UBC Graduate Research

Iona Jetty : Ten Shades of the Same Scene Loo, Ee Jay 2020-05

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Iona JettyTen Shades of  the Same ScenebyEe Jay LooB. A. in Architectural Design + Art HistoryUniversity of  Toronto, 2016Committee:John Bass (Chair)Leslie Van Duzer (Internal)Holly Schmidt (External)The University of  British ColumbiaMay 2020© Ee Jay LooSubmitted in partial fulfillment of  the requirements for the degree ofMaster of  Architecturein The Faculty of  Graduate Studies,School of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture Program.We accept this report as conforming to the required standardJohn BassBlair Satterfieldii iii In his essay, “The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of  the Same Scene”, author D. W. Meinig offers ten different frameworks for defining landscape as: nature, habitat, artifact, system, problem, wealth, ideology, history, place, and aesthetic. Each framework focuses on different aspects of  a landscape.  Each of  the ten frameworks, or perspectives, is assigned to a different actor: ecologist, conservationist, engineer, geomorphologist, environmental activist, developer, politician, Musqueam elder, writer, and artist. Because each actor has a different viewpoint on the landscape, the designer needs to radically shift his assumptions and approach with each new collaboration.  This thesis is about ten actors with ten unique perspectives, one designer and one site, and ten unique proposals.ABSTRACTD. W. Meinig’s Essay Fig. 01 - Author, 2020.iv v05 Landscape as  Problem    74  ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST06 Landscape as Wealth    80  DEVELOPER07 Landscape as Ideology    90  POLITICIAN08 Landscape as History    96  MUSQUEAM ELDER09 Landscape as Place     108  WRITER10 Landscape as Aesthetic    114  ARTIST Epilogue      142 Bibliography      143CONTENTS Abstract      iii Contents      iv Acknowledgments     vii Prologue      02 Site Overview     08 Agenda      1201 Landscape as Nature    14  ECOLOGIST02 Landscape as Habitat    34  CONSERVATIONIST03 Landscape as Artifact    46  ENERGY ENGINEER04  Landscape as System    60  GEOMORPHOLOGISTvi vii I would like to express my appreciation to my family. This project would not have been possible had I not been able to come to Canada and have the education I have had until now. To my advisor and project Chair, John Bass, I would like to express my sincere gratitude for your encouragement, guidance, insight, and patience, to push this project to its full scale. I also owe a great deal to my committee members, Leslie Van Duzer and Holly Schmidt, for their insightful comments and assistance throughout the process of  this project. I would like to thank Michael Church for providing insightful knowledge, feedback, and useful literatures to deepen my understanding in the field of  geomorphology. Furthermore, I would like to extend my gratitude to my professional mentors, Paul Fast and Shane Oleksiuk, for taking the time to listen and provide design feedbacks to me. My final year experience in M. Arch program and this project would not been the same if  it had not been for the encouragement, inspiration, and nourishment from my dear friends: Retaw Liu, Zoli Chan, Yi Jui Lee, and many others. Finally, I would like to thank Brandon and José for taking the time to join me for a walk at Iona Jetty in the summer of  2019. I appreciate both of  your tolerance for my slow walk due to my leg cramp from the Garibaldi hiking. This painful 4 km walk experience had sparked my curiosity to learn about my site for this project, Iona Jetty.