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In-Between Density : Distributing the Domestic in Single-Family Neighbourhoods Sikora, Julie 2019-12-19

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I n - B e t w e e n  D e n s i t y :Distr ibut ing the Domest ic in Single-Family  NeighbourhoodsbyJul ie SikoraB.Des. ,  Univers i ty  of  Alberta,  2015Submitted in part ia l  fu l f i l lment of  the requirements for  the degree of Master of  Architecture in The Faculty of  Graduate Studies, School  of  Architecture and Landscape Architecture,  Architecture ProgramCommittee: Dr.  Sara Stevens (Chair,  GP2 Advisor)Mari  Fuj i ta (GPI Advisor)Fernanda Hannah-Suarez (Adjunct Faculty Committee)Darren Huebert  (External  Committee)Dr.  Sara Stevens (GP2 Chair )Mari  Fuj i ta (GPI Advisor) Univers i ty  of  Br i t ish Columbia,  VancouverDecember 2019© Jul ie Sikorai iA b s t r a c t   Within a North American context,  ‘s ingle-family ’  neighbourhoods have set l imits  on urban centres,  restr ict ing their  abi l i ty  to densi fy  and adapt to new urban condit ions.  Whi le s ingle-family  housing development was a common form of accommodating a rapid increase in populat ion,  today’s  extremely high land values,  previous housing pract ices and i t ’s  subsequent urban pol ic ies have created a div ide between classes and generat ions.  The s ingle family home is  faci l i tat ing this  div ide,  and neglects the evolv ing cultural  values and needs of  urban places. This  project  proposes a new strategy for  the future development of  Delamont park,  a block of  22 c i ty  owned houses located along the Arbutus Greenway in Vancouver’s  Kits i lano Neighbourhood. Creat ing a connect ion within the neighbourhood to the rest  of  the city, through proposed pathways and a focus on semi-publ ic  gradients of  interst i t ia l  spaces,  the range of  design intervent ions invest igates how cit izens wi l l  cont inue to inhabit  the house whi le making room for new forms of  density.Through the proposed re-development of  Delamont Park,  this  project  intends to understand the ‘s ingle-family ’  home not s imply as an object  and an ideal ,  but rather as a dynamic element in the city  that shi f ts  expectat ions as to how we occupy neighbourhoods and co-exist  as diverse groups of  people.i i ii vvC o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t L i s t  o f  F i g u r e sA c k n o w l e d g m e n tD e d i c a t i o nF i e l d  o f  I n q u i r yP a r t  1 :T h e  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  H o u s e ( T H E N )U r b a n  D e v e l o p m e n tT h e  H o u s e  a s  a  S y m b o lW h a t ’ s  t h e  P r o b l e m ?( N O W )G e n e r a t i o n a l  S h i f tT h e  H o u s e  a s  a  C o m m o d i t yT h e  F u t u r e  o f  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  N e i g h b o u r h o o d s( F U T U R E )R e - z o n i n g  f o r  d u p l e x e s V a n c o u v e r  a s  a n  E x a m p l e P a r t  2 :I n - B e t w e e n  D e n s i t y( P R O J E C T  P R O P O S A L )S i t e  S e l e c t i o nH i s t o r y  o f  D e l a m o n tS i t e  A n a l y s i sP r o p o s e d  I n t e r v e n t i o n sM o v i n g  F o r w a r dA p p e n d i x  A :  D e s i g n  D e v e l o p m e n tA p p e n d i x  B :  U r b a n  A n a l y s i sB i b l i o g r a p h y. . .   i i i. . .   v i  -  x i. . .   x i i i. . .   x v. . .   0 3. . .   0 5  -  19. . .    0 6  -  1 7. . .    1 8  -  1 9. . .   21  -  2 7. . .    2 2  -  2 4. . .    2 5  -  2 7. . .   2 9  -  3 5. . .    3 0  -  3 3. . .    3 4  -  3 5. . .   3 7  -  7 7. . .    3 8  -  4 1      . . .    4 2  -  4 7. . .    4 8  -  5 1. . .    5 2  -  7 5. . .    7 6. . .   7 9  -  8 7. . .   8 9  -  121. . .   12 2  -  12 5v iL i s t  o f  F i g u r e s Figure 1: The Past and Present of Single Family Homes - Author’s Collage, 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2: Canadian Urban and Rural Population, 1861 & 2011 - Author’s Il lustration, 2019. Data from                Government of Canada, “Canada Goes Urban”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www150.statcan.               gc.ca/n1/pub/11- 630- x/11-630-x2015004-eng.htm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 3: World population in millions, 2005 & 2050 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Jan Gehl, 2010.               “Cities for people”. Washington, DC; Island Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 4: Degree of urbanization worldwide 1900, 2007 & 2050 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Jan Gehl,                2010. “Cities for people”. Washington, DC; Island Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 5: Population Growth in Selected Western Cities, 1900/01 - 1910/11 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data                from Norbert MacDonald, A Critical Growth Cycle for Vancouver, 1900-1914, Accessed online April                2019. https://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/bcstudies/article/view/769/811 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 6: Toronto, Montréal, Vancouver Population, 2011 - 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from               Government of Canada, “Census Profile, 2016 Census”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www12.              statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 7: Canada’s Urban and Rural Population 1851 - 2011 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government                of Canada, “Canada’s rural population since 1851”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www12.               statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-310-x/98-310-x2011003_2-eng.cfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 8: Ultimate Transportation Routes in Central Business District & Vicinity, 1929. Bartholomew (Harland)                and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British                Columbia”. Accessed online April 2019. https://archive.org/details/vancplanincgen00vanc . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 9: A streetcar on the Kitsilano line on 4th Avenue at Waterloo Street, 1909. The City of Vancouver               Archives 7-79. Accessed online April 2019. https://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-first-run-of-              streetcar-on-4th-avenue-from-waterloo-street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 10: Granville Townsite, 1886. Vancouver City Planning Commission, “Granville Townsite                 Established 1870. Accessed online April 2019. http://vancouverplanning.ca/blog/granville-                townsite-1870/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 11: Suburb Street Pattern Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 12: Metro Vancouver and Surrounding Street Pattern Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 13: Vancouver in the 1880s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver:                 A Visual History”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 14: Vancouver in the 1900s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver:                 A Visual History” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 15: Vancouver in the 1920s  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver:                 A Visual History” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 16: Vancouver in the 1960s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver:                 A Visual History” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p g .0 2 0 70 70 70 80 90 91 01 01 01 11 11 21 21 21 2v i iFigure 17: 1927 Interm zoning bylaw for the City of Vancouver, 1930. Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates,                  St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”.  Accessed                  online April 2019. https://archive.org/details/vancplanincgen00vanc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 18: Types of Residential Buildings, 1927  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bartholomew                 (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver,                 British Columbia”. Accessed online April 2019. https://archive.org/details/vancplanincgen00vanc . .Figure 19: Height Restrictions & Roof Type Restrictions in Residential Neighbourhoods, 1927 - Author’s                 Graphics, 2019. Information from Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the                 South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”. Accessed online April 2019. https://                archive.org/details/vancplanincgen00vanc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 20: Vancouver’s Typical 33’ x 120’ Lot Development Patterns, 1900 - 1988 - Author’s Graphics, 2019.                  Information from John Punter, “The Vancouver achievement: Urban planning and design” . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 21: Vancouver’s Typical Lot Development Patterns - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from John                 Punter, “The Vancouver Achievement: Urban planning and design” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 22: Vancouver Housing Styles, 1800 - 1940s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Vancouver                 Heritage Foundation, “House Styles by Name and Era”. Accessed online April 2019. https://www.                vancouverheritagefoundation.org/learn-with-us/discover-vancouvers-heritage/vancouver-house-                styles/house-styles/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 23: Vancouver Housing Styles, 1930s - present - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Vancouver                 Heritage Foundation, “House Styles by Name and Era”. Accessed online April 2019. https://www.                vancouverheritagefoundation.org/learn-with-us/discover-vancouvers-heritage/vancouver-house-                              styles/house-styles/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 24: “It’s a promise!”, General Electric Advertisement. Accessed online April 2019. https://www.                 researchgate.net/figure/This-early-1940s-ad-focuses-on-what-the-advertiser-General-Electric-                 thinks-is-really_fig10_236890238 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 25: “A Home of your own”. Author unknown. Accessed online April 2019. xroads.virginia.edu . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 26: Households, adults, and children, by country and dwelling type based on Canada census 2006 and                  U.S. American Community Survey 2006 data. - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Lauster,                  Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The death and life of the single-family house:                  Lessons from vancouver on building a livable city . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 27: The Sikora’s Circa 1970, Edmonton, Alberta - Author’s scanned image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 28: The Sikora’s Circa 1993 ,Edmonton, Alberta - Author’s scanned image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 29: Canadian increase in household size and number, 1871 - 2010 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data                 from Government of Canada, “Families, households and marital status: Key results from the 2016                 Census”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/170802/                dq170802a-eng.htm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... . .1 31 41 41 41516171818 1 81 91 92 2v i i iFigure 30: Average housing price vs. average annual fil l-time income of Canadians, 1998 to 2012 - Author’s                 Graphics, 2019.  Data from Government of Canada, “Canadian Income Survey, 2012”. Accessed                 online April 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1110023901 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 31: Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14, 15 to 64, and 65 and over, Canada, 1921 to 2061 -                 Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Governemnt of Canada, “Canadian Demographics at a Glance                 - Second edition”. Accessed online April 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/91-003-x/91-                003-x2014001-eng.pdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 32: Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and over, Canada, 2011 to 2016 - Author’s                 Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Canadian Demographics at a Glance - Second                 edition”. Accessed online April 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/91-003-x/91-003-                x2014001-eng.pdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 33: Canadian increase in household size and number, 1871 - 2010 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from                Government of Canada, “The shift to smaller households over the past century”. Accessed online                 April 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-630-x/11-630-x2015008-eng.htm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 34: Vancouver household size increase by neighbourhood - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from                 Vancouver Magazine, “Vancouver’s Growing Homes”, April 20, 2015. Accessed online April 2019.                 https://www.vanmag.com/vancouvers-growing-homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 35: Households by Household Type in Metro Vancouver, 2001-2011 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data                 from Government of Canada, “Household & Family Structure in Metro Vancouver, 2011 Census                 Bulletin #5”. Accessed online April 2019. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-                planning/PlanningPublications/Census2011-Families.pdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 36: Metro Vancouver - Housing Demolitions 2000 - 2015  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Visual  Capitalist, Vancouver Real Estate Mania. Accessed online April 2019. https://www.visualcapitalist. com/vancouver-real-estate-mania/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 37: The Missing Middle  - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 38: Housing Vancouver 10-year Targets - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from The City of Vancouver,   “Making Room Housing Program: Overview and Quick Start Actions”. Accessed online April 2019.  https://vancouver.ca/people-programs/making-room.aspx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 39: Metro Vancouver Housing types 1991- 2016  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from The City  of Vancouver, “Metro Vancouver Housing Data Book”, 2010. Accessed online April 2019. http:// www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/MV_Housing_Data_Book. pdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 40: Proposed duplex option for RS Zones, Representing 57% of Vancouver’s Landmass - Author’s                 Graphics, 2019. Data from Urbanarium Smart City Talk “The Single-Family Zone is dead. What                 now?, April 17, 2019. Accessed online April 2019. https://urbanarium.org/single-family-zone-dead-    what-now-video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 22 32 32 42 42 42 52 62 62 73 1i xFigure 41: Vancouver neighbourhood population and area, 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from  Statistics Canada, 2016 census analysis. Accessed online April 2019. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/ census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 42: Dwelling Density in the City of Vancouver, 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from  Statistics Canada, 2016 census analysis. Accessed online April 2019. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/ census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 43: Vancouver Residents who Rent their Houses, 2018 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from  Statistics Canada / The Globe and Mail. February 01, 2018. “In Vancouver, a ‘single Family’ House  Often Isn’t.” Accessed 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/real-estate/vancouver/in- vancouver-a-single-family-house-often-isnt/article37802086/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 44: City of Vancouver Owned Property, Kitsilano and Delamont outlined, and future Skytrain extension  line - Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 45: Delamont’s Larger Neighbourhood Context - Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 46: Delamont’s Larger Neighbourhood Context, zoomed in - Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 47: Delamont, Vancouver 1927 Fire Insurance Map. Bruce MacDonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.”  Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 48: Delamont, Vancouver 2018 Building foot prints- Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 49: Delamont, Vancouver 1927 + 2018 Map overlay - Author’s Graphics, 2019.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 50: Delamont, Vancouver site Plan 2018 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Additional information from Bruce  MacDonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010.Figure 51: Site Section through West 7th Avenue, Looking South - Author’s Graphics, 2019 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 52: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking North - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 53: Site Section through West 5th Avenue, Looking South  - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 54: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking South  - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 55: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking North - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 55: Site Section through Arbutus Street, Looking East  - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 56: Delamont, Vancouver History and Timeline - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce  MacDonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010.Figure 57: Circulation, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 58: Pathways and Corridors, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 59: Barriers, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 60: Disrepair, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 61: Transitioning Area, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 62: Front Yard Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 63: Backyard Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 64: Garden Suite Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 23 33 53 94 04 14 24 24 34 44 54 54 54 54 54 54 6 - 4 74 84 84 94 94 95 05 05 0xFigure 65: Porch Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 66: Back Door Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 67: Front Street Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 68: The Site as a House Concept Diagram - Author’s Graphics, 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 69: The Missing Middle Affordability Spectrum - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Haeccity,  “Micro-Op”, Urbanarium Missing Middle Competition, 2019. Accessed online October 2019.  