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For the Forest, See the Trees : How Can Architecture Engage With the Issues Between the Logging Industry… Sakowicz, Ada 2020-05

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FOR THE FOREST, SEE THE TREESHow Can Architecture Engage With the Issues Between the Logging Industry and the Landscape?Ada SakowiczB.A. in English & Visual Arts, Simon Fraser University, BC 2017Submitted in partial fulfillment of  the requirements for the degree of  Master of  Architecture in the Faculty of  Graduate Studies, School of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Program.CommitteeLeslie Van Duzer (chair)Fionn Byrne (internal)Beryl Allen (external)Verena Griess (external)Leslie Van Duzer_______________________________________Blair Satterfield _______________________________________© 2020 Ada SakowiczII Canada sits on a perilous edge amidst outcries of  potential exponential environmental degradation. Both guilty of  indulgent extraction and fortunate to still be rich in natural assets, it sits in between a pair of  two divergent roads. Whether in a rural or logging town or within the urbanized Greater Vancouver area, most British Columbians live in the vicinity of  forests, their houses are made primarily out of  wood, and many are employed in some aspect of  the forestry industry. Creative minds have long drawn inspiration from the Canadian wilderness and people of  all ages recreate on lake shores or mountain slopes. There has also been a resurgence of  wood innovation within the architecture industry and a newly generated excitement for the sustainable material. This research into logging in British Columbia through a design lens offers a discursive opportunity to investigate how Canadian culture is bound to the forest and how the logging industry is elusively woven within that.The study of  logging in British Columbia allows for a fascinating venture into a rich mixture of  politics, ethics, ecology, artistry and identity. What it uncovers is that a persisting settler mindset has drastically transformed and influenced Canadian political, logistical, urban, and physical landscapes. Although not exclusively problematic, it has proven to be an overwhelming force that is largely misaligned from Canadian values. Recent news suggests that since 1993, more than thirty percent of  remaining old growth forest on Vancouver Island were destroyed” (Lavoie, 2019). Tweaks to the system have been made over time to alleviate issues, but with old growth logging, raw log export, climate issues, and slow regulatory adaptation, an imperfect industry remains. These broad, overarching, tendencies can be derived through the analysis of  not only the history of  logging, but in how forests have been treated and represented in the past several hundred years. These treatments and representations come in the form of  both the architecture and art that was produced over the past several centuries. This project will be both architectural and representational, as it is steeped in the belief  that these practices serve as valuable mediums with which to understand Canadian culture and allow for glimpses into a new future. From this exploration, not only will the development of  logging and its current issues become more readily apparent, but the way in which Canadian identity is entirely entwined with that of  the forest will emerge. Consequently, in an effort for art and architecture to move beyond serving as reactive reflections of  current paradigms,  it’ll attempt to set the stage for how these mediums can produce new theoretical frameworks and design interventions that attempt to connect the industry of  logging with our deeply rooted values in the landscape. ABSTRACTFor the forest, see the trees.Figure 0 Canadian Forest Regions.III IVLogging TypologiesLogged LandscapeCutblocks + Harvest MethodsTree Life CycleStewart Plan + ProgramUnderstanding Stewart’s PlaceSnapshots of  StewartStewart: CurrentStewart: ProposalReforestation TimelineRoute SectionPaws, Hooves & WingsStructure TypesTable of  ContentsCutblock 1Cutblock 2Cutblock 3Cutblock 4ConclusionBibliographyTitle Page     AbstractContentsList of  FiguresAcknowledgmentsDedicationForests + FrameworksWooden Architecture Pt.1Historical Indigenous ArchitectureFrom Axe to CorporationLicenses, Raw Logs + RegulationWooden Architecture Pt.2From Arboretums to Christmas TreesFrom Mapping to Totem PolesEngaging Two WorldsBig Lonely DougCONTENTSGP2GP1FRONT MATTER LOGGINGSITELOGISTICAL + VISUALTHROUGH THE CIRCUITLOGGING + ARCHITECTURETREATMENT OF FORESTSREPRESENTATION OF FORESTSLOOKING TO GP2END MATTER65717377808387939599103105107115119139157177197199IIIIIVXXII171013232931416061V VILIST OF FIGURESFigure 0 At the End of  the Clearcut (2020). [Acrylic on canvas].    Painted by author.Figure 1 Canadian Forest Regions.    Drawn by author. based on maps provided by the   State of  the Forests by Natural Resources Canada. Figure 2 BC Forest Regions.      Drawn by author. Based on Biogeoclimatic Zones   of  British Columbia.Figure 3 Wooden Architecture Timeline.  Drawn by author.Figure 4 Historical Indigenous Architecture.  Drawn by author.  Based on map of  Canada’s First Peoples Before   Contact. Figure 5  Logging History Timeline  Drawn by author.  Based on BC Forest Timeline.Figure 6 Timber cruising camp near Port Renfrew in 1919.   Working in the Woods. (1992). Figure 7 Wooden Architecture Timeline.  Drawn by author Figure 8 Crystal Palace Interior.  ArchDaily.Figure 9 Queen Victoria and Husband Prince Albert of  Germany in 1840. (1841). [Lithograph].    Image courtesy of  The Illustrated London News.Figure 10-12 Within the Forest & Without the Forest. (2018). [Acrylic on canvas].  Painted by author.Figure 13 Discussions on logging in Haida Gwaii. (2018). Photo by author.Figure 14 Painting progress. (2018).  Photo by author. Figure 15 Thomas Davies. (1758). A View of  the Plundering and Burning of  the City of  Grimross. [Watercolour on laid paper].  National Gallery of  Canada.Figure 16 Cornelius D. Krieghoff. (1867). Spill My Milk. [Oil on canvas]. Collections Canada.  Figure 17 Henry F. Ainslie. (1842). Barracks at London, Canada West. [Watercolour and pencil on beige wove paper].   Collections Canada.Figure 18 Lucius R. O’Brien. (1893). Landscape. [Watercolour on wove paper].  National Gallery of  Canada.Figure 19 (1925). Anonymous. [Poster].  Canadian Pacific: Creating a Brand, Building a Nation.Figure 20 (1920). Anonymous. [Poster].  Canadian Pacific: Creating a Brand, Building a Nation.Figure 21 James E.H. MacDonald. (1921). The Solemn Land. [Oil on canvas].  National Gallery of  Canada.Figure 22 Emily Carr. (1928). Kitwancool. [Oil on canvas].  Vancouver Art Gallery.Figure 23 Emily Carr.  (1912). Yan Q.C.I. . [Oil on canvas].  Vancouver Art Gallery. Figure 24 Big Lonely Doug with a person for scale. Drawn by author.Figures 25-27 Google Satellite Images gathered December 12  2019. Diagrammed by author.Figures 28-43 Google Satellite images and logging typology diagrams.  Drawn by author.Figures 44-49 Google Satellite images and logging typology diagrams.  Drawn by author. Figures 50-53 Logging typology illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 54 Logging in Haida Gwaii. Photo Courtesy of  Karianne Howarth.Figures 55-60 Cutblock typologies and harvest methods. Drawn by author.Figures 61-62 Forest growth cycles.  Drawn by author. Figure 63 Tree life cycle.  Drawn by author. Figure 64 - 66 Google Satellite Images gathered December 12 2019. Drawn by author.Figure 67 Understanding Stewart. Drawn by author. Figures 68 Stewart site plan. Drawn by author.Figure 69 Stewart boom and bust of  industry illustration. Drawn by author.Figures 70-72 Various helicopter photos of  Stewart. Taken by author. Figures 73-75 Various photos of  Stewart. Taken by author.     Figure 76 Stewart section.  Drawn by author.  Figure 77 Stewart forest composition section. Drawn by author. Figure 78  Stewart site plan Drawn by author.Figures 79-82 Busts of  raw export and lack of  innovation.  Drawn by author. Based on information provided by Statistics Canada.  Figures 83 Stewart site plan.  Drawn by author. Figure 84 Eco-circuit & icons. Drawn by author.Figure 85 Reforestation timeline pt.1. Drawn by author. Figure 86 Reforestation timeline pt.2. Drawn by author.Figure 87 Circuit route. Drawn by author.Figure 88 Paws, hooves and wings maps.  Drawn by authorFigure 89 Structure type diagrams Drawn by author.Figure 90 Stewart vision illustrated. Drawn by author.Figure 91 Various snapshots of  paintings. (2020). [Acrylic on canvas]. Painted by author.Figure 92 Table of  contents forest. Figure 93 Up the logging road.  Drawn by author.Figure 94  At the end of  the clearcut. (2020). [Acrylic on canvas].  Painted by author.Figure 95 Cutblock 1 illustrations and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 96 Tri Tower drawings and wood calculations. Drawn by author.Figures 97-98  Tri tower aperture renders  / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 99 Into the old growth illustration & map. Drawn by author.Figure 100 Mini junction drawings and calculations.  Drawn by author.Figure 101 Mini junction aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 102 Approach to old growth tower illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 103 OG Tower drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 103 OG Tower aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 104 In Between. (2020). [Acrylic on canvas].  Painted by author.Figure 105 Cutblock 2 illustrations and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 106 Through cutblock 2 illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 107 Mirrored Tower drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 108 Mirrored tower aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 109 Approach to wide tower illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 110 Wide tower drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 111 Wide tower aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 112 Towards the firewatch tower illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 113 All clear. (2020). [Acrylic on canvas]. VII VIII Painted by author.Figure 114 Cutblock 3 illustrations and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 115 Firewatch tower drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 116 Firewatch tower aperture renders / illustrations.  Drawn by author.Figure 117 Towards the long bird blind illustration and map. Drawn by authorFigure 118 Long bird blind drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 119 Long bird blind aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 120 Approaching tree hugger junction illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 121 Tree hugger junction drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 122 Tree hugger junction aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 123 At the cutblock edge. (2020). [Acrylic on canvas].  Painted by author.Figure 124 Cutblock 4 illustrations and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 125 Approaching lodges and campsites illustration and map. Drawn by author.Figure 126 Lodges and campsites drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 127 Lodge aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 128 Through cutblocks 4 illustrations and map. Drawn by author.Figure 129 Bird / bear blind drawings and calculations. Drawn by author.Figure 130 Bird / bear blind aperture renders / illustrations. Drawn by author.Figure 131 Bear on the road illustration. Drawn by author.Figure 132 Various snapshots of  apertures. Drawn by author.Figure 133 Forested backdrop illustration. Drawn by author.IX XACKNOWLEDGMENTS Spring of  2020 will be a semester to be remembered for so many reasons. I must express my sincerest gratitude to the tireless and invaluable support of  my thesis chair, Leslie Van Duzer; I feel very lucky to have been able to work under her guidance. To my committee, Beryl Allen, Fionn Bryne and Verena Griess, I’m so thankful to have received your thoughtful feedback throughout this entire process. Even after the world had become a strikingly different place seemingly overnight, you had all supported, encouraged and advised me at every turn. The four of  you helped me mould this thesis into what it is today. Thank you XI XIIDEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work and the completion of  this degree to my amazing and unwavering support network of  loved ones. My parents, whose love founded both the deeply rooted passions that led to this project and  the strengths within myself  that I was able to both find and express through this process. My best friend of  now 23 years, whose constant love, support and wisdom I could not live without. My forever friend whose enthusiastic support and faith in me has never wavered. My love, without whom I would have never known if  I ever could have, because I never would have, let alone persisted past the question of  whether I really should have.To my entire family; the Sakowiczs, Pomorskas, Grahams, Pilons and Arnals, I will never forget your amazing support. I (and everything I’ve managed to accomplish) am entirely a product of  the many amazing people in my life. To each and every person who have loved, supported, encouraged, advised, or merely smiled at me throughout this process, I think of  you and thank you so very much. 1 2LOGGING + ARCHITECTURE Canada spans five time zones and various climate regions. It is home to 10% of  the world’s forest cover, which translates into over four million hectares of  forest across the country from coast to coast. Within those forests, almost four million people live and work in these regions (“How do forests...” 2019). While the Arctic circle caps its northern regions and is covered in permafrost, Point Pelee in southern Ontario is further south than northern California. This spread and variety means that the soil, water and weather conditions produce different kinds of  forests all across the country. Two-thirds of  all species found in Canada, are found within forest ecosystems (“Canada’s forests by the numbers,” 2018). There are a few different ways to classify these regions; by plant hardiness zone, ecozone, or forest region. The last of  which is often seen as the most simplified and is understood primarily by the predominant tree species. Canada has twelve forest regions and sub regions, and these each support characteristic tree species. When looking at these regions on FORESTS + FRAMEWORKSthe map, it becomes evident that British Columbia supports seven of  these, making it the most diverse in this classification measure in the country. Forest regions are understood primarily by their predominant tree species, but also factor in geological characteristics and weather. The variety of  trees that can be found in any particular area are thus reflective of  the type of  environment the reside within. Furthermore, particular forests represent fairly particular ecosystems. Generally speaking trees can be discussed in various categories. Conifers, are typically evergreen and thus tend to be able to grow in harsh climates through the internal recycling of  nutrients from old to newer foliage. They tend to grow from the centers of  their trunks and produce several smaller offset branches, often forming a conical crown shape. Broadleaf  trees tend to have rounded crowns due to often having more branches, both along the sides of  the trunk and as main stems. They are typically deciduous, preferring to grow on more fertile soils and thus more moderate climates. Not all trees fall into either of  these categories, NUNAVUTNORTHWEST TERRITORIESYUKON TERRITORYBRITISH COLUMBIA ALBERTASASKATCHEWANMANITOBAONTARIOQUEBECLABRADORNEWFOUNDLANDNEW BRUNSWICKNOVA SCOTIAPRINCE EDWARD ISLANDHudson BayLabrador SeaPacific OceanAtlantic OceanBOREAL Predominantly forestBOREAL Forest and BARRENBOREAL Forest and Grass SUBALPINEMONTANECOASTCOLUMBIANDECIDUOUSGREAT LAKES - ST. LAWRENCEACADIANGRASSLANDSTUNDRAWhite spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white birch, trembling aspenWhite Spruce, black spruce, tamarackTrembling aspen, willowEngelmann Spruce, alpine fir, lodgepole pineDouglas fir, lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, trembling aspenWestern red cedar, western hemlock, sitka spruce, douglas fir, Western red cedar, western hemlock, douglas fir, Beech, maple, black walnut, hickory, oakRed pine, eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, yellow birch, maple, oakRed spruce, balsam fir, maple, yellow birch, Trembling aspen, willow, bur oakBOREAL ALTAI FESCUE ALPINEEngelmann Spruce, Mountain Hemlock, White Pine, Yellow Cedar, Lodgepole Pine, White Spruce and Alpine Larch. COASTAL MOUNTAIN-HEATHER ALPINEMostly occupied by glaciers or exposed bare rock. Some stunted Mountain Hemlock and White Pine.INTERIOR MOUNTAIN-HEATHER ALPINEHeavy snowfall and alpine meadows.SPRUCE - WILLOW - BIRCHSubalpine fir, Willow, Scrub Birch and White Spruce in lower elevations. Aspen, Balsam Poplar, Willows and Lodgepole Pines. BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCEWhite and Black Spruce, Trembling Aspen and Lodgepole Pine, some Tamarack Trees.SUB-BOREAL PINE - SPRUCELodgepole Pine primarily, some White Spruce.SUB-BOREAL SPRUCEWhite Spruce, Subalpine Fir, some Black Spruce, along with Lodgepole Pine and occassional Douglas Fir. MOUNTAIN HEMLOCKMountain Hemlock. Also Birch trees. ENGELMANN SPRUCE - SUBALPINE FIREngelmann Spruce and Subalpine Fir. Also Western Hemlock, Douglas Fir and Red Cedar.  