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSLooking Towards the Iona Jetty (Winter)Fig. 03 - Author, January 17, 2020.Looking Towards the Iona Jetty (Summer)Fig. 02 - Anton Bielousov, March 11, 2013.01 02 In the context of  this project, the term ‘landscape’ is not defined by greenery or populated with trees; instead is defined as the condition of  a site. One cannot help that society has this archetypal paradigm, where they parallel the term ‘landscape’ with growing of  trees. Back in history, “the term ‘landscape’ referred primarily to the workaday world, to an estate … From the sixteenth century on, particularly in the Netherlands and in England, landscape acquired more … of  an aesthetic meaning.”2 In other words, landscape became a genre of  art. Towards the 21st century, the word ‘landscape’ is added to the other concepts in order to recognize a specialized perspective of  the site. For example, in Yi-Fu Tuan’s essay, “Thought and Landscape: The Eye and the Mind’s Eye”, the author suggests that both objective and subjective views are essential to understand a landscape.3 He defines objective view as seeing landscape as estate, a labor unit, or a natural system necessary to human living and to organic life in general. In contrast, he defines subjective view as aesthetic, moral, and personal, in which allow people to perform, or as scenery for people to contemplate. Tuan further elaborates landscape with other aspects, such as, children and landscape, landscape and culture, science and landscape, art and landscape, and architecture and landscape.PROLOGUE2 J. B. Jackson, “The Meaning of  ‘Landscape’,” Saetryk af  Kulturgeografi no. 88 (1964): 47-50.3 Yi-Fu Tuan, “Thought and Landscape: The Eye and the Mind’s Eye,” in The Interpretation of  Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 90.“[Describing a “landscape” is considered difficult] as soon as we attempt to communicate beyond very narrow professional circles … even though we gather together and look in the same direction at the same instant, we will not – we cannot – see the same landscape. We may certainly agree that we will see many of  the same elements – houses, roads, trees, hills … but such facts take on meaning only through association … Thus … any landscape is composed not only of  what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads.”11 D. W. Meinig, “The Beholding Eye: Ten Version of  the Same Scene,” in The Interpretation of  Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 46.- D. W. Meinig03 04 If  one uses the term ‘landscape’ in its own entity, the concept itself  becomes excessive, as Yi-Fu Tuan elaborates: Limited to the functional or utilitarian perspective, the concept of  ‘landscape’ is redundant since the more precise terms of  estate and region already  exist. Limited to aesthetic perspective, ‘landscape’ is again redundant since the word ‘scenery’ offers greater clarity.4 One might question the essentiality of  differentiating one concept from another concept in landscape. For example, looking at the same landscape from nature viewpoint and aesthetic viewpoint, some people might claim both concepts of  ‘landscape as nature’ and ‘landscape as aesthetic’ are equivalent due to similar connotations and historical factors from the Romantic period. This assertion, by integrating nature viewpoint and aesthetic viewpoint, could result in a flawed perspective when observing the same landscape. The integrated viewpoint weakens the effect of  the appearance on conceptual and perceptual issues. The appearance, particularly the aesthetic aspect of  a landscape, is linked to a physical entity of  the landscape, for which humans are partially responsible. In other words, human perceptions are applied to this entity, giving appearance to the landscape. Sparshott insists “on the specificity … as a concept, which has to be separated from interdependence with other social and cultural factors.”5  By clarifying one concept from other concepts in landscape, one could find the common ground in the dialectic. Looking at a landscape, everyone has a different perspective and interpretation due to their knowledge and background. Meinig suggests that “any landscape is composed not only of  what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads.”7 Learning to empathize with another person’s perspective is an essential skill for a designer, especially in the early phase of  a conceptual design process. The process involves an understanding of  people’s objectives – and how to fulfill those objectives with different design strategies.