and dynamics processes into urban landscapes. Referring to them as ‘Gardens of Movement’ focusing on what he calls ‘The Third Landscape’ spaces that have been impacted by humans but are not in direct care of them either. Deborence island is a direct attempt to construct one of these spaces.112The merging of nature and culture within the park brings together several conversations and provocations. Introducing this ‘wild space’ that is being allowed to move within the urban landscape has brought about questions of aesthetics and new considerations for spatial arrangements more closely related to natural processes and questions how much the agency of nature should be included into urban design. Adding to the discussion of the role of culture in urban ecology.113Critique and take-away There has been lash back from the public over the aesthetic value of the island/ park, with people calling it ‘visual pollution’. It is obvious that this is not a conventional use of park space, and some believe it may be too quick of a leap. Some form of public awareness and education of the space would have benefited the parks intentions and possibly reduced negative attitudes. As a place to reflect upon the relationship of nature and the city it seems odd that the island is so inaccessible. Original plans for the park did include an education center with video monitoring at the top of the island. Elements such as this would likely have greatly increased the success of the project.114Where I love the intentions behind this park, and the concept of a seed bank feeding other spaces withing the city. The shear dominating nature of Deborence island makes a statement in itself, and where I think this is an interesting statement (over whom is governing whom), I question whether it is the message we want to be sending. Also, it isn’t only a lack of public awareness that I see missing within the park but a lack of public engagement. To disinclude people from a very dominating structure would be enough to form a sense of resentment, let alone create any sort of sense of ownershipfig.13fig.1435Parc Henri Matisse is an 8-hectare park located in Lille, northern France. The project was a part of a larger city revitalization project that included a shopping mall, office and conference space and a high-speed rail hub, with several notable architects working on the project.107 The park itself consists of two main features. A large accessible lawn area, and, in the center, a large 2500 square meter raised concrete island, made partly from nearby construction waste and inaccessible to the public. The large concrete structure is often mistaken for a bunker left over from WWII.108This island is named Derborence island after the Deborence forest in Switzerland, one of the few remaining primary forests left in Europe, largely due to its remote location.109 This is more symbolic in the concept of the island then a reflection of its actual function. A top the 7-meter-high walls a variety of tree species were planted for their hardiness to urban conditions (not chosen in relation to the Deborence forest) some species are native to Europe while others originate from other parts of the globe. The island has intentionally been made inaccessible to the public to allow the processes of ecological succession to occur undisturbed. The only visitors are scientists who come to occasionally monitor biodiversity on this ecological experiment.110The island is considered to be a sort of seed bank that allows these species to colonize surrounding areas. Throughout the park and particularly around the edges, some of this vegetation has been allowed to naturalize. While other areas are only occasionally mown, creating edge-like effects for wildlife.111In his work Clement strives to incorporate spontaneous plants and dynamics processes into urban landscapes. Referring to them as ‘Gardens of Movement’ focusing on what he calls ‘The Third Landscape’ spaces that have been impacted by humans but are not in direct care of them either. Deborence island is a direct attempt to construct one of these spaces.112The merging of nature and culture within the park brings together several conversations and provocations. Introducing this ‘wild space’ that is being allowed to move within the urban landscape has brought about questions of aesthetics and new considerations for spatial arrangements more closely related to natural processes and questions how much the agency of nature should be included into urban design. Adding to the discussion of the role of culture in urban ecology.113Critique and take-away There has been lash back from the public over the aesthetic value of the island/ park, with people calling it ‘visual pollution’. It is obvious that this is not a conventional use of park space, and some believe it may be too quick of a leap. Some form of public awareness and education of the space would have benefited the parks intentions and possibly reduced negative attitudes. As a place to reflect upon the relationship of nature and the city it seems odd that the island is so inaccessible. Original plans for the park did include an education center with video monitoring at the top of the island. Elements such as this would likely have greatly increased the success of the project.114Where I love the intentions behind this park, and the concept of a seed bank feeding other spaces withing the city. The shear dominating nature of Deborence island makes a statement in itself, and where I think this is an interesting statement (over whom is governing whom), I question whether it is the message we want to be sending. Also, it isn’t only a lack of public awareness that I see missing within the park but a lack of public engagement. To disinclude people from a very dominating structure would be enough to form a sense of resentment, let alone create any sort of sense of ownership36YardWorksDesigner: Dr. Joshua Cerra andgraduate students oflandscapearchitecture atCornell UniversityLocation:  Kingston, NYDate:       2014-2016AestheticsUrban EcologiesAgencyPeople and PlantsManagmentYardworks is a three-year studio project run out of Cornell university where students work closely with landowners to incorporate urban ecological design strategies on their properties carefully balancing ecological goals with the client’s programmatic needs and aesthetic interests. The project stresses that these incentives are only of value if they align with these needs and interests. They look primarily at avian habitat and diversity in doing so.115The project brings the potential for enhanced ecologically healthy communities directly to people’s doorsteps. Residential yards take up a considerable amount of space within the urban matrix, and in doing so greatly contribute to urban ecosystems. This potential is greatly increased when yards are linked by various strategies into connective corridors. Students looked at neighborhoods across all scales and developed general and site-specific guidelines at the site scale, something Cerra believes is missing for designers, clear, practical urban ecological design strategies and methods.116They have identified through this process 8 general guidelines covering…Landscape network supportVegetative structureSite refugeAvian forage resource supportPollinator supportPlant diversityDiscrete habitat featuresGreen infrastructure fig.1537Critique and take-awayThis project displays some of the opportunities and constraints of working in residential areas. Aesthetics seemingly being the biggest issue as these landowners are willing and enthusiastic enough about the benefits of the project to voluntarily enroll. I appreciate that it brings urban ecosystem health directly to citizens doorsteps and that it acknowledges the potential in residential yards, as well as working closely with clients. But I would not say it does anything to bring the natural processes needed to sustain these functions to these people. Or even to educate their public on how their aesthetic desires could be countering their efforts. Their guidelines do not imply anything innovative. fig.1638One Drop at a TimeDesigner: de la Fleur LLCLocation:  Elmhurst, IllinoisDate:       Completed 2007AestheticsUrban EcologiesAgencyPeople and PlantsManagmentOne drop at a time is a project implemented on a 7500f2 residential property in a suburban community in Chicago. The homeowner and landscape architect (who is also a tenant on the property) worked closely to convert what was once a typical suburban yard consisting of a lawn and concrete pathways into a series of self-sufficient stormwater management strategies.117 Consisting of 7 components: a green roof, several rain barrels, porous pavement, a rain garden, gravel grass (a type of porous pavement), a cistern, and a bioswale.118 This system both captures rainwater and treats storm water before it enters storm drains. It is estimated that it should prevent 85% of water in a one-year storm event from entering these drains and illuminates the need for irrigation.119As the first of its kind to do this within the Chicago suburbs the goal of this project was not only to treat storm water but to provide an example to other residents of how these components could be incorporated onto their yards and what that might look like. Education is a big part of the ongoing goals of the project.120The landscape architect recognizes that “skepticism and ignorance all too often prevent the emergence of innovative solutions and stand in the way of a “mind-set change”. He sees this project as contributing to this change, one drop at a time.121Local acceptance of the aesthetics of the project was seen as a key constraint. How could it step outside the box while still satisfying the public eye of how a yard should look like? To appease this native prairie plants were used throughout the site, different, but comparable to the traditional lawn.122 A steppingstone.Initially seeded (mostly), maintenance for the prairie grasses involves some weeding and an annual spring burn. The burn helps to rejuvenate plants as well as enforce some level of controlled appearance. Not a typical maintenance strategy employed in a residential setting, a natural area management permit was acquired, and the local fire department is on hand during the process. The project must be well accepted because often friends and neighbors help with this process.123It is acknowledged that the biggest effects of a system such as this is on mass. The more homeowners to implement solutions like this the bigger the impact, and they are the target audience for the ongoing education.124 A website providing information about individual components and regular tours on site expose and teach people how they too can implement these solutions at a residential scale. At a local scale it hopes to change the perception of what is aesthetic in these spaces.125Critique and take-awayThis is an excellent example of a project at the residential scale that breaks down walls between people and their environment by stepping outside the box, questioning aesthetics and using management tactics not often seen at the residential scale that are not focused on complete control. I see the exposer and education component as being a very important step in this process so that one day it can be taken one step further in plant species and maintenance.There is a strong focus on metrics throughout the project and treating the landscape like a sort of machine that I do not think is the best approach (though it may be the necessary one) to having people understand the landscape as a living system and appreciate it beyond the benefits we receive from it.fig.1739One drop at a time is a project implemented on a 7500f2 residential property in a suburban community in Chicago. The homeowner and landscape architect (who is also a tenant on the property) worked closely to convert what was once a typical suburban yard consisting of a lawn and concrete pathways into a series of self-sufficient stormwater management strategies.117 Consisting of 7 components: a green roof, several rain barrels, porous pavement, a rain garden, gravel grass (a type of porous pavement), a cistern, and a bioswale.118 This system both captures rainwater and treats storm water before it enters storm drains. It is estimated that it should prevent 85% of water in a one-year storm event from entering these drains and illuminates the need for irrigation.119As the first of its kind to do this within the Chicago suburbs the goal of this project was not only to treat storm water but to provide an example to other residents of how these components could be incorporated onto their yards and what that might look like. Education is a big part of the ongoing goals of the project.120The landscape architect recognizes that “skepticism and ignorance all too often prevent the emergence of innovative solutions and stand in the way of a “mind-set change”. He sees this project as contributing to this change, one drop at a time.121Local acceptance of the aesthetics of the project was seen as a key constraint. How could it step outside the box while still satisfying the public eye of how a yard should look like? To appease this native prairie plants were used throughout the site, different, but comparable to the traditional lawn.122 A steppingstone.Initially seeded (mostly), maintenance for the prairie grasses involves some weeding and an annual spring burn. The burn helps to rejuvenate plants as well as enforce some level of controlled appearance. Not a typical maintenance strategy employed in a residential setting, a natural area management permit was acquired, and the local fire department is on hand during the process. The project must be well accepted because often friends and neighbors help with this process.123It is acknowledged that the biggest effects of a system such as this is on mass. The more homeowners to implement solutions like this the bigger the impact, and they are the target audience for the ongoing education.124 A website providing information about individual components and regular tours on site expose and teach people how they too can implement these solutions at a residential scale. At a local scale it hopes to change the perception of what is aesthetic in these spaces.125Critique and take-awayThis is an excellent example of a project at the residential scale that breaks down walls between people and their environment by stepping outside the box, questioning aesthetics and using management tactics not often seen at the residential scale that are not focused on complete control. I see the exposer and education component as being a very important step in this process so that one day it can be taken one step further in plant species and maintenance.There is a strong focus on metrics throughout the project and treating the landscape like a sort of machine that I do not think is the best approach (though it may be the necessary one) to having people understand the landscape as a living system and appreciate it beyond the benefits we receive from it.fig.1840Grey to GreenDesigner: Nigel Dunnett (planting)Location: Sheffield, UKDate:        Phase 1 completed in spring AestheticsUrban EcologiesAgencyPeople and PlantsManagmentGrey to Green is an example of a project in the public realm. The design team for this three-phase project included a city council member, 2 