MONTANE SPRUCEMostly Lodgepole Pine, also Subalpine Fir, Douglas Fir, BUNCHGRASSPonderosa PinePONDEROSA PINEPonderosa Pine and some Douglas Fir. INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIRDouglas fir, Ponderosa Pine and various spruce.COASTAL DOUGLAS FIRPrimarily second growth  Douglas Fir. Western Hemlock as well. INTERIOR CEDAR - HEMLOCKRed cedar, western hemlock primarily. Supplemented by ponderosa pine, Douglas Fir, Western Larch, Lodgepole Pine and White Pine. COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCKTypically Western hemlock and Birch. 3 4Figure 1Canadian Forest Regions.FOREST TYPES AND SPECIES: DIVERSITY IN BCwith some conifers being deciduous like the nootka cypress, and some broadleaf  trees can be evergreen, the only Canadian example of  the latter is the red-barked arbutus found in Southwestern BC.Each species of  tree will have locally adapted variations, and thus successful planting is best done by using seeds or trees that are native to that particular place. This results in a greater genetic diversity and species richness. This richness and abundance entails that large areas ought to be protected for the environments to continue to thrive. Prior to permanent European settlement, large scale conservation was not necessary. Lacking a sense of  superiority over the land and its other living beings, Aboriginal people lived off  Canadian lands for thousands of  years with often a more interconnected approach to the environment. That is not to say that Canadian society entirely lacks this, as Canadians have reflected an increased interested in nature. Between 2016-2017, “people visited Canada’s national parks in the boreal forest region approximately 9 million times” (“How do forests...” 2019). Today there are more environmental initiatives and green approaches to architecture, but these still struggle within a larger, overwhelming capitalist framework. Although the term capitalist should not be inherently a bad word, here it is used in its most exaggerated and over-indulged form. As quoted in a research article by Gonzalez-Diaz and Garcia-Navarro, the BOREAL ALTAI FESCUE ALPINEEngelmann Spruce, Mountain Hemlock, White Pine, Yellow Cedar, Lodgepole Pine, White Spruce and Alpine Larch. COASTAL MOUNTAIN-HEATHER ALPINEMostly occupied by glaciers or exposed bare rock. Some stunted Mountain Hemlock and White Pine.INTERIOR MOUNTAIN-HEATHER ALPINEHeavy snowfall and alpine meadows.SPRUCE - WILLOW - BIRCHSubalpine fir, willow, scrub birch and white spruce in lower elevations. Aspen, balsam poplar, willows and lodgepole pines. BOREAL WHITE AND BLACK SPRUCEWhite and Black Spruce, Trembling Aspen and Lodgepole Pine, some Tamarack Trees.SUB-BOREAL PINE - SPRUCELodgepole Pine primarily, some White Spruce.SUB-BOREAL SPRUCEWhite Spruce, Subalpine Fir, some Black Spruce, along with Lodgepole Pine and occasional Douglas Fir. MOUNTAIN HEMLOCKMountain Hemlock. Also birch trees.   MONTANE SPRUCEMostly Lodgepole Pine, also Subalpine Fir, Douglas Fir, BUNCHGRASSPonderosa Pine.ENGELMANN SPRUCE - SUBALPINE FIREngelmann Spruce and Subalpine Fir. Also Western Hemlock, Douglas Fir and Red Cedar.PONDEROSA PINEPonderosa Pine and some Douglas Fir. INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIRDouglas fir, Ponderosa Pine and various spruce.COASTAL DOUGLAS FIRPrimarily second growth  Douglas Fir. Western hemlock as well. INTERIOR CEDAR - HEMLOCKRed cedar, western hemlock primarily. Supplemented by ponderosa pine, Douglas Fir, Western Larch, Lodgepole Pine and White Pine. COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCKWestern hemlock and birch. 5 6Figure 2BC Forest Regions.green approach “is lacking because it doesn’t give us meaning, and it is lacking because it doesn’t really help us regain a relationship with nature,” (As qtd in Gonzalez et al. 2016). What they go on to describe is that while the green approach may exist within a physical and material world, it lacks the critical, theoretical framework that would evolve peoples ethical values and lifestyles (Gonzalez et al. 2016). This arguably, is a symptom of  how substantially certain divisions exist, like that between the logging industry and a growing sustainable body of  environmental knowledge and beliefs. This environmental knowledge, ought to be “completed with the laws that guide the perception of  human beings in their own world and that are part of  their intellectual capacity” (Gonzalez et al. 2016). NORTHWEST COAST PLATEAU PEOPLEPITHOUSE & TIPINlaka’pamux pithouse Plains TipiSUBARCTIC DOMED WIGWAMSMidewiwin lodge Wayish-ky’s lodgeNORTHWEST COASTPLATEAUSUBARCTICPLANK HOUSECoast Salish houseKwakwaka’wakw, Nuu-chah-nulthWakashan houseTsimshian, TlingitNorthern 6 beam housePOST & BEAMPRIMITIVE HUTBALLOON FRAMINGPLATFORM FRAMINGTILT PANEL HOUSEWIDC MASS TIMBERMASS TIMBER RESIDENCEMASS TIMBER TOWER7 8WOODEN ARCHITECTURE PT.1WOOD CONSTRUCTION To further understand how the aforementioned systems exist today, it is pertinent to analyze the history and thus relevance of  wood construction and architecture. Wood is one of  the oldest building materials worldwide, and in Canada remains a primary form of  construction. The abundance of  this natural resource has lead to this prevalence. Now to envision Canadian construction, is to envision wood construction. In the mid 1700’s French architectural theorist Marc-Antoine Laugier explored the origins of  architecture in Essai sur l’architecture and argued for architecture to return to its origins in the simple rustic hut. The structure being derived from nature itself  to provide shelter, served as  a symbol to the natural process that was intrinsic to architectural practice (1755). For Dom Hans van der Laan, the idea is also very similar, that the purpose of  architecture is to develop spaces with what nature offers us. He also articulates that the shelter (in his writing referred to more specifically as house) is one of  the “first things man needs to maintain his existence within nature”(Van der Laan, 1983, pg 1). Because man is not equipped in the same way other living things are to withstand the elements, man is alternatively equipped with the intellect to construct his surrounding space in the most suitable way. Van der Laan explains that in the same way a shoe harmonizes man’s relationship with nature, architecture is a larger scale version of  this. In fact, architecture is what completes this relationship, serving as the “reconciling element that enables man to maintain himself  in nature” (Van der Laan, 1983 pg 2). Wood being so readily available and workable throughout history, has allowed it to be used around the world by many cultures. In Europe historically constructed half-timbering structures, or rough load-bearing timber frames filled with brick, stone or thatch (Davies, 2008). While in China and Japan, structures more commonly resembled the true simple post and beam forms but with a vast history Figure 3Wooden Architecture Timeline.WOODEN ARCHITECTURE PT.19 10developed to forge protection for man against nature’s adversities (Gonzalez et al. 2016). So while Van der Laan described architecture as a mediator between itself  and nature, and while a new green approach develops within in the industry presently, this does not exactly regain a relationship with nature on its own. Kenneth Frampton describes that while architects remain preoccupied with anxieties largely as a result from the fact that “nothing could be less autonomous than architecture,”(Frampton, 1991, pg 18) at the same time “the ideology of  modernity and progress disintegrates before our eyes and the imminent ecological disaster of  the late industrial production is manifest everywhere” (Frampton, 1991, pg 22). of  traditional craftsmanship that produced unique joineries to fasten wooden members together. These methods remain regarded as incredibly artful and labour intensive. In the United States, standard heavy timber framing was followed by balloon framing in the 1830s, which utilized smaller and more frequently placed wood members or studs that were nailed together. This made wooden structures significantly more lightweight and quicker to construct, effectively leading to 2x4 framing becoming the standard (Gideon, 1952). This method was superseded by platform framing, which required smaller sizes of  wood and created horizontal platforms or wall sections. This allowed for greater flexibility and for floors to be built one at a time, as the building moved up. These cost effective and fast methods became the standard for homes in the North America as frontiers settled westward. Whatever methods are used, any building from tipis to houses or churches, can provide information on the societies and environments that they are constructed within. They inherently reflect things like how they organized construction processes, what technologies they had available to them and even what was valued upon their commission. Architecture is often as reflective of  the environments they reside in, just as the trees that grow in particular regions reflect particular ecosystems. Particularly in the rugged beginnings of  the Canadian context, architecture is perhaps more accurately described by Averlino Filarete. Filarete described the birth of  architecture as HISTORICAL INDIGENOUS ARCHITECTUREresided here for thousands of  years, including the Tsilhqot’in (Chilcotin), Lil’wat (Lillooet) and Nlaka’pamux (Thompson) (Ray, 1939). Here the plains often called for temporary light pole framed structures that were sheathed with grass or reed mats. These structures could be easily constructed and even transported according to the groups seasonal movements (Ray, 1939). But the harsh winters required hardier structures, which came in the form of  pithouses. These subterranean homes offered insulation from the cold and protection from the strong winds. The subarctic region spreads all across Canada from end to end, and consequently describes several groups. Some of  those groups within the BC region include the Sekani, Tsetsaut and Tahltan (“Map of  Subarctic People”, 2007). Ranging in size from small and transportable to large, domed wigwams that were often built in clusters. These domed structures were described as often made with flexible saplings bent and then bound together with thin strips of  wood and the lower walls could be covered with cattail  The Indigenous people of  Canada produced a variety of  both temporary and permanent architecture. From ephemeral structures like that of  the infamous igloo, wigwam and tipi, to more permanent structures; pithouses and longhouses. In addition to being technically innovative and resourceful, these structures were reflective of  the beliefs and methodologies of  the cultures that constructed them. In each of  the six broad cultural regions of  First Nations across Canada arose distinctive structures that reflected diverse ecological, geographical and climatic conditions. In British Columbia, three of  these six general regions fall within its boundaries; the Plateau, Subarctic and Northwest Coast people. The central plateau region is surrounded by the Rocky Mountains in the East and the Coastal mountain range to the west. It is characterized by harsh cold winters and hot dry summers. Semi-arid fields of  grass and sage collide with hearty forests of  spruce, pine and fir.  As noted by V.F. Ray, various Salish-speaking cultures NORTHWEST COAST PLATEAU PEOPLEPITHOUSE & TIPINlaka’pamux pithouse Plains TipiSUBARCTIC DOMED WIGWAMSMidewiwin lodge Wayish-ky’s lodgeNORTHWEST COASTPLATEAUSUBARCTICPLANK HOUSECoast Salish houseKwakwaka’wakw, Nuu-chah-nulthWakashan houseTsimshian, TlingitNorthern 6 beam housePOST & BEAMPRIMITIVE HUTBALLOON FRAMINGPLATFORM FRAMINGTILT PANEL HOUSEWIDC MASS TIMBERMASS TIMBER RESIDENCEMASS TIMBER TOWER11 12mats and roof  with sheets of  bark (Nabokov & Easton, 1989).  The wigwams typically served as winter dwellings but were customized for a variety of  specialized purposes from larger sweat lodges to smaller shaking tents, used by shamans for various ceremonies.The Northwest Coast of  Canada offers a unique forest region that combines mild maritime climate with temperate rainforest. Many groups reside within this area including the Coast Salish, Kwakwaka’wakw (Kiakiutl), Haida and Nisga’a. Due to ample food and water sources, the coastal people were able to produce a wealth of  architecture and cultural artifacts, particularly out of  the western redcedar. Plank houses were expressions of  the hierarchical social structures of  the coastal villages. They expressed history and social status through the size and adornment of  carved posts and painted facades. Within the plankhouses would be bentwood chests, carvings and other collected treasures. These structures employed post and beam construction which utilized large cedar trees. As described by Nabokov and Easton, they would vary from group to group but generally massive beams would run lengthwise across the structure and would sit on similarly large posts evenly spaced. The walls and roof  were overlapped with solid wood planks or woven mats, depending on the season (Nabokov & Easton, 1989). These planks or mats could be removed and transported from these large permanent winter structures to their summer dwellings. Developed thousands of  years before the arrival of  the first Europeans, Indigenous architecture serve as rich repositories of  spiritual and societal significance. In the forms of  the igloos, wigwams and tipis, are structures that fit comfortably in their environments and within the mobile hunting and gathering cultures. Likewise, the longhouses, plankhouses and pithouses represent the need for more lasting building forms. Indigenous architecture does continue to be practiced, however it cannot be denied how the overwhelming and often destructive presence of  colonials horrifically shrank indigenous populations. Additionally, in researching the history of  logging in BC, it becomes readily apparent that the beginnings of  logging as an industry coincides with the industrial development of  the appropriate machinery and the increase of  colonial presence. These correlations seem to reveal that a larger theoretical framework of  how the forest is seen as one of  the key issues. It is one of  the many examples of  how ethics and governance often dangerously lag behind quickening technological advancement. Figure 4Historical Indigenous Architecture.HISTORICAL INDIGENOUS ARCHITECTURE13 14FROM AXE TO CORPORATION Historically, wood has been an essential trade for Canada, and vast spans of  its forests have been transformed because of  it. Henry David Thoreau argued that the challenge was largely for people to avoid developing imbalances between humans, creatures and the environment or becoming “villains...poaching on our own national domains” (Thoreau, 1966 pg.156). For much of  the 19th century, lumber brought investment and immigration to the country, helping drive the economy and consequently transforming the environment at a pace unprecedented prior. Driven by European demand, it also encouraged exploration and the development of  roads and towns. While Canada still remains rich in this resource, over time climate, commercial uncertainty, and imperfect regulation has resulted in varied fluctuations in the stability and price of  wood. At first logging was best done during the winter, when the lack of  tree sap made it easier to fall logs and cheap lumber was often abundant. shipments were sent to England to be further sawn with strict and yet varied specifications. Waste was quite considerable, with 25-30% of  each tree being wasted (Drushka, 1992). The historical trends of  the lumber industry are difficult to summarize, but could be noted as being very subject to the typical ‘booms and busts’ of  any other extraction industry. In the 1830s, exports of  lumber increased to Britain and the United States and flourished in parallel to major railway and canal development (Drushka, 1992). Britain maintained the highest import of  Canadian lumber until the early 1900s when and since the United States was the largest importer of  Canadian lumber. Naturally, industrialization and lack of  environmental concern allowed the industry to bulldoze forward for many years. Combined with the development of  the balloon frame and similar quick construction methods, the country became dotted with wooden settlements and clearcut patches. But the landscape was vast and rugged, seen as ready The fall season would often be when shanty’s or logging camps and other infrastructure would be constructed for logging operations. Until about 1910, with the help of  oxen and later horses, logging