“Identification of  ... different [perspectives] for the variations in interpretations of  what we see is a step toward more effective communication.”64 Tuan, 90.5 F. E. Sparshott, The Structure of  Aesthetics (Toronto: University of  Toronto Press, 1963), 59-90.6 Meinig, 47.7 Meinig, 34.ACTOR 01EcologistACTOR 10ArtistRDACTOR 02ConservationistACTOR 03Energy EngineerACTOR 04GeomorphologistACTOR 05Environmental ActivistACTOR 06DeveloperACTOR 07PoliticianACTOR 08Musqueam ElderACTOR 09WriterRDRD RDRDRDRDRDRDRDDESIGNERMaking ProposalsR = RESEARCHD = DESIGN05 06 The diagram on the left shows a methodology of  how a designer could gain empathy when making a proposal for a site through research and design. The ten actors are based on Meinig’s essay, “The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of  the Same Scene.” The research requires the analysis; the design requires the synthesis. Also, the diagram uses the metaphor of  wearing the hats of  different actors, and switching between them, to see different biases temporarily.Analysis questions:What is the essence of  each actor and how different are they from each other?How do the actors react when they see a site?How do their biases reinforce their way of  thinking? Synthesis question:What tools or media would they use to make a proposal for a site? This thesis presumes that using this methodology of  looking at the same landscape from ten different perspectives could increase the designer’s ability to empathize. The designer is not a mere mediator between the ten different individuals, a conduit to penetrate through the ten individuals’ dimension of  knowledge. Empathy teaches the designer to use the optimum strategies at a site to satisfy the ten different individual’s goals. Furthermore, the designer speculates about the site from the actors’ perspectives, leading the development of  the site to various possibilities. Design speculation becomes an act of  synthesis, and ultimately, the designer becomes a more persuasive narrator.Process of  Making Design ProposalsFig. 04 - Author, 2020.07 08The jetty itself  is surrounded by interesting properties. Looking to the north, one sees a Musqueam site. Also, the north arm jetty is populated with flora and fauna. There are about 227 bird species in the area, mirroring the plane traffic from the YVR international airport to the southeast. The “7.5 km outfall (including a 4 km jetty and 3.5 km marine section)”1 itself  is a sewage pipe from Iona Wastewater Treatment Plant, but it provides much more: it offers a sense of  isolation in a vast scene of  open sky and water.SITE OVERVIEW1 Metro Vancouver Case Study – Vancouver Sewage Area Infrastructure Vulnerability to Climate Change. Accessed January 22, 2020. https://pievc.ca/sites/default/files/metro_vancouver_sewarage_summary.pdfYVR AirportFig. 07 - Vancouver International Airport, 2018.North Arm JettyFig. 06 - Colin Jones, 2018.Iona WWTPFig. 05 - Metro Vancouver, 2016.Musqueam Cultural PavilionFig. 08 - Google Map Imagery, 2020.Iona JettyIona JettyIona JettyIona JettyGRAVELENGINEERED SOILREINFORCED SOILSTONE RIP-RAP1 2 34500 7512COAL TAR ENAMELREBARREBAR CHAIRSEWAGEPIPESTONE RIP-RAPSEWAGEPIPEIONA JETTYNORTH ARM JETTYYVR AIRPORTMUSQUEAMIONA WWTPN09 10Fig. 09 - Author, 2020.1.2 METER SEA LEVEL RISE BY 2100Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig ForestSEATING MODULE/ LESS VEGETATIONAPERTUREMODERATEVEGETATIONAPERTUREGROUND TILE MODULEMOREVEGETATIONAPERTUREEXTRA MORE APERTUREFOR VEGETATIONAND FOOD CAPTURING- Potential Species: Rockweed- During tidal changes, aquatic invertebrates  trap in the basin, potential food source  for shorebirdsSedges, RushesShrub TussocksPRIMARY WWTPExistingSECONDARY WWTPProposed byMetroVancouverTERTIARY WWTPDesign ProposalMUSQUEAM CULTURAL PAVILIONExistingGATHERING SPACEPotential Space to OrganizeTribal Canoe Journey EventIONA JETTY SUBMERGED11 12AGENDALandscape as NatureECOLOGISTThe goal is to respond the sea level rise at Iona Jetty by collecting the dirt from construction site from all around Vancouver. Then, soil is added to overcome the tidal wave, so the flora