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Mary's courtyard Mbugua, Colin Kaguru Berg 2019-04-26

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IMary’s CourtyardColin MbuguaTable of contentsFront PageTable of contentsAbstractIntroductionPrecedentsCollaborationContextAnalysisProject ApproachMaterial useIn Between space exploration Plan and DesignList of figuresBibliographyIIIIIIIVVIII1572737496977102103AbstractThis research is a product of mediating theory and practice to test the tile-vault technique as an answer to low cost housing and dig-nified housing in Sub Saharan Africa.This response is triggered by the Maa community’s need for permanent housing, found in the Olare Motorogi Conservancy Kenya. The Maa community have been transitioning from a Nomadic lifestyle to a sedentary way of life for the past decade. Factors such as global warming and globalization have played into forcing the traditional practice to a halt.The tile vaulting technique is a 600 year tradition in parts of the Mediterranean, where bricks and clay are readily available for con-struction. The technique is easily combined with the Maa communities traditional earth walls and earth blocks from readily available soil on site.The Maa community are currently limited to traditional techniques of construction and it is expected that through the use of tile vaults the communities construction vocabulary and techniques will expand. The learning process will however have to be on site during construction. Therefore putting pressure on the ability of the construction workers to endure a steep learning curve.The use of earth bricks has two projected results. Thermally insulating the structure against the overhead sun in this semi arid environ-ment and provide an environmentally sound structure.VIntroductionKenya’s Masai Mara stands as a contested landscape in development and conservation interests. The Mara is home to Masai Pastoral communities that have shared the region with tourists and the indigenous wild life that fuels a large part of the Kenyan economy. Over the past few years, the relationship between conservation, tourism and the local Masai pastoral has strengthened. A particular part-nership has been forged between Eco tourism operators and the Masai land owners, bringing together a win for the Eco system and a win for both the livelihoods.The Savannah ecosystem of East Africa has supported nomadic communities and its vast wildlife population for millennium. The region has however faced a drastic change in activities for past decades. TheSince the advent of colonialism in East Africa, the Masai people have progressively been disposed to their communally held land.Kenya, like most other developing countries in the world is one of the fastest developing countries in the world, yet it remains as one of the poorest ones. There is need for low cost housing and the project in the Olare Motorogi conservancy is a window into the larger problem. Housing is especially of concern when dwellings are constructed of iron sheet in regions bordering the Sahel region that experience high temperatures in the day causing the houses to overheat becoming inhabitable. The current housing units do not cater for expansion or traditional practices such as indoor cooking the doubles as indoor heating. Innovation in construction is necessary in order to solve basic housing needs in this region. Illegal deforestation for cheap wood and in- expensive plastics are used as building material, later exposing dwellers to an array of short comings. The need for intervention is extreme however between poverty and government corruption in developing countries a vicious cycle of is maintained leading to helplessness.Other parts of the world, mainly in countries like Spain and Mexico, tile vaulting has remained a viable local method of construction in their markets. Mapungubwe National Park Interpretive Centre in South Africa, served as a precedent of using tiles pressed from local earth to create vaults that elegantly displayed the abilities of structural tile with large spans of vaults creating free open space for pro-gram. The tile vault was also executed in Ethiopia to prototype the vault in a sustainable low cost housing project by Philippe Block. The research is interested in exploring the tile-vaulted systems mentioned that make use of local material to meet the demand for low cost structures and in our case housing for the Maa community in the Olare Motoragi Conservancy, Kenya.VII[1][2]1[3]CollaborationThe Maa Trust serves as a proxy between the academic process and the Maa community. The trust organizes the communities funds and labor force governing the construction process and resource management. To fully understand the role the Maa trust plays as be-ing a proxy between the designer and community, the structure of the Kenya conservation policy as a form of persistent colonial force with the ambition of community-focused approach is key. It is structured with theoretical elements one of them being conservation and the other development literature. The chapter sets out a clear conservancy model independent of actors