techniques relied largely on the sheer strength of  these animals and men (Gould, 1975). Timber axes were used to fell the trees most commonly until the 1870s when the crosscut saw was popularized. The 1890s can be marked as having donkey engines in general use, allowing for logs to be hauled up to 150m. Snow covered roads would have eased transport of  the logs and to this day logging companies are in charge of  constructing the necessary infrastructure they require to complete their logging operations. When open water was nearby, logs would be floated in booms, which later became favourable in killing off  unwanted pests, most notably the pine beetle. Steam power in the early 19th century increased production and mobility of  sawmills dramatically (Gould, 1975). Naval mast trade, sawn lumber and square timber became major staples of  the industry in the early 1800s. Large for exploitation. Supply seemed endless, in conjunction with a ravenous desire for physical and technological advancement across the country, thus Canada and the logging industry expanded. As with technological advancement even today, regulation from governance lagged but did eventually emerge in the late 1850s to 60s that conferred timber rights within crown land (“BC Forest Timeline”, 2012). Gradual modifications would be made to reduce illegal logging but generally regulation was upheld and followed. Sustainability did begin to be addressed in the 1950s with tenure changes, but it was not until the 1970s that “foresters and other resource scientists began to apply sustainability principles” (Vyse et. al, 2010), at a time when these issues were beginning to be more seriously addressed.As settlement moved westward, as did the intensity of  logging operations as eastern forests were exhausted. Thus considerable logging in BC did not occur until the 1850s. The coastline made moving logs through the water advantageous despite difficult and often steep terrain. Giant trees of  primarily Grand Fir and Redcedar were felled all along the coast, shipped all around the world. The completion of  the Canadian Pacific Railway, mentioned more in detail later within this research, also allowed for increased shipments to the east. Declining trade and tightening regulation increased competition within the Canadian market, resulting in generally larger operations through the 60s (Gould, 1975). These operators would be more likely to succeed with larger sawmills, licenses, lumber crews and control over their own transport. Although there were still many smaller companies particularly along the settlement frontiers (Drushka, 1992). By the early 1900s, lumber production in BC surpassed any other province in the country, producing half  of  its annual cut (Drushka, 1992). Many companies amalgamated over time in Canada, regulations continued to increase and recognizable patterns of  corporate dominance emerged that are still present in the industry. 1886First timber reserves (forest parks) established along the CPR right-of-way.First Crown Timber Agent appointed at New Westminster, T.S. Higginson.1887Land Act amended such that public lands chiefly valuable for timber are not to be disposed of by public or private sale, declaration required that the land is not chiefly valuable for its timber. 1890Donkey engines in general use.Under the Forest Act, no timber may be removed from either Crown or private land unless the timber is marked with a Timber Mark.1892Term of Timber Leases reduced to 21 years and they must first have been offered for public competition.1894Official Scalers Act for measurement of timber.1895Foley's scale officially adopted as the BC Log Scale. Foley began development of the scale in 1890.1897Inquiry into Crown timber disposition1899Land Act amendment established condition of building a sawmill attached to each Timber Lease1888Land Act consolidated with the Timber Act and provided for 30-year licences based on a commitment to build a mill.1788 First recorded export of timber. Captain Meares takes spars to China. 1858Earliest disposal of Crown lands, including trees and timber unless otherwise specifically reserved.1861First sawmill for lumber export, Port Alberni.1865Land Ordinance made leases of unoccupied Crown land for the purpose of cutting timber subject to rent and terms considered expedient by the Governor.First recorded Timber Lease issued by the Government of BC to the British Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar and Sawmill, Ltd.1867British North America Act gives provinces the right to dispose of lands and timber.1870Land Ordinance of 1865 replaced with new version which allowed leases for timber harvest.1874Bush Fire Act. Earilest legislative enactment in BC dealing with forest fires.1884Timber Act required licences to harvest timber and imposed a fee based on volume cut.1848First mechanized sawmill in BC established near Victoria1849First recorded export of Vancouver Island lumber, to San Francisco.1859Land Proclamation stated that trees are included in the conveyance of land. (transfer of property)1778 First recorded use of BC timber by European man - Captain James Cook cut ships spars at Nootka Sound.N.D.Represented by the un-felled and growing tree to the left, the scale and richness of Aboriginal history with the land and trees is admittedly not adequately depicted here. While written record began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists, First Nations history goes back for thousands of years. While many groups have their own spiritual beliefs, often their histories are described as having the existence of people emerge in parallel with the formation of the lands and other living things.15 16Figure 5History of Logging TimelineHISTORY OF BC LOGGINGGRADUAL REGULATION 1900Canadian Forestry Association formed.1901Land Act amendments dictated that all timber cut under lease or licence was to be manufactured in the provinceFirst federal fire rangers appointed.1912BC Forest Branch created, Chief Forester hired, FebruaryForest Act. Timber Sale Licence introduced.1913Five additional forest reserves created in the Railway Belt.introduced.1914Elk River Valley Provincial Forest created, December 31 (first one).The term "stumpage" was adopted and defined as the amount payable for Crown timber in addition to rents, royalties and taxes.1916Free Use Permits for settlers.1917Aeroplane spruce program with the Imperial Munitions Board1918Vancouver Forest Products Lab established.Aeroplane Spruce-cutting Act enabled special permits for the cutting of spruce from public or private lands.1919Slash disposal provisions enacted. (slash refers to wood debris generated during logging operations or through other natural disturbances).  First discovery of a forest fire from the air in B.C., by Harry Brown in a Curtiss JN-41902Long Lake Forest Reserve (B.C.'s first forest reserve) created.Timber Measurement Act required the use of the British Columbia Log Scale and replaced the Official Scalers Act of 1894.1906Canadian Forestry Convention held in Ottawa, January 10 – 12Dominion Forest Reserves Act adds six forest reserves in the Railway Belt1908Canadian Society of Forest Engineers formed (now the Canadian Institute of Forestry) Canadian Commission of Conservation, Committee on Forests established.1911Canadian Forestry Convention held in Quebec City, January 18–21Canadian Western Lumber Company purchases overhead cable skidders, ushering in the high-lead era.Forest Reserves and Parks Act. Timber Leases restricted to 640 acres or less.1948First forest fire hazard forecast.1949Canada Forestry Act authorizes expansion of economic development agreements with the provinces.Forest protection defined for purposes of the Forest Protection Fund to include fire, insects and disease.1923Research began in BC Forest Branch.1924Aleza Lake Experiment Station established.1925Use of aerial photographs in forest inventory.1929Green Timbers property set aside.Cowichan Lake Experiment Station established1930All 5,000 acres of Green Timbers Urban Forest were clear-cut. Despite campaign to save, and being a tourist destination for people to see 200 foot timber that lined the Pacific Hwy. Was famous until 1929 as being the “only remainint stretch of virgin forest all the way from San Diego to Vancouver.”Green Timbers Nursery established in Surrey.Today Green Timbers forest covers 560 acres, mix of remnants of reforestation and natural growth. 1945Deputy Minister of Forests appointed, making Forests a department under the Minister of Lands and Forests, BC Forest Branch became BC Forest Service.1946Forest Service Training School established.Silvicultural Fund establishedKoksilah Nursery established at Duncan.1947An Act Respecting the Practice of Forestry, April. Created the Association of British Columbia Foresters, now the Association of British Columbia Forest Professionals.Provision for a 10,000 acre university forest for demonstration and teaching.1950Chief Forester authorized to make agreements with private land occupiers for reforestation of those lands and to provide seedlings free or at less than cost for that purpose.Forest Act amended to require forest licencees to employ a B.C. registered forester.1953Logging Tax Act imposed a provincial tax of 10% on the income derived from logging operations in excess of $25M.1954Salvage Sale areas may be established by Order in Council to prevent timber from being lost or destroyed and the Minister may sell the timber as he deems advisable.1955Forest Protection Fund abolished and consolidated with other Crown revenues and appropriations of funds.Reid Use of helicopters for forest inventory and mapping.1956Silviculture Fund abolished and consolidated with other Crown revenues and appropriations of funds.1958Provisions to prevent collusion and unfair bidding practices in the disposal of Crown timber.Stronger provisions made for requiring licensees and land owners to take measures to control insect infestations17 18HISTORY OF BC LOGGINGGRADUAL REGULATION Figure 5History of Logging Timeline1980Federal Department of Environment. Section 84 amended to require timber appraisals and stumpage rates to be determined in accordance with the policies and procedures approved by the Minister and varied according to the licence agreement.1987Forest Amendment Act allowed the Forest Service to designate wilderness areas.Section 88 of the Forest Act (credits to stumpage) no longer applies for basic silviculture, roads, and bridges, September 15. Industry now responsible for basic silviculture, including reforestation. Amount of wood sold in competitive sales doubled, cut control rules changed to resell or return undercut volumes.1989Federal Canada Forestry Act passed, creating the Department of Forestry.1961Provision to make agreements with other governments or corporations to provide forest protection and fire suppression services on their lands.1965Pacific Forest Research Centre opens.1971Environment and Land Use Act enabled. Ecological Reserve Act.Federal Department of Environment1972Federal Canadian Forestry Service formed.Taylor Requirement to obtain permits for campfires eliminated and industrial burning permit provisions strengthened. New provision requiring lessee or licensee of Crown timber to reforest areas logged under the lease or licence1974Timber Products Stabilization Act enacted to authorize regulation of prices paid for wood chips produced in the province for manufacture in the province.1978Forest products labs privatized, Forintek Canada takes over the Western Forest Products Lab.Federal Department of Fisheries and Environment.Ministry of Forests Act, Forest Act, and Range Act (proclaimed January 1, 1979).1992An Old Growth Strategy for British Columbia released, May.Protected Areas Strategy implemented, May.Timber Supply Review begun.1993 Clayoquot Sound Blockades.One of the Largest acts of mass civil disobedience in Canadian history. War in the Woods culminates in Clayo-quot Sound with many protesting old-growth logging in a 350,000 wilderness area in Vancouver Island. 87,600 ha protected, April.1994 NDP introduce Forest Practic-es Code of BC Act, July 7.Forest Land Reserve Act, July. BC Forest Renewal Act, May. Forest Renewal BC created under the Forest Renewal Plan.Long Beach Model Forest created, September.1995The Forest Practices Code becomes law. Large areas of Crown land reserved under the Forest Land Reserve Act.Scientific panel recommendations for ecosystem-based management in Clayoquot Sound accepted, July. Class A provincial park created in Stein Valley, 107 000 ha1997MacMillan Bloedel and five Nuu-Chah-Nulth bands form a joint venture in Clayoquot Sound area, April.Jobs and Timber Accord, June.Muskwa – Kechika protected area created, October.First five audits by the Forest Board are completed and published.1998MacMillan Bloedel announced it will phase out clearcutting over 5 years, June.Company was bought by Weyerhaeuser in 2002Forest Practices Board notes improvements in ‘report card’ since FPC enacted. However several weaknesses are identified, including the lack of provisions to protect important wildlife habitat and biodiversity.1999TimberWest Forest Corp. announced it will phase out clearcutting over 4 years, May.TimberWest is currently one of the major logging companies criticized for logging the Southern Great Bear Rainforest.Identified Wildlife Management Strategy implemented, February.Supreme Court of Canada upholds Mandate - SC of Can upholds the Forest Board’s authority to report its findings, recommend improvements, and act as a public watchdog for forest practices.1996Compliance Audit program established. Forest Practices Board develops a compliance audit reference manual to develop and test audit protocols.19 20HISTORY OF BC LOGGINGTURMOIL OVER FORESTSFigure 5History of Logging Timeline2003Current government guts and deregulates the Forest industryThe Forestry Revitalization Plan was replaced the previous Forest Practices Code to address the competitiveness of the industry while maintaining environmental standards. Eliminated were policies such as minimum cut, requirements to process timber within the same company or at specified mills, mill closure penalties, and restrictions on the transfer and subdivision of tenures, March. Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd. (FII) was incorporated a provincial Crown corporation with a goal to develop and diversify markets for B.C. wood products around the world, March 31.2000BC announced it will reduce the proportion of clearcut harvesting in the Vancouver Forest Region from 70 to 40% over 5 years through the Small Business Forest Enterprise Program licensees. Nisga’a Treaty includes role for board .Treaty creates a role for Forest Board to conduct annual audits during the five year transition period of forest licensees working on the lands being transferred to the Nisga’a people.2001BC became the first Canadian jurisdiction to put more than 12% of its landbase in parks, protected areas, recreation areas and ecological reserves. BC designated the Great Bear Rainforest in the central coast, protecting 96 458 hectares.3 million cubic metres of raw logs exported.2002The federal government announced a $246-million softwood lumber aid package that included a five-year, $40-million investment to assist BC with the mountain pine beetle epidemic, October.2004Forest and Range Practices Act January 31, a watered down version of the Forest Practices Code. Described as a transition to a results-based code. Loopholes and the lack of public oversight are an immediate issue.A market-based timber pricing system to set stumpage prices for coastal operations was implemented, February 29.Mountain pine beetle action plan updated and a two-year Bark Beetle Task Force created to oversee its implementation, April.2005Wildfire Act takes affect. The mountain pine beetle infestation grew to 8.7 million hectares. Standards for Seed Use introduced to protect tree gene resources.Land use decisions announced for 6.4 million hectares of the Central Coast and North Coast Land and Resource Management Plan areas. Including 1.8 million hectares of protected areas, adoption of ecosystem based management (EBM) and a new level of government to government cooperation between the province and First Nations.2007Mountain Pine Beetle surfaces in Forest Board’s workInfestation cumulative area grown to 9.2 million hectares. Board carries out a number of projects examining the outbreak and its effects. 2011Board Audits expanded to non-traditional forestry. Some non-typical forestry operations are audited, including two oil and gas companies and a ski-hill development. A complaint also leads to an investigation on a hydroelectric project’s forestry practices.2016Great Bear Rainforest Agreements.Raw log export doubles from 2001 to 6 million cubic metres.The McLure fire burned 26 420 hectares, forcing the evacuation of 3800 residents and destroying 81 buildings, July through September.The Okanagan Mountain Park fire burned 25 000 hectares south and east of Kelowna, forcing the evacuation of more than 27 000 people and destroying 239 homes, August and September.The mountain pine beetle epidemic increased to cover 4.2 million hectares, double the area in 2002.The Wildfire Act was introduced to replace or streamline provisions in the Forest Practices Code of B.C. Act and safeguard communities, November.21 22HISTORY OF BC LOGGINGTURMOIL OVER FORESTSFigure 5History of Logging Timeline23 24LICENSES, RAW LOGS + REGULATION Extractive industries have developed transnational supply chains that largely operate in a very separate picture than those we typically conjure when thinking of  the Canadian landscape. Arboleda describes how these circuits of  extraction, are evidence of  the ways these industries are influencing urban, financial and logistical landscapes to suit their own needs. 