at Iona Jetty can carry out its ecological succession.Landscape as Habitat CONSERVATIONISTThe goal is to make a paradise for migratory birds (Shorebirds) to rest and bird enthusiasts to watch, by creating design intervention that does not disturb shorebirds’ privacy.Landscape as ArtifactENERGY ENGINEERThe goal is to provide comfort to the visitors when walking along Iona Jetty, by capturing energy from Iona Jetty’s current function, introducing piping and water turbine to generate heat on the site.Landscape as System GEOMORPHOLOGISTThe goal is to respond soil erosion between the North Arm Jetty and Iona Jetty from sand swell phenomena, by creating an intervention to nourish the central bay.Landscape as Problem ENVIRONMENTAL  ACTIVISTThe goal is to educate the Vancouverites on the origin of  the pollutants came from, by organizing the pavilions into categories.Landscape as WealthDEVELOPERThe goal is to gain monetary from the travelers, by creating facilities to accommodate their comfort.Landscape as IdeologyPOLITICIANThe goal is to demonstrate the manifestations of  Vancouverite interpretations of  open-minded, progress, and modernity, by placing symbolism of  LGBTQ, large scale where passengers from plane can view.Landscape as HistoryMUSQUEAM ELDERThe goal is to recover Northwest Coast Indigenous people’s canoe culture, who use the river and ocean as a means of  transportation, by introducing Tertiary WWTP and re-creating Iona Jetty as a potential gathering space.Landscape as PlaceWRITERThe goal is to provide the site a sense of  solitude, by creating a platform that interacts with the tidal wave.Landscape as AestheticARTISTThe goal is to exaggerate the horizon effect when one’s on top of  jetty’s platform, by framing the journey of  sunset.Ten Actors and Ten ProposalsFig. 10 - Author, 2020.13 14Ecologist’s PerspectiveFig. 11 - Author, 2020.The goal is to respond the sea level rise at Iona Jetty by collecting the dirt from construction site from all around Vancouver. Then, soil is added to overcome the tidal wave, so the flora at Iona Jetty can carry out its ecological succession.01Landscape as NatureECOLOGISTTidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest15 16Current ConditionFig. 12 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest17 18Adding SoilFig. 13 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest19 20CompletedFig. 14 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest21 22< 1st yearFig. 15 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest23 241st - 2nd yearFig. 16 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest25 263rd - 5th yearFig. 17 - Author, 2020.Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest27 286th - 50th yearFig. 18 - Author, 2020.1.2 METER SEA LEVEL RISE BY 2100Tidal PlantsPIONEER STAGEBryophyteHerbaceousINTERMEDIATE STAGEShrubYoung ForestCLIMAX COMMUNITYBig Forest29 3051st - 150th yearFig. 19 - Author, 2020.31 32Before Sea Level RisesFig. 20 - Author, 2020.After Sea Level RisesFig. 21 - Author, 2020.33 34Conservationist’s PerspectiveFig. 22 - Author, 2020.The goal is to make a paradise for migratory birds (shorebirds) to rest and bird enthusiasts to watch, by creating design intervention that does not disturb shorebirds’ privacy.02Landscape as HabitatCONSERVATIONISTARCTIC REGIONSOUTHAMERICABreeding ZoneIona Jetty SiteShorebirds Species LEGENDFACTSMore than 20 million shorebirds migrate through America to Artic each year. These speciestraverse more than 25,000 km in this annual circuit.GREATER YELLOWLEGSLESSER YELLOWLEGSSANDERLING WESTERN SANDPIPERLEAST SANDPIPER DUNLINPacific Flyway Route for Migratory BirdsLONG-BILLED CURLEWWHIMBRELSPOTTED SANDPIPERSPRING MIGRATION ROUTE BEGINS AT LATE FEBUARYFALL MIGRATION ROUTE BEGINS AT LATE JULY35 36Fig. 24 - Images from The Sibley Guide to Birds © David SibleyFig. 23 - Author, 2020.SLEEPINGFEEDINGPROBINGMUD SHRIMPCLAMSHORSE CLAMCRABShorebirds HabitatHUMAN DISTANCE AND SHOREBIRDS50 m to Avoid Disturbance 37 38Fig. 25 - Author, 2020.HUMAN ACTIVITYZONESHOREBIRDSHABITATZONEBUFFERZONECurrent RiprapProposed Symbiotic LeveeBUFFERZONESHOREBIRDSHABITATZONEHUMAN ACTIVITYZONESHOREBIRDSHABITATZONEBUFFERZONECurrent RiprapProposed Symbiotic LeveeBUFFERZONESHOREBIRDSHABITATZONE39 40Current RiprapFig. 