which is what the Maa trust is structured on.The trust is a beneficiary of Eco tourism, boo-prospecting and community based development projects such as the Maa housing proj-ect. Growing investment from private groups into development projects, encourage conservation financing and community buy-in. As scholars began to understand the complexity of environmental problems, and the nature of trade-offs inherent within social , ecologi-cal, and economic goals, the win-win frame has began to blur (McShane et al. 2010)5[4]7[5]NScale 1:1000[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]AnalysisThe research provides insight to the Masaai settlements and the transition from traditional means of living to a modern way of life with-in the home. Through both the construction and social organization created by the settlements, this was dissected to understand how to humbly transfer the Maasai way of living through new construction techniques, forms of dwellings, and social organization within the family and community.Early research focused on the internal organization of the traditional Maasai village, primarily regarding access, spatial relationships, and growth of the village. Access is centralized by protecting livestock, deemed most valuable to the community, and the village grows from this central space, allowing access in specific areas within the village.272. LeadershipDwellings1. Wealth3. Private AreasPoint of OriginSuccessive GrowthMaintains spatial connection through the centerNew dwellings added to spatial conguration referencing the point of originVillage Structure centralized around point of status, with exible connectionsShared communal spacesSuccessive GrowthNew dwellings added to spatial conguration referencing the point of origin, with secondary clusters that develop from itVillage maintains composition, but creates newly dened secondary spaces between dwellings[22]2. LeadershipDwellings1. Wealth3. Private AreasPoint of OriginSuccessive GrowthMaintains spatial connection through the centerNew dwellings added to spatial conguration referencing the point of originVillage Structure centralized around point of status, with exible connectionsShared communal spacesSuccessive GrowthNew dwellings added to spatial conguration referencing the point of origin, with secondary clusters that develop from itVillage maintains composition, but creates newly dened secondary spaces between dwellings[23][24][25][26]Project ApproachThe site visit helped detach from an ideological position and put things into perspective. The site visit was accompanied with constant discourse and critique both with the Maa Trust and Mary, who is a member of the Maa tribe and the first receiver of the Maa housing brick house unit.The site analysis helped re organize the hierarchy in climatic conditions necessary to focus on in terms of comfort (sun angles, wind direction and flash flood reality), sustainability (rain water management and bio-fuel as an alternative to solar power energy) and mate-rial availability and pricing.The Maa housing project is possible because of the organization of the Maa community to form the Maa trust. Visiting the side made relationships that were blurry more clear such as the assumptions earlier made on traditional practices such as cooking indoors and polygamy. These greatly affect the floor plan anatomy and its necessary to diagram the findings from the site visit in order to clearly analyze them to make decisions in moving forward with design.Opening dialogue with the community contractor brought to light more practical methods of construction that should be integrated in the design phase. A dimension matrix was developed in this meeting to aid in accurate drawing dimensions. A strength and integrity test was carried out on the brick on site which need careful analysis, this will then aid in determining the most efficient height of the tile vault.37ChannelStandardFlooringWater Catchment AreaRoof Slope[27]NJune 15th64o NMarch 21st86o S ~80o N Panel tilt (ideal)300 W units (1.8 kWh/m2/day)   - 657 kWh/m2/yr~175 kWh/capita/yr (3.75 people/m2)**(extrapolated from World Bank Data)High Period of Monthly Solar InsolationMarch1st  - August 31st[Pump-fed system]Underground / Surface Tank StorageDomestic Range of H2O consumption:   - 58-110 L/day [18,250 - 40,150 L/yr]* ~approx. 52 m2 roof catchment needed to meet the max daily consumption*(taken from Nairobi Census)Annual Water Capacity - 771 mm rainfall \ 771 L/m2Monthly Ranges of Percipitation - 154 mm monthly max \ 154 L/m2       (April) - 22 mm monthly min \ 22 L/m2       (July)~80o NTank Size ~ 6-8x domestic water consumption per unit (350 - 460 L Tank to 660 - 880 L Tank)Community scale H2O tank[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]Material useThe objective was to optimize and analyze the new vault. Diagrammed is the manual method of carrying this out using the hanging chains to then make a scale model crash test. The results were however confirmed using the CAD software program Rhinoceros 3D and its plug in Grasshopper. They both have their strengths and weaknesses.The most effective way to analyze a compression