90% of  BC is crown land which issues licenses to cut the trees to those that apply. The TSA (Timber Supply Analysis) sets the maximum allowable annual cuts. The companies that receive these licenses subsequently must build their own roads and pay stumpage fees. Since so much of  the land is owned by the province, loggers are obliged to harvest according to various regulations, the most important of  which are environmental. It should be noted however, that Canada has comparatively fewer regulations in place than other countries (Thomson, 2018). While this may seem fitting in regards to how much forest Canada has, there is a problematic system of  ‘professional reliance.’ This system has the rights to the stand if  their license expires before they are able to harvest.The licenses come in a few different forms, but are primarily volume based licenses. There are however some Community Forest Agreements. These agreements are managed by local government, community groups, First Nations or a combination of  the three in an effort to benefit the entire community (“Community Forest Agreements” 2019). Community forests can support recreational, wildlife and tourist opportunities but also suggest harvest operations for a source of  revenue. These licenses can be applied for without competition and for 25-99 year terms which are replaceable every 20 years (“Community Forest Agreements” 2019). There are also First Nations woodlands licenses which tend to imply the management of  more than just timber. They can be based on long terms or area based tenures and can assist in the protection of  traditional practices and in securing investments in relation to the been described as putting professionals into situations wherein a conflict of  interest left them acting more as ‘cheerleaders’ for their bosses as opposed to a neutral third party (Thomson 2018). Imperfect regulation seems indicative of  the subsequent issues within the industry. There are currently a handful of  major license holders, that happen to be international entities. We could point to the fact that Canada has long boasted a plethora of  raw resources, unlike the other countries, which have faced issues of  limited supply for some time. By facing these challenges however, their stricter policies set in place lead to more sustainable systems. For example in many areas in Europe there is a two stage system. The first ‘pre-commercial’ stage entails the selection and removal of  trees that help trees grow more productively. Then go in for a ‘commercial’ stage to harvest timber but while prioritizing select quality trees. This is a very sustainable method of  harvesting but requires that the entity holding the license gets onto the site twice, which can be costly or unappealing. There is risk in that they lose woodlands (“First Nations Woodland License,” 2019). Added value systems and products need to be expanded upon for the continued growth of  the industry. Daniel Dufour in a lumber trends report has indicated that the lack of  diversification in Canada’s export market has resulted in the industry sitting in a more volatile position (2009). Forest products do account for 7% of  Canada’s total exports, with the major destinations being the US, China and Japan which together represent 87% of  all forest exports (“Forest Products,” 2019). Europe is the fourth largest market for Canadian lumber exports, but there is continued decline in European exports. The cause of  this decline may be the fact that several wood-producing countries that joined the European Union in the past decade have made Europe nearly self-sufficient in terms of  the supply of  forestry products (Dufour, 2009). They also have more regulation into maintaining their forests, thus encouraging more sustainable systems. Sales in softwood lumber (the largest forest product export)  do represent a steady rise and recovery since the economic recession in 2008. But decreasing supply due to the pine beetle and forest fires has weakened Canada’s ability to respond to demand. There is also the effect of  duties imposed by the US since 2017 (“Softwood Lumber Dispute,” 2019). Furthermore, certain Canadian provinces depend more on exports than others, which is true for BC which produces 63% of  lumber exports (“Forest Products,” 2019). After logging, companies holding the licenses are responsible for the forest until it reaches a point called “freedom to grow.” Despite this responsibility, the forests that grow after typical logging practices are very different from what was there before. While the companies are provided a list of  species to plant based on the region, they naturally tend to choose the fastest growing tree to reach the “freedom to grow” state the soonest. Releasing them from the responsibility of  recovering these forests 25 26sooner. We’ve consequently seen what this can result in. In addition to very different forest compositions, an excess of  Lodgepole pine was planted due to being one of  the fastest growing. However this pine is also prone to the pine beetle. When temperatures didn’t drop to kill off  this invasive beetle, enormous swathes of  forests died. This continued for some 30 years, and we are now even seeing evidence of  the beetle affecting even older and younger trees that they had previously been unaffected by it (“Forest products”, 2019). Typically a normal forest will go through what is called a rotation period. Wherein the replanted trees will be harvested just past their intense growth period, then being considered in their “rotation age.” This rotation age or prime, intends to allow forests to go through fairly sustainable harvesting cycles. However, after the pine beetle ravaged huge supplies of  timber, the industry suddenly had an intense decrease in available timber to harvest. It would prove beneficial to reflect on the timber industry within the focused scope of  the Nass River Valley, in order to introduce Stewart, BC as one of  the potential sites for GP2. Stewart being a small town of  barely 400, after a history of  boom and bust largely from the mining industry, serves now as a raw log thoroughfare for the timber extracted from the nearby Nass Valley region. There are no timber processing facilities located within the timber supply area and thus all lumber is transported Figure 6.Timber cruising camp near Port Renfrew in 1919. to pulp or sawmills in Terrace, Prince Rupert and Hazelton, or exported to the U.S or Asian markets, often through Stewart. Based on the employment multipliers in the Nass Valley Analysis, the report confirms the lack of  direct/indirect jobs from the lack of  processing or secondary value added systems set in place in the area (“Nass Timber Area Analysis Report”, 2001). This is reflective of  situations all over the province. The government is now being called upon to find solutions. What seems to be required is two-fold, a) forests require intervention in the form of  sustainable reforestation b) value needs to be injected into the industry to make the most of  the timber that we do have. For much of  British Columbia’s history, its forests were seen as “primarily a commercial timber resource, and logging activities reflected a single-use objective of  the land base” (Vyse et. al., 2010). Just as Canada’s forests are vast and complex, as are the issues of  the logging industry. There are entire courses, faculties, departments and regulatory bodies dedicated to the study, harvesting and management of  forests. For the scope of  this project, and the sake of  its author, it is admittedly a simplification to isolate some of  the key issues at play here that are problematic. The key issues being, continued old growth harvest, climate change, and an over reliance on raw log exports. The industry as a whole, is by no means entirely problematic. But it is indeed imperfect, 27 28and suspiciously mysterious. One writer summarizes ideas from Margeret Ormsby on BC as a series of  contrasts or opposing forces:“[...] ongoing pull between maritime and continental forces; the opposition between a “closed,” hierarchical model of  society represented by the Hudson’s Bay Company and colonial officials, and the “open,” egalitarian vision of  English and Canadian settlers; and regional tensions, between Vancouver Island and the mainland, metropolitan Vancouver and the hinterland interior” (Reid, 1999, pg. 886). Similarly, investigating the logging industry reveals oppositions as well. On one side, “Canada has some of  the most rigorous laws in the world for protecting forests and ensuring sustainable management” (“Deforestation in Canada”, 2019) and on the other “Professional reliance, coupled with getting rid of  the forest service and legislated standards for forestry, simply privatized the forest” (qtd in Pierce 2019). But perhaps it is precisely these oppositions that indicate that there are fundamental issues. It is precisely the lack of  clarity in the picture of  logging that suggests a problem. “But there are spirits of  a yet more liberal culture, to whom no simplicity is barren. There are not only stately pines, but fragile flowers, like the orchises, commonly described as too delicate for cultivation, which derive their nutriment from the crudest mass of  peat. These remind us, that, not only for strength, but for beauty, the poet must, from time to time, travel the logger’s path and the Indian’s trail, to drink at some new and more bracing fountain of  the Muses, far in the recesses of  the wilderness.” Henry D. Thoreau (1966) from Chesuncook Part 4 in The Maine Woods.NORTHWEST COAST PLATEAU PEOPLEPITHOUSE & TIPINlaka’pamux pithouse Plains TipiSUBARCTIC DOMED WIGWAMSMidewiwin lodge Wayish-ky’s lodgeNORTHWEST COASTPLATEAUSUBARCTICPLANK HOUSECoast Salish houseKwakwaka’wakw, Nuu-chah-nulthWakashan houseTsimshian, TlingitNorthern 6 beam housePOST & BEAMPRIMITIVE HUTBALLOON FRAMINGPLATFORM FRAMINGTILT PANEL HOUSEWIDC MASS TIMBERMASS TIMBER RESIDENCEMASS TIMBER TOWER29 30WOODEN ARCHITECTURE PT.2WOODEN ARCHITECTURE PT.2and with recent excitement over wood, exists an immense potential as a sustainable material. That sentiment is true if  it can be harvested responsibly. “The assumption is that the relationship between nature and architecture is the interaction between different elements that are foreign to each other. At best, it has been a relationship of  tolerance, in which the other is accepted as different and not as the other part of  a whole” (Gonzalez et al. 2016). What Gonzalez et al. describe is that while there are many technical applications of  a shifted paradigm in the form of  things like the analysis of  energy consumption, embodied energy of  materials, water consumption etc, we still lack an overarching theoretical framework that encompasses all of  this. Both of  these origins of  architecture, refer to it as a reaction to a conflict between nature and people. There has been a significant surge in wood innovation and products within the building industry. In the realm of  architecture, wood is perceived as having an excitingly new degree of  potential. Cross-laminated Timber can be produced in ranges upwards of  2.4m x 20m and a range of  thicknesses (Green, 2011). CLT, and other products like Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and Parallel strand lumber (PSL) can be used to construct a structure faster and cheaper than ever before. Research indicates that mass timber burns predictably and is reliable in seismic events and this has developed into gradual developments in the National Building Code (NBCC)(Green, 2011). BC has recently increased the height limits of  wood construction buildings from six storeys to 12 which come a year ahead of  expected changes to the NBCC, these are to also increase the height limits to 12 storeys. The University of  British Columbia sports the world’s second tallest wood building or ‘plyscraper,’ which stands at a 53 meters tall. Currently the world’s tallest building is Mjøstårnet in Brumunddal, Norway. Mjøstårnet stands 18 storey’s or 85.4 meters tall and was completed in March 2019.As noted before, wood has a long history as a construction material, and tall wood buildings are not entirely new. A tall wood pagoda at the Temple of  the Flourishing Law,  a Buddhist temple in Japan is one of  the world’s oldest wooden buildings, having stood for the past 1400 years through wind, fire, and earthquakes. Dendrochronological (the analysis of  annual tree-ring growth) analysis published in 2007 showed that some of  the wood used in the pagoda would have been felled in 594 (“One hundred years older than supposed”, 2007). While not new, ongoing studies by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP show that tall wood buildings offers a smaller carbon footprint by 60% to 75% compared to a reinforced concrete equivalent (2013). Wood is also considered carbon neutral, in that it produces no net release of  carbon since trees absorb CO2 as they grow. As the only building material that can naturally regenerate, Figure 7.Wooden Architecture Timeline.WOOD CONSTRUCTION31 32TREATMENT OF FORESTS Since forests physically comprise so much of  our natural environment, and architecture is in its most basic sense described as the designing of  structures that define those spaces, then it is logical to examine how trees have been presented and configured. This early configuring as resources or as meaningful settings can be seen in the development of  royal gardens or arboretums. The Kew Gardens were established initially as a strip of  what was previously farm fields in around 1600, being known then as Kew Field (Parker, 2013). The property was later extended, and the Gardens as they exist now emerged from the combining of  two royal estates in 1759, with the old Kew Park being demolished in 1802 (Drayton, 2000). Comprised of  132 hectares and several structures, to this day Kew Gardens exists as a botanical garden that houses the “largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world, (“Our Collections”, 2018). Richard Drayton explains how the garden served as an ideal between Eden and paradise, that may restore humanity to perfection. The centuries prior reflected the same sentiments, wherein European monarchs created gardens to study them as God’s creations. They then developed into prestigious symbols of  ‘kingly knowledge’ (Drayton, 2000). Kew became a representation of  improving the world for both the science it housed but also Britain’s claims around the world, it was reflective of  “the grandeur and civility of  Britain after the Seven Years War” (Drayton 2000). While the gardens were on the surface recreational and aesthetic in purpose, they became a part of  a web of  gardens across the Empire. This system promoted the study of  plants as well as systems of  economic development in regards to where to grow and process certain crops in what areas around the Empire. Drayton describes that this develops into an idea that God’s gift of  nature can become productive through the study of  natural law, making agricultural improvement a key impulse behind the reasoning of  imperial expansion (Drayton, 2000).FROM ARBORETUMS TO CHRISTMAS TREES33 34In the 1840-70s under the direction of  William and Joseph Hooker, Kew’s primary objectives more explicitly moved from aesthetic and pleasure to the scientific. Kew then developed into an “international centre for the science of  botany” (Drayton, 2000). According to Brockway, seeds were smuggled from around the world through Kew, which resulted in the derived products to being produced in the European nations and their colonies. This left the countries from which the seeds originated from to suffer the consequences. He notes that “Kew gardens and its colonial affiliates emerge as a vital capital asset, transforming knowledge into power for Great Britain” (Brockway 1979). As According to Drayton, the pinnacle of  Kew Gardens was reached in the late 19th to early 20th centuries under the scientific bureaucratic director William Thistelton-Dyer. Thistelton-Dyer continued the trend of  science as a tool for imperialism by convincing politicians that Kew was a key to economic development. While this is not inherently problematic, what Drayton notes is that to Thistleton-Dyer and many people of  his time, nature required the intervention of  government because undeveloped nature was wasted nature (Drayton, 2000). This new bureaucratic drive for empire was now widespread, and it resulted in a trend that arguably lasts until this day; of  rigorous expansion being driven by the desire for exerting power over all. The manner of  which these trees were being composed, is reflective of  the way man saw himself  as the authority on constructing natural environments. Landscape gardens and arboretums seemed extensions of  the Baroque, wherein nature was dominated and brought into architecture.However the theoretical framework was not clearcut, as the enlightenment period did register the idea of  nature as a source of  admiration and inspiration. The Oxford Natural History museum is argued to be one of  the last crafted buildings in the British Isles. What makes it particularly remarkable within this discussion is the way it represents a fascinating marriage of  science and religion, and thus a paradigm shift. The idea of  national influence being reflected in the design of  parks and gardens like Kew was very much present by 1850.  