engineers for highway design and urban drainage systems, and planting design by Nigel Dunnett,126 A leader in innovative sustainable planting design.127 The goal of the project was to transform a particularly old and dull part of the city with a complicated and congested road network into and attractive environment with new program for people to go about their work and lives in, with sustainable urban design systems (SuDs) at the center of it all.128 1.3km of old roadways will/ have begun to be transformed into appealing perennial flower meadows, rain gardens, public art, and pathways, designed to manage stormwater into an area that has twice seen flooding.129 Almost most impressively the project has met its budgets for construction and maintenance.130 The project has won numerous awards both within Sheffield, nationally and internationally.131Nigel Dunnett, who is responsible for the planting design in the project, is a Professor in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Sheffield. He focuses on an ecological approach to planting design to create low input but dynamic high impact landscapes. Where he aims to achieve attractive decorative displays, he also looks to address climate change and sustainability within the same designs. At a variety of scales.132The grey to green project he says is “hugely popular, people are desperate for this sort of thing in their surroundings, about 20% of people have changed their daily journeys just so that they can experience this.”133 The new street scape is adding more than just quantitative green infrastructure benefits, a certain amount of human emotional response is reflective in this work and it has huge public support.134Critique and take-awayThis is an example of how landscape architects can add value to urban ecologies and human experience though immersive, naturalistic, (arguably) wild planting design, the power of which, and the plant life involved should not be overlooked.135 This is another steppingstone to greater support for these types of projects and ones that are able to take this one step further.Though I could find very little information on the specifics of the plant pallet or the design its-self I feel this this is also a good example of the constraints of working with the public realm. What I see in images is a traditional meadow type planting with a strong focus on bright showy flowers, and there is a large interest in how ‘beautiful’ it is. This and a strong focus on metrics does nothing to re-evaluate our relationships with plant life or what we value in them.fig.20fig.1941Grey to Green is an example of a project in the public realm. The design team for this three-phase project included a city council member, 2 engineers for highway design and urban drainage systems, and planting design by Nigel Dunnett,126 A leader in innovative sustainable planting design.127 The goal of the project was to transform a particularly old and dull part of the city with a complicated and congested road network into and attractive environment with new program for people to go about their work and lives in, with sustainable urban design systems (SuDs) at the center of it all.128 1.3km of old roadways will/ have begun to be transformed into appealing perennial flower meadows, rain gardens, public art, and pathways, designed to manage stormwater into an area that has twice seen flooding.129 Almost most impressively the project has met its budgets for construction and maintenance.130 The project has won numerous awards both within Sheffield, nationally and internationally.131Nigel Dunnett, who is responsible for the planting design in the project, is a Professor in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Sheffield. He focuses on an ecological approach to planting design to create low input but dynamic high impact landscapes. Where he aims to achieve attractive decorative displays, he also looks to address climate change and sustainability within the same designs. At a variety of scales.132The grey to green project he says is “hugely popular, people are desperate for this sort of thing in their surroundings, about 20% of people have changed their daily journeys just so that they can experience this.”133 The new street scape is adding more than just quantitative green infrastructure benefits, a certain amount of human emotional response is reflective in this work and it has huge public support.134Critique and take-awayThis is an example of how landscape architects can add value to urban ecologies and human experience though immersive, naturalistic, (arguably) wild planting design, the power of which, and the plant life involved should not be overlooked.135 This is another steppingstone to greater support for these types of projects and ones that are able to take this one step further.Though I could find very little information on the specifics of the plant pallet or the design its-self I feel this this is also a good example of the constraints of working with the public realm. What I see in images is a traditional meadow type planting with a strong focus on bright showy flowers, and there is a large interest in how ‘beautiful’ it is. This and a strong focus on metrics does nothing to re-evaluate our relationships with plant life or what we value in them.fig.2142Natur-Park SüdgeländeDesigner: Planning Group ÖkoCon &PlanlandLocation: District of Tempelhof, Berlin,GermanyDate:      Opened 2000AestheticsUrban EcologiesAgencyPeople and PlantsManagmentOnce a working railyard, Südgelände is now an 18-hectare park that offers space for recreation and biodiversity. It is one of the first parks in Germany, overcome with spontaneous vegetation, to become classified as a landscape and nature conservation area.136The railway, built in 1889, closed in 1952. From that point until the 1980s it was relatively unvisited by humans. Urban and local plant life moved in a began to reclaim the site, over time in became home to a variety of endangered and rare plants and animals.137At the beginning of the 1980s there were plans to clear the site and re-establish a train station. Due to public protests however the area was protected. Not only does it offer a space for conservation and citizens to come together, the park also offers space for artists: sculptors, painters, photographers, and graffiti artist alike. The left-over remnants of the past railway are left throughout the site and often made into features.138 Layering the past with the dynamic processes that will shape the site in its future.Goals for this project were based on this merging of culture and wilderness. While the need for conservation and the benefits the park supplies are recognized, so is the need to promote public awareness. Though most of the park visitors are allowed to roam free and explore, other areas that are cut off from the public are allowed to continue on their growth as they would, while in other places succession is managed.139Due to this it was decided that  some areas of the park would be subjected to a maintenance regimen to maintain the conditions certain rare plants and animals require. This was not done with-out some backlash, it being thought of by some as ‘a kind of fascism’.140Despite this a range of management tactics were put in place. Initially some plants were thinned and removed, and since 1997 sheep have periodically been allowed to graze in some of the meadows. Some areas of the park are plowed annually, breaking up the ground to reinitiate succession.141Critique and take-away This is an example of the benefits of spontaneous plant life being taken into account and valued. Not only by designers but by citizens. The design of the park aims to connect and restore relationships between people and plants (‘wild’ plants), it begins to do this by making it accessible and raising awareness. The park has a new kind of beauty in its urban expression that has been well excepted by urban residents.142Throughout the park plant life is allowed to thrive and move at its will with minor maintenance interventions. I would argue that these are passive, adaptable, and thoughtful collaborations between the human and the plant to encourage species diversity. Especially with the use of sheep and plowing, the plant still has every right to move and act as it would. The type, and shape of the plant is not being determined.fig.224343Once a working railyard, Südgelände is now an 18-hectare park that offers space for recreation and biodiversity. It is one of the first parks in Germany, overcome with spontaneous vegetation, to become classified as a landscape and nature conservation area.136The railway, built in 1889, closed in 1952. From that point until the 1980s it was relatively unvisited by humans. Urban and local plant life moved in a began to reclaim the site, over time in became home to a variety of endangered and rare plants and animals.137At the beginning of the 1980s there were plans to clear the site and re-establish a train station. Due to public protests however the area was protected. Not only does it offer a space for conservation and citizens to come together, the park also offers space for artists: sculptors, painters, photographers, and graffiti artist alike. The left-over remnants of the past railway are left throughout the site and often made into features.138 Layering the past with the dynamic processes that will shape the site in its future.Goals for this project were based on this merging of culture and wilderness. While the need for conservation and the benefits the park supplies are recognized, so is the need to promote public awareness. Though most of the park visitors are allowed to roam free and explore, other areas that are cut off from the public are allowed to continue on their growth as they would, while in other places succession is managed.139Due to this it was decided that  some areas of the park would be subjected to a maintenance regimen to maintain the conditions certain rare plants and animals require. This was not done with-out some backlash, it being thought of by some as ‘a kind of fascism’.140Despite this a range of management tactics were put in place. Initially some plants were thinned and removed, and since 1997 sheep have periodically been allowed to graze in some of the meadows. Some areas of the park are plowed annually, breaking up the ground to reinitiate succession.141Critique and take-away This is an example of the benefits of spontaneous plant life being taken into account and valued. Not only by designers but by citizens. The design of the park aims to connect and restore relationships between people and plants (‘wild’ plants), it begins to do this by making it accessible and raising awareness. The park has a new kind of beauty in its urban expression that has been well excepted by urban residents.142Throughout the park plant life is allowed to thrive and move at its will with minor maintenance interventions. I would argue that these are passive, adaptable, and thoughtful collaborations between the human and the plant to encourage species diversity. Especially with the use of sheep and plowing, the plant still has every right to move and act as it would. The type, and shape of the plant is not being determined.fig.2344Questions Objectives GoalsHow will aesthetics play a role in new considerations for spatial arrangementsWhat are passive, adaptable, and thoughtful collaborations between the human and the plantWhat is the new beauty in urban expression?Enhance ecological health of communitiesChange the perception of what is aestheticProvide alternatives to the status quo Investigate maintenance regimes not typical to residential settings.add value to urban ecologies and human experience though immersive, naturalistic, wild planting designConnect and restore relationships between people and plantsIncorporate a seed bank for surrounding areasNaturalized vegetationIncorporate spontaneous plants and dynamics processes into urban landscapesStaged public awareness and educationPublic engagement to promote a sense of ownershipLook at neighborhoods a crossed all scalesImplement management practices for a range of successional stagesAllow plant life to thrive and move at its will4546I imagine this project materializing into a series of guidelines for residence within the site, and displaying how these guidelines act out over a set period of time. Leading up to this there will likely be a phasing period over a set number of years, each phase will explore… A location within the siteAn educational component/cultural shift Stakeholders Opportunities and constraints   Plant movement and  transformationsAs it relates to plant agency, aesthetics, urban ecologies, and management.In the process of achieving this more research into professionals working in these realms within the field will be conducted. Focusing on a continuum of precedent research for more examples of work done around… Movement Natural processes  Plant agency Participatory design Public education Domestic settingsDetermining a method of representation will be critical in delivering the message of movement and transformations. As well as a way of working and exploring ideas that will uphold this. This could be communicated through way of maps, sections, materials, and animations. DESIGN METHODOLOGY4748December January18GP1 ReportOngoing ResearchSite SelectionSite AnalysisWeek 3 in-progress reveiwSchemetic Design- connectivity- phasing- park/boulevards/yards- plant movement - precedents- maintenance techniques- plants, current and futurePROJECTED SCHEDULE49Febuary March AprilWeek 6 mid-term reveiwWeek 9 in-progress reveiwWeek 12 SUBSTANTIALSWeek15  final reviewsDetailed DesignProduction- managment techniques- park/boulevards/yards- plant movement50 ‘Streets for Change’ would be a Community wide, city run project, aimed at changing perceptions of aesthetics in the urban landscape, values held around plant life, and where we place ourselves as humans within natural systems. For the purpose of creating better connected, dynamic, ephemeral spaces that reflect our changing values of today and in turn combat the undesirable effects of urbanization.51Streets for Change52 Treatment of plants in the urban landscape is focused on preserving an image and controlling the unknown. Plants are subject to what we find visually appealing and often pushed to the background, unnoticed by many. These aesthetic following of this dates back to the early origins of our profession and is a reflection of the picturesque141. The maintenance practises drawn below uphold this aesthetic and are often labor intensive and require high amounts of inputs. Excessive use of water. Large amounts of city drinking water is used to irrigate lawns and flower gardens where there is increasingly lower supplies due to dense populations and climate change. During the hottest times of the year Vancouver residence increase their water intake by 50% largely due to lawn irrigation.142 53Current Practises and Impacts  The use of Pesticides and fertilizers to keep garden plants healthy and attractive pose health risks to people and the environment. The list is long, but often they pollute water ways, negatively effecting beneficial non targeted species locally and cumulatively on a much larger scale. The Ornamental horticulture industry is worth roughly $14.48 billion dollars in Canada (2009). The largest of all horticulture sectors143. Production  is degrading to land, large areas of which are often constantly in production. Greenhouses use large amounts of energy for heating and produce high rates of CO2 emissions. They have a high consumption of water, pesticides, and fertilizers at a very large scale.144 Some plants are transported over long distances, and some are planted with the intent of having them for only on season.54 Many of the ornamental plants, particularly annual plants, produced in these nursery's do not support and house wildlife or pollinators, often by means of the traits we have bred them for145. On top of this, grass and some shrubs are often trimmed before they have the chance to flower or produce fruit. The soils found in our urban spaces are dramatically altered, compacted, low on organic material, and high in toxins. Manufactured horticultural soils used in garden beds and lawns have high ecological footprints, being largely composed of sand and peat. They decompose quickly and have low water and nutrient retention.146 Leading to increased use of water, pesticides, and fertilizers. The trend to remove leaf litter and other decaying plant material in urban landscapes is in direct opposition to producing healthy sustainable soils. 