only form for an arch is the hanging chain. Attaching weights to this form simulates different load scenarios as executed by Anthony Gaudi in his intricate hanging chain models found in the Sagrada Familia church in Barcelona he designed. This is however slow and time consuming whereas modern CAD modeling programs such as Rhinoceros 3D offer interactive funicular forms where the tolerance of complex load situations can be further explored.The first test was a small barrel vault covering a 1m*2m space. It was built to test the techniques discussed above, in order to simulate problems that would need solving.The masonry was executed in accordance to M.H. Ramage (2010) and those described by Atamturktur (2006), who cited Etheredge (1971). The inner layer was bound using plaster of paris. The bricks held until either ends held in place. The first layer set almost as soon as the last brick was laid. The second layer followed the first layers pattern almost brick by brick at slight displacement to en-courage binding between the two, however this was done using cement mortar. According to Atamturktur (2006), larger vaults should have the second layer initiated before the first one is complete, the procedure is followed until the vault is complete. The gypsum layer is strong enough to serve as form work for the subsequent layers.49[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]69[54][55][56][57]Plan and Design770.902.100.902.10[58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]to the riverto the townsection bsection b’’section a’’section asection csection c’’section d’’section dscale 1:50[66]to the riverto the townsection bsection b’’section a’’section asection csection c’’section d’’section dscale 1:50[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][1] Mbugua,Colin”Precedent image 1,Foster +Partners, Block research group and Meco concept arch in the 2016 Venice Bienale”2016. JPEG file[2] Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk. “Clay-Bound Utopia.” Clay-Bound Utopia, www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2012/10/29/clay-bound-utopia.html.[3] Aravena, Alejandro, Fernando García-Huidobro and Gonzalo Arteaga. “ELEMENTAL MONTERREY .” Www.elementalchile.cl/viviendas/monterrey-las-anacua. 9 Mar 2010. Web. 2 Dec 2018. <www.elementalchile.cl/viviendas/monterrey-las-anacuas>.[4] Mbugua, Colin “Map drawing 1 Africa” 2019[5] Mbugua, Colin “Map drawing 2, Eastern Africa” 2019[6] Mbugua, Colin “Map drawing 3, 1:1000 Talek map” 2019[7] Mbugua,Colin”Precedent image .”2018. JPEG file[8] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[9] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[10] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[11] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[12] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[13] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[14] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[15] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[16 Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[17] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[18] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[19] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[20] Mbugua,Colin”Site Photograph .”2018. JPEG file[21]  le Quellec, Philippe “Axonometric drawing 1 traditional settlement” 2018[22]  le Quellec, Philippe “Diagram 1 traditional settlement” 2018[23] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing traditional masai compound” 2019[24] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing traditional masai module” 2019[25] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing 1, traditional masai module” 2019[26] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing 2, traditional masai module” 2019[27] Keebler, Nathanr “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[28] Keebler, Nathan “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[29] Keebler, Nathan “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[30] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[31] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[32] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[33] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[34] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[35] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[36] Mbugua, Colin “Diagram on Brief analysis” 2018[37] Mbugua, Colin “Force Diagram, hanging chain act” 2018[38] Mbugua, Colin “Force Diagram, hanging chain act” 2018[39] Mbugua, Colin “Force Diagram, hanging chain act” 2018[40] Mbugua,Colin”Photograph of arch tile construction .”2018. JPEG file[41] Mbugua,Colin”Photograph of arch tile construction .”2018. JPEG file[42] Mbugua,Colin”Photograph of arch tile construction .”2018. JPEG file[43] Mbugua, Colin “Force Diagram, hanging chain act” 2018[44] Mbugua, Colin “Force Diagram, hanging chain act” 2018[45] Mbugua, Colin “Natural ventilation diagram with respective bell curve 1” 2019[46] Mbugua, Colin “Natural ventilation diagram with respective bell curve 2” 2019[47] Mbugua, Colin “Module proposal diagram” 