Science and particularly botany was fueled by information ultimately acquired by colonial exploration. While beneficial, science was also directly a tool for imperialism. It was a tool in that it provided an argument for the exploitation of  new environments and could have justified the subsequent conquests around the globe. The Natural History museum was built well within the industrial revolution, and its contemporary use of  steel and glass melded ornamentation with technology. The ornamentation of  the stonework and iron pillars incorporates natural forms like leaves and branches, combining the Pre-Raphaelite style with the scientific role of  the building. The building reflects major theoretical merges Figure 8 Crystal Palace Interior.35 36of  the time, with natural science and religion coexisting within it rather than as opposing schools of  thought. This marriage, could have sparked fruitful alliances, but the excitement of  technological advancement overtook. Constructed just a year later, the Crystal Palace exemplified man’s dominion and control over nature, becoming the most innovative ferrovitreous structure of  the time. However, where the Oxford museum is perhaps a more considered building, the Crystal Palace was a remarkable cog in the wheel. The Crystal Palace did showcase British manufacturing, but it ultimately served as a shell filled with the material, art, cultural and manufacturing spoils from the colonies.  The purpose of  mentioning these two buildings is to note that architectural advances of  this time reflect a larger trend that emerged  during the industrial revolution. One that prioritises advancement, profit and nationalist superiority.These more subtle forms of  extraction and authority over the landscape get more exaggerated when looking at wood extraction. Arboleda explains that circuits of  extraction show the ways in which industries influence larger urban and logistical landscapes for their own benefit. He extracts these three circuits; productive circuit, commodity circuit and a money circuit through the writings of  Marx, noting that “Marx not only foregrounds the radical interdependence of  economic life in modern society, but also the intrinsic instability and fragility of  the movement of  value” (Arboleda, 2019). Additionally, he explains that the manner and movement of  circuits do not move to be reabsorbed but rather spiral upwards, constantly expanding (Arboleda, 2019). This constant expansion seems to reflect a modern tendency that exists today, of  producing and advancing for the mere sake of  advancement. He goes on to say that it has resulted in a “combined world-historical tendency towards the intensification of  monopoly power, the globalization of  production, and the pervasiveness of  social and ecological crises, which John Ballamy Foster has aptly termed late imperialism” (Arboleda, 2019).  While much of  the overarching problematic frameworks are still present to this day, that is not to say that museums and arboretums are still problematic. Kew embodied a new bureaucratic impulse during the colonial period. Whereas in the past materials were collected for the profit of  the empire, now they have moved to a concern over preservation and extinction. The Kew’s most recent project, The Millenium Seed Bank seeks to benefit mankind by growing a collection of  seeds to “provide a safety net for species at risk of  extinction” (“Millenium Seed Bank”, 2018). However this still falls in line with an idea that “humans are masters of  nature” (Palsson, 1996). According to a visitor to the gardens, Kew does not Urban Extractivism:“[O]ften used to designate the rise of  a frontier culture that is starkly reminiscent of  that which tends to predominate in the extractive industries, and which is premised on the treating land as a financial asset, mobilizing monopoly power, displacing urban populations, plundering natural resources, enclosing public space, and deploying aggressive techniques of  urban rent-exactation.” Martin Arboleda (2019) 37 38recognize its problematic past, noting that “the placard next to a rubber tree [...] makes no acknowledgement of  the mistreatment of  workers, or the immoral smuggling of  seeds from Brazil” (Noble, 2015). Despite this, there remains an important point of  transition from an extreme and ignorant exploitation of  nature, to a more informed protection of  it. In one of  the only green spaces within downtown Seattle, Washington is an eighteen meter long fallen Western hemlock tree within a greenhouse. The installation, titled Neukom Vivarium by American artist Mark Dion is comprised of  a hybrid work that combines art, architecture and environmental education. Here, art and science fuse together as the Western hemlock acts as a nurse log to produce its own contained forest and art ecosystem. Inside the greenhouse there are magnifying glasses for viewers to investigate the different living forms that have emerged from the old tree. The tree naturally fell outside of  Seattle in 1996 from a protected area of  old-growth forest, and was then recontextualized within a “sleeping beauty coffin, a green house” (“Mark Dion...” 2013). With a new and complex life support system, Dion explains that the whole of  the project emphasizes the complexity of  the natural systems themselves. While expensive and difficult technologies can recreate this environment in a small way, the natural system is destroyed and represents “building a failure”(“Mark Dion...” 2013). The “A tree that is left growing in its natural state is a crude thing. It is only when it is kept close to human beings who fashion it with loving care that its shape and style acquire the ability to move one.” Utsubo Monogatari, as cited in Bester (2004)project thus signifies that the complexities of  natural processes are difficult to replicate, and that replicating its processes in this way seems to be a strange solution. Constructing a man-made system replicating natural processes thus does not equate with helping natural processes thrive on their own. While housing a fallen tree may be a unique recontextualizing, people housing plants within structures is not a new idea. The ownership of  houseplants has exploded in the past few years. Popularized by millenials, whose lives are becoming less fixed to property ownership and more in day to day experiences as the result of  a complex of  problems including increased costs of  living and housing. As described by Graf, indoor gardening was represented in paintings and sculpture from the times of  the early Greeks and Romans by potted plants. Egypt, India and China brought plants indoors in considering their interior to exterior boundaries more fluid. The art of  bonsai trees were similarly developed by Buddhist monks in Japan, who wished to bring the “outdoors” into their temples (Graf  et al. 2016). With developments in the industrial revolution 39 40and advancements in architecture, interiors became better suited to keeping plants alive within them. Like gardens and greenhouses, the ownership of  plants became seen as a symbol of  wealth and prosperity. They’ve also come to symbolize religious holidays, as is the case with Christmas trees. According to Barnes in “The First Christmas Tree,” a religious reformer invented the Christmas tree after inspiration struck when seeing a glittering pine tree on a winter night. Thus by 1605, Christmas trees were fairly popular within Southern Germany (Barnes 2006). Later in 1800, Queen Charlotte, “German wife of  George III, set up the first known English tree at Queen’s Lodge, Windsor” (Barnes 2006). Through to the 1830s, Christmas trees were abundant in wealthy households, and had spread to the Americas along with German immigrants. However, the idea was not popularly adopted until images of  Queen Victoria and her German husband Prince Albert around a Christmas Tree were circulated via the Illustrated London News in 1846, subsequently popularizing it across classes in England, the United States and Canada (“History of  Christmas Trees,” 2019). The ceremonial treatment of  Christmas trees was largely popularized by lithographic images of  British royalty, which reflects a longstanding influence on Canadian identity. Overseas influences become even more evident in the analysis how forests have been represented throughout Canadian history largely in the form of  maps, paintings and drawings. These subsequently begin to better articulate how forests were conceptualized in Canada.Figure 9Queen Victoria and Husband Prince Albert of Germany in 1840. (1841). [Lithograph].41 42FROM MAPPING TO TOTEM POLES If  Van der Laan considers human intellectual capacity as a privilege, than we must study our perception and representation of  nature or forests. Art, as creative expressions of  human skills, values and ideas, serves as an informative medium through which to see how forests are perceived within the Canadian context. Canadian Indigenous art would have been produced for thousands of  years before the arrival of  European colonists. Similar to how the building forms varied across the country based on the regional groups that formed them, Indigenous art traditions are organized and consequently greatly varied in the same way. One notable characteristic of  Indigenous art that distinguishes it from that of  European traditions is on the tendency towards portability and connection to place or event. Portable in that artworks were often made for the body, and in order to be carried along with the seasonal movements that the indigenous people so often endeavoured. But In terms of  connection to place, the indigenous often did not map or record history in the same way that was commonplace in Europe. Oral storytelling, dance and music during ceremonies were primary forms of  spreading information. Masks and other ceremonial arts would be produced for these occasions, and would represent their histories within them. The act of  mapping in particular helps denote a key theoretical difference to how the world was perceived and understood by the First Nations versus the Settlers. Whereas the latter would consider it second nature to share a story with a child in opening a book and reading aloud, the Indigenous would bring their children to the places where the stories occurred, to describe and feel the story more presently. From personal experience in Haida Gwaii, it was recalled to me that the Haida would thus experience history in a vastly different way. Sharing history as a personal knowledge, passed down orally from elder to other, inherently provides a unique closeness between not only person to history, but of  environment and story. The forests are very REPRESENTATION OF FORESTS43 44consciously the places of  history, and anything derived from the forest and its creatures is both asked for and thanked. When Haida stripped cedar bark from a tree for example, they found suitable trees not only in terms of  practicality, but also on the basis of  whether the tree could withstand the removal and live on afterwards. The tree would be chosen as suitable material and then thanked in a prayer (Stewart, 2009). Excess is an irrelevant term, as they would describe that they would only ever take what they required. This conscious attitude of  what would be extracted from the forest and expressing gratitude was seen as essential, “to show respect was to ensure a good supply in future years (Stewart, 2009).” The Haida do not have a word for art, it serves as a visual language that is an intrinsic part of  their lives. Not separated from everyday life, visual language has helped First Nations like the Haida keep their stories and culture alive through the many hardships they have endured. As opposed to traditional mapping, spaces are instead understood by what occurs within them and who passes through them. What they do, what they make, how they are is their art. In this way, stories, myths and legends, shape their landscape. Thus maps and grids become unnecessary. The landscape is understood differently, derived from past events and present experiences, as opposed to two dimensional lines and borders. The ways the Haida used the forest and represented From left to right. Figures 10-12 . Within the Forest & Without the Forest. (2018). [Acrylic on canvas]. Painted by author. As the Haida do not have a word for art, it serves as a visual language that is an intrinsic part of their lives. Not separat-ed from everyday life, visual language has helped keep the Haida people’s stories and culture alive through the many hardships they have endured. As opposed to traditional mapping, spaces are understood by what occurs within them and who passes through them. To represent this relationship of story and space, these paintings have a layer of painted text beneath them comprised of statements made in regards to the logging conditions in Haida Gwaii. The im-ages painted over the words are of a lush forest near K’uuna Llnagaay and a logging road near Moresby Camp, represent-ing the contrasting present states of Haida Gwaii’s forests.Figure 13. Discussions on logging in Haida Gwaii. (2018). Photo by author. Figure 14. Painting over words. (2018). Photo by author.45 46their culture, was indicative of  how the Haida mapped and understood the land as one shaped by stories, events and legends. In contrast, early settler-made drawings prior to Confederation primarily consist of  maps made by illustrators exploring and designating spaces. Boundaries and borders were delineated, a sense of  authority is exerted with pen and paper. This is how Canada’s land and forests were first depicted by settlers and subsequently controlled. Waves of  immigration began to immerse the country with a blend of  styles derived from their countries and cultures of  origin. Early Canadian art in the European tradition is thus closely bound to what was being produced in Europe at the same time. French colonists would attempt to reproduce what they recalled from their motherland in architecture. Constructing fortified manors like the Port-Royal Champlain residence in Quebec City in 1608. These type of  protective architecture would be build more so out of  wood since that was more readily available in the new world, and little if  nothing would be derived from the building methods of  the Indigenous. Visual representations of  Canada’s forests would mostly be produced to formally document the frontier, towns and natural wonders. Drawing was used as a tool for recording and mapping the land, often done by off-duty soldiers (Reid 1988). These drawings like that of  Thomas Figure 15 Thomas Davies. (1758). A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross. [Watercolour on laid paper].47 48Davies’ A View of  the Plundering and Burning of  the City of  Grimross can often by characterized as having the horizon appear flattened and trees depicted very small. This sparse representation of  the land reflected the fact that the value of  the drawing and what was occuring was in conveying the movement of  people and resources through the landscape, often in various stages of  battle or settlement. In relation to European movements, Romanticism can be seen as a major influence on Canadian painting in its preoccupation with emotion, individualism and nature. It was most prominent from approximately 1800-1850 and in Canada could be noted by Dutch-Canadian Cornelius D. Krieghoff  with his paintings of  both Canadian landscapes and outdoor life. He was particularly known for his winter scenes and depictions of  everyday activity. In many of  his works, including Spill My Milk, the forests are depicted as hardy but cleared for settlement and act as faint backdrops. But amidst Krieghoff ’s focus on everyday life was also a burgeoning interest in the western frontier. Paintings of  Canada were often sold overseas to the European markets who were bursting with curiosity over the natural wonders of  the colonies. Painters like Swiss-born Peter Rindisbacher and later Irish-born Paul Kane depicted western scenery and its Aboriginal peoples. This was followed by more artists exploring Canada to paint and document Canadian landscapes and hardships. Figure  16 Cornelius D. Krieghoff. (1867). Spill My Milk. [Oil on canvas]. 