55 Poor soil quality as well as large amounts on impervious surfaces leads to large amounts of, often, toxic storm water making its way into water bodies and water systems, risking max capacity. Healthy soils and layered vegetation can help filter pollutants and retain water. 147 Cities are responsible for 70% of the worlds CO2 emissions. Plants can help offset this by taking in and storing carbon in their leaves and stems and in turn storing it in the soil when they die. Vegetation cover throughout the urban framework currently trends towards being sparse, lacking in structural diversity, decay, and maintained to one state. Increased vegetation cover, encouraging plants that will thrive, as well as fast growing plants in structurally diverse communities increases carbon sequestration, as well as reducing temperatures within city spaces.148 To top all of this many hours of labor are put in and paid for by residents and cities., to uphold what is truly an unsustainable image.56Plant Movement Globally Humans, are deeply woven into ecological processes. Our inability to see ourselves as incorporated in these systems has, in part, led us to where we are today. The movement of people to North America is in direct correlation with the movement of plants and rise in global temperatures (see figure 24). Many of the plants in our urban landscapes were introduced to these places by people, both intentionally and unintentionally. Having drastic effects on the ecologies of these places, for better or for worse. This will continue as temperatures continue to rise and plants migrate north. It is predicted, and currently being seen that temperatures will rise faster then plants can migrate, causing some to go extinct. Assisted migration is an option. Continuing the human induced exchange of plant material around the globe.149fig. 24fig. 25Predicted shift in USDA plant hardiness zones from 2010 -204057Public parksSingle family dwellingsTwo or more family dwellingsCommercail/ Industrial57% Private PropertyVancouverfig.23Vancouver consists largely of single family dwellings accompanied by domestic yards. Where only a fraction is public parks. Private residential property already plays a significant role in urban ecosystems, yet they receive very little attention.150 It is due to this and an abundance of these types of spaces in cities around the world that this project considers residential areas.   The project looks at public park space, and public ‘in-between’ spaces such as boulevards. For their contributed ecological value and interface with citizens. Joan Nassauer writes ‘The aesthetic of care is the beauty we notice in everyday experience’.151 Creating a more dynamic aesthetic, and thus landscape, that better reflects natural processes, requires carrying out our lives in spaces that better reflect the issues of today. It invites active participation from citizens. The location of a site is not of great importance to the project. however typologies and plant considerations have been made based of of Vancouver’s WestSide.58WhereVancouver consists largely of single family dwellings accompanied by domestic yards. Where only a fraction is public parks. Private residential property already plays a significant role in urban ecosystems, yet they receive very little attention.150 It is due to this and an abundance of these types of spaces in cities around the world that this project considers residential areas.   The project looks at public park space, and public ‘in-between’ spaces such as boulevards. For their contributed ecological value and interface with citizens. Joan Nassauer writes ‘The aesthetic of care is the beauty we notice in everyday experience’.151 Creating a more dynamic aesthetic, and thus landscape, that better reflects natural processes, requires carrying out our lives in spaces that better reflect the issues of today. It invites active participation from citizens. The location of a site is not of great importance to the project. however typologies and plant considerations have been made based of of Vancouver’s WestSide.59Habitat FragmentationSoil HealthAir Quality Urban HeatPollinator DeclineStormwaterHigh InputsGlobalizationClimatechangeWhyImproved urbanecologiesCan create...ForagingopportunitiesNew relationshipswith plant lifeMigrating gardensDynamic ephemeralexperiencesRe-framingcommon plantsActing in everydayspacesIncouraging novel ecologiesManagingsuccessionUtilizing new/ uncommonmanagmentpractisesTime EducationCommunityEngagementWill require...Creative CollarborationsAgency of PLANTSNew HUMAN agencyStatic treatment of plant lifeDesire for controlPicturesquelandscapeaestheticHumans asseperate fromnatural systemsPlants idolized over othersScientificunderstanding of plant lifeProblemLandscape architect Rosetta Elkin who’s work involves looking at what we can do with plants, what plants are actually doing, and the agency they have on their own refers to this new human-plant relationship where plants are allowed their agency as ‘creative collaborations’152. Framework60SuccessionPossible waysto intervenePossibleoutcomesHerbaceous Shrub TreeSeed Cut Back Burn Graze Dig Mow Plant Plants change and move, and it is generally unpredictable. And this is ok, encouraged actually. This has been translated into the diagram below where there are multiple ways to intervene, or, that is, for the human to collaborate with plant communities with more passive management strategies that could have numerous possible outcomes.Passive management practices that are human induced but not dictating could be: 61 Succession is generally an unpredictable process. The rate and stages of which depends on many different factors. For the purposes of this project I have divided the first stages of this process into three general communities. Herbaceous, shrub, and pioneer tree.  Much of what is done in conventional landscape maintenance aims at preventing these processes. Working within it and creating a range of these states across the urban landscape would provide the full range of benefits and create steppingstones for animals, birds, and other materials and processes to move through.  Each community contributes to various ecological processes, and there is definitely overlap but in general:1st 2nd 3rdEarlyHerbaceousHerbaceous Shrub Pioneer treespecies1stEarlyHerbaceousHerbaceousThese communities are beneficial in improving soil quality by accumulating soil nutrients. They are valuable on compacted sites and sites with erosion problems.   More established and balanced herbaceous communities are beneficial to pollinators.    62Plant assemblages and ecological benifitsShrubWoody plants become particularly valuable as nesting and food sources for animals and birds.    The addition of fast-growing trees greatly increases the amount of carbon being sequestered from the atmosphere. As well providing nesting to other kinds of birds and being more effective in reducing urban temperatures.      Pioneer treespecies63 Succession as it might take place in a typically maintained urban space if we were to just stop maintaining or managing it at all.  Management interventions would take place at different points within this process.https://vimeo.com/416035390  Individual site conditions are a huge contributor to the outcome – that is the arrangement of the plant community and thus its ecological contributions - in terms of the plant's agency, and the management decisions made on behalf of the human (and its agency). As this is incredibly difficult to do Slope Compacted soil Saturated soil Dry and sunny ShadeSnowberryClover Quack grassIvyPoplarOcean sprayDandelion CloverPlantain weedPoplarSedge sp.Douglas asterWillow  Salmon berryElderberryPacific crabapple Ocean sprayQueen Anne’s lace YarrowDouglas asterMahoniaSumacWestern fescue  Sword fernVine mapleMahoniamosses comprehensively at the scale of this project it is not mentioned beyond here. Above are lists of some plants (by no means exhaustive) that could be found in some common site conditions or that may be beneficial to plant or seed there.64Site Conditions6566The three-phase program takes place over 30 years, a generation. Each phase engages a different space and introduces the public to a new group of plants and new ways to appreciate them.67The ProgramPhase 1 takes place in existing park spaces, Parks are already spaces with a purpose, set aside that people go to with intent. This makes them good places to integrate displays for public education. 68Phase 1Niches: A topography and range of conditions is created, and an even seed mix is applied. Over time plants move to their suited conditions.Cues of care: Plants are planted/seeded in some form of container that is allowed to degrade, soil erode, and new plants move into.Patterns: Plants are planted in rows or some other pattern, and the public watches knowingly as the plants rearrange themselves.ErodeDegradeIn this phase people start to become accustom to the disorderly aesthetic, learn about new management techniques, and about plant movement and change.   Some ideas for interactive displays could be… 69This is one example of a plant profile you might find on an online platform. These profiles focus on  re-framing plants away from a focus on aesthetics and aesthetic care. Illustrated to indicate the plants many different forms, they provide basic information on how the plant moves through the landscape, and the functions it provides. Not just to humans but also to animals and other processes. Online: Signage directs people to websites and social media pages with further information, ideas, and inspiration.  7071Further links provide more information on management…Not all introduced species found in these spaces can be treated equally. Some are simply too aggressive. This does not necessarily mean they should not exist and do not have some positive contributions, just that in numbers they are too strong and require some special attention.  This flow chart and management plan for blackberry is not an attempt to totally eradicate (though there is a small possibility it could lead to that) A B72but to encourage other plant communities to move in and create more balance. The bottom rows show a variety of possible arrangements of these plant communities with the combined agency of the plant and of the human. They are by no means comprehensive or a finished product.C73A74B7576C77 In Phase 2 people continue to become more a custom to the aesthetic and types of plants.Taking place in the in-between and sometime under looked spaces in our cities such as boulevards, greenways and other spaces people pass though daily, making them the ideal next steppingstone in the program. 78Phase 2 The communal nature of these spaces makes them a good place to introduce foraging as a legitimate opportunity and community activity.  Management in these spaces is centered around plants that are edible for humans. https://vimeo.com/4160492077980 Phase 3, 20 years into the program takes place in the front and backyards of the citizens themselves.  Yards are places where people have their very own little (square) piece of the natural world under their own control. What these places look like are a direct reflection of the person themselves and of our collective values. Though often treated like little boxes they are in reality all connected. In this phase people are more excepting of the aesthetic and type of plant life. The linear nature of the previous phase causes them to act as linear seed banks, spreading into yards. Slowly households begin to signup for the program as this look and the management supporting it becomes the new cue of good citizenship to anyone passing by.81Phase 3 At this time, as the public has watched plants move around their community and learned of their origins, there is an understanding that theses spaces are all connected, and the role humans play within this. With direction on which species to introduce, yellow indicates opportunities to introduce (or not) plants for assisted migration north with rising temperatures and climate change.  Each the flowcharts starts with a general landscape typology and indicates possible management interventions to amend the site. The bottom rows show a variety of possible arrangements of these plant communities with the combined agency of the plant and of the human. They are by no means comprehensive or a finished product.8283In this example of cultivated soil one option is to seed the area and as the herbaceous community grows there is another option to burn or mow it maintaining a herbaceous community, or it can be left and allow woody plants to move in over time.8485In the case of existing dense horticultural vegetation there are several options: If the area was to be grazed presumably the sheep or goats would eat most everything except for larger woody plants. Some of which would grow back but also making space for other plants from off site or that were previously suppressed to grow. This could be encouraged by seeding or planting.8687Demonstration of what some of these practises could look like...https://vimeo.com/4160492078889https://vimeo.com/41604920790 This program does not strip people from being able to express themselves, their values, and desires. Management plans could be configured to favor different functions.  It should be noted that many plants have agency in more then one area, one plant many be a food source to humans, valuable to pollinators, and food and nesting habitat for birds and animals, just to name a few, and this is of course strengthened in communities.  “The Foodie”A yard for the bird or animal lover would have greater vertical stratification, shrubby areas for nesting, and berries for food.“Save the Bees”Someone particularly concerned with the current state of pollinators might favor more of a meadow with flowering herbaceous plants.“The Bird Lover”Those who love to cook might selectively manage for plants edible to humans. This yard might have fruit trees and grassy areas for foraging herbaceous plants. 