2019[48] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing 1:100, module anatomy” 2019[49] Mbugua, Colin “1:10 detail drawing, roof composition” 2019[50] Mbugua, Colin “diagram on brick allocation” 2019[51] Mbugua, Colin “1:10 detail drawing, iron sheet to re bar structure fastening” 2019[52] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, semi-indoor space .”2019. JPEG file[53] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, courtyard composition .”2019. JPEG file[54] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, use stimulation 1 .”2019. JPEG file[55] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, use stimulation 2 .”2019. JPEG file[56] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, use stimulation 3 .”2019. JPEG file[57] Mbugua,Colin”Collage on in between spaces, use stimulation 4 .”2019. JPEG file[58] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  plan Manifesto 1:100 ambitious orientation ” 2019[59] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  plan iteration 1:100 ambitious orientation ” 2019[60] Mbugua, Colin “Drawing,  Piet Mondrian (composition II in red yellow and blue), De Stijl analogy ” 2019[61] Mbugua, Colin “Drawing,  Henri Matisse (The snail) analogy drawing ” 2019[62] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  plan iteration 1:100 North oriented  ” 2019[63] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  plan iteration 1:100 North oriented  ” 2019[64] Mbugua, Colin “Plan diagram, shadow analysis + water channel unity  ” 2019[65] Mbugua, Colin “Plan diagram, program distribution  ” 2019[66] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  proposed settlement  1:50  ” 2019[67] Mbugua, Colin “Plan drawing,  20+ year projection of proposed settlement  1:100  ” 2019[68] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing, proposed settlement 1:100  ” 2019[69] Mbugua, Colin “Water distribution Diagram ” 2019[70] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing, proposed settlement 1:100  ” 2019[71] Mbugua, Colin “1:10 window detailing with plan view 1:50  ” 2019[72] Mbugua, Colin “Section drawing, site cross section 1:100  ” 2019[73] Mbugua,Colin”Collage of day entry to proposed settlement  .”2019. JPEG file[74] Mbugua,Colin”Collage of night entry to proposed settlement  .”2019. JPEG fileList of figures102Alison Kwok, Walter Grondzik, 2007, ‘The Green Studio Handbook, Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design’Michael J. Richard, 2013, ‘ASSESSING THE PERFOR-MANCE OF BAMBOO STRUCTURAL COM- PONENTS’ Jules J.A. Janssen, 2000, ‘Designing and Building with Bamboo’ Atamturktur H. (2006) Structural assessment of Guastavino domes [Master Thesis] The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Architectural EngineeringBenfratello et al. (2012) Tradition and modernity of Catalan vaults: Historical and structural analysis Palermo: Università degli Palermo Block P. (2009) Thrust Network Analysis - Exploring Three-dimensional Equilibrium [Journal Paper] Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architec-tureBlock P., Lachauer L. (2013) Three-dimensional funicular analysis of masonry vaults Zürich: ETH, Institute of Technology in ArchitectureDavis L., Block P. (2012) Earthen masonry vaulting Ethiopia: Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City DevelopmentDirk E. Hebel, Melakeeslam Moges, Zara Gray, 2015, ‘the Sustainable Urban Dwelling Unit Manual’López D., Rodríguez M. (2012) Structural Analysis of Tile Vaulting: Method and Variables Barcelona: Univer- sitat Politècnica de Catalunya Guastavino R. (1883) Essay on the theory and history of cohesive construction applied especially to the tim- brel vault Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Soci-ety of artsLôpez-Almansa et al. (2010) Experiments on reinforced brick masonry vaulted light roofs Michigan: ACI Structural Journal May/June 2010Peace Corps, 1981, ‘Handbook for Building Homes of Earth’ Roland Stulz, Kiran Mukerji , 1981, ‘Appropriate building materials’ Ruiz et al. (2010) Interaction between Bond and Deviation Forces in Spalling Failures of Arch-Shaped Mem- bers without Transverse Reinforcement Michigan: ACI Structural Journal May/June 201Prof. Federico M. Butera, 2014, ‘Handbook Sustainable Building Design for Tropical Climates’Rippman. M, Block P. (2011) Digital Stereotomy:Voussoir geometry for freeform masonry-like vaults in- formed by structural and fabrication constraints Zürich: ETH Ramage M. Ochsendorf J., Rich P, Bellamy J., Block P. (2010) Design and Construction of the Mapungubwe National Park Interpretive Centre, South Africa Lusaka: African Technology Development Forum Journal Luna M., Bernal V. (2003) The timbrel vault (Extremaduran vault) Madrid: Proceedings of the First Interna- tional Congress on Con-struction History Saliklis E., Kurtz S.,Furnbach S. (2003) Finite element modeling of Guastavino tiled arches Pennsylvania: La- fayette College, Deptartment of Civil and Environmental. Engi-neering Williams, Howard. Francis Fukuyama and the End of History. University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 2016. Bibliography103

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