49 50While commissions continued to fuel art production in Lower Canada for its depiction of  nature and settler life, it also was driven by the construction of  churches (Harper 1981). Architect and artist François Baillairgé was one of  the first to flourish in these types of  commissions, often painting Neoclassicism portraits of  religious leaders (Harper 1981). These paintings and the often systematic spreading of  religious infrastructure reflected the Colonial drive to assert their desired belief  systems in the ‘new’ land. Confederation marked a time of  growing optimism as well as industrialization and further western expansion. Photography emerged and largely replaced painting in documenting these developments.  But an image of  Canadian identity continued to emerge as the Royal Canadian Academy of  Arts was  founded in 1880. As described by Kornhauser, the first president of  the RCA, Lucius O’Brien brought in characteristics of  the American movement of  the Hudson River School of  the time. The movement was characterized by a glowing realist style that often reflected themes of  discovery and settlement (Kornhauser, 2003). Art continued to tend towards catering to the public and Romanticism remained the main influence for some time. Realism grew stronger later through the Barbizon school by painters like Homer Watson (Harper 1981). By the early 20th century, Canada was just forming its national identity, but still heavily steeped in old Figure 17 Henry F. Ainslie. (1842). Barracks at London, Canada West. [Waterco-lour and pencil on beige wove paper].51 52European traditions. Railway expansion also gave rise to more exploration and thus more material for visual art production. For Canada, the rail industry helped brand the nation as one uniquely defined by its natural landscape. The country needed to draw people in effectively in order to encourage them to uproot themselves from their current lives and move to a better future. This task was largely undertaken on by the Canadian Pacific Railway company in order to benefit from a thriving economy. While Canada may now be often seen as a flourishing nation praised for its breathtaking nature and friendly people, 150 years ago the picture of  Canada was uncertain. “There were competing visions for Canada. Some preferred to limit the nation to a relatively small area in the east, calling the rugged territories in the west uninhabitable and fearing their incorporation would ruin Canada financially (Choko and Hühne 2000).” By taking on the task for attracting people to Canada, the CPR became a major influence and sponsor of  tourism and immigration. As a transportation system that connected the east to west coast, it enabled both citizens and visitors to travel the entirety of  the country, wherein prior many areas of  Canada had been accessible. As Huhne explains in Choko’s book, it was a combination of  private economic interest and the branding of  a nation that sparked their remarkable graphic campaign to sell the country as a viable, prosperous place to vacation and build Figure 18 Lucius R. O’Brien. (1893). Landscape. [Watercolour on wove paper].53 54Figure 19(1925). Anonymous. [Poster].a home (Choko and Hühne 2000). When looking at some of  the posters created by the company, it can be seen how many of  the Canadian stereotypes that exist today are the direct result of  the campaign led by the CPR’s artists and publicity executives. Given millions of  acres by the Dominion (Choko and Hühne 2000) as a part of  its original financial subsidy, the company used it to draw in permanent residents. Pamphlets, brochures and posters in all major European languages were distributed during the late 19th and early 20th century to attract newcomers. A Canadian graphic style emerged as they perpetuated picture or brand of  Canada from the 1930-50s, Choko explains that “[...]a Canadian style began to appear in the company’s publicity materials - a good natured welcoming style depicting an ideal and safe world, the essence of  which permeate Canadian design until this day” ” (Choko and Hühne 11). This vivid yet inviting style can be noted particularly in the posters and brochures circulated post 1920. Fortunately, “promoting a favourable image of  Canada was a key strategy of  the company” (Choko and Hühne 11), and a benefit to the image of  Canada that lives on presently. Figure 20(1920). Anonymous. [Poster].55 56From 1920-1933, the Group of  Seven or Algonquin school emerged as a part of  a movement that was explicit in the way it tied nature to the idea of  truly Canadian art. Regarded as the first Canadian art movement, the club was later enlarged and reformed as the Canadian Group of  Painters (Chilvers et al. 2009). The paintings created by these groups would depict the forests in all their lush and wild splendor. Rarely did their depictions include people or animals, as the interest was likely less on a tamed and settled nature. Emphasis instead was of  the vast expanses of  untouched or untamed wilderness. These were often romanticized and ran in parallel with the Canadian image of  strength and resilience. Influenced by French post-impressionists and contemporary Scandinavian painting (Harper 1981), the group developed a new approach to depicting the Canadian wilderness. Their works often had rich colours, painterly strokes and simplified but compelling forms. While their work was not always well received, discussion almost always mentioned the importance of  their work to the production of  a Canadian artistic form of  expression (Chilvers et al. 2009). Figure 22 Emily Carr. (1928). Kitwancool. [Oil on canvas].Figure 21 James E.H. MacDonald. (1921). The Solemn Land. [Oil on canvas].After the 1930s the range of  Canadian painting styles began to vary widely and often reflected the varied regions across the country. Prairie painter William Kurelek often depicted Depression-era farm life and Lawren Harris who simplified northern Canadian landscapes into mystical abstractions. Emily Carr, famously painted the forests, and native villages of  British Columbia. With post-impressionist and modernist influences, Carr is regarded as an iconic Canadian female artist. Her focus on the Canadian landscape and aboriginal people helped bring these cultural values back to the forefront of  contemporary art. To this day she is viewed as an environmentalist whose paintings of  lush forests and totem poles were representative of  someone deeply aware of  the cultural diversity that makes up the Canadian Northwest. In her travels along the coast and representation of  all things she considered Canadian, made her a pioneer in her own right. It becomes apparent that the artwork produced in Canada become better articulated as derived specifically from a sense of  place. Just as forest regions reflect their ecosystems, architectures; their societies, artwork began to reflect something inherently Canadian. European styles and ideals still permeated but an independent set of  values in regards to the environment was thoroughly apparent. 57 58A variety of  poles can been identified, including house frontal poles, mortuary poles, shame poles and memorial poles. House frontal poles are self  explanatory, they are often the most decorative and depict stories of  the families or villages they stand in. Shame poles are often used to ridicule groups or individuals for wrongdoing and are removed upon correction of  wrongdoing. In 2007, a shame pole representing the unpaid debts of  $5 billion in damages was erected in Cordova, Alaska (“Shame pole unveiled...”, 2007). The pole was described as depicting the face of  former Exxon CEO Lee Raymond, Exxon being the company found guilty for the oil spill in Prince William Sound in 1989 (“Shame pole unveiled...”, 2007).. As a shame pole, the totem pole can serve as an act of  defiance and fortitude in one’s beliefs. Mortuary and memorial poles are similar in that both are erected in memory of  a deceased person. The former is one of  the rarest types of  poles, these often house the ashes of  the deceased person at the upper portion and include a grave box within the support (Feldman 2012). Feldman elaborates that these are often some of  the tallest poles, standing at up to twenty one meters in height. Memorial poles are typically erected a year after the death and often are erected in ceremony (Feldman, 2007). The meanings that these poles can house vary as widely as the cultures that construct them. The relationship the First nations often have with the forest is often reflected in the material and construction of  the totem pole.  Careful consideration goes into the selection and acquisition of  the threes they are derived from, not just for aesthetics but in order to respect the forest from which they are extracted. This respect for the forest and then careful use of  it to memorialize valued persons, stories or ideals is emblematic of  an attitude essential for the continued survival of  the forests.Figure 23 Emily Carr.  (1912). Yan Q.C.I. [Oil on canvas].The tradition of  totem poles in Aboriginal culture provides an important example of  an architectural art-form that very explicitly represents its culture’s values but is also directly derived from the forest. They are most often made from large trees, usually Western red cedar by various First Nations groups of  the Pacific Northwest Coast. Totem poles have been seen throughout the BC coast, but also up in southeastern Alaska and down to coastal Washington (Feldman, 2012). The carvings often represent ancestors, mythical creatures, legends or delineate clan structures and events. They might stand independently as a sign of  welcome for visitors or be incorporated into Indigenous architecture. While the poles are often constructed of  highly rot-resistant cedars, they do eventually give way to decay in the rainy climate and this is seen as the natural way of  things by the First Nations that erect them. Because of  this, few poles over 100 years old remain, the Mosquito pole of  the trading and fishing village of  Cha’atl is one exception. Totem poles can be monumental carvings, standing as high as eighteen meters high or more (Feldman, 2012). The hierarchy of  the totem pole also can differ from default expectations of  non-First Nations in that the figures placed at the top of  the pole are not necessarily the most important. Rather the reverse of  this is the case or an entire rejection of  the linear hierarchy altogether (Feldman, 2012). 59 60ENGAGING TWO WORLDS This research sought to utilize the mediums of  architecture and art as lenses with which to provide an analysis of  how forests have been treated and represented throughout history. This was in an effort to understand both the value and perception of  forests within Canadian society. In doing so, it becomes apparent that forests are an essential part of  Canadian identity. Constituting not only the backdrop, but the very physical materials and components with which culture has formed over time. Wood construction still prevails all across the country, making up the majority of  our buildings skeletal structures. They are the bones derived from the forests, reconstituted into buildings.Rather than seeing trees solely as commodities, they ought to be seen as very ancient parts of  our identity that fortunately still form a large part of  our environment. BC stands entirely as a product of  its topography, isolating geography and also as a result of  its economic growth through the exploitation of  its rich natural resources. It has been precisely this contrast of  civilization in the form of  community and intellectual life with natural wilderness that distinguishes British Columbia. As these Canadian environmental, societal and architectural values emerge through the historical analysis of  art and architecture, it becomes evident that these lie in direct opposition to the kind of  systems that allow extractive operations like logging to continue in the manner that it does. Growing bodies of  research show “that access to trees in urban areas can increase the longevity of  seniors, improve health outcomes for children and youth, lower levels of  stress and increase workplace satisfaction” (“How do forests...” 2019). The increasing surge of  new added value wood technologies also posit a favourable outlook for the future of  the lumber industry. However the tree extraction remains host to a myriad of  issues, and while these are complex, there are ways that architecture can begin to engage in these issues to propose solutions. The division between environmental values and the logging industry is primary here, and producing architectures that bring logging issues to light but that also connect these systems shows promise. In the same way that Van der Laan saw architecture as mediator between man and nature, here it can mediate between man’s values in nature (here, specifically forests) and industry (logging/wood). In this context, architecture and art can mediate between our culturally valued forests and wood industry. “What do these forests make you feel? Their weight and density, their crowded orderliness. There is scarcely room for another tree and yet there is space around each. They are profoundly solemn yet upliftingly joyous; like the Bible, you can find strength in them that you look for. How absolutely full of  truth they are, how full of  reality. The juice and essence of  life are in them; they teem with life, growth and expansion. They are a refuge for myriads of  living things. As the breezes blow among them, they quiver, yet how still they stand developing with the universe.”Emily Carr as quoted in Carney (2017)61Figure 24Big Lonely Doug with a person for scale.Many reasons and moments in my life lead to the decision of  choosing logging for my GP, but the final catalyst for this entire project came from a visit to “Big Lonely Doug” in Port Renfrew, BC. Lonely Doug was saved by logger Dennis Cronin, who was awe-struck at the sight of  the giant 66m tall, nearly 4m wide Douglas fir.  A fine specimen of  timber that would have “filled four logging trucks or frame five 2,000 square foot houses” (Rustad, 2016), Cronin instead marked the tree with the rarely used green ribbon, to signify it be left un-felled. In BC 99 percent of  old-growth Douglas firs have been logged (Rustad, 2016) and this tree was later found to be the second-largest Douglas fir tree in the country. This tree now stands in the middle of  a massive cutblock alone, and that is where I saw it on August 29th, 2019. Becoming awe-struck too at the sight of  the massive tree and the landscape within which it resided, cleared the path for all that was to follow. BIG LONELY DOUGThe catalyst for this entire project63 64LOGGING400 km 400 km20 km 10 km 3 km20 km 10 km 3 km20 km 10 km 3 kmWhile BC is often thought of us covered in vast stretches of untouched forest, closer inspection shows something else.Narrowing in on any part of BC, even near where the project is to be situated, a patchwork is revealed.65 66LOGGING TYPOLOGIESA PATCHWORK REALITYFigures 25-27Google Satellite Images gathered December 12 2019.LOGGING TYPOLOGIESSATELLITE IMAGEFLAT / SECTION MOUNTAIN / AXONOMETRIC CREEK / PLANTYPE CONTEXTCUTBLOCKS range anywhere from a few thousand sq meters to several hundred thousand. With the majority being somewhere in the realms of  17,000 sq meters, or  approximately the size of  two soccer fields.Clusters of  cutblocks are typically strung along a logging road. Shapes range from fairly rectangular to more organic blobs, but most commonly the former.  LOGGING ROADS must be developed and maintained by the company or entity holding the Timber Cut License. The roads and logging operations result in compacted earth and lost foliage, preventing soils from retaining water or staying insulated from the winter cold. Wind speeds double in velocity without the forest cover. Like clearcuts, they can destroy the forest floor. BUFFER ZONES are likely the most intriguing logging typology in the way that they serve often as false facades that cover the scene of  the cutblock from passersby. Typically found in between clearcuts and highways, they also can be required around salmon-bearing creeks. Bufferzones can also become rich ecosystems, as seeds from the cutblocks will scatter into the buffer and grow.67 68Figures 28-43Google Satellite Images and logging typology diagrams.URBAN sites are relevant in that there is a significant degree of  regular tree maintenance throughout cities, often in the form of  parks or wild unmaintained patches. These areas provide greenery within the urban landscape but also as valuable wildlife habitat pockets, and are typology worth noting. PATHS are the rarest form of  logging typology as trucking along logging roads serve as the primary and more efficient mode of  transport. However paths can appear often after clearings are made by locals or people passing nearby. BOOMS or logging floats are patchworks of  locks floated on the water that wait to be shipped or trucked away. Floating is particularly beneficial in this region, as the water can help eradicate lingering insect infestation and prevent further spreading.