26 - Author, 2020.Proposed Symbiotic LeveeFig. 27 - Author, 2020.TYPE A:Ground TileTYPE B:Seat / StepTYPE C1:Less VegetationTYPE C2:Moderate VegetationTYPE C3:More VegetationTYPE D:Extra More Vegetation /Food Capture Basin forShorebirdsModule TypesHUMAN ACTIVITYZONESHOREBIRDSHABITATZONEBUFFERZONE41 42Fig. 28 - Author, 2020.Fig. 00 - Author, 2020.SEATING MODULE/ LESS VEGETATIONAPERTUREMODERATEVEGETATIONAPERTUREGROUND TILE MODULEMOREVEGETATIONAPERTUREEXTRA MORE APERTUREFOR VEGETATIONAND FOOD CAPTURING- Potential Species: Rockweed- During tidal changes, aquatic invertebrates  trap in the basin, potential food source  for shorebirdsSedges, RushesShrub Tussocks43 44Fig. 29 - Author, 2020.45 46Energy Engineer’s PerspectiveFig. 30 - Author, 2020.The goal is to provide comfort to the visitors when walking along Iona Jetty, by capturing energy from Iona Jetty’s current function, introducing water turbine and heating equipment to generate heat on site.03Landscape as ArtifactENERGY ENGINEERFRANCIS TURBINEHow does the sewage water moves along the Iona Jetty?47 48Fig. 31 - Author, 2020.WATER FLOW WATERTURBINESYNCHRONOUSGENERATORACPOWERELECTRICHEATINGHydro Electric Power Generation49 50Fig. 32 - Author, 2020.FRANCISPELTONKAPLANCROSS-FLOWLIFT-TYPEDRAG-TYPETURGOFIXED PITCH PROPELLERTypes of  Water Turbines51 52Fig. 33 - Author, 2020.53 54Fig. 34 - Author, 2020.55 56PlanFig. 35 - Author, 2020.SectionFig. 36 - Author, 2020.57 58General Audience’s PerspectiveFig. 37 - Author, 2020.Energy Engineer’s PerspectiveFig. 38 - Author, 2020.59 60Geomorphologist’s PerspectiveFig. 39 - Author, 2020.The goal is to respond soil erosion between the North Arm Jetty and Iona Jetty from sand swell phenomena, by creating an intervention to nourish the central bay.04Landscape as SystemGEOMORPHOLOGIST61 62Analytical Study of  Sand SwellFig. 41 - Author, 2020.Sand Swell PhenomenaFig. 40 - Google Map Imagery, 2020.63 64< 5 YearFig. 42 - Author, 2020.65 66< 10 YearFig. 43 - Author, 2020.67 68< 20 YearFig. 44 - Author, 2020.69 70< 50 YearFig. 45 - Author, 2020.71 72100 Year LaterFig. 46 - Author, 2020.73 74Environmental Activist’s PerspectiveFig. 47 - Author, 2020.The goal is to educate the Vancouverites on the origin of  the pollutants came from, by organizing the pavilions into categories.05Landscape as ProblemENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST75 76HIGHEST USAGELOWESTUSAGEIONA JETTYPharmaceuticalFertilizerHousehold UseMetal ProcessingChemical ProcessingHeavy Metal ContaminationManureElectronic SetArrangement of  Pavilion based on High Percentage Use of  ChemicalFig. 48 - Author, 2020.Isometric ViewFig. 49 - Author, 2020.77 78Fig. 50 - Author, 2020.79 80Developer’s PerspectiveFig. 51 - Author, 2020.The goal is to gain monetary from the travelers, by creating facilities to accommodate their comfort.06Landscape as WealthDEVELOPER  2016 Aeronautical Noise Management Report 6 | P a g e    FIGURE 1: Sample N70 Maps (2015 & 2037 Projection) - Runway 08 Operations  FIGURE 2: Sample Flight Path Maps (2015 & 2037 Projection) - Runway 08 Departures  81 82Number of  Events above 70 dB(A)Fig. 52 - YVR Noise Management Report, 2016.The population of the Vancouver, Coast & Mountains continues to grow and is characterised by a younger demographic than the province as a whole, with 57% aged 44 years or younger compared to the province average of 54%.On average, BC travellers in the Vancouver, Coast & Mountains region stayed 2.4 nights and spent $107 per night during their trip. Other Canadian travellers stayed 5.1 nights and spent $146 per night. US travel parties stayed 3.2 nights and spent $171 per night during their trip, and other international travellers stayed 14.0 nights and spent $81 per night.More than half of all traveller nights in the Vancouver, Coast & Mountains were spent staying with friends and family for all markets of origin excluding US travellers. US residents spent half of their nights in hotels. Staying in campgrounds or RV parks was not as common in this region as in other tourism regions.Demographic on TravelersFig. 