91EducationThe in between“The Foodie”Not Participating92 When all of this is put together we have a system where plants are allowed to more move freely throughout the urban landscape and are valued for their species, forms, and placement, as having agency and a valuable role to play, instead of being held back by current aesthetic preferences. Creating places that are more resilient and act towards mitigating local and global environmental issues facing us today, as opposed to contributing to them.  With new ways to care for our own small pieces of the natural world people and plants work together to create new experiences and ecologically robust landscapes. “Save the Bees”“The Bird Lover”93941. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. 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Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”152. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”  951. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”5. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”; Pavao-Zuckerman, “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.”6. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.”7. Robinson, “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.”8. Cerra, “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.”9. Dunnett, “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes”10. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”11. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin12. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”13. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”14. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin15. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”16. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”17. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”18. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”19. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”20. Darwin, The Power of Movement in Plants21. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”22. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin23. “Agency (Philosophy).”24. Doody, “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation”25. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin26. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”27. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”28. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”29. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”; Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”30. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”31. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”32. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”33. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”34. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”35. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”36. Parsons, “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.”37. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”38. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”39. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”40. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.”41. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”42. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”43. Meyer, “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts”44. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”45. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”46. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”47. Jones, “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology”48. Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems49. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”50. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”51. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design”52. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”53. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”54. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”55. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”56. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”57. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”58. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”59. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”60. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”61. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”62. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”63. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”64. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”65. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”66. Dunnett, “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications”67. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”68. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”69. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”70. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”71. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”72. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”73. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”74. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”75. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”76. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”77. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”78. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”79. Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”80. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”81. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.”82. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”83. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”84. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”85. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”86. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”87. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”88. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”89. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”90. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”91. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”92. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”93. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”94. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”95. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”96. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”97. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”98. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”99. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”100. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”101. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”102. Koningen, “Creative Management”103. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”104. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”105. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”106. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”107. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”108. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”109. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”110. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”111. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”112. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”113. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”114. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”115. Kim, “One Drop At A Time.”116. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”117. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”118. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”119. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”120. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”121. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”; fleur, “One Drop at a Time”122. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”123. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”124. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”125. Nigel Dunnett, “About”126. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”127. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”128. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”129. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”130. Nigel Dunnett, “About”131. Landscape and the City132. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”133. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”134. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”135. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”136. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”137. Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”138. Lachmund, “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.”139. Lachmund, “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.”140. Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”141. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.”142. “How We Use Water”143. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”144. Wainwright, “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture”145. Wilde, “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.”146. Urban, “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment”; Craul, “Urban Soil in Landscape Design”147. Bartens, “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?”148. Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.”; Ontl, “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation”149. Neilson, “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change”150. Cerra, “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property”151. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”152. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”  ENDNOTES961. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”5. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”; Pavao-Zuckerman, “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.”6. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.”7. Robinson, “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.”8. Cerra, “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.”9. Dunnett, “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes”10. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”11. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin12. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”13. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”14. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin15. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”16. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”17. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”18. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”19. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”20. Darwin, The Power of Movement in Plants21. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”22. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin23. “Agency (Philosophy).”24. Doody, “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation”25. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin26. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”27. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”28. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”29. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”; Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”30. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”31. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”32. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”33. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”34. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”35. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”36. Parsons, “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.”37. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”38. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”39. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”40. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.”41. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”42. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”43. Meyer, “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts”44. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”45. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”46. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”47. Jones, “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology”48. Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems49. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”50. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”51. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design”52. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”53. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”54. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”55. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”56. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”57. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”58. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”59. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”60. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”61. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”62. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”63. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”64. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”65. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”66. Dunnett, “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications”67. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”68. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”69. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”70. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”71. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”72. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”73. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”74. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”75. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”76. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”77. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”78. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”79. Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”80. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”81. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.”82. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”83. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”84. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”85. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”86. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”87. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”88. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”89. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”90. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”91. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”92. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”93. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”94. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”95. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”96. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”97. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”98. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”99. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”100. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”101. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”102. Koningen, “Creative Management”103. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”104. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”105. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”106. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”107. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”108. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”109. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”110. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”111. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”112. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”113. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”114. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”115. Kim, “One Drop At A Time.”116. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”117. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”118. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”119. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”120. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”121. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”; fleur, “One Drop at a Time”122. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”123. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”124. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”125. Nigel Dunnett, “About”126. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”127. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”128. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”129. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”130. Nigel Dunnett, “About”131. Landscape and the City132. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”133. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”134. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”135. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”136. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”137. Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”138. Lachmund, “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.”139. Lachmund, “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.”140. Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”141. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.”142. “How We Use Water”143. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”144. Wainwright, “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture”145. Wilde, “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.”146. Urban, “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment”; Craul, “Urban Soil in Landscape Design”147. Bartens, “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?”148. Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.”; Ontl, “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation”149. Neilson, “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change”150. Cerra, “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property”151. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”152. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”  971. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”5. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”; Pavao-Zuckerman, “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.”6. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.”7. Robinson, “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.”8. Cerra, “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.”9. Dunnett, “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes”10. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”11. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin12. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”13. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”14. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin15. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”16. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”17. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”18. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”19. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”20. Darwin, The Power of Movement in Plants21. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”22. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin23. “Agency (Philosophy).”24. Doody, “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation”25. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin26. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”27. 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Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”42. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”43. Meyer, “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts”44. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”45. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”46. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”47. Jones, “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology”48. Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems49. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”50. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”51. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design”52. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”53. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”54. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”55. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”56. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”57. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”58. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”59. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”60. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”61. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”62. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”63. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”64. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”65. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”66. Dunnett, “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications”67. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”68. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”69. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”70. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”71. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”72. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”73. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”74. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”75. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”76. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”77. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”78. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”79. 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Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”92. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”93. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”94. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”95. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”96. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”97. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”98. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”99. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”100. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”101. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”102. Koningen, “Creative Management”103. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”104. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”105. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”106. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”107. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”108. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”109. 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Kim, “One Drop At A Time”; fleur, “One Drop at a Time”122. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”123. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”124. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”125. Nigel Dunnett, “About”126. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”127. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”128. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”129. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”130. Nigel Dunnett, “About”131. Landscape and the City132. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”133. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”134. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”135. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”136. “Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.”; Kowarik, Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.”137. 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Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.”; Ontl, “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation”149. Neilson, “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change”150. Cerra, “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property”151. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”152. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”  981. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”5. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”; Pavao-Zuckerman, “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.”6. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.”7. Robinson, “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.”8. Cerra, “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.”9. Dunnett, “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes”10. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”11. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin12. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”13. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”14. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin15. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”16. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”17. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”18. Nassar, “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.”19. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”20. Darwin, The Power of Movement in Plants21. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”22. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin23. “Agency (Philosophy).”24. Doody, “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation”25. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin26. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”27. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”28. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”29. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”; Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”30. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”31. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”32. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”33. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”34. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”35. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”36. Parsons, “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.”37. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”38. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”39. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”40. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.”41. Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”42. Zhao, “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference”43. Meyer, “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts”44. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”45. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”46. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design”47. Jones, “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology”48. Alberti, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems49. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”50. Del Tredici, “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast”51. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design”52. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”53. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”54. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”55. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”56. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”57. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”58. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”59. Lokman, “Gardens as Migratory Devices”60. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”61. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”62. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”63. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”64. Ignatieva, “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities”65. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”66. Dunnett, “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications”67. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”68. Sanramour, “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense”69. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”70. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”71. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”72. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”73. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”74. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”75. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”76. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”77. Del Tredici, “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World”78. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”79. Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”80. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World”; Dunnett, “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities”81. Kingsbury, “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.”82. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”83. 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Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”107. Gandy, “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”108. Scheffler, “Parc Henri Matisse.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”109. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”110. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”111. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”112. Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism”113. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”114. Cerra, “The Yardwork’s Project”115. Kim, “One Drop At A Time.”116. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”117. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”118. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”119. fleur, “One Drop at a Time”120. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”121. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”; fleur, “One Drop at a Time”122. “ASLA 2009 Professional Awards”123. Kim, “One Drop At A Time”124. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”125. Nigel Dunnett, “About”126. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield”127. Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases”128. Hazelwood, “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design”129. 