$$$$$$THE BOOM AND BUST OF EXTRACTION LOGGING ROAD CUTBLOCK 1CUTBLOCK 2 BUFFERZONE$$$$$$THE BOOM AND BUST OF EXTRACTION LOGGING ROAD CUTBLOCK 1CUTBLOCK 2 BUFFERZONE$$$$$$THE BOOM AND BUST OF EXTRACTION LOGGING ROAD CUTBLOCK 1CUTBLOCK 2 BUFFERZONE$$$$$$THE BOOM AND BUST OF EXTRACTION LOGGING ROAD CUTBLOCK 1CUTBLOCK 2 BUFFERZONE69 70SATELLITE IMAGE DESCRIPTION(RIGHT) Figures 50-53Logging typology illustrations.(LEFT) Figures 44-49Google Satellite images and logging typology diagramsOTHER LOGGING TYPOLOGIESA LOGGED LANDSCAPEAn example from Haida Gwaii 2018SLASH: Course and fine logging debris considered unsuitable for commercial sale/ processing. Typically left in piles to be later burned into the atmosphere.Cutblock.Likely white tubes to protect young tree saplings. Logging road.Typical bufferzone between road and cutblock.71 72Figure 54 Logging in Haida Gwaii. 73 74CLEARCUT PATCH CUTSEED TREE GROUP SELECTIONSHELTER WOOD SINGLE TREE SELECTIONCUTBLOCK TYPOLOGIES + HARVEST METHODSFigure 55-60 Cutblock Typologies and harvest methods. 75 76FOREST GROWTHREFORESTATION CYCLENATURAL SUCCESSION100 year time periodSeedling New ForestSapling ThinningYoung Forest Stand Management ProtectionMature ForestHarvest PlanningOld Growth New ForestFigure 61-62 Forest growth cycles. SeedDecaying logSnagMature Western HemlockSprout SaplingPrimary ProcessingSecondary ProcessingConstruction/Innovation/UseGlulamRecycling/ReuseCLTPelletsEnergyPaper productsFurnitureWood constructionwood chipsSecondary Process/Engineering5.1 million cubic meters exported in 2018Education & Creativity+PORTION LARGELY MISSING ALL OVER BC             HOW TO EFFECTIVELY AND CONSISTENTLY CYCLE BACK? 77 78TREE LIFE CYCLEFigure 63Tree life cycle. 79 80SITEThe architecture and construction industry shows great promise in utilizing wood as it is a sustainable material if  harvested and reforested properly. Thus if  logging is to  continue and if  climate change continues to drastically effect the state of  our forests, then intervening through reforestation ought to be the first step. To make this endeavour fruitful however, requires that Stewart ought to have a say in what happens to its forests as opposed to simply being subjected to whatever companies or entities pass through. Eco-tourism was quite emphasized in the Stewart Official Community Plan as a major strength to take advantage of, largely due to their existing natural assets. Eco-tourism relies on the idea that green spaces are integral to not only a plethora of  ecosystems but also to our enjoyment and wellbeing. Perhaps integrating the industry of  logging better with eco-tourism could begin to develop long term solutions for the industry as a whole and for communities like Stewart.This project implements a an eco-forest circuit wherein cutblocks are reconstituted  into a reforestation cycle with viewing structures situated within them, forming a hiking route through the various logged, reforested and forested landscapes. The structures seek to engage and contrast views within the aforementioned  logging typologies and more typical forested spectacles.  Combining these views of  varied landscape and its inhabitants will attempt to blur the lines between and combine these various cyclical processes into one.STEWART PLAN + PROGRAMNORTHERN SKEENA VALLEYTERRACE PRINCE RUPERTLOGGING OPERATIONS FROM SURROUNDING AREA RUN THROUGH STEWART: THE NORTHERN-MOST ICE-FREE PORT.PRINCE GEORGEVANCOUVERKITIMATCACHE CREEK100 MILE HOUSE81 82Stewart is a small town that has been subjected to the typical booms and busts of  extraction. While this has largely been in mining historically, logging operations have been present throughout its past. During its highest points, the town boasted a population of  10,000 people, and now sits as a quiet town of  almost 400. In terms of  logging today, Stewart has ongoing, sporadic logging operations largely due to the activity within the Nass River Valley to the west, just before the Meziadin Junction turn off  to the town. For the most part, Stewart sits as a thoroughfare for this lumber, serving as an important connection from land to sea as being the northern-most ice-free port in. Like much of  the province, there is a lack of  added value and wood innovation.Due to its natural spectacles of  forest mountains and nearby glaciers, Stewart has a fluctuating tourist population that peaks during the Summer months, with around 40,000 tourists coming to the town a year. Offering an interesting opportunity to combine the natural assets of  Stewart’s forests and its location as a logging thoroughfare.PROJECT SITE: STEWART, BCFigures 64-66Google Satellite Images gathered December 12 2019.HAIDA GWAIIGRAHAM ISLANDMORESBY ISLANDPRINCE RUPERTPORT HARDYKITIMATTERRACEKITSAULTMEZIADIN JUNCTIONNISGA’A37NISGA’A HWY3737161616BURNS LAKEHOUSTONKITWANGANISGA’A FORT FRASERTERRACEPRINCE GEORGECANADA/US BORDERCANADA/US BORDERSTEWARTHISTORICAL LOGGING OPERATIONSRAW LOG EXPORT*Note the change of scale to include both Stewart and Terrace below.CURRENT LOGGING OPERATIONSCITYCUTBLOCKLUMBERNFD 883737STEWARTCOASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCKMOUNTAIN HEMLOCKCOASTAL MOUNTAIN-HEATHER ALPINESUB BOREAL SPRUCEENGELMANN SPRUCE-ALPINEINTERIOR CEDARALPINE TUNDRA37AHosting the region’s Northernmost ice-free port, Stewart currently has no lumber processing infrastructure. Serving purely as a thoroughfare for the majority of the lumber acquired from the Skeena Valley area, means that the town is representative of both many other BC towns and of a key issue in the logging industry today, the over-reliance on raw log export. Lumber not exported directly from its port must go further south to towns like Terrace, for the nearest lumber processing facilities or retail stores. Likewise, if residents of Stewart require lumber, they must travel to these locations or have it brought in. While logging operations had occurred historically in the town, much of Stewart’s history has been subjected to the fluctuations of mining, and it itself has been left largely unlogged. Thus making it  lucky enough to sport lush and old growth forests characteristic of the Coastal Western Hemlock zone. 1 180 000 1 360 000MEZIADIN LAKE337N MEZIADIN JUNCTIONNASS RIVERNASS RIVERNASS RIVERUNDERSTANDING STEWART’S PLACE BIOGEOCLIMATIC ZONES3783 84Figure 67Understanding Stewart.85 86500mHistoric RailwayHigh TideLow TideSTEWART PORTBEAR RIVERBEAR RIVERHistoric Railway10010010005001000CANADAUSUSCANADAMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYHYDER, ALASKASALMON RIVERPORTLAND CANALUSCANADA37A37A37A37ADUNWELL CREEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIER CREEKWINACHE CREEKSILVERADO CREEKPORTLAND CREEK37A37AN TREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock (added)LEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHSPATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERSBUILDINGSICEFIELDWETLAND100M20M500    0  500         1000         1500        2000METERSSTEWARTTowns all across BC reflect a lack of innovation as well as decreasing available timber from climate change. While regulations exist to responsibly manage BC’s forests, comparatively to other countries it has very little. This has generally resulted in monoculture stands, old-growth harvesting and an over reliance on raw log export for fast and easy profit. Currently, the logging industry is largely disconnected from eco-tourism or other frameworks that are more in line with how the majority of Canadians experience their forests. Forests are indeed valued in Canadian society, but there is a disconnect between how forests are valued as cultural and wildlife spaces, and the logging of these forests for resources. Because of their natural assets eco-tourism was quite emphasized in the Stewart Official Community Plan as a major strength to take advantage of. Eco-tourism relies on the idea that green spaces are integral to not only a plethora of ecosystems but also to our enjoyment and wellbeing. The basis of this project attempts to integrate the industry of logging better with eco-tourism to begin to develop long term solutions for the industry as a whole and for communities like Stewart.SITE$$$$$$(LEFT) Figure 68Stewart site plan.(RIGHT) Figure 69Stewart boom and bust of industry.SNAPSHOTS OF STEWARTLOOKING SOUTH DOWN THE BEAR RIVER, AT STEWART, ITS AIR STRIP, PORT AND ESTUARY. LOOKING WEST INTO THE TOWN OF STEWART, AIRSTRIP ALONG THE BOTTOM. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT THE END / ENTRANCE TO STEWART. 87 88Figures 70-72Various helicopter photos of Stewart.NEARBY ESTUARY FOREST AMIDST THE BEAR RIVER STEWART’S PORTSNAPSHOTS OF STEWART89 90Figures 73-75Various photos of Stewart.Town of Stewart / Habitat pocketsRED ALDERAlnus rubraWESTERN RED CEDARThuja plicataWESTERN HEMLOCKTsuga heterophyllaSITKA SPRUCEPicea sitchensisDOUGLAS FIRTsuga heterophyllaBear RiverRed Cedar - Sitka SpruceDouglas Fir - Western Hemlock - SalalAlpine TundraCottonwood - AldersBIOGEOCLIMATIC ZONE: COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCKRiparian VegetationWestern Hemlock - Flat MossSTEWART’S FORESTS91 92Figure 76Stewart section.Figure 77Stewart forest composition.Source: Statistics Canada, Science, Innovation and Electronic Information Division.500mHistoric RailwayHigh TideLow TideSTEWART PORTBEAR RIVERBEAR RIVERHistoric Railway10010010005001000CANADAUSUSCANADAMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYHYDER, ALASKASALMON RIVERPORTLAND CANALUSCANADA37A37A37A37ADUNWELL CREEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIER CREEKWINACHE CREEKSILVERADO CREEKPORTLAND CREEK37A37A500    0  500         1000         1500        2000METERSN ForestGone Stewart$$$$$DECLINING FORESTS BUSTS OF RAW EXPORT LACK OF INNOVATION + VALUE1         5         10                   15                    20                    25                    30HARVEST FROM EXISTING STRANDSHARVEST FROM MANAGED STRANDS1 000 000900 000800 000700 000600 000500 000400 000300 000200 000100 000BASE HARVEST FORECAST 407 000 m3/YEAR10% / DECADE DECLINE2001: 1 142 000 m3/YEARHARVEST / YEAR (cubic meters)DECADES FROM NOWABOVE MINIMUM HARVESTABLE AGEBELOW MINIMUM HARVESTABLE AGEBILLIONS OF DOLLARSSource: Statistics Canada, CANSIM table 304-0014Value of shipments1995         1998         2001          2004      200620181614121086420VALUE ADDED PER HOUR WORKED, 1997=100Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, Income and Expenditure Accounts Division. Sawmills and wood preservationManufacturing sector1997         1998        1999         2000         2001         2002         2003         2004         200517016015014013012011010090$MILLIONSSource: Statistics Canada, / Prepared by BC Stats2015  2016     2017      2018        20198007006005004003002001000Lumber ExportsCURRENT: RAW LOG THOROUGHFARE93 94 (CENTER) Figure 78Stewart site plan. (RIGHT) Figures 79-82Busts of raw export and lack of innovation. 95 96As opposed to external entities applying for Licenses to Cut in Stewart, the town can apply for a Community Forest Agreement for the proposed site. These agreements designate areas of  forest for recreational, wildlife and tourist opportunities but also suggest harvest operations as a source of  recenue. To avoid the tendency of  fast monoculture replacement stands, Community Agreements can foster longer term commitments that remain within the community. The processes create many educational, creative and scenic opportunities.1. APPLY FOR COMMUNITY FOREST AGREEMENT2. LOG PROPOSED CUTBLOCKS3. CONSTRUCT STRUCTURES WITH HARVESTED LUMBER4. REFORESTATION / HABITAT REHABILITATION5. LOGGING ROADS + PATHS BECOME CIRCUIT6. REPEAT CYCLICALLY  (CENTER) Figure 83Stewart site plan.Figures 84Eco-circuit & icons. 97 98LOGISTICAL + VISUAL+ PLANT WESTERN RED CEDAR SEEDLINGTypical logging practices would end reforestation efforts here. With single group planting of often one species of tree that most quickly releases them from the responsibility of the recovery of the cutblock.Wood deemed unusable for commercial sale (slash) is typically gathered into piles and burned before replanting. Other options include finding uses in the construction of the structures for this project, or other potentials in wood pellet or pulp production.Until Stewart builds its own permanent lumber processing infrastructure within the town, mobile sawmills can be hired and brought in by local loggers to harvest the lumber.Lumber not used for the project can be sold or ideally further processed for sale or treatment. Stewart now has its own source of lumber. Historically, building materials have had to be shipped or trucked in.The Community Forest Agreement gives the responsibility of the forest back to the community. Allowing for more long-term involvement in the reforestation and habitat restoration.Stewart’s residenial and visiting artists and students could benefit in programs revolving around the building of birdhouses, the structures themselves and the reforestation efforts.+ PLANT DOUGLAS FIR, AND WESTERN HEMLOCK + BIRD HABITAT + PLANT DOUGLAS FIR, & SITKA SPRUCE + PLANT UNDERSTORY PLANTS (SALAL, BERRIES AND MORE) + MAINTAINENANCE   + FURTHER HABITAT RECOVERY & MONITORING  + FURTHER HABITAT RECOVERY & MONITORINGSLASH USECLEARCUT HARVEST / CONSTRUCTIONMobile SawmillNearby ProcessingCONSTRUCTIONREGROWTHREFORESTATIONREFORESTATION: TIMELINE PT.199 100 Figure 85Reforestation timeline. REPAIRMobile SawmillLOCAL ProcessingORREGROWTH REPEATHARVEST THINNING OF FOREST / CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR OF STRUCTURESCONSTRUCTION+ CONSIDER EXTENDING TRAIL CIRCUIT& CREATING NEW STRUCTURES REPLANTREGROWTHJust as older trees may fall, the structures may also fall into disrepair over time. As the forest is thinned and maintained, wood from this can help repair and upkeep the structures. Some structures may be removed to make way for other habitat, or to be rebuilt in the next cycle. The town is likely to have its own sawmill and processing facilities, making the process more efficient not only for the project, but for commercial sale and other uses within the community as well. As with all lasting cycles, the process is to be repeated over time, gradually developing as with any natural system.50 years10-25 yearsREFORESTATION: TIMELINE PT.2101 102 Figure 86Reforestation timeline. 50m950m500m2.5km 5km 7.5km 10km 12.5km 15km 17.5km50m950m The entire circuit can be completed in approximately 7.5 hours, with there being some variation in what route could be taken. There are either foot paths, often running through more sensitive areas or the main logging road to travel through,.1 hr 15 min 1 hr 15 min 7 hrs 30 min25 minCUTBLOCK 1 CUTBLOCK 1CUTBLOCK 2 CUTBLOCK 3 CUTBLOCK 4 CUTBLOCK 225 min56 min 56 min14 min 44 min 12 min 20 min 23 minJUNCTION13 min 11 min 21 minROUTE SECTION: THROUGH THE CIRCUITN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 103 104 Figure 87Circuit route.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000GRIZZLYWOLVERINEMARTENMOOSEMOUNTAIN GOATNORTHERN GOSHAWKSOOTY GROUSEBATSCOMMON NIGHTHAWKWESTERN SCREECH OWLBLACK SWIFTOLIVE SIDED FLYCATCHERVIEWS: CLAWS, HOOVES AND WINGS105 106 Figure 88Paws, hooves and wings maps. 3.2 max23 max4.1 maxSTRUCTURE TYPESSEQUENCE # NAME PLAN AXO SEQUENCE # NAME PLAN AXOINTERLOCKING1. TRI TOWER3. OLD GROWTH   TOWER 4.  MIRRORED   TOWERS5. WIDE TOWER6. FIREWATCH  TOWER2. MINI JUNCTION7. LONG BIRD   BLIND8. TREE HUGGER JUNCTION9. LODGE10. BIRD / BEAR BLIND107 108 Figure 89Structure type diagrams.StewartA NEW IMAGE A RENEWED CYCLERe-visualizing a community and method for tree harvest in a way reminiscent of the CPR’s visualizing of a nation. Experiencing the following forest circuit, encounters various landscapes while also reflecting the challenges and care that comprises such an effort.109 110 Figure 90Stewart vision illustrated.111 112THROUGH THE CIRCUIT“Now I know that is all that matters. [...] Search for the reality of each object, that is, its real and only beauty; recognize our relationship with all life; say to every animate and inanimate thing “brother”; be at one with all things, finding the divine in all; when one can do all this, maybe then one can paint. In the meantime one must go steadily on with open mind, courageously alert, waiting always for a lead, constantly watching, constantly praying, mediating much and not worrying.”“Hundreds and Thousands” in The Complete Writings of Emily Carr, p.675.Ada Sakowicz. Various painting snapshots through the cutblocks. 2020. Acrylic on canvas.A NEW PATH113 114 Figure 91Various snapshots of paintings.TABLE OF CONTENTSCUTBLOCK 1                                              119 1. TRI TOWER                                   123   2. MINI JUNCTION                         129  3. OLD GROWTH TOWER           135CUTBLOCK 2                                      139  4. MIRRORED TOWERS              145   5. WIDE TOWER                            151  CUTBLOCK 3                                            157 6. FIREWATCH TOWER               161 7. LONG BIRD BLIND                  167 8. TREE HUGGER JUNCTION   173CUTBLOCK 4                                            177 9. CAMPSITES                                183      10. BIRD / BEAR BLIND               189TO FOCUSTO REFLECTTO WATCHTO TRAVERSE115 116 Figure 92Table of contents forest.