53 - Regional Tourism Profile, 2017.83 84ROOMROOMRETAILBREWERIESBREWERIESBREWERIESFig. 54 - Author, 2020.85 86Walking along the BridgeFig. 55 - Author, 2020.87 88Public Space along the JettyFig. 56 - Author, 2020.89 90Politician’s PerspectiveFig. 57 - Author, 2020.The goal is to demonstrate the manifestations of  Vancouverite interpretations of  open-minded, progress, and modernity, by placing symbolism of  LGBTQ, large scale where passengers from plane can view.07Landscape as IdeologyPOLITICIANLIFE HEALING SUNSHINE NATURE SPIRITSERENITY91 92Fig. 58 - Author, 2020.93 94Fig. 59 - Author, 2020.95 96Musqueam Elder’s PerspectiveFig. 60 - Author, 2020.The goal is to recover the water pollution at Strait of  Georgia. Back then, Musqueam’s food source came from the ocean. By introducing Tertiary WWTP, the effluent water becomes reclaimed water.08Landscape as HistoryMUSQUEAN ELDERSALMONSHELLFISHDIGGING & COOKINGCLAMSSHOREBIRDSCATCHING FISHROCKWEED97 98Water as Source of  FoodFig. 61 - Author, 2020.1. BAR SCREENROOMSolid debris isremoved fromthe wastewater.WATER TURBINE2. AERATED TANKSPumped air keepsorganic materialssuspended while forcinggrit, sand, and gravel tosettle and be removed.3. SENDIMENTATIONTANKSFats and oil float to surface.Heavy organic matter settlesto the bottom.PRIMARY TREATMENTIONA JETTYRAW SEWAGEWATER600,000 residentsin Vancouver;UBC EndowmentLands & parts ofBurnaby andRichmond. RESIDENTS’ RAWSEWAGE WATEREFFLUENT PUMPPRIMARYTREATMENTWATERTERTIARYTREATMENTWATERSECONDARYTREATMENTWATER99 100Fig. 62 - Author, 2020.The plant was opened in 1963. The Iona Island wastewater treatment plant treated about 207 billion litres of wastewater in 2012. Once treated, wastewater is discharged into the Strait of Georgia. Primary wastewater treatment involves the removal of solids through screening and sedimentation.5. SOLID CONTACT TANKSSmaller particles join toform larger particles(flocculation process), whichthen settle more easily. 6. SECONDARY CLARIFIERSolid material (sludge) settlesand is removed to the digester.4. TRICKLING FILTERSAs wastewater tricklesthrough this tank, bacteria– which consume organicmaterial – cling to theplastic filter material.*SECONDARY TREATMENTProposed by MetroVancouverin 2030.PRIMARY TREATMENT EFFLUENT PUMPIONA JETTYRESIDENTS’ RAWSEWAGE WATER2. AERATED  TANKS1. BAR SCREEN ROOM3. SENDIMENTATION  TANKSPRIMARYTREATMENTWATERTERTIARYTREATMENTWATERSECONDARYTREATMENTWATER101 102Fig. 63 - Author, 2020.Secondary wastewater treatment involves reducing the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of primary-treated effluent via the bacterial degradation of the organic matter.*SECONDARY TREATMENTProposed by MetroVancouverin 2030.PRIMARY TREATMENT7. ZENON MEMBRANESpaghetti like membranedraws water from sludge.8. UV DISINFECTIONDisinfects the purifiedreclaimed water.RECLAIMED WATER2. AERATED  TANKSTERTIARY  TREATMENT1. BAR SCREEN ROOM3. SENDIMENTATION  TANKS4. SECONDARYCLARIFIER5. SOLID CONTACTTANKS6. TRICKLINGFILTERIONA JETTYRESIDENTS’ RAWSEWAGE WATEREFFLUENT PUMPPRIMARYTREATMENTWATERTERTIARYTREATMENTWATERSECONDARYTREATMENTWATER103 104Fig. 64 - Author, 2020.Tertiary wastewater treatment is designed to remove specific components such as nutrients (N and P), trace metals and organic compounds.PRIMARY WWTPExistingSECONDARY WWTPProposed byMetroVancouverTERTIARY WWTPDesign ProposalMUSQUEAM CULTURAL PAVILIONExistingGATHERING SPACEPotential Space to OrganizeTribal Canoe Journey EventIONA JETTY SUBMERGED105 106Fig. 65 - Author, 2020.107 108Writer’s PerspectiveFig. 66 - Author, 2020.The goal is to provide the site a sense of  solitude. By creating a platform that interacts with the tidal wave, the space becomes ephemeral.09Landscape as PlaceWRITERRelationship betweenTidal Height and the Proposed Platform00 0001 0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 0007 0008 0009 0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015 0016 0017 0018 0019 0020 0021 0022 0023 000m2m4mSUNRISESUNSETMOONRISEMOONSETHIGHEST  TIDELOWEST  TIDELOW TIDEHIGH  TIDE109 110Fig. 67 - Author, 2020.111 112Place for PeopleFig. 