https://www.haeccity.com/missingmiddle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 70: Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 71: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 72: Proposed Community Shed, Garden view looking North, with etched transparent overlay and  collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 73: Proposed Community Shed Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 74: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 75: Proposed Common Community Dining, Street View Looking North, etched transparent overlay and  collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 76: Proposed Common Community Dining Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 77: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 78: Proposed Common Staircase + Storage with etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s  Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 79: Proposed Common Staircase + Storage, Elevation and Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 80: Phase 02 + 03 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 81: Proposed Backyard Infill with etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . .Figure 82: Proposed Backyard Infill pathway, relationship plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 83: Phase 04 + 05 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 84: Proposed In-between Space of Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill. Community Garden View Looking  West, etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 85: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill, Reference Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 86: Proposed West 6th Avenue Pedestrian Street, Greenway View Looking West - Author’s Graphics,   2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 87: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill Zoomed in Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 88: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 89: Proposed Common Community Dining - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 90: Proposed Community Shed - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 91: Proposed Single-lot Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 92: Proposed Common Stair - Author’s Graphics, 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 93: Proposed Backyard Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 94: Proposed Townhome Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 15 15 15 25 45 55 65 65 75 85 85 96 06 06 16 26 26 36 46 46 56 56 66 76 76 76 86 86 86 8x iFigure 95: Site Axonometric Drawing - Delamont’s Proposed Re-Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . .Figure 96: Board 1 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 97: Board 2 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 98: Board 3 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 99: Board 4 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 100: 1:1250 Site Model - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 101: 1:1250 Site Model Close Up - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 102: 1:1250 Site Model , Top View - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 103: 1:500 Site Model - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 104: 1:500 Site Model  Close up - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 105: 1:500 Site Model, Top View  - Author’s Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 97 07 17 27 37 47 47 47 57 57 5x i ix i i iA c k n o w l e d g m e n t  F i rst  and foremost,  I  would l ike to thank my thesis  advisor,  Sara Stevens for  her wisdom and support  throughout the durat ion of  this  graduat ion project .  Further thanks goes to Fernanda Hannah-Suarez and Darren Huebert ,  my external  committee members who generously donated their  t ime and feedback to the development of  this  project .  Al l  of  your enthusiasm and support  throughout this  process was invaluable. Thank you to Bruce Macdonald,  Sean McEwan, and Quentin Wright for  shar ing your knowledge about the development of  Mole Hi l l  and potent ial  of  Delamont Park.  You led me to invest igate the perfect  s i te for  this  project .Thank you to my parents.  As my unoff ic ia l  Research Assistants,  I  a lways valued your opinions and thoughts about what I  was working on.  Thank you to my fr iends in Popsic le Bay for  the posit ive energy in studio this  term! Further thanks goes to al l  of  the incredible people I  have met during my t ime at  SALA. I  am incredibly thankful  for  the l i fe long fr iendships that have been formed over the years. Thank you Ol iv ia Bul l ,  Jesse Martyn,  Kathy Oke,  and Emily  Scoular  for  spar ing your t ime and enthusiasm in the f inal  hours of  product ion of  this  graduation project .  I  look forward to the possibi l i ty  and good fortune of  working with you al l  again! Thank you Jesse for  your support  and companionship throughout this  whole process -  I wouldn’t  have made i t  through this  without you!x i vxvD e d i c a t i o n  To my parents. Thank you for  your uncondit ional  love and support . I n - B e t w e e n  D e n s i t y :Distr ibut ing the Domest ic in Single-Family  Neighbourhoods01Figure 1: The Past and Present of Single Family Homes - Author’s CollageReferencing moments in history and aspects of the home as a commodity, product, and economic model in a post industrialized society, the structure of the home has influenced the way our cities have developed, and remain a defining feature in our urban landscape. 02F i e l d  o f  I n q u i r y“Typically we portray the dominant—the single-family detached suburban house—as the cultural norm, the ideal and standard. Even the term for the physical structure of the dwelling—the “single family” house—presumes a certain social structure. And this intermingling of concept, terminology, and social agenda is embedded in our various discourses, legislative as well as popular and professional.” 1The current real i ty  of  Vancouver’s  s ingle-family  neighbourhoods,  is  that  s ingle-detached dwel l ings are often occupied by more than one family  or  group of  people.  Whi le plans to incremental ly  densi fy  these areas are already underway,  through the recent re-zoning of s ingle-family  neighbourhoods,  ecodensity  laneway init iat ives,  and secondary suites,  the development pattern and structure of  the s ingle-family  lot  remains.  Reconsidering the constraints of  lot  div is ions and landownership,  new bui l t  forms need to ref lect  the future and current demands of  the populat ions -  mindful  of  the past  factors leading up to i t ’s development. The focus of  part  one of  this  Graduation Project  a ims to create a general  resource and reference tool  used to understand the exist ing urban and cultural  condit ions of  s ingle-family neighbourhoods.  Differ ing from sprawl ing,  car  dependent suburban developments of  typical s ingle-family  neighbourhoods,  the connected street patterns of  Vancouver s i tuate s ingle-family  dwel l ings within an already exist ing urban context of  connected neighbourhoods.  In this  context,  the house is  an urban condit ion,  and should continue to develop and evolve with the city  as a whole.Part  two of  this  Graduation Project  explores the possible future development of  Delamont park,  a block of  22 c i ty  owned houses located in Vancouver’s  Kits i lano neighbourhood. Using the s i te as a test ing ground, a ful l  spectrum of miss ing middle development,  f rom subdividing the s ingle family  house to creat ing new forms of  inf i l l  is  explored.  The focus for  development wi l l  a im to create a range of  intervent ions that integrate semi-publ ic  gradients of  in-between spaces. 031 Ahrentzen, Sherry B. “Choice in Housing.” Housing and Community No., no. 8. Accessed December 2018. http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/8/choice-in-housing. 0405P a r t  1 :T h e  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  H o u s e ( T H E N )U r b a n  D e v e l o p m e n tU r b a n i z a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t  o f  t h e  C i t yT h e  S i n g l e - d e t a c h e d  L o tD e v e l o p m e n t  o f  t h e  H o u s e T h e  H o u s e  a s  a  S y m b o lT h e  H o u s e  a s  a  p r o m i s e T h e  H o u s e  a s  t h e  ‘ N o r m ’. . .   0 5  -  19. . .    0 6  -  1 7. . .    2 0  -  2 12 . 7  m i l l i o n8 4 %C a n a d i a n s  l i v e d  i n  R u r a l  A r e a si n  18 61* R u r a l  A r e a s :g e n e r a l l y ,  a n  a r e a  w i t h  a p o p u l a t i o n  u n d e r  10 0 0 *2 7  m i l l i o n81 %C a n a d i a n s  l i v e d  i n  U r b a n  A r e a si n  2 011=  10 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e=  10 0  0 0 0  p e o p l eFigure 2: Canadian Urban and Rural Population, 1861 & 2011 - Author’s Illustration, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Canada Goes Urban”061 9 0 02 0 0 72 0 5 0c o u n t r yc i t y5 0 % 5 0 %2 5 % 7 5 %9 0 % 1 0 %D e g r e e  o f  U r b a n i z a t i o n  W o r l d w i d e2 0 0 52 0 5 0O t h e r sL a t i n  A m e r i c aa n d  C a r i b b e a nI n d u s t r i a l i s e dc o u n t r i e sA f r i c aA s i aW o r l d  P o p u l a t i o n  i n  M i l l i o n s1 4 4 83 3 4 43 4 91 2 3 47 5 49 5 04 3 36 8 31 8 01 8 8T h e  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  H o u s e (THEN)  U r b a n  D e v e l o p m e n tUrbanizat ion  Over the last  century,  s ince the birth of  industr ia l ized cit ies,  a shi f t  f rom populat ions occupying rural  to urban areas can be noted as the process of  urbanizat ion .  Seen as a complex process that has s ignif icant ly  inf luenced human sett lement patterns,  this  condit ion arose from “economic,  social ,  technological ,  demographic,  pol i t ical ,  and environmental  changes” on both a local  and global  scale. 2Since the beginning of  the twentieth century,  the total  world populat ion has rapidly grown, increasing from approximately 1.65 bi l l ion people in 1900 to s ix  bi l l ion in 2000.3  This  cont inual growth is  expected to reach nine bi l l ion by 2050,  where near ly  75% of the world’s  populat ion wi l l  be l iv ing in urban areas (Figure 4) . 3 Specif ical ly,  in Canada,  more and more people are choosing to l ive in urban cit ies,  making up over 80% of Canada’s populat ion (Figure 2) ;  Toronto,  Montréal ,  and Vancouver being Canada’s largest  urban centers (Figure 6) .  As cont inual  growth and expansion happens within exist ing urban contexts,  we wi l l  need to consider how we wi l l  deal  with the “social  phenomena, dynamics and issues” that wi l l  effect  the “everyday l ives of  many people.”42 “Urbanization.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed 2019. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/urbanization.3 Gehl, Jan. 2010. Cities for people. Washington, DC: Island Press.4 Turcotte, Martin. “The City/suburb Contrast: How Can We Measure It?” December 11, 2007. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-008-x/2008001/article/10459-eng.htm.Figure 3: World population in millions, 2005 & 2050 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Jan Gehl, 2010. “Cities for people”Figure 4: Degree of urbanization worldwide 1900, 2007 & 2050 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Jan Gehl, 2010. “Cities for people” “More than half of the world population now lives in cities, and the percentage is expected to rise to 75% before 2050.”407S a n  F r a n s i s c oP o r t l a n dS e a t t l eV a n c o u v e r=  1 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * p o p u l a t i o n  b e t w e e n  1 9 0 0 / 0 1=  1 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * i n c r e a s e d  n u m b e r  i n  p o p u l a t i o n  b e t w e e n  1 9 1 0 / 1 108C i t y     P o p u l a t i o n  P o p u l a t i o n             P o p u l a t i o n  G r o w t h  19 0 0 / 01  -  1910 / 11    19 0 0 / 01      1910 / 11                N u m b e r         P e r c e n t a g eL o s  A n g e l e s    10 2 , 4 9 7   319 ,19 8                216 , 7 01         211 %S a n  F r a n s i s c o    3 4 2 , 7 8 2   4 16 , 912                  74 ,13 0          2 2 %P o r t l a n d         9 0 , 4 2 6     2 0 7, 214             116 , 7 8 8         12 9 %S e a t t l e      8 0 , 671   2 3 7,194             15 6 , 5 2 3         194 %T a c o m a      3 7, 714      8 3 , 74 3              4 6 , 0 2 9          2 2 %Va n c o u v e r         2 7, 010   10 0 , 4 01              7 3 , 3 91         2 71 %V i c t o r i a         2 0 , 919     31 , 6 6 0              10 , 74 1           51 %S p o k a n e        3 6 , 8 4 8    10 4 , 4 0 2              67, 5 5 4         18 3 %C a l g a r y       4 , 4 9 8        4 3 , 7 0 4              3 9 , 3 0 6         8 94 %E d m o n t o n           2 , 6 2 6    2 4 , 9 0 0              2 2 , 2 74         8 4 8 %   Figure 5: Population Growth in Selected Western Cities, 1900/01 - 1910/11 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Norbert MacDonald, A Critical Growth Cycle for Vancouver, 1900-1914P o p u l a t i o n  G r o w t h  i n  S e l e c t e d  We s t e r n  C i t i e s ,  19 0 0 / 01  -  1910 / 115 Keil, Roger. 2018. Suburban planet: Making the world urban from the outside in. Cambridge, UK;Medford, MA, USA;: Polity Press. 09Figure 7: Canada’s Urban and Rural Population 1851 - 2011 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Canada’s rural population since 1851”T o r o n t oM o n t r é a lV a n c o u v e r=  1 0 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * p o p u l a t i o n  i n  2 0 1 1=  1 0 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * i n c r e a s e d  p o p u l a t i o n  i n  2 0 1 6R u r a lU r b a n1 8 7 11 8 6 11 8 5 1C a n a d a ʼ s  U r b a n  a n d  R u r a l  P o p u l a t i o n ,  1 8 5 1  -  2 0 1 11 8 8 11 9 1 11 9 0 11 8 9 11 9 2 11 9 4 11 9 3 11 9 5 11 9 6 11 9 7 11 9 9 11 9 8 12 0 0 12 0 1 11 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0T o r o n t o ,  M o n t r é a l ,  Va n c o u v e r  P o p u l a t i o n ,  2 011  -  2 016C i t y     P o p u l a t i o n  P o p u l a t i o n               P o p u l a t i o n  G r o w t h  2 011  -  2 016    2 011   2 016                      N u m b e r           P e r c e n t a g eT o r o n t o     5 , 5 8 3 , 0 6 4  5 , 9 2 8 , 0 4 0               3 4 4 , 9 76           6 . 2 %M o n t r é a l       3 , 9 3 4 , 0 7 8  4 , 0 9 8 , 9 2 7               16 4 , 8 4 9           4 . 2 %Va n c o u v e r       2 , 313 , 3 2 8  2 , 4 6 3 , 4 31               15 0 ,10 3           6 . 5 %Figure 6: Toronto, Montréal, Vancouver Population, 2011 - 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Census Profile, 2016 Census”T o r o n t oM o n t r é a lV a n c o u v e r=  1 0 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * p o p u l a t i o n  i n  2 0 1 1=  1 0 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e      * i n c r e a s e d  p o p u l a t i o n  i n  2 0 1 6R u r a lU r b a n1 8 7 11 8 6 11 8 5 1C a n a d a ʼ s  U r b a n  a n d  R u r a l  P o p u l a t i o n ,  1 8 5 1  -  2 0 1 11 8 8 11 9 1 11 9 0 11 8 9 11 9 2 11 9 4 11 9 3 11 9 5 11 9 6 11 9 7 11 9 9 11 9 8 12 0 0 12 0 1 11 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0“As the world continues it’s Urban Revolution, attention needs to be paid to how this is related to the specific process of spatial, economic and social peripheralization characterizing urbanization today”5 Specifically in Canada, we need to consider how we will move forward in developing our urban cities to accommodate our growing urban populations.10Figure 9: A streetcar on the Kitsilano line on 4th Avenue at Waterloo Street, 1909. The City of Vancouver Archives 7-79.Figure 8: Ultimate Transportation Routes in Central Business District & Vicinity, 1929. Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”As represented in Harland Bartholomew’s 1930 plan, this map outlines existing and proposed street car lines, organizing the city’s block development pattern into a series of connected neighbourhoods. Figure 10: Granville Townsite, 1886, Vancouver City Planning Commission, “Granville Townsite Established 1870”The streetcar can be seen as an element that drove urban growth, making the city more mobile, connecting the expanding development of housing areas to more separate commercial and industrial development within the city.6 Desjardins, Jeff. "Infographic: Vancouver Real Estate Mania." Visual Capitalist. June 02, 2016. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/vancouver-real-estate-mania/.Figure 11: Suburb Street Pattern Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019. M i d  19 t h c e n t u r y s q u a r e b l o c k  g r i dT u r n - o f -t h e - c e n t u r y s t r e e t c a r s u b u r b sE a r l y  2 0 t h c e n t u r yg a r d e n s u b u r b sM i d  2 0 t h c e n t u r y a u t o m o b i l e s u b u r b s ( c u l - d e - s a c s )L a t e  2 0 t h c e n t u r y a u t o m o b i l e s u b u r b s( c u l - d e - s a c s ) 19 9 0 s N e w U r b a n i s mD o w n t o w n We s t  E n d G r a n d v i e w Wo o d l a n d s K i t s i l a n o N o r t h Va n c o u v e r N e w  We s t S u r r e y M e t r o t o w n R i c h m o n d We s t Va n c o u v e rL a n g l e y P o r t  M o o d yFigure 12: Metro Vancouver and Surrounding Street Pattern Development - Author’s Graphics, 201911Development of  the CityVancouver as an Urban CenterDating back to Vancouver’s  ear ly  development,  in the late 1800s,  the house has been the main form of accommodating a rapidly growing populat ion.  Simi lar  to other booming cit ies on the west coast  in the ear ly  1900s (Figure 5) ,  the streetcar in Vancouver can be seen as an element that drove urban growth.  Faci l i tat ing mobi l i ty,  whi le dr iv ing the urban development of  connected housing,  commercial  and industr ia l  areas,  new development was dr iven by eff ic ient and regular  gr id patterns,  out l ined as streetcar suburbs (Figure 11) . In order to accommodate the massive inf lux of  populat ion during the ear ly  late 1800s and ear ly  1900s,  Vancouver’s  ear ly  expansion developed outwards f rom the Granvi l le Townsite. The growth,  sparked by the expansion of  the Canadian Paci f ic  Rai lway,  Gold-rush,  and industry development created a network of  t ransportat ion corr idors,  and subsequently  connected growing neighbourhoods to the urban fabric of  the city.  As Shown in the maps above (Figure 13-16) ,  the outward expansion of  Granvi l le Townsite into the larger c i ty  of  Vancouver (as know today) ,  became connected as a growing city  made up of  pr imari ly  urban residential neighbourhoods (as shown in black) .Figure 13: Vancouver in the 1880s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver: A Visual History”Figure 14: Vancouver in the 1900s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver: A Visual History”Figure 15: Vancouver in the 1920s  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver: A Visual History”Figure 16: Vancouver in the 1960s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald, “Vancouver: A Visual History”12N200 5000 1000m=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r ,  1 8 8 6H o u s i n gC i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r ,  1 8 8 0 sN200 5000 1000mM u n i c i p a l i t y  o f  S o u t h  V a n c o u v e rM u n i c i p a l i t y  o f  P o i n t  G r e y  1 9 0 8=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r yH o u s i n gC i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r ,  1 9 0 0 sN200 5000 1000m=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r yH o u s i n gC i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r ,  1 9 2 0 s=  H o u s i n g =  C i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r   B o u n d a r y ,  18 8 6C i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r ,  18 8 0 s=  H o u s i n g =  C i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r   B o u n d a r yC i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r ,  19 0 0 s=  H o u s i n g =  C i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r   B o u n d a r yC i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r ,  19 2 0 s=  H o u s i n g =  C i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r   B o u n d a r yC i t y  o f  Va n c o u v e r ,  19 6 0 s=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r yH o u s i n gC i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r ,  1 9 6 0 sN200 5000 1000mEstabl ished in 1926,  Vancouver’s  Town planning commission developed a master plan and vis ion for  the development of  the city.  A zoning bylaw passed in 1927,  recorded in Harland Bartholomew’s 1930 Plan for  Vancouver,  represented “the city ’s  f i rst  attempt at  solv ing the problems associated with governing urban growth by direct ly  def ining and mapping what was al lowed to be bui l t  on di fferent lots.”7 “In this process, the act both defined and wrote into law the single-family house as a protected and protective entity with its own reserve of “residential” land.” 7As a result ,  the ear ly  establ ishment of  zoning within the city  of  Vancouver reinforced the “tendency towards s ingle-family  dwel l ing neighbourhoods”,  and dedicated the major i ty of  landmass within the city  to residential  housing (as i l lustrated in Figure 17) 7.  “The plan brought together use-based zoning and transportat ion planning,  envis ioning in part icular the arter ia ls  that  would funct ion as crucial  l inks between the Urban Core and newly f rozen suburban neighbourhoods”.7  Vancouver soon became an example for  other municipal i t ies, as zoning became a tool  for  the planning and development within other industr ia l ized cit ies. 7 Lauster, Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The death and life of the single-family house: Lessons from vancouver on building a livable city. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Figure 17: 1927 Interim zoning bylaw for the City of Vancouver, 1930. Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”1314Figure 20: Vancouver’s Typical 33’ x 120’ Lot Development Patterns, 1900 - 1988 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from John Punter, “The Vancouver achievement: Urban planning and design”19 0 0120’P r e - w a r 194 0 s 19 5 0 s P o s t - 19 5 8 19 6 0 s P o s t - 19 74 P o s t - 19 8 6 P o s t - 19 8 8‘ Va n c o u v e r  S p e c i a l ’O n e  F a m i l y  D w e l l i n gT w o  F a m i l y  D w e l l i n gT w o  F a m i l y  D w e l l i n gM u l t i f a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  o r  A p a r t m e n tA p a r t m e n t  H o u s e A p a r t m e n t  H o u s e L o t  L i n e L o t  L i n e L o t  L i n e T w o  &  O n e - H a l f  S t o r y  D w e l l i n g G a m b r e l  R o o f H i p  R o o f G a b l e  R o o f M a n s a r d  R o o f F l a t  R o o f Figure 18: Types of Residential Buildings, 1927  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”.Figure 19: Height Restrictions & Roof Type Restrictions in Residential Neighbourhoods, 1927 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bartholomew (Harland) and Associates, St. Louis., “A plan for the South Vancouver areas, City of Vancouver, British Columbia”3 3 ’15The Single-Detached lotEstabl ishing patterns that inf luenced urban growth and ownership,  regular ized neighbourhood layouts,  including typical  street,  lane,  and lot  dimensions,  were establ ished wel l  before the city  had a chance to grow and develop.  As a result ,  this  exist ing framework or gr id system was used to easi ly  regulate urban development within Vancouver’s  s ingle-family neighbourhoods,  whi le inadvertent ly  l imit ing their  abi l i ty  to ant ic ipate and adapt to longer-term changing social  dynamics in the bui l t  form of  the city.  The typical  block pattern of residential  neighbourhoods,  specif ied in Bartholomew’s 1930 plan for  Vancouver,  out l ined in Figure 21,  show the typical ly  s ized lots and block developments establ ished in the city, out l in ing typical  lot ,  lane,  and overal l  block dimensions.  Development patterns within the city  typical ly  maximized bui lding al lowances (Figure 20) , constrained by zoning rules that l imited bui lding set backs,  height,  and f loor space rat ios. Further specif ied within Bartholomew’s plan for  the city,  types of  residential  bui lding forms (Figure 18) ,  bui lding types and height restr ict ions (Figure 19)  were establ ished as another method of  establ ishing order in the city ’s  development,  whi le preserving the structure of  the s ingle-family  house and i t ’s  zones for  development. Figure 21: Vancouver’s Typical Lot Development Patterns - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from John Punter, “The Vancouver Achievement: Urban planning and design”Vancouver’s single-dwelling neighbourhoods are divided up into typical lot sizes, most commonly divided up into: 33’ x 120’, 50’ x 120’, or 66’ x 120’ typically sized lots S t r e e t  R i g h t  o f  Wa yS t r e e t  R i g h t  o f  Wa y3 9 6 ’  ( T y p i c a l )5 0 ’Typ i ca lLo t50 ’x120 ’Typ i ca lLo t66 ’x120 ’Typ i ca lL o t3 3 ’x12 0 ’3 3 ’ 6 6 ’20’120’120’66’264’ (Typical)132’132’V i c t o r i a n 18 8 6  -  19 0 5P i o n e e r18 8 6  -  1910Q u e e n  A n n e R e v i v a l18 8 6  -  1915G a b l e d Ve r n a c u l a r18 8 6  -  1915C o l o n i a l  R e v i v a l18 9 6  -  1915E d w a r d i a n19 0 5  -  1913A r t s  +  C r a f t s1910  -  19 3 0C r a f t s m a nB u n g a l o w1910  -  19 3 0C r a f t s m a n1910  -  19 3 0I n w a r d  A r t s  &C r a f t s19 2 0  -  194 0N o r m a n  R e v i v a l19 2 0  -  194 0G e o r g i a nR e v i v a l1910  -  19 3 0S p a n i s h C o l o n i a lR e v i v a l19 2 0  -  194 0L a t e  18 0 0 ’ s E a r l y  19 0 0 ’ s 19 2 0 ’ s  -  194 0 ’ s F r o n t  G a b l e d11 / 2  t o  2 1 / 2S t o r y  C r a f t s m a n1910  -  19 3 016S i d e  G a b l e d 11 / 2 S t o r y  C r a f t s m a n1910  -  19 3 0D u t c h  C o l o n i a lR e v i v a l1910  -  194 0M i s s i o n  R e v i v a l1910  -  194 0T u d o r  R e v i v a l1910  -  194 0E n g l i s hS t o r y b o o k19 2 5  -  194 0F r e n c hS t o r y b o o k19 2 5  -  194 0Figure 22: Vancouver Housing Styles, 1800 - 1940s - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Vancouver Heritage Foundation, “House Styles by Name and Era”Wa r t i m eH o u s i n g194 1  -  194 7M o d e r n e19 3 0  -  194 0M i d - C e n t u r yB u i l d e r19 3 5  -  19 6 0We s t  C o a s t M o d e r n194 0  -  19 6 519 3 0 ’ s  -  19 8 5Development of  the House  “House styles in Vancouver range from the early urban development, such as the pioneer cottages, to the more modern forms of the Vancouver Special or Millennium Builder. Many homes bridge architectural styles, bringing together features from multiple styles in ways that can make them difficult to identify. This contributes to the unique architectural heritage one finds in the city today.Each house style is linked to the cultural context in which it was built, reflecting not only the materials and popular designs of the time but also glimpses into personal history, social status, and city planning.” 8R a n c h e r19 5 0  -  19 7 0S p l i t  L e v e l19 5 0  -  19 7 0Va n c o u v e rS p e c i a l19 6 5  -  19 8 5M i l l e n n i u m B u i l d e r19 8 5  -  P R E S E N T8 “House Styles By Name and Era - Vancouver Heritage Foundation.” Vancouver Heritage Foundation. Accessed 2019. https://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/learn-with-us/discover-vancouvers-heritage/vancouver-house-styles/house-styles/. 17Figure 23: Vancouver Housing Styles, 1930s - present  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Vancouver Heritage Foundation, “House Styles by Name and Era”18T h e  H o u s e  a s  a  S y m b o l  The House as a Promise Ideals  and values of  home ownership have been passed down from post WWII  generat ions. From an era where the role of  home ownership mean more than just  secur i ty,  owning a home for many meant the promise of  a more hopeful  future.  This  promise immortal ized the house as an object  of  desire,  ideal iz ing ownership as a goal  to be achieved. H o u s e h o l d s ,  a d u l t s ,  a n d  c h i l d r e n ,  b y  c o u n t r y  a n d  d w e l l i n g  t y p eb a s e d  o n  c a n a d a  c e n s u s  2 0 0 6  a n d  U . s . A m e r i c a n  C o m m u n i t y  s u r v e y  2 0 0 6  d a t aH o u s e s  ( S i n g l e - D e t a c h e d )S e m i / A t t a c h e d / R o w / T o w n / 2  U n i t sL o w - R i s e / < 2 0  A p t  B u i l d i n gH i g h - R i s e / 2 0 +  A p t  B u i l d i n gM o b i l e  H o m e / M o v a b l eH o u s e h o l d s ,  A d u l t s ,  a n d  C h i l d r e n ,  b y  C o u n t r y  a n d  D w e l l i n g  T y p e ,  2 0 0 6%  H o u s e h o l d s  %%  A d u l t s  ( 2 0 + )  %  C h i l d r e n  ( < 2 0 )  %  H o u s e h o l d s  %%  A d u l t s  ( 2 0 + )  %  C h i l d r e n  ( < 2 0 )  C a n a d aU S A2 0 %0 % 4 0 % 6 0 % 8 0 % 1 0 0 %Figure 26: Households, adults, and children, by country and dwelling type based on Canada census 2006 and U.S. American Community Survey 2006 data. - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Lauster, Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The Death and Life of the Single-Family House: Lessons from Vancouver on Building a Livable City. Figure 24: “It’s a promise!”, General Electric AdvertisementFigure 25: “A Home of your own”. Author UnknownThe poster reads “Owning your own home, like all desirable things, can be a day-dream - or a definite goal!”19The House as the ‘Norm’ According to the 2006 Census,  in Canada,  “chi ldren are even more l ikely to l ive in detached houses than adults ,  and the vast  major i ty  of  North Americans grow up in them, under scor ing the connect ion between house and family  and further explaining i ts  naturalness for  most adults .  In short ,  the house is  the f i rst  form of  dwel l ing that most chi ldren come to recognize.” 7(Figure 26)7 Lauster, Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The death and life of the single-family house: Lessons from vancouver on building a livable city. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Figure 27: The Sikora’s Circa 1970, Edmonton, Alberta - Author’s scanned imageFigure 28: The Sikora’s Circa 1993 ,Edmonton, Alberta - Author’s scanned imageThe house was the norm for me, my parents and my grandparents. After immigrating from Poland to Canada and working on a farm for a year in rural Alberta, my grandparents moved to Edmonton, purchased land, a standard architectural plan for a house. They moved in before it was finished, and helped with the construction to save money. Once the building process was finished, they rented out the basement to help bring in extra income to pay off their mortgage. My dad grew up in this house (figure 27) and saved money living with my grandma while he went to university. My grandmother lived in the house the majority of her life as a single occupant. She spent most of her time in the garden in the backyard where she grew her own vegetables. Living in the house in her old age became a little more difficult, and along with family support to prepare meals and provide care, she required additional help of a part-time care giver in her 90’s. She lived till the age of 91, in this house for the majority of her life. My sister and her husband recently moved into the house, and the basement is still used as a rental suite to bring in extra income. My dad is their landlord, and only collects enough rent money from them to pay the property taxes, utilities, and maintenance costs.My parents built their second house 26 years ago, and we moved in the spring I was born. Up until I moved to Vancouver for Architecture school I had lived in a single-family house my entire life. For me, it was the norm. My current neighbourhood in Vancouver is much more urban than the suburban house/neighbourhood I grew up in. I’m easily connected to the city by major transit routes/bike route and am close to amenities - it’s easy to get anywhere in the city and I enjoy the mid - to small scale character of the neighbourhood I live in. However, having grown up my entire life raised on ideals of owning a home as a means of investment and life style choice, how do I fit into this cycle of home ownership? Unattainable housing costs have put this ideal to question, and have made me question the existence of the house for my generation and others to follow. 