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Nassauer, “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.”142. “How We Use Water”143. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”144. Wainwright, “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture”145. Wilde, “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.”146. Urban, “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment”; Craul, “Urban Soil in Landscape Design”147. Bartens, “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?”148. Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.”; Ontl, “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation”149. Neilson, “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change”150. Cerra, “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property”151. Nassauer, “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care”152. Elkin, “Working with Plant Life”  991. Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature: Toward a New Aesthetic forUrban Design”2. Milligan, “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene”3. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”4. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life”5. Del Tredici, “The Flora of the Future”; Pavao-Zuckerman, “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.”; Gandy, “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.”6. Del Tredici, “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.”7. Robinson, “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.”8. Cerra, “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.”9. Dunnett, “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes”10. 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Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbanchoreography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-floralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/. “How We Use Water.” Accessed May 6, 2020. http://www.metrovancouver.org/welovewater/conservingwater/how-we-use-water/Pages/default.aspx.  Ignatieva, Maria E., and Glenn H. Stewart. “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities.” In Ecology of Cities and Towns, edited by Mark J. McDonnell, Amy K. Hahs, and Jurgen H. Breuste, 399–421. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609763.024.Skinner, Jonathan. “Gardens of Resistance: Gilles Clément, New Poetics, and Future Landscapes.” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (2011): 259. https://doi.org/10.5250/quiparle.19.2.0259.Jones, Louisa. “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology. A Reply to Danielle Dagenais.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 26, no. 3 (July 2006): 249–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2006.10435469. Kim, Jinki, and John Whalen. “One Drop At A Time.” Landscape Performance Series, December 19, 2013. https://www.landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/one-drop-at-a-time.Kingsbury, Noel. “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Koningen, Hein. “Creative Managment.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. 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Milligan, Brett. “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene.” Places Journal, no. 2015 (June 29, 2015). https://doi.org/10.22269/150629.Nassar, Dalia. “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.” In Covert Plants: Vegetal Consciousness and Agency in an Anthropocentric World, edited by Prudence Gibson and Baylee Brits, 1st edition. Brainstorm Books. Santa Barbara, CA: Punctum Books, 2018.Nassauer, Joan I. “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care.” HortScience 6, no. 23 (1988): 973–77.Nassauer, Joan Iverson. “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.” Landscape Journal 14, no. 2 (1995): 161–70. https://doi.org/10.3368/lj.14.2.161.“Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.” Accessed December 18, 2019. https://gruen-berlin.de/en/naturpark-sudgelande. Neilson, Ronald P., Louis F. Pitelka, Allen M. Solomon, Ran Nathan, Guy F. Midgley, Jóse M. V. Fragoso, Heike Lischke, and Ken Thompson. “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change.” BioScience 55, no. 9 (2005): 749. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0749:FRTGPM]2.0.CO;2. Nigel Dunnett. “About,” February 8, 2016. http://www.nigeldunnett.com/about/.   Ontl, Todd A, Maria K Janowiak, Christopher W Swanston, Jad Daley, Stephen Handler, Meredith Cornett, Steve Hagenbuch, Cathy Handrick, Liza Mccarthy, and Nancy Patch. “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation.” Journal of Forestry 118, no. 1 (January 7, 2020): 86–101. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvz062. Parsons, Russ. “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.” Landscape and Urban Planning 32, no. 3 (August 1995): 227–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(95)07004-E.Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell A. “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.” Restoration Ecology 16, no. 4 (December 2008): 642–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00486.x. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiNfjYaDiEE&fbclid=IwAR1QjJhDXJCrkz7LdKnujp9Vq1XsQvtxjMeBxXDMMmjfBS_Axq5LYdK46g. Robinson, Sarah L., and Jeremy T. Lundholm. “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.” Urban Ecosystems 15, no. 3 (September 2012): 545–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0225-8. 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Urban, James. “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment.” Champaign, Ill: International Society of Arboriculture, 2008.Van Matre, Lynn. “Garden Rare in Suburbs Germinates Eco-Concept.” Chicagotribune.Com, 2004. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2004-07-06-0407060102-story.html.Wainwright, Henry, Charlotte Jordan, and Harry Day. “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture.” In Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1, edited by Geoffrey R. Dixon and David E. Aldous, 503–22. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8578-5_15. Wilde, H. Dayton, Kamal J. K. Gandhi, and Gregory Colson. “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.” Horticulture Research 2 (2015): 14069. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.69   Zhao, Jingwei, Ronghua Wang, Pingjia Luo, Lu Xing, and Tong Sun. “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.” Landscape and Ecological Engineering 13, no. 1 (January 2017): 107–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-016-0306-6WORKS CITED102“Agency (Philosophy).” In Wikipedia, December 11, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agency_(philosophy)&oldid=930254620.Alberti, M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer, 2008.“ASLA 2009 Professional Awards,” 2009. https://www.asla.org/2009awards/298.html.Bartens, Julia, Susan D. Day, J. Roger Harris, Joseph E. Dove, and Theresa M. 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Gandhi, and Gregory Colson. “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.” Horticulture Research 2 (2015): 14069. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.69   Zhao, Jingwei, Ronghua Wang, Pingjia Luo, Lu Xing, and Tong Sun. “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.” Landscape and Ecological Engineering 13, no. 1 (January 2017): 107–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-016-0306-6103“Agency (Philosophy).” In Wikipedia, December 11, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agency_(philosophy)&oldid=930254620.Alberti, M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer, 2008.“ASLA 2009 Professional Awards,” 2009. https://www.asla.org/2009awards/298.html.Bartens, Julia, Susan D. Day, J. Roger Harris, Joseph E. Dove, and Theresa M. Wynn. “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?” Journal of Environmental Quality 37, no. 6 (November 2008): 2048–57. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0117. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”. January 2009. https://cnla.ca/uploads/pdf/Deloitte_The-impact-of-ornamental-horticulture-on-Canada%E2%80%99s-economy.pdf Cerra, Joshua F. “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.” Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (January 2017): 586–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.016.Cerra, Joshua F. “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property.” Edited by Charlene M LeBleu. Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 91–100.Craul, Phillip J. “Urban Soil in Landscape Design.” New York: Wiley, 1992Darwin, Charles and Francis, Darwin. The Power of Movement in Plants. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1898.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.” In Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Changes, edited by Michel Conan, W. John Kress, Smithsonian Institution, and United States Botanic Garden. Washington, D.C. : [Cambridge]: Published by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection ; Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2007.Del Tredici, Peter. “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World.” Nature and Culture 5, no. 3 (December 1, 2010): 299–315. https://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2010.050305.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Flora of the Future.” Places Journal, no. 2014 (April 17, 2014). https://doi.org/10.22269/140417. Del Tredici, Peter, and Michael Luegering. “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast.” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 37 (2014).Doody, Brendan J, Harvey C Perkins, Jon J Sullivan, Colin D Meurk, and Brendan J Stewart. “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation,” no. 56 (2014): 124–36.Dunnett, Nigel. “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities - Pattern and Process in Designed Plant Comminities.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, Wolfram Kircher, and Noel Kingsbury. “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Working with Plant Life.” New Geographies Journal, no. 9 (January 2018): 125–29.fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/.Gandy, Matthew. “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.” Cosmopolis (blog), May 4, 2011. http://matthewgandy.blogspot.com/2011/05/urban-islands-parc-henri-matisse-lille.html.Gandy, Matthew. “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37, no. 1 (January 2013): 259–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01164.x. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf. Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbanchoreography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-floralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/. “How We Use Water.” Accessed May 6, 2020. http://www.metrovancouver.org/welovewater/conservingwater/how-we-use-water/Pages/default.aspx.  Ignatieva, Maria E., and Glenn H. Stewart. “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities.” In Ecology of Cities and Towns, edited by Mark J. McDonnell, Amy K. Hahs, and Jurgen H. Breuste, 399–421. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609763.024.Skinner, Jonathan. “Gardens of Resistance: Gilles Clément, New Poetics, and Future Landscapes.” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (2011): 259. https://doi.org/10.5250/quiparle.19.2.0259.Jones, Louisa. “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology. A Reply to Danielle Dagenais.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 26, no. 3 (July 2006): 249–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2006.10435469. Kim, Jinki, and John Whalen. “One Drop At A Time.” Landscape Performance Series, December 19, 2013. https://www.landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/one-drop-at-a-time.Kingsbury, Noel. “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Koningen, Hein. “Creative Managment.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Kowarik, Ingo, and Andreas Langer. “Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.” In Wild Urban Woodlands, edited by Ingo Kowarik and Stefan Körner, 287–99. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-26859-6_18.Lachmund, Jens.  “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.” In Greening Berlin: The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2013.Landscape and the City, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=185&v=Sl1qvv5Q6Z8&feature=emb_logoLokman, Kees, and Susan Herrington. “Gardens as Migratory Devices.” New Geographies 8 (2016): 141–51.Meyer, Elizabeth K. “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 3, no. 1 (March 2008): 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2008.9723392. Milligan, Brett. “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene.” Places Journal, no. 2015 (June 29, 2015). https://doi.org/10.22269/150629.Nassar, Dalia. “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.” In Covert Plants: Vegetal Consciousness and Agency in an Anthropocentric World, edited by Prudence Gibson and Baylee Brits, 1st edition. Brainstorm Books. Santa Barbara, CA: Punctum Books, 2018.Nassauer, Joan I. “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care.” HortScience 6, no. 23 (1988): 973–77.Nassauer, Joan Iverson. “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.” Landscape Journal 14, no. 2 (1995): 161–70. https://doi.org/10.3368/lj.14.2.161.“Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.” Accessed December 18, 2019. https://gruen-berlin.de/en/naturpark-sudgelande. Neilson, Ronald P., Louis F. Pitelka, Allen M. Solomon, Ran Nathan, Guy F. Midgley, Jóse M. V. Fragoso, Heike Lischke, and Ken Thompson. “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change.” BioScience 55, no. 9 (2005): 749. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0749:FRTGPM]2.0.CO;2. Nigel Dunnett. “About,” February 8, 2016. http://www.nigeldunnett.com/about/.   Ontl, Todd A, Maria K Janowiak, Christopher W Swanston, Jad Daley, Stephen Handler, Meredith Cornett, Steve Hagenbuch, Cathy Handrick, Liza Mccarthy, and Nancy Patch. “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation.” Journal of Forestry 118, no. 1 (January 7, 2020): 86–101. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvz062. Parsons, Russ. “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.” Landscape and Urban Planning 32, no. 3 (August 1995): 227–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(95)07004-E.Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell A. “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.” Restoration Ecology 16, no. 4 (December 2008): 642–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00486.x. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiNfjYaDiEE&fbclid=IwAR1QjJhDXJCrkz7LdKnujp9Vq1XsQvtxjMeBxXDMMmjfBS_Axq5LYdK46g. Robinson, Sarah L., and Jeremy T. Lundholm. “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.” Urban Ecosystems 15, no. 3 (September 2012): 545–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0225-8. Sanramour, Frank S. “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense,” 1999, 57–66.Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse.” Accessed December 18, 2019. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse.Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases,” 2016. http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/phase2.html. Spirn, Anna W. “The Poetics of City and Nature : Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design.” Places 6, no. 1 (1989): 82–93.Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.” ScienceDaily. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190812130843.htm. Urban, James. “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment.” Champaign, Ill: International Society of Arboriculture, 2008.Van Matre, Lynn. “Garden Rare in Suburbs Germinates Eco-Concept.” Chicagotribune.Com, 2004. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2004-07-06-0407060102-story.html.Wainwright, Henry, Charlotte Jordan, and Harry Day. “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture.” In Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1, edited by Geoffrey R. Dixon and David E. Aldous, 503–22. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8578-5_15. Wilde, H. Dayton, Kamal J. K. Gandhi, and Gregory Colson. “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.” Horticulture Research 2 (2015): 14069. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.69   Zhao, Jingwei, Ronghua Wang, Pingjia Luo, Lu Xing, and Tong Sun. “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.” Landscape and Ecological Engineering 13, no. 1 (January 2017): 107–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-016-0306-6104“Agency (Philosophy).” In Wikipedia, December 11, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agency_(philosophy)&oldid=930254620.Alberti, M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer, 2008.“ASLA 2009 Professional Awards,” 2009. https://www.asla.org/2009awards/298.html.Bartens, Julia, Susan D. Day, J. Roger Harris, Joseph E. Dove, and Theresa M. Wynn. “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?” Journal of Environmental Quality 37, no. 6 (November 2008): 2048–57. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0117. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”. January 2009. https://cnla.ca/uploads/pdf/Deloitte_The-impact-of-ornamental-horticulture-on-Canada%E2%80%99s-economy.pdf Cerra, Joshua F. “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.” Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (January 2017): 586–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.016.Cerra, Joshua F. “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property.” Edited by Charlene M LeBleu. Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 91–100.Craul, Phillip J. “Urban Soil in Landscape Design.” New York: Wiley, 1992Darwin, Charles and Francis, Darwin. The Power of Movement in Plants. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1898.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.” In Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Changes, edited by Michel Conan, W. John Kress, Smithsonian Institution, and United States Botanic Garden. Washington, D.C. : [Cambridge]: Published by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection ; Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2007.Del Tredici, Peter. “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World.” Nature and Culture 5, no. 3 (December 1, 2010): 299–315. https://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2010.050305.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Flora of the Future.” Places Journal, no. 2014 (April 17, 2014). https://doi.org/10.22269/140417. Del Tredici, Peter, and Michael Luegering. “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast.” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 37 (2014).Doody, Brendan J, Harvey C Perkins, Jon J Sullivan, Colin D Meurk, and Brendan J Stewart. “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation,” no. 56 (2014): 124–36.Dunnett, Nigel. “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities - Pattern and Process in Designed Plant Comminities.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, Wolfram Kircher, and Noel Kingsbury. “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Working with Plant Life.” New Geographies Journal, no. 9 (January 2018): 125–29.fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/.Gandy, Matthew. “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.” Cosmopolis (blog), May 4, 2011. http://matthewgandy.blogspot.com/2011/05/urban-islands-parc-henri-matisse-lille.html.Gandy, Matthew. “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37, no. 1 (January 2013): 259–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01164.x. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf. Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbanchoreography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-floralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/. “How We Use Water.” Accessed May 6, 2020. http://www.metrovancouver.org/welovewater/conservingwater/how-we-use-water/Pages/default.aspx.  Ignatieva, Maria E., and Glenn H. Stewart. “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities.” In Ecology of Cities and Towns, edited by Mark J. McDonnell, Amy K. Hahs, and Jurgen H. Breuste, 399–421. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609763.024.Skinner, Jonathan. “Gardens of Resistance: Gilles Clément, New Poetics, and Future Landscapes.” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (2011): 259. https://doi.org/10.5250/quiparle.19.2.0259.Jones, Louisa. “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology. A Reply to Danielle Dagenais.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 26, no. 3 (July 2006): 249–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2006.10435469. Kim, Jinki, and John Whalen. “One Drop At A Time.” Landscape Performance Series, December 19, 2013. https://www.landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/one-drop-at-a-time.Kingsbury, Noel. “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Koningen, Hein. “Creative Managment.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Kowarik, Ingo, and Andreas Langer. “Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.” In Wild Urban Woodlands, edited by Ingo Kowarik and Stefan Körner, 287–99. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-26859-6_18.Lachmund, Jens.  “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.” In Greening Berlin: The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2013.Landscape and the City, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=185&v=Sl1qvv5Q6Z8&feature=emb_logoLokman, Kees, and Susan Herrington. “Gardens as Migratory Devices.” New Geographies 8 (2016): 141–51.Meyer, Elizabeth K. “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 3, no. 1 (March 2008): 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2008.9723392. Milligan, Brett. “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene.” Places Journal, no. 2015 (June 29, 2015). https://doi.org/10.22269/150629.Nassar, Dalia. “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.” In Covert Plants: Vegetal Consciousness and Agency in an Anthropocentric World, edited by Prudence Gibson and Baylee Brits, 1st edition. Brainstorm Books. Santa Barbara, CA: Punctum Books, 2018.Nassauer, Joan I. “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care.” HortScience 6, no. 23 (1988): 973–77.Nassauer, Joan Iverson. “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.” Landscape Journal 14, no. 2 (1995): 161–70. https://doi.org/10.3368/lj.14.2.161.“Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.” Accessed December 18, 2019. https://gruen-berlin.de/en/naturpark-sudgelande. Neilson, Ronald P., Louis F. Pitelka, Allen M. Solomon, Ran Nathan, Guy F. Midgley, Jóse M. V. Fragoso, Heike Lischke, and Ken Thompson. “Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change.” BioScience 55, no. 9 (2005): 749. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0749:FRTGPM]2.0.CO;2. Nigel Dunnett. “About,” February 8, 2016. http://www.nigeldunnett.com/about/.   Ontl, Todd A, Maria K Janowiak, Christopher W Swanston, Jad Daley, Stephen Handler, Meredith Cornett, Steve Hagenbuch, Cathy Handrick, Liza Mccarthy, and Nancy Patch. “Forest Management for Carbon Sequestration and Climate Adaptation.” Journal of Forestry 118, no. 1 (January 7, 2020): 86–101. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvz062. Parsons, Russ. “Conflict between Ecological Sustainability and Environmental Aesthetics: Conundrum,Canärd or Curiosity.” Landscape and Urban Planning 32, no. 3 (August 1995): 227–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(95)07004-E.Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell A. “The Nature of Urban Soils and Their Role in Ecological Restoration in Cities.” Restoration Ecology 16, no. 4 (December 2008): 642–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00486.x. Resilience Colloquium: Rosetta Sarah Elkin, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiNfjYaDiEE&fbclid=IwAR1QjJhDXJCrkz7LdKnujp9Vq1XsQvtxjMeBxXDMMmjfBS_Axq5LYdK46g. Robinson, Sarah L., and Jeremy T. Lundholm. “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation.” Urban Ecosystems 15, no. 3 (September 2012): 545–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0225-8. Sanramour, Frank S. “Trees for Urban Planting: Diversity, Uniformity, and Common Sense,” 1999, 57–66.Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse.” Accessed December 18, 2019. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse.Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases,” 2016. http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/phase2.html. Spirn, Anna W. “The Poetics of City and Nature : Toward a New Aesthetic for Urban Design.” Places 6, no. 1 (1989): 82–93.Staff Writers. “Structurally Complex Forests Better at Carbon Sequestration.” ScienceDaily. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190812130843.htm. Urban, James. “Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Tress in the Built Environment.” Champaign, Ill: International Society of Arboriculture, 2008.Van Matre, Lynn. “Garden Rare in Suburbs Germinates Eco-Concept.” Chicagotribune.Com, 2004. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2004-07-06-0407060102-story.html.Wainwright, Henry, Charlotte Jordan, and Harry Day. “Environmental Impact of Production Horticulture.” In Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1, edited by Geoffrey R. Dixon and David E. Aldous, 503–22. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8578-5_15. Wilde, H. Dayton, Kamal J. K. Gandhi, and Gregory Colson. “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.” Horticulture Research 2 (2015): 14069. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.69   Zhao, Jingwei, Ronghua Wang, Pingjia Luo, Lu Xing, and Tong Sun. “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.” Landscape and Ecological Engineering 13, no. 1 (January 2017): 107–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-016-0306-6105“Agency (Philosophy).” In Wikipedia, December 11, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agency_(philosophy)&oldid=930254620.Alberti, M. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer, 2008.“ASLA 2009 Professional Awards,” 2009. https://www.asla.org/2009awards/298.html.Bartens, Julia, Susan D. Day, J. Roger Harris, Joseph E. Dove, and Theresa M. Wynn. “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?” Journal of Environmental Quality 37, no. 6 (November 2008): 2048–57. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0117. Canadian Ornamental Horticulture Alliance. “The Impact of Ornamental Horticulture on Canada’s Economy”. January 2009. https://cnla.ca/uploads/pdf/Deloitte_The-impact-of-ornamental-horticulture-on-Canada%E2%80%99s-economy.pdf Cerra, Joshua F. “Emerging Strategies for Voluntary Urban Ecological Stewardship on Private Property.” Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (January 2017): 586–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.016.Cerra, Joshua F. “The Yardworks Project: Developing Urban Ecological Design Strategies for Residential Private Property.” Edited by Charlene M LeBleu. Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 91–100.Craul, Phillip J. “Urban Soil in Landscape Design.” New York: Wiley, 1992Darwin, Charles and Francis, Darwin. The Power of Movement in Plants. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1898.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.” In Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Changes, edited by Michel Conan, W. John Kress, Smithsonian Institution, and United States Botanic Garden. Washington, D.C. : [Cambridge]: Published by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection ; Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2007.Del Tredici, Peter. “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World.” Nature and Culture 5, no. 3 (December 1, 2010): 299–315. https://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2010.050305.Del Tredici, Peter. “The Flora of the Future.” Places Journal, no. 2014 (April 17, 2014). https://doi.org/10.22269/140417. Del Tredici, Peter, and Michael Luegering. “A Cosmopolitan Urban Meadow for the Northeast.” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 37 (2014).Doody, Brendan J, Harvey C Perkins, Jon J Sullivan, Colin D Meurk, and Brendan J Stewart. “Performing Weeds: Gardening, Plant Agencies and Urban Plant Conservation,” no. 56 (2014): 124–36.Dunnett, Nigel. “The Dynamic Nature of Plant Communities - Pattern and Process in Designed Plant Comminities.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Dunnett, Nigel, Wolfram Kircher, and Noel Kingsbury. “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.Elkin, Rosetta S. “Working with Plant Life.” New Geographies Journal, no. 9 (January 2018): 125–29.fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/.Gandy, Matthew. “Cosmopolis: Urban Islands: Parc Henri-Matisse, Lille.” Cosmopolis (blog), May 4, 2011. http://matthewgandy.blogspot.com/2011/05/urban-islands-parc-henri-matisse-lille.html.Gandy, Matthew. “Entropy by Design: Gilles Clément, Parc Henri Matisse and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism: Gilles Clément and the Limits to Avant-Garde Urbanism.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37, no. 1 (January 2013): 259–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01164.x. “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf. Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbanchoreography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-floralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/. “How We Use Water.” Accessed May 6, 2020. http://www.metrovancouver.org/welovewater/conservingwater/how-we-use-water/Pages/default.aspx.  Ignatieva, Maria E., and Glenn H. Stewart. “Homogeneity of Urban Biotopes and Similarity of Landscape Design Language in Former Colonial Cities.” In Ecology of Cities and Towns, edited by Mark J. McDonnell, Amy K. Hahs, and Jurgen H. Breuste, 399–421. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609763.024.Skinner, Jonathan. “Gardens of Resistance: Gilles Clément, New Poetics, and Future Landscapes.” Qui Parle 19, no. 2 (2011): 259. https://doi.org/10.5250/quiparle.19.2.0259.Jones, Louisa. “Gilles Clément Revisited: Biology, Art and Ecology. A Reply to Danielle Dagenais.