68 - Author, 2020.Place for BirdsFig. 69 - Author, 2020.113 114Artist’s PerspectiveFig. 70 - Author, 2020.The goal is to exaggerate the horizon effect when one’s on top of  jetty’s platform, by framing the journey of  sunset.10Landscape as AestheticARTIST115 116Fig. 71 - Author, 2020.Most people walk to Iona Jetty to see the sunset in the evening. Iona Jetty becomes a pilgrimage route, a space to salute the sun to set. This shows that without the sun, the horizon becomes a piece of black canvas.Since the sun is the main protagonist in this horizon canvas, the artist wants the people to pay homage to the sun continuously from the highest (afternoon) part of the sky to the lowest (evening).  117 118Fig. 72 - Author, 2020.With two tall walls, the contrast between the sky and the shadow is great.119 120Fig. 73 - Author, 2020.121 122Fig. 74 - Author, 2020.123 124Fig. 75 - Author, 2020.125 126Fig. 76 - Author, 2020.127 128Fig. 77 - Author, 2020.129 130Fig. 78 - Author, 2020.131 132Fig. 79 - Author, 2020.133 134Fig. 80 - Author, 2020.135 136Fig. 81 - Author, 2020.137 138Fig. 82 - Author, 2020.139 140Fig. 83 - Author, 2020.Even though the sun just left, people contemplate the sun’s leaving traces of the afterglow.141 142EPILOGUE During the review discussion, the reviewers were interested in the idea of  hybridity of  concepts or actors’ biases. One of  the reviewers suggested that Superkilen Park is an innovative park designed as a kind of  world exposition for the local inhabitants. It covers over 60 nationalities who have been able to contribute their own ideas and artifacts to the park. That is one way of  looking at it. However, this project is interested in clarifying the essence of  the ten actors when seeing a site. Understanding the individual actors’ essence is a step toward empathy. Hybridity of  a design from ten actors’ perspectives could be the next step, but that is a whole different project. Walter Hood is good example of  a designer who achieves innovation through rigorous research and a desire to understand everything about a site and the people who will inhabit it. A generalist, Hood is interested in everything.1  He even suggests that, “In each layer, in each discipline, [he] started to see the limitations of  that field. So [he] needed to find more.”2 Another point raised in the review was that the designer cannot please all the actors in the real world. Therefore, the art of  negotiation is an essential skill to cultivate for a career in design.1 Sam Lubell, “Walter Hood Digs Deep,” last modified November 18, 2019, https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/walter-hood-digs-deep.2 Ibid.Collage of  the Ten PerspectivesFig. 84 - Author, 2020.143 144BIBLIOGRAPHYPrologueJackson, J. B. “The Meaning of  ‘Landscape’.” Saetryk af  Kulturgeografi no. 88 (1964): 47-50.Meinig, D. W. “The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of  the Same Scene.” In The Interpretation of  Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.Sparshott, F. E. The Structure of  Aesthetics. Toronto: University of  Toronto Press, 1963.Tuan, Yi-Fu. “Thought and Landscape: The Eye and the Mind’s Eye.” In The Interpretation of  Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.Site OverviewMetro Vancouver Case Study – Vancouver Sewage Area Infrastructure Vulnerability to Climate Change. Accessed January 22, 2020. https://pievc.ca/sites/default/files/metro_vancouver_sewarage_summary.pdfLandscape as NatureGissen, David. Subnature: Architecture’s Other Environments. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009.Page, N. Iona Beach Regional Park: Strategies for Managing Vegetation Succession. Unpublished report prepared Metro Vancouver Parks by Raincoast Applied Ecology, Vancouver, BC, 2011.Tredici, Peter Del. “The Flora of  the Future.” Projective Ecologies. New York: Actar Publishers, 2014.Landscape as HabitatColwell, Mark A. Shorebird Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Berkeley: University of  California Press, 2010.Elphick, Jonathan. The Atlas of  Bird Migration: Tracing the Great Journeys of  the World’s Birds. London: Natural History Museum, 2007.Thomas, Kate, Rikk G. Kvitek, and Carrie Bretz. “Effects of  Human Activity on the Foraging Behavior of  Sanderlings Calidris Alba.” Biological Conservation 109, no. 1 (2003): 67-71.Ehrlich, Paul R., David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye. “Shorebirds Migration.” Last modified 1988. https://web.