2021W h a t ’ s  t h e  P r o b l e m ? ( N O W )G e n e r a t i o n a l  S h i f tM i l l e n n i a l  R e a l i t i e sT h e  A g e  d i v i d e T h e  H o u s e  a s  a  C o m m o d i t yO u t  o f  R e a c hT h e  M i s s i n g  M i d d l e . . .   21  -  2 7. . .    2 2  -  2 4. . .    2 5  -  2 722W h a t ’ s  t h e  P r o b l e m ? (NOW)  G e n e r a t i o n a l  S h i f tMil lennial  Real i t ies  Household structures are changing,  and as a result ,  more Canadians are l iv ing on their  own, gett ing marr ied later  in l i fe,  and having fewer chi ldren.  Whi le the amount of  income spent on housing costs have increased, so have taxes,  tuit ion,  and other l iv ing expenses (Refer  to Figure 29,  30) .  As a result ,  today’s  incomes aren’t  keeping up with the costs of  housing pr ices, keeping mil lennials  out of  the market of  owning a home. “The amount of time required for a typical young Canadian to earn enough for a 20 per cent down payment on an average home has increased from 5 years to 23 years in Metro Vancouver since the mid-1970s. Incomes for younger households in their 20s, 30s and 40s have been outstripped by the dramatic increase in home prices - leaving Canada’s current working households with less opportunity to accumulate housing wealth and benefit from a stable place to live.” 95 Keil, Roger. 2018. Suburban planet: Making the world urban from the outside in. Cambridge, UK;Medford, MA, USA;: Polity Press. 9 “Housing Vancouver Strategy.” Appendix A:. November 28, 2018. https://council.vancouver.ca/20171128/documents/rr1appendixa.pdf. f a c i n gh i g h e rh o u s i n g p r i c e s w i t hl a r g e rs t u d e n td e b t s$e v e n  t h o u g hm o r e  a r e p o s t - s e c o n d a r yg r a d u a t e se a r n i n g s f o r  a g e  2 5 - 3 4a r e  d o w nc o m p a r e d  t o  a  g e n e r a t i o n  a g o  * i n  C a n a d a$Figure 29: Canadian increase in household size and number, 1871 - 2010 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Families, households and marital status: Key results from the 2016 Census”“Already, there are signs that young people and families are compromising to stay in the city: many younger households are opting to live at home with parents for longer, while families and key workers are renting for longer periods, or choosing to leave the city to find more affordable options elsewhere. There are already early signs that Vancouver’s families are choosing to leave. The most recent census revealed that the population of young children in the city is falling - with the population of children aged 0-4 declining by 1 percent since 2001. This trend, if continues, has serious implications for the city’s economy and vibrancy long-term” 5Figure 30: Average housing price vs. average annual fil l-time income of Canadians, 1998 to 2012 - Author’s Graphics, 2019.  Data from Government of Canada, “Canadian Income Survey, 2012”.$ 4 9 0  0 0 0 V S$ 210  0 0 0$ 2 3  0 0 0 V S$ 16  0 0 067 % V S3 0 %$ 4 9  0 0 0 V S$ 5 5  0 0 0A v e r a g e  H o u s i n g  P r i c e  v s  A v e r a g e  A n n u a l  F u l l - t i m e  I n c o m e  o f  C a n a d i a n s ,  19 9 8  t o  2 012H o u s i n g  P r i c e F u l l - t i m e  I n c o m e 19 9 8 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8 2 010 2 012$ 4 0 0  0 0 0$ 3 0 0  0 0 0$ 2 0 0  0 0 0$ 10 0  0 0 0$ 02310 “Connect & Engage 2017 Report.” Vancouver Foundation. June 29, 2018. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/about-us/publications/connections-and-engagement-reports/connect-engage-2017-report. 11 Statistics Canada. "Families, Households and Marital Status: Key Results from the 2016 Census." August 02, 2017. Accessed 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/170802/dq170802a-eng.htm.The Age Divide  The societal  aging demographic is  r is ing as our populat ion grows older -  older populat ions are increasing,  whi le younger populat ions are s imultaneously decreasing.  The Baby boomer generat ion is  current ly  one of  the largest  in history,  whi le the next immediate generat ion is  one of  the smal lest  (F igure 31) .  This  unprecedented imbalance wi l l  upset and threaten the social  models we’ve grown accustomed to,  and should chal lenge our expectat ions and obl igat ions of  dwel l ing in c i t ies in order to adapt to these shi f ts . In Vancouver,  “The mil lennial  generat ion in the Lower Mainland is  now larger than the Post War Boom generat ion (668,000 versus 578,000 residents) ,  and this  growing demographic represents our next generat ion of  workers,  famil ies and community members.” 10 Considering the ser ious impl icat ion this  shi f t  in demographics could have on the city ’s  V ibrancy and divers i ty  in the long term, we should ensure “both exist ing and new, younger and older residents have the opportunit ies to establ ish strong connect ions with their  communit ies [ . . . ] to bui lding stronger,  healthier  communit ies.”  10“These changes are the results of demographic shifts, such as population aging and increasing ethnocultural diversity, as well as social, economic and legislative changes. The evolving living arrangements and families of Canadians can also have consequences, for example on the housing market, on caregiving and care receiving and on intergenerational relationships.” 11Figure 31: Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14, 15 to 64, and 65 and over, Canada, 1921 to 2061 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Canadian Demographics at a Glance - Second edition”16 . 7 %14 . 8 %16 . 6 % 16 . 9 %0 - 146 5 +2 011 2 0160  t o 146 5  a n d  o v e r15  t o  6 4o b s e r v e d p r o j e c t e d l o w - g r o w t hm e d i u m - g r o w t h h i g h - g r o w t h C a n a d i a n  P o p u l a t i o n  A g e  G r o u p s ,  19 21  t o  2 0 61C a n a d i a n  P o p u l a t i o n  0  t o  14  a n d  6 5 +%19 217 06 05 04 03 02 010194 1 19 61 19 81 2 0 01 2 0 21 2 0 4 1 2 0 4 16 5  a n d  o v e r15  t o  6 4  y e a r s  o l d0  t o  14  y e a r s  o l d“For the first time in census history, the share of seniors aged 65 years and over exceeds the share of children under 15 years” 11Figure 32: Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 and 65 and over, Canada, 2011 to 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Canadian Demographics at a Glance - Second edition”Figure 35: Households by Household Type in Metro Vancouver, 2001-2011 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “Household & Family Structure in Metro Vancouver, 2011 Census Bulletin #5”Figure 34: Vancouver household size increase by neighbourhood - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Vancouver Magazine, “Vancouver’s Growing Homes”, April 20, 2015. 5 . 6  p e o p l eA v e r a g e  n o .  o f  C a n a d i a n s  l i v i n g  i n  a  h o u s e h o l di n  18 713 . 5  p e o p l eA v e r a g e  n o .  o f  C a n a d i a n s  l i v i n g  i n  a  h o u s e h o l di n  19 7110 5 0  f t 2  ( 9 8 m 2 )A v e r a g e  s i z e  o f  a  h o u s e  i n  C a n a d ai n  19 7 52 . 5  p e o p l eA v e r a g e  n o .  o f  C a n a d i a n s  l i v i n g  i n  a  h o u s e h o l di n  2 0 0 619 5 0  f t 2  ( 181 m 2 )A v e r a g e  s i z e  o f  a  h o u s e  i n  C a n a d ai n  2 010Figure 33: Canadian increase in household size and number, 1871 - 2010 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Government of Canada, “The shift to smaller households over the past century”House on the West SideAverage ft2increased by 77%House on the Cambie AreaAverage ft2increased by 78%House in the Dunbar, Marpole, Shaughnessy + Oakridge AreasAverage ft2increased by 70%House in the KerrisdaleAverage ft2increased by 85%House in Kitsilano Average ft2increased by 57%*probably because lots are smallerHouse in South GranvilleAverage ft2increased by 94%House inSouthlands + ArbutusAverage ft2increased by 91%24H o u s e h o l d  b y  H o u s e h o l d  T y p e  i n  M e t r o  Va n c o u v e r ,  2 0 01  -  2 011H o u s e h o l d  T y p e      2 0 01             2 011        C h a n g e      N u m b e r       %  o f  t o t a l         N u m b e r      %  o f  t o t a l        N u m b e r     %  G r o w t hT o t a l  -  O c c u p i e d  P r i v a t e  H o u s e h o l d s     7 5 8 ,17 5      67 %            8 91 , 3 5 5     67 %               13 3 ,16 0     16 %   O n e - f a m i l y  H o u s e h o l d s     4 8 3 , 3 3 0     6 4 %                 5 61 ,17 5     6 3 %    7 7, 8 4 5     16 %   M u l t i - f a m i l y  H o u s e h o l d s        2 4 , 7 5 0        3 %             3 4 , 315       4 %     9 , 5 6 5     3 9 %T o t a l  -  N o n - f a m i l y  H o u s e h o l d s        2 5 0 , 6 3 0      3 3 %            2 9 5 , 8 5 0     3 3 %    4 5 , 2 2 0     18 %   1  P e r s o n  N o n - F a m i l y  H o u s e h o l d s    212 , 6 0 0      2 8 %                2 51 , 74 5     2 8 %                3 9 ,14 5      18 %   2 +  P e r s o n s  N o n - F a m i l y  H o u s e h o l d s          2 , 313 , 3 2 8       3 %            15 0 ,10 3       4 %     6 , 0 7 0      16 %2 0 1 52 0 1 42 0 1 32 0 1 22 0 1 12 0 1 02 0 0 92 0 0 82 0 0 72 0 0 62 0 0 52 0 0 42 0 0 32 0 0 22 0 0 12 0 0 05 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 3 0 0 0M e t r o  Va n c o u v e r  H o u s i n g  D e m o l i t i o n s ,  2 0 0 0  -  2 015s i n g l e - f a m i l y  h o m e so t h e r  g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d  a p a r t m e n t sT h e  H o u s e  a s  a  C o m m o d i t yOut of  Reach Whi le the average s ize of  a house has been steadi ly  increasing over t ime, on average,  the number of  people l iv ing in them have been decreasing.  