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000UP THE OLD LOGGING ROAD117 118 Figure 93Up the logging road.CUTBLOCK 1To FocusAda Sakowicz. At the End of the Clearcut.2020. Acrylic on canvas.119 Figure 94At the end of the clearcut.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 00023,743 m2 72,116 board ftN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000Fairly typical cutblock size with high point at top edge. Cutblock edges are narrowed, utilizing the hard edges of the cutblock to emphasize a focal point ahead of the viewer.The path weaves to climb the slope more gradually. The topmost structure completes the triangular form, with three views looking primarily West, North and East, onwards. A large portion of the circuit’s incline is traversed in this first section. The top provides views of the valley to the west and the circuit moving onwards, focusing the viewer’s journey forward.TO FOCUS1 structure: Tri tower = 1,114 board ft OR23,886 2x4x8s16,592 2x6x8s250m400m121 122Figure 95Cutblock 1 illustrations and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 00031West  SectionFOCAL POINTNorth  Section East Section1. TRI TOWERGround Level Second Level2x2x102x2x10.52x3x82x6x22x6x82x6x122x8x92x8x102x8x32x9x32x9x10 2x10x32x10x106x6x86x6x92x6x91 1/4x7x9123 124 At the top of the first cutblock sits the first tower. Triangular in form, it completes the form of the cutblock. Prior to major cuts in logging regulations in the 90s, Visual landscape manuals were produced for the logging industry. Abandoned since, they often prescribed more organic amoeba-like shapes to subvert the harsh edges. Here, the edges are emphasized. The edges narrow and focus the journey forward. The contrast of the landscapes can be striking, but with careful reforestation, will blend together over time.  Figure 96Tri Tower drawings and wood calculations.Entry NE View1. TRI TOWER125 126Figures 97-98Tri tower aperture renders  / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000INTO THE OLD GROWTH127 128Figure 99Into the old growth illustration & map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N6West  Elevation South  Section2. JUNCTIONGround Level East AxoTHREE PATHS2x6x96x6x66x12x8.56x12x106x12x19.5129 130 Upon entering the Old Growth Management area is the first of the mini junctions. Situated where three paths meet, the Viewer enters the curtain of 2x6’s that mimic a screen of trees.  These 2x6s are connected by 4x4 or 6x6 blocks at the top and bottom of the circle, forming differentiating gaps. Steel Flex-c tracks secure them in place. Momentarily obscuring the Viewer’s surroundings to open directly to other paths; back to the logging or onwards through the old growth. Here the Common Nighthawk is likely to swoop by, where the forest canopy opens slightly before thickening ahead.Figure 100Mini junction drawings and calculations. East Approach Within2. JUNCTION 131 132Figure 101Mini junction aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000APPROACH TO 3. OLD GROWTH TOWER133 134Figure 102Approach to old growth tower illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000NEast  Section South Section West  Section3. OLD GROWTH TOWER Ground Level3OFF THE EDGE TOWARDS STEWART2x2x102x2x62x2x82x2x52x3x84x4x82x6x82x4x92x9x94x4x96x6x91 1/4x7x92x6x72x4x102x6x102x8x10135 136 Just past the mini junction we enter the thick  grown- in forest of the Western Screech Owl. While these small owls are illusive during the day, nest boxes can be situated within these ideal woods from between 3-9m high. The small tower roots itself near a forest ledge, to open up to views gazing back South to Stewart and the Tri Tower that the viewer previously passed. As with all the tower structures, the outside is enveloped by 2x2s that interlock with one another. The openings produced will spread out towards the top of the structure.Figure 103OG Tower drawings and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000Entry South View3. OLD GROWTH TOWER137 138Figure 103OG Tower aperture renders / illustrations.139CUTBLOCK 2To ReflectAda Sakowicz. In Between. 2020. Acrylic on canvas. Figure 104In Between.162,500 m2 493,577 board ftN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000Two average cutblocks are paired with bufferzone typology in between. High points are indicated in the middles.Structures placed at same points in each, looking at one another. Multiple directions through and between the blocks to move throughout the circuit.Pathways are mirrored but differentiated. The first path has its forest remaining and its surroundings clearcut. While the road in the second remain cleared, with both cutblocks being reforested.  Viewers move along what will be an old growth path or the logged road, each will be surrounded in various stages of reforestation over time. Path to remain forestedGradually reforestedOR163,479 2x4x8s113,557 2x6x8s1 structure: Mirror tower = 1,331 board ft TO REFLECT250m325m141 142Figure 105Cutblock 2 illustrations and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000THROUGH CUTBLOCK 2143 144Figure 106Through cutblock 2 illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000North Section T1MIRROREDNorth Section T2East Section T1 West Section T24. MIRRORED TOWERSGround Level Second Level T1 Second Level T2N32x2x102x2x62x2x82x3x82x6x86x6x82x7x92x6x92x9x94x4x96x6x92x6x102x8x102x10x102x12x10 Back out of the Old Growth Management area lies the second cutblock site. Paired to reflect both forested and cleared paths, two towers sit in the middle facing one another. These towers look through the bufferzone in between the two cutblocks and their openings contrast one another. The first focuses on the clearcut regions in front of it and containing the opposite tower. While the second tower blocks  these out to open up to the logging roads running through the buffer and the mountain range ahead. 145 146Figure 107Mirrored Tower drawings and calculations.Tower 1 View Tower 2 View4. MIRRORED TOWERS147 148Figure 108Mirrored tower aperture renders / illustrations.APPROACHING 5. WIDE TOWERN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000149 150Figure 109Approach to wide tower illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000NE  SectionWIDE ANGLESE  Section SW  Section5. WIDE TOWER Ground LevelN35.72x2x102x2x62x2x82x6x84x4x82x3x82x6x92x8x92x7x94x4x96x6x92x4x102x8x102x10x102x2x9 Between structures 5 and 7 is a region of forest that thins and sinks into the ground, allowing for the Viewer to gaze further into the distance. The Wide tower stretches its opening to accommodate this, allowing for glimpses at the Sooty Grouse or  Olive-sided Flycatcher. To the left of the wide opening the Viewer can see ahead to the 7th structure and the 4th set of cutblocks, while also seeing the traversed logging road to the right. As with the other towers, the Viewer can note the interlocking wooden-screens that envelope each of these structures.151 152Figure 110Wide tower drawings and calculations.Corner Detail SE View5. WIDE TOWER153 154Figure 111Wide tower aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000TOWARDS 6. FIREWATCH TOWER155 156Figure 112Towards the firewatch tower illustration and map.Ada Sakowicz. All Clear.2020. Acrylic on canvas.CUTBLOCK 3To Watch157 Figure 113All clear.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000112,500 m2 341,707 board ftN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000TO WATCHTypical cutblock size with key high point indicated. Tallest tower structure to gaze in all four cardinal directions for near panoramic views. The Firewatch tower looks down the valleys of both Bear River and Bitter Creek (East) to watch for wildfires and monitor reforestation for much of the site. Offering a beacon of protection and observation.113,178 2x4x8s78,617 2x6x8s1 structure: Firewatch tower = 2,042.5 board ft OR450m250m159 160Figure 114Cutblock 3 illustrations and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 0003North Section East Section South Section6. FIREWATCH TOWERGround LevelIN THE MIDDLE Second Level Third LevelN2x2x102x4x32x6x42x10x62x12x6.52x6x82x6x92x7x96x6x82x8x91 1/4x7x94x4x96x6x92x6x102x8x102x10x102x12x102x14x10 In the most  prototypical cutblock stands the tallest of the tower structures. Gazing far in all directions, this structure stands in anticipation of a changing and warming climate. While all the towers are enveloped in screens consisting of 2x2s, these wooden members are lightly charred, contrasting the light wood of its hardy skeleton within. As a guarding beacon, the tower serves as an ideal monitoring point for wildfires and the surrounding reforestation efforts of the project. 161 162Figure 115Firewatch tower drawings and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000North View East view South view6. FIREWATCH TOWER163 164Figure 116Firewatch tower aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000TOWARDS 7. LONG BIRD BLIND165 166Figure 117Towards the long bird blind illustration and map.4 TYPES OF TREES/ CONIFERSN 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000SW Elevation7. LONG BIRD BLINDShort SectionGround Level NE AxoREACHINGN22.42x4x8.52x4x8.82x4x92x4x102x4x10.54x4x54x4x64x4x6.54x4x8.54x4x8.84x4x94x4x104x4x10.5 The long bird blind hugs the steep incline and then extends out past it to place the Viewer out towards the more open landscape. Here they may see the Sooty Grouse within the shrubs or the Common Nighthawk foraging for aerial insects. In the distance the 5th structure may be seen peeking through the trees. 167 168Figure 118Long bird blind drawings and calculations.Entry Within7. LONG BIRD BLIND169 170Figure 119Long bird blind aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000APPROACH TO 8. TREE HUGGER JUNCTION171 172Figure 120Approaching tree hugger junction illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 0008. TREE HUGGER JUNCTIONNW Section3 PATHS TO A C DARGround Level22.42x12x22x4x32x10x33x4x64x6x6 4x6x6.56x6x84x4x102x6x8 3x6x92x4x96x6x11N A larger version of the Mini Junction, this structure’s discrete openings lead the Viewer to intimately encounter a Western redcedar tree within its center. After encircling the cedar the viewer can see the openings leading out of the structure to continue. While the structure sits on footings built around the tree root extents, it will likely have to be rebuilt larger as the tree grows, growing along with it. 173 174Figure 121Tree hugger junction drawings and calculations.Entry Within8. TREE HUGGER JUNCTION175 176Figure 122Tree hugger junction aperture renders / illustrations.Ada Sakowicz. At the Cutblock’s Edge.2020. Acrylic on canvas.CUTBLOCK 4To Traverse177 Figure 123At the cutblock edge.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 00046,875 m2 142,378 board ft47,157 2x4x8s32,757 2x6x8s1 structure: Lodge = 846 board ft N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000Alternated for ideal views.MOUNTAINSCUTBLOCK 3GLACIERCUTBLOCKS 2 + 3Movement through. Campsites nestled along the edge of the forest.Cutblocks trimmed to emphasize walking along the edge.The cutblocks emphasize the act of traversing the landscape.. While shifting back and forth between logged, reforested and forested areas, the issues and wonders are readily reflected. Over time, the edges will blur and merge together.ORTO TRAVERSE125m179 180Figure 124Cutblock 4 illustrations and calculations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000APPROACHING 9. LODGES & CAMPSITES181 182Figure 125Approaching lodges and campsites illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000NW Elevation Section9. LODGES AND CAMPSITESGround Level53NLOOK BOTH WAYS2x6x84x4x8.5 4x4x94x4x10 The entirety of the route can be completed in 7.5 hours, but for those that wish to extend their stay the 4th set of cutblocks offers wood mulch campsites and some simple covered structures. Situated at the edge, these structures gradually solidify as they recede into the forest. Marking a blending of wooded forest to wooden structure. While also taking note of the gradation between tree to structure. These can be walled off or remain open to serve as covered areas to eat or rest.  183 184Figure 126Lodges and campsites drawings and calculations.9. LODGES AND CAMPSITESFrom inside Cutblock 4.2, looking NW From inside Cutblock 4.3, looking SE185 186Figure 127Lodge aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000THROUGH CUTBLOCKS 4187 188Figure 128Through cutblocks 4 illustration and map.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000NW Elevation10. BIRD / BEAR BLINDShort SectionGround LevelNA BEND IN THE ROAD2x6x86x6x66x6x8 While the whole area surrounding Stewart is known for hosting Grizzly bears, this site near the end of the circuit is supposed to have a higher likelihood of them foraging nearby. This structure questions the notions of boundary. Here, the spaces between bear and person are delineated as separate. While the ends of the structure are built  like a typical fence, the panels transform into gradually spaced 2x6 members in the same method as the Mini Junction . The openings space widest at a prime viewing point towards the water. 189 190Figure 129Bird / bear blind drawings and calculations.Entry10. BIRD / BEAR BLIND191 192Figure 130Bird / bear blind aperture renders / illustrations.N 500       0  500  1000  1 : 10 000 METERSHistoric Railway10050037A37ADUNWELL C REEK           GLACIER RIVERGLACIE R CREEKWINACHE CREEKMUNICIPAL BOUNDARYLEGENDTREE COVERWATERLUMBERPATHS+PATHS+LOG RDSROADSUNPAVEDBORDERS+STRUCTUREICEFIELDWETLAND100M20MTREESWestern HemlockAlpineCottonwoodOld Growth Management AreaRed AlderSpruceMountain HemlockCutblock50010001000100    BITTER CREEKSITE PLAN 1 10 000BACK TO THE BEGINNING193 194Figure 131Bear on the road illustration.“But there are spirits of a yet more liberal culture, to whom no simplicity is barren. There are not only stately pines, but fragile flowers, like the orchises, commonly described as too delicate for cultivation, which derive their nutriment from the crudest mass of peat. These remind us, that, not only for strength, but for beauty, the poet must, from time to time, travel the logger’s path and the Indian’s trail, to drink at some new and more bracing fountain of the Muses, far in the recesses of the wilderness.” Henry D. Thoreau (1966) from Chesuncook Part 4 in The Maine Woods.195 196 Figure 132Various snapshots of apertures.4 TYPES OF TREES/ CONIFERS4 TYPES OF TREES/ CONIFERS197 198FOCUSING, REFLECTING, WATCHING, & TRAVERSING.Big Lonely Doug may have been the catalyst that determined this thesis topic, but a lifetime of  road-trips, birdwatching, a degree in English and Fine Arts and finally in Architecture lead to this exploration.Both the architecture world and myself  are fascinated by wooden possibilities and in Canada it forms most of  our buildings. While I stepped into this endeavour void of  any forestry or logging background, it has subsequently allowed me to explore practically all of  my interests and passions. Consequently, I sought to blend many things together; logging, architecture, art, eco-systems, wood construction, politics... I don’t believe the logging industry to be entirely problematic, but researching it proved difficult and shrouded in mystery and oppositions. Some praising rigorous laws, some claiming the forests had been privatized, some wished for no tree to be touched and others who would rather log it all. But these issues and lack of  clarity are what suggested a rich grounds for resolution. The multi-faceted world of  architecture offers such potential through the organizing of  information, the designing of  space and in producing representations CONCLUSIONof  not only how to technically construct them but visualize them as a new potential world.Despite researched theory or placement, mapped boundaries and routes, the spaces in this project are not etched into the landscape as ones of  division or dictation. But rather as ones that grow alongside each-other and that merge within the forest. Man-made wooden structure is a uniquely articulated form of  tree, just as much a part of  its cycle as any other. The cutblocks seek to blend reforestation efforts that in turn frame critical ideas of  focusing, reflecting, observing and traversing. The structures open, block, expand and accentuate both logging typologies and more typical yet stunning forested spectacles. The project attempted to visualize how natural forest cycles can merge with the processes of  architecture, logging, reforestation and habitat rehabilitation. To shed light on logging issues but also to show that these processes can be parts of  the same whole. For the sake of  the people, for the animals, ecosystems, industry, and for the forest, to see the trees. Figure 133Forested backdrop illustration.199 200BIBLIOGRAPHYAinslie, Henry Francis. (1842). Barracks at London, Canada West. 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