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Shorebird_Migration.html“Sanderling.” Audubon. Accessed January 15, 2020. https://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/sanderling.“Sanderling.” The Cornell Lab. Accessed January 15, 2020. https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Sanderling.Landscape as ArtifactRahm, Philippe. “Jade Meteo Park.” In Thermodynamic Interactions: An Exploration into Material, Physiological and Territorial Atmospheres. New York: ActarD Inc., 2017.Yang, Wei, Yimin Hou, Huiting Jia, Benqing Liu, and Roufu Xiao. “Lift-Type and Drag-Type Hydro Turbine with Vertical Axis for Power Generation from Water Pipelines.” Energy 188 (2019): 116070.Landscape as SystemLuternauer, John. L. “Genesis of  Morphologic Features on the Western Delta Front of  the Fraser River, British Columbia – Status of  Knowledge.” In Coastline of  Canada: Littoral Processes and Shore Morphology. Ottawa: Geological Survey of  Canada, 1980.Luternauer, John. L., and J. W. Murray. “Sedimentation on the Western Delta-front of  the Fraser River, British Columbia.” Canadian Journal of  Earth Sciences 10, no. 11 (1973): 1642-1663.145 146Tabata, S., L. F. Giovando, and D. Devlin. Current Velocities in the Vicinity of  the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District’s Iona Island Outfall – 1968. Nanaimo: Fisheries Research Board of  Canada, no. 263, 1971.Landscape as ProblemMetro Vancouver Liquid Waste Services Environmental Management and Quality Control. The 2018 Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District Environmental Management and Quality Control Annual Report. Burnaby, BC: Metro Vancouver, 2019.Landscape as WealthCheng, Mark Christopher, and Rachel Min. 2016 Aeronautical Noise Management Report. Richmond: Vancouver Airport Authority, 2017. Accessed January 31, 2020. https://www.yvr.ca/en/about-yvr/noise-management/publications.“Vancouver, Coast & Mountains.” Regional Tourism Profile. Vancouver: Destination BC Crop., 2017. Accessed March 30, 2020. https://www.destinationbc.ca/content/uploads/2018/05/Vancouver-Coast-Mountains-Regional-Tourism-Profile_2017.pdf.Landscape as HistoryCarlson, Keith, and Albert Jules McHalsie. A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2001.Gordon, Kathleen. “Sedimentary Tracers of  Sewage Inputs to the Southern Strait of  Georgia.” Master’s thesis, University of  British Columbia, 1997.  McDonald, Les. “Dockside Green Wastewater Treatment Plant: A Review of  Plant Performance and Regulatory Compliance.” Dockside Green WWTP Review, 2014: 0-41. Accessed April 7, 2020. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c4ae/3e12494c351ac40038b9cfe884b15fc837a6.pdf.Native Studies Programme School District No. 70 (Alberni). Traditional Nuu-Chah-Nulth Food Harvesting and Preparation. Accessed February 9, 2020. http://www.guidethewildside.com/resource/Foods-Curr-1.pdfSnively, G., & Williams, Wanosts’a7 L. Knowing Home: Braiding Indigenous Science with Western Science. Victoria, BC: University of  Victoria, 2016.What happens when I flush? Accessed November 9, 2019. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/liquid-waste/LiquidWastePublications/WhenIFlushBrochure.pdfLandscape as Place“North Arm.” Tides4fishing. Accessed March 7, 2020. https://tides4fishing.com/ca/british-columbia/north-arm.Landscape as AestheticÓlafur Elíasson. Your Black Horizon Art Pavilion. Köln: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, 2007.EpilogueLubell, Sam. “Walter Hood Digs Deep.” Last modified November 18, 2019. https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/walter-hood-digs-deep

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