Pressures to maximize the bui lding potent ial  on a lot ,  and a trend towards buying,  sel l ing,  and f l ipping houses to make a prof i t have turned the house into a commodity.  With less focus on the actual  l ivabi l i ty  of  the space that ’s  designed and bui l t ,  the commodif icat ion of  the s ingle-family  house has pushed the prospect of  home ownership out of  reach for  the average income earner in Vancouver. Whi le Downtown and arter ia l  corr idors have concentrated dense areas of  housing in the city, s ingle-family  neighbourhoods have been preserved. “In 2014, only 29% of Metro Vancouver residential sales were considered “affordable”, 0% of those were detached homes.” 12Land speculat ion and the inf luence of  foreign buyers have been contr ibut ing factors in dr iv ing up housing costs.  Whi le land/property taxes have been implemented to control  these factors,  they’ve burdened home owners who actual ly  l ive in these neighbourhoods -  not only keeping new home buyers out of  the market,  but pushing current owners out as wel l . “The City of Vancouver estimates that up to 40% of Vancouver buildings could be replaced by 2050.” 12 The majority of the buildings that are being demolished and replaced are single-family homes.12 Desjardins, Jeff. "Infographic: Vancouver Real Estate Mania." Visual Capitalist. June 02, 2016. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/vancouver-real-estate-mania/.Figure 36: Metro Vancouver - Housing Demolitions 2000 - 2015  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Visual Capitalist, Vancouver Real Estate Mania.25Figure 37: The Missing Middle  - Author’s Graphics, 2019“Unfortunately, most depictions of the Missing Middle suggest the only thing you can do between these extremes are townhouse and small apartments, two forms that would require “site assembly” (the acquisition of a number of small adjacent parcels, enough so you can build a larger project) as well as the necessary destruction of all existing structures and vegetation previously on site. Obviously this would dramatically alter the look and feel of a neighbourhood, not to mention increase landfill waste It is this kind of dramatic change that stiffens the resistance of residents against the Missing Middle proposals found in the city’s “Making Room” density plan, and pits typically older homeowners against house-starved millennials.” 13“ T h e  M i s s i n g - M i d d l e ”1 - 3  s t o r i e s 4 - 6  s t o r i e ss i n g l e - d e t a c h e d h o u s eT h e  M i s s i n g  S t e p13 Condon, Patrick. “One Brill iant Example of How to Rezone Vancouver for Affordability.” The Tyee. September 27, 2018. Accessed 2019. https://thetyee.ca/Opinion/2018/09/27/How-Rezone-Vancouver-Affordability/.Figure 38: Housing Vancouver 10-year Targets - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from The City of Vancouver, “Making Room Housing Program: Overview and Quick Start Actions”.26H o u s i n g  Va n c o u v e r  10 - Ye a r  T a r g e t sB u i l d i n g             R e n t e r s                        R e n t e r s / O w n e r s      T o t a l        %  o f  T o t a l  T y p e         < 15 k / y r     < $ 15 - 3 0 k / y r     $ 3 0 - 5 0 k / y r     $ 5 0 - 8 0 k / y r     $ 8 0 - 15 0 k / y r     $ 15 0 k / y r .A p a r t m e n t           5 , 2 0 0        1 , 6 0 0            2 , 0 0 0            3 , 0 0 0               2 0 0            12 , 0 0 0      17 %                  2 , 5 0 0    12 , 0 0 0          5 , 5 0 0            2 0 , 0 0 0      2 8 %         6 , 5 0 0        16 , 5 0 0            7, 0 0 0           3 0 , 0 0 0      4 2 %I n f i l l          2 , 0 0 0          2 , 0 0 0              4 , 0 0 0        5 %                 3 0 0             7 0 0                     1 , 0 0 0        1 %T o w n h o u s e         `          1 , 7 0 0           3 , 3 0 0            5 , 0 0 0        7 %T o t a l          5 , 2 0 0         1 , 6 0 0            4 , 5 0 0     2 3 , 5 0 0           2 6 , 2 0 0          11 , 0 0 0                  7 2 , 0 0 0      10 0 %%  o f  t o t a l            7 %            2 %                6 %             3 3 %              3 7 %               15 %           10 0 %s u p p o r t i v e  +  s o c i a l  h o u s i n gp u r p o s e  b u i l t  r e n t a lc o n d o s l a n e w a y s  ( r e n t a l )c o a c h  h o u s e s  ( s t r a t a )t o w n h o u s e s2 0 1 62 0 1 12 0 0 62 0 0 11 9 9 61 9 9 1 s i n g l e  d e t a c h e do t h e r  g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d  a p a r t m e n t1 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 9 0 0 , 0 0 0M e t r o  Va n c o u v e r  H o u s i n g  T y p e s ,  1 9 9 1  -  2 016The Missing Middle “Missing Middle is a range of multi-unit or clustered housing types compatible in scale with single - family homes that help meet the growing demand for walkable urban living. These types provide diverse housing options along a spectrum of affordability, including duplexes, fourplexes, and bungalow courts, to support walkable communities, locally-serving retail, and public transportation options.” 14The City of  Vancouver’s  Making Room housing strategy is  focusing on adding a more diverse “var iety of  housing types in s ingle family  neighbourhoods,  ranging from laneway houses and inf i l l  to townhouses,  row houses to low-r ise apartment bui ldings.”15 Outl ined in Figure 38, the strategy is  target ing the development of  10 000 units  of  missing middle  housing over the next 10 years,  including 1 000 coach houses,  5 000 townhouses,  and 4 000 laneway houses.15 Transit ioning to higher density  housing options,  the inf i l l  of  miss ing middle housing types in the city  of  Vancouver is  a posit ive step in accommodating alternat ive forms of  housing within i t ’s  low density  neighbourhoods.  However,  within this  t ransit ion,  there’s  a greater opportunity to open up the conversat ion about what future neighbourhood wi l l  cont inue to evolve into. As out l ine in Figure 37,  there’s  a miss ing transit ion step from developing the exist ing housing stock of  s ingle-detached homes into newly bui l t  missing middle  housing supply.  Whi le laneway development current ly  acts as an intermediate step,  there’s  st i l l  room to re-consider the occupation of  the house as an already exist ing element in the city,  maintaining the exist ing urban fabric,  whi le cont inuing to add density  that can surround i t .  With the development of new bui ldings becoming a necessary step in accommodating new populat ion growth in the l i fe cycle of  a neighbourhood, the l i fe cycle of  the house as an already exist ing structure wi l l need to be more careful ly  considered as part  of  the l i fe cycle of  a neighbourhood. “Other ground oriented dwellings” account for 29% (276,280 units) of housing units in 2016. A house and its secondary suite (both units are reported by Statistics Canada Census as “apartment in a duplex”) account for 57% (156,440) of the other ground oriented dwelling units. Row housing accounts for 10% (93,415 units) of the dwelling units in Metro Vancouver in 2016.” 9Figure 39: Metro Vancouver Housing types 1991- 2016  - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from The City of Vancouver, “Metro Vancouver Housing Data Book”, 2010. 9 “Housing Vancouver Strategy.” Appendix A:. November 28, 2018. https://council.vancouver.ca/20171128/documents/rr1appendixa.pdf. 14 “Missing Middle Housing.” CNU. July 29, 2015. Accessed 2019. https://www.cnu.org/our-projects/missing-middle-housing.15 “Metro Vancouver Housing Data Book.” January 2019. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/MV_Housing_Data_Book.pdf. 2728T h e  F u t u r e  o f  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  N e i g h b o u r h o o d s ( F U T U R E )R e - z o n i n g  f o r  d u p l e x e sV a n c o u v e r  a s  a n  E x a m p l e . . .   2 9  -  3 5. . .    3 0  -  3 3. . .    3 4  -  3 529T h e  F u t u r e  o f  ‘ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ’  N e i g h b o u r h o o d s(FUTURE)   R e - z o n i n g  f o r  d u p l e x e s A recent decis ion by c i ty  counci l  to re-zone Vancouver’s  s ingle-family  neighbourhoods (“RS One-Family Distr icts”)  for  duplexes is  a smal l  step in providing alternat ive forms of  housing within the city ’s  lowest densi f ied neighbourhoods.  Making up 57% of the city ’s  land mass, approximately 67 000 (99%) of  Vancouver’s  68 000 s ingle-family  lots  now have the option to re-develop as a duplex (Figure 40) .  This  new rule for  development within the city  now mean i t ’s  legal  to bui ld up to four housing units  on one RS lot ,  “ instead of  the maximum of three previously al lowed.”16 “Under the old system, a single-family zoned lot was allowed to contain a primary residence, a secondary suite and a laneway house. With the bylaw amendments, each duplex unit can have its own secondary suite.”16This new zoning amendment was just  the f i rst  step of  the City of  Vancouver’s  Making Room Housing Program ;  a  larger c i ty  wide approach to explor ing a more diverse set  of  housing choices.  Whi le the City of  Vancouver “has been successful  in providing high density  housing ( towers)  in the downtown and along arter ia ls”17,  this  recent step in opening up the city ’s  low density  neighbourhoods is  just  the start  in adding density  to the rest  of  Vancouver -  holding al l  neighbourhoods accountable for  accommodating populat ion growth in the city.“There is no ‘best’ solution to a problem when conditions are likely to change, so a diversity of strategies are needed” 18Thinking beyond the div is ion of  lots ,  the future of  s ingle-family  neighbourhoods needs to be re-considered in accordance with the complexit ies of  everyday l i fe and new emerging methods of  home ownership and inf i l l  developments.  Furthermore,  the qual i ty  of  density wi l l  need to be considered with in the exist ing neighbourhood structure.  Whi le the mass re-zoning of  the city ’s  s ingle-family  neighbourhoods is  an important development for  changes to happen, there’s  st i l l  lots  to consider when exist ing home owners are resistant to change, br inging up issues of  density  and sensit iv i ty  to exist ing neighbourhood character  and identity. The social  cohesion and shared values among neighbours wi l l  be an important factor moving forward.  