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 26, no. 3 (July 2006): 249–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14601176.2006.10435469. Kim, Jinki, and John Whalen. “One Drop At A Time.” Landscape Performance Series, December 19, 2013. https://www.landscapeperformance.org/case-study-briefs/one-drop-at-a-time.Kingsbury, Noel. “Contemporary Overview of Naturalistic Planting Design.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Koningen, Hein. “Creative Managment.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.Kowarik, Ingo, and Andreas Langer. “Natur-Park Südgelände: Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin.” In Wild Urban Woodlands, edited by Ingo Kowarik and Stefan Körner, 287–99. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-26859-6_18.Lachmund, Jens.  “Places in the Making: From Wastelands to Urban Nature Parks.” In Greening Berlin: The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2013.Landscape and the City, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=185&v=Sl1qvv5Q6Z8&feature=emb_logoLokman, Kees, and Susan Herrington. “Gardens as Migratory Devices.” New Geographies 8 (2016): 141–51.Meyer, Elizabeth K. “Sustaining Beauty. The Performance of Appearance: A Manifesto in Three Parts.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 3, no. 1 (March 2008): 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2008.9723392. Milligan, Brett. “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene.” Places Journal, no. 2015 (June 29, 2015). https://doi.org/10.22269/150629.Nassar, Dalia. “Metaphoric Plants: Goethe’s Metamorphosis of Plants and the Metaphors of Reason.” In Covert Plants: Vegetal Consciousness and Agency in an Anthropocentric World, edited by Prudence Gibson and Baylee Brits, 1st edition. Brainstorm Books. Santa Barbara, CA: Punctum Books, 2018.Nassauer, Joan I. “The Aesthetics of Horticulture: Neatness as a Form of Care.” HortScience 6, no. 23 (1988): 973–77.Nassauer, Joan Iverson. “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames.” Landscape Journal 14, no. 2 (1995): 161–70. https://doi.org/10.3368/lj.14.2.161.“Natur-Park Schöneberger Südgelände.” Accessed December 18, 2019. https://gruen-berlin.de/en/naturpark-sudgelande. Neilson, Ronald P., Louis F. Pitelka, Allen M. Solomon, Ran Nathan, Guy F. Midgley, Jóse M. V. 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Gandhi, and Gregory Colson. “State of the Science and Challenges of Breeding Landscape Plants with Ecological Function.” Horticulture Research 2 (2015): 14069. https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.69   Zhao, Jingwei, Ronghua Wang, Pingjia Luo, Lu Xing, and Tong Sun. “Visual Ecology: Exploring the Relationships between Ecological Quality and Aesthetic Preference.” Landscape and Ecological Engineering 13, no. 1 (January 2017): 107–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-016-0306-6107Chow, Jane. “The Effect of Mowing and Hand Removal on the Regrowth Rate of Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus Armeniacus).” Simon Fraser University, 2018.Greenfield, Patrick. “On the Verge: A Quiet Roadside Revolution Is Boosting Wildflowers.” the Guardian, March 14, 2020. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/14/on-the-verge-a-quiet-roadsiderevolution-is-boosting-wildflowers-aoe. Hoshovsky, Marc. “ELEMENT STEWARDSHIP ABSTRACT for Rubus Discolor, (Rubus Procerus) Himalayan Blackberry,” n.d.Mooney, Patrick, and Don Wuori. “Urban Songbird Habitat: Landscape Design Guidelines.” Holland Barrs Planning Group Inc., August 9, 2007.“Spontaneous Urban Plants |.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.spontaneousurbanplants.org/services/. “Wild Edible Plants of British Columbia.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://northernbushcraft.com/guide.php?ctgy=edible_plants&region=bc. BIBLIOGRAPHY1081. Modified from:  Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008. 2. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.3. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.4. Author’s Graphic5. Author’s photograph. Grounds of Wimpole Hall, Cambrideshire, UK. Taken in Nov 20136. Accessed from: https://www.facebook.com/healthyyardsinternational/-photos/a.367647497006552/799273747177256/?type=3&theater7. Author’s photographs, Various locations on UBC campus8. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver9. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver10. Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 2019 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Jan 2019 Author’s photograph. Fraser River Park Nov 201711. Author’s photograph. Queen Elizabeth park July 2018 Author’s photograph. Butchart Gardens Aug 2017 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 201912. Accessed from: https://www.reddit.com/r/gardening/com-ments/7ezbd5/derborence_island_part_of_gilles_clements/ 13. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse. 14. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse.  15. Kelly, Scott. “YardWorks Press.” Habitat Network. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://content.yardmap.org/yardworks-press/.16. Cerra, Joshua F, and Rhiannon Crain. “BEATING THE PROPERTY BARRI-ER: BUILDING COMMUNITY TO BUILD ECOLOGY IN CITIES.” Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 225–44.17. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 18. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 19.   “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.-susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/-suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf.20.  Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbancho-reography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-flo-ralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/.21.  Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases,” 2016. http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/phase2.html. 22.  Lokman, Kees. “Vacancy as a Laboratory: Design Criteria for Reimagin-ing Social-Ecological Systems on Vacant Urban Lands.” Landscape Research 42, no. 7 (October 3, 2017): 728–46. https://-doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2017.1355446. 23. sagt, Vom Glück auf Reisen-ins Grüne » Kleine Fluchten Berlin. “Was blüht denn da im Gleisbett? Ein Spaziergang im Natur-Park Südgelände.” Kleine Fluchten Berlin (blog). Accessed May 7, 2020. https://ww-w.kleine-fluchten-ber-lin.de/was-bluht-denn-da-im-gleisbett-ein-botanischer-spaziergang-imnatur-park-sudgelande/. 24. Data from: “Invasive Non-Native Species | Biodivcanada.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://biodivcanada.chm-cbd.net/ecosystem-sta-tus-trends-2010/invasive-non-native-species#ws1D66248B Ritchie, Hannah, and Max Roser. “CO2 and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Our World in Data, May 11, 2017. https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-green-house-gas-emissions. “Who Lives in America: Teaching Immigration History With Data | Scholas-tic.Com.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immi-gration/immigration_data/index.htm.  25. Data from: Avis-Riordan, Katie. “This Infographic Reveals How International Your Garden Really Is.” House Beautiful, October 31, 2017. http://www.housebeauti-ful.co.uk/garden/plants/news/a2698/flower-plant-originsinfographic/.  National Climate Assessment. “National Climate Assessment.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/node/38744.    LIST OF FIGURES1091. Modified from:  Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008. 2. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.3. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.4. Author’s Graphic5. Author’s photograph. Grounds of Wimpole Hall, Cambrideshire, UK. Taken in Nov 20136. Accessed from: https://www.facebook.com/healthyyardsinternational/-photos/a.367647497006552/799273747177256/?type=3&theater7. Author’s photographs, Various locations on UBC campus8. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver9. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver10. Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 2019 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Jan 2019 Author’s photograph. Fraser River Park Nov 201711. Author’s photograph. Queen Elizabeth park July 2018 Author’s photograph. Butchart Gardens Aug 2017 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 201912. Accessed from: https://www.reddit.com/r/gardening/com-ments/7ezbd5/derborence_island_part_of_gilles_clements/ 13. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse. 14. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse.  15. Kelly, Scott. “YardWorks Press.” Habitat Network. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://content.yardmap.org/yardworks-press/.16. Cerra, Joshua F, and Rhiannon Crain. “BEATING THE PROPERTY BARRI-ER: BUILDING COMMUNITY TO BUILD ECOLOGY IN CITIES.” Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 225–44.17. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 18. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 19.   “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.-susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/-suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf.20.  Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbancho-reography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-flo-ralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/.21.  Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases,” 2016. http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/phase2.html. 22.  Lokman, Kees. “Vacancy as a Laboratory: Design Criteria for Reimagin-ing Social-Ecological Systems on Vacant Urban Lands.” Landscape Research 42, no. 7 (October 3, 2017): 728–46. https://-doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2017.1355446. 23. sagt, Vom Glück auf Reisen-ins Grüne » Kleine Fluchten Berlin. “Was blüht denn da im Gleisbett? Ein Spaziergang im Natur-Park Südgelände.” Kleine Fluchten Berlin (blog). Accessed May 7, 2020. https://ww-w.kleine-fluchten-ber-lin.de/was-bluht-denn-da-im-gleisbett-ein-botanischer-spaziergang-imnatur-park-sudgelande/. 24. Data from: “Invasive Non-Native Species | Biodivcanada.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://biodivcanada.chm-cbd.net/ecosystem-sta-tus-trends-2010/invasive-non-native-species#ws1D66248B Ritchie, Hannah, and Max Roser. “CO2 and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Our World in Data, May 11, 2017. https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-green-house-gas-emissions. “Who Lives in America: Teaching Immigration History With Data | Scholas-tic.Com.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immi-gration/immigration_data/index.htm.  25. Data from: Avis-Riordan, Katie. “This Infographic Reveals How International Your Garden Really Is.” House Beautiful, October 31, 2017. http://www.housebeauti-ful.co.uk/garden/plants/news/a2698/flower-plant-originsinfographic/.  National Climate Assessment. “National Climate Assessment.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/node/38744.    1101. Modified from:  Dunnett, Nigel, and James Hitchmough. “Introduction to Naturalistic Planting in Urban Landscapes.” In The Dynamic Landscape: Design, Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting, edited by Nigel Dunnett and James Hitchmough, Paperback ed. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008. 2. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.3. Elkin, Rosetta S. “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life.” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no.2 (May 4, 2017): 60–73. https://-doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.4. Author’s Graphic5. Author’s photograph. Grounds of Wimpole Hall, Cambrideshire, UK. Taken in Nov 20136. Accessed from: https://www.facebook.com/healthyyardsinternational/-photos/a.367647497006552/799273747177256/?type=3&theater7. Author’s photographs, Various locations on UBC campus8. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver9. Author’s photographs, Various locations in Vancouver10. Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 2019 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Jan 2019 Author’s photograph. Fraser River Park Nov 201711. Author’s photograph. Queen Elizabeth park July 2018 Author’s photograph. Butchart Gardens Aug 2017 Author’s photograph. Vancouver street Dec 201912. Accessed from: https://www.reddit.com/r/gardening/com-ments/7ezbd5/derborence_island_part_of_gilles_clements/ 13. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse. 14. Scheffler, Nathanael. “Parc Henri Matisse —.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://www.nathanaelscheffler.com/parc-henri-matisse.  15. Kelly, Scott. “YardWorks Press.” Habitat Network. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://content.yardmap.org/yardworks-press/.16. Cerra, Joshua F, and Rhiannon Crain. “BEATING THE PROPERTY BARRI-ER: BUILDING COMMUNITY TO BUILD ECOLOGY IN CITIES.” Landscape Research Record, no. 5 (2016): 225–44.17. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 18. fleur, Marcus de la. “One Drop at a Time - New Resource Paradigms at 168 Elm Ave.,” 2014. https://www.delafleur.com/168_Elm/. 19.   “Grey to Green Phase 1, Sheffield.” CIRIA, n.d. https://www.-susdrain.org/casestudies/pdfs/-suds_awards/006_18_03_28_susdrain_suds_awards_grey_to_green_phase_1_sheffield.pdf.20.  Hazelwood, Jon. “Super Bloom: New Floral Frontiers in Public Planting Design – Urban Choreography.” Urban Choreography, 2019. https://urbancho-reography.net/2019/10/10/super-bloom-new-flo-ralfrontiers-in-public-planting-design/.21.  Sheffield City Council. “Grey to Green Project – Future Phases,” 2016. http://www.greytogreen.org.uk/phase2.html. 22.  Lokman, Kees. “Vacancy as a Laboratory: Design Criteria for Reimagin-ing Social-Ecological Systems on Vacant Urban Lands.” Landscape Research 42, no. 7 (October 3, 2017): 728–46. https://-doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2017.1355446. 23. sagt, Vom Glück auf Reisen-ins Grüne » Kleine Fluchten Berlin. “Was blüht denn da im Gleisbett? Ein Spaziergang im Natur-Park Südgelände.” Kleine Fluchten Berlin (blog). Accessed May 7, 2020. https://ww-w.kleine-fluchten-ber-lin.de/was-bluht-denn-da-im-gleisbett-ein-botanischer-spaziergang-imnatur-park-sudgelande/. 24. Data from: “Invasive Non-Native Species | Biodivcanada.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://biodivcanada.chm-cbd.net/ecosystem-sta-tus-trends-2010/invasive-non-native-species#ws1D66248B Ritchie, Hannah, and Max Roser. “CO2 and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Our World in Data, May 11, 2017. https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-green-house-gas-emissions. “Who Lives in America: Teaching Immigration History With Data | Scholas-tic.Com.” Accessed May 7, 2020. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immi-gration/immigration_data/index.htm.  25. Data from: Avis-Riordan, Katie. “This Infographic Reveals How International Your Garden Really Is.” House Beautiful, October 31, 2017. http://www.housebeauti-ful.co.uk/garden/plants/news/a2698/flower-plant-originsinfographic/.  National Climate Assessment. “National Climate Assessment.” Accessed May 7, 2020. https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/node/38744.    111

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