Whi le a large port ion of  exist ing homeowners remain opposed to a one s ize f i ts a l l  planning approach,  an emphasis  on the gradual  evolut ion of  neighbourhoods,  through natural  select ion and inf i l l  development wi l l  remain a large factor in the development of exist ing neighbourhoods. “According to a planning report by city staff, about 800 houses are demolished and replaced with a new house or house with secondary suite annually. The report states, “if patterns continue and half of the homeowners who are planning to replace a house in the coming year chose to rebuild using the new duplex option, we could see about 400 duplexes built over the course of a year.” 1616 Larsen, Karin. “Vancouver’s New Duplex Rules Explained | CBC News.” CBCnews. September 20, 2018. Accessed 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/vancouver-s-new-duplex-rules-explained-1.4831741.17 “Duplex Use in Most RS Zones Proposed Zoning Amendments.” September 2018. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/duplex-use-in-rs-zones-proposed-zoning-ammendments.pdf.18  Martin-Breen, Patrick, and J. Marty. “Resilience: A Literature Review.” OpenDocs Home. January 01, 1970. Accessed 2019. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/3692.30Figure 40: Proposed duplex option for RS Zones, Representing 57% of Vancouver’s Landmass - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Urbanarium Smart City Talk “The Single-Family Zone is dead. What now?, April 17, 2019.H o u s i n g S t r a t e g y R e s e tStakeholder consultation + Public engagement to identify housing priorities + needs F a l l  2 016 - W i n t e r  2 017N o v e m b e r 2 017J u n e  19 2 018J u l y  2 4 , 2 018S e p t e m b e r 2 018S e p t e m b e r  10 2 018F a l l  2 018 - S p r i n g  2 0192 016  /  2 017 2 018 2 019H o u s i n g Va n c o u v e r S t r a t e g y  & A c t i o n  P l a nCouncil adopted the “Housing Vancouver Strategy” + “Three Year Action Plan”M a k i n g  R o o m P r o g r a m E n d o r s e dCouncil approved the housing program and initial actionsP r o p o s e d C h a n g e s I n t r o d u c e dChanges to RS zoning to allow duplex were referred to a public hearingI n f o r m a t i o n M e e t i n g Opportunity for residents to learn more about the proposed changes P u b l i c  H e a r i n g Opportunity to speak to City Council on the proposed changes to the Zoning and Development Bylaw if approved, applications for duplex can be submitted following enactment of the Bylaw changes M a k i n g  R o o m P r o g r a m Wo r k A d v a n c e s N e w  B y - L a wi s  P a s s e dF a l l  2 018 - S p r i n g  2 01931U B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sB u r r a r d  I n l e tE n g l i s h  B a yB u r n a b y  Y V R  S e a  I s l a n dN o r t h  V a n c o u v e rN=  R S  z o n e s  w i t h  o p t i o n  t o  d e v e l o p  a  d u p l e x=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r  B o u n d a r y =  N e i g h b o u r h o o d  O u t l i n e s5 7 %  L a n d  B a s e< 8 %  C a n  A f f o r dt o  P u r c h a s e=  R S  z o n e s  w i t h  o p t i o n  t o  d e v e l o p  a  d u p l e x=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r y=  N e i g h b o u r h o o d     O u t l i n e sN5000 1000m34D o w n t o w nC i t y  C e n t e rW e s t  E n dS t r a t h c o n aM o u n t  P l e a s a n tF a i r v i e wK i t s i l a n o=  A p p r o x i m a t e l y  1 0  0 0 0  p e o p l e  A r b u t u s - R i d g eD u n b a r -S o u t h l a n d sG r a n d v i e w -W o o d l a n dH a s t i n g s - S u n s e tK e n s i n g t o n -C e d a r  C o t t a g eK e r r i s d a l eK i l l a r n e yM a r p o l eO a k r i d g eR e n f r e w -C o l l i n g w o o dR i l e y  P a r kS h a u g h n e s s yS o u t h  C a m b i eS u n s e tV i c t o r i a -F r a s e r v i e wW e s t  P o i n t  G r e y6 2 , 0 3 04 7 , 2 0 01 2 , 5 8 53 2 , 9 5 53 3 , 6 2 04 3 , 0 4 51 5 , 2 9 52 1 , 4 2 52 9 , 1 7 53 4 , 5 7 54 9 , 3 2 51 3 , 9 7 52 9 , 3 2 52 4 , 4 6 01 3 , 0 3 05 1 , 5 3 02 2 , 5 5 5 8 , 4 3 0 7 , 9 7 03 6 , 5 0 03 1 , 0 6 51 3 , 0 6 5S t r e e t c a r  E r aS u b u r b sO u t e r  S u b u r b sP o p u l a t i o n H e c t a r e s3 7 01 9 83 8 83 6 63 2 75 4 63 7 08 5 64 4 57 9 37 2 46 3 16 6 45 5 94 0 18 0 54 9 14 4 62 7 16 2 65 3 14 4 56 3 1 , 4 8 5 1 1 , 4 6 78 0 %  L a n d1 5 %  L a n d5 %L a n d1 9 %P e o p l e6 4 %  P e o p l e1 7 %P e o p l e%  T o t a lC i t y  C e n t e r :S t r e e t c a r  E r a  S u b u r b s :O u t e r  S u b u r b s :M e t r o  V a n c o u v e r  T o t a l :Figure 41: Vancouver neighbourhood population and area, 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Statistics Canada, 2016 census analysis.233o c c u p i e d  p r i v a t e  d w e l l i n g s  p e r  h e c t a r e  b y  d i s s e m i n a t i o n  a r e a  D a t a  s o u r c e :  s t a t i s t i c s  C a n a d a ,  2 0 1 6  c e n s u s  a n a l y s i s  a n d  m a p y  b y  a n d y  y a n ,  S F U  c i t y  p r o g r a m  T i t l e :  D w e l l i n g  D e n s i t y  i n  t h e  c i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r  2 0 1 6  =  H i g h  D e n s i t y   >  1 0 0  d w e l l i n g s / h e c t a r e=  M i d  D e n s i t y  5 0 - 1 0 0  d w e l l i n g s / h e c t a r e=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r y=  N e i g h b o u r h o o d     o u t l i n e s=  T o w n h o u s e    2 8 - 5 0  d w e l l i n g s / h e c t a r e=  S i n g l e  F a m i l y  t o  T o w n h o u s e  1 1 - 2 5  d w e l l i n g s / h e c t a r e=  S i n g l e  F a m i l y  D e n s i t y  0 - 1 0  d w e l l i n g s / h e c t a r eN200 5000 1000mFigure 42: Dwelling Density in the City of Vancouver, 2016 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Statistics Canada, 2016 census analysis.34Vancouver as an Example Since the adoption of  Harland Bartholomew’s 1930 master plan for  the city,  Vancouver has been an “ear ly  adopter of  house-or iented zoning bylaws in North America,  producing by the middle of  the twentieth century one of  the most house-dominated metropol ises on the continent.”7 As an ear ly  adopter,  Vancouver set  a precedent for  other c i t ies to fol low. Whi le this  ear ly  establ ishment of  used-based zoning regulated growth in the city,  quickly  expanding as a ser ies of  s ingle-family  housing neighbourhoods,  Vancouver,  just  as swift ly  t ransformed itsel f  as “one of  the most l ivable c i t ies in the world”,  studied as an “internat ional  model for  sustainabi l i ty  and urbanism.”7 Ident i fy ing with transit  or iented,  New Urbanist  planning movements,  a Green City Act ion Plan ,  and other planning init iat ives such as ecodensity  and highrise towers set  on townhouse podiums have spread around the globe as urban l iv ing ideas known as “Vancouverism”.7 “Since the 1960s, Vancouver has rapidly broken with the single-family detached house, in a fashion more complete than any other urban area on the continent ... By 1961, Vancouver was one of the most house dominated metropolises in North America. Less than fifty years later, it was very nearly the least. No other North American metropolis witnessed such a dramatic change in the character of its housing stock through the second half of the twentieth century.”7The trend towards an expansive growth of  podium tower development has put pressure on the exist ing land base to adjust  to new real i t ies of  urban growth within the city.  Within exist ing s ingle-family  neighbourhoods,  Vancouver has the chance to set  an example for  development that begins to transit ion away from the preservat ion of  the s ingle-family  house.  Whi le the new re-zoning bylaw for  RS-zones has come to terms with a long overdue update to the 1930 Vancouver Plan,  i t  st i l l  br ings to quest ion how these areas wi l l  t ransit ion into a denser future. Whi le moving forward in the development of  Vancouver’s  s ingle family  neighbourhoods,  the city  has a mandate to show the range of  possibi l i t ies that can both maintain exist ing housing stock,  whi le cont inuing to add density  through a range of  new forms of  inf i l l  -  act ing as an example for  other c i t ies to fol low. 7 Lauster, Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The death and life of the single-family house: Lessons from vancouver on building a livable city. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 35=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r y=  N e i g h b o u r h o o d     o u t l i n e sU B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sS e a  I s l a n dY V R  V a n c o u v e r  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r tW e s t  P o i n t  G r e y K i t s i l a n oW e s t  E n dD o w n t o w nD o w n t o w n  E a s t s i d eS t r a t h c o n aG r a n d v i e w -  W o o d l a n dH a s t i n g s  -  S u n r i s eM o u n t  P l e a s a n tF a i r v i e wA r b u t u s  R i d g eD u n b a r  -  S o u t h l a n d sS h a u g h n e s s y S o u t h  C a m b i eR i l e y  P a r k K e n s i n g t o n -C e d a r  C o t t a g eR e n f r e w -C o l l i n g w o o dK i l l a r n e yV i c t o r i a  -  F r a s e r v i e wS u n s e tM a r p o l eO a k r i d g eK e r r i s d a l e5 3 %  o f  V a n c o u v e r  R e s i d e n t s  R e n t  t h e i r  h o m e s  N200 5000 1000m8 0 %W e s t  E n d  R e n t s8 0 %S t r a t h c o n aR e n t s6 2 %G r a n d v i e w -W o o d l a n dR e n t s6 1 %F a i r v i e wR e n t s5 4 %K i t s i l a n oR e n t s3 0 %S h a u g h n e s s yR e n t s3 7 %K e r r i s d a l eR e n t s6 2 %M a r p o l eR e n t s3 8 %W e s t  P o i n t  G r e yR e n t s19 “In Vancouver, a ‘single Family’ House Often Isn’t.” The Globe and Mail. February 01, 2018. Accessed 2019. ht tps://www.theglobeandmai l .com/real -estate/vancouver/ in-vancouver-a-s ingle- fami ly-house-often- isnt/article37802086/.Figure 43: Vancouver Residents who Rent their Houses, 2018 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Data from Statistics Canada / The Globe and Mail. 2018.“Fifty three per cent of Vancouver residents rent their homes [... and] new data shows that renters are distributed around the city at levels that go against stereotypes. West Point Grey, with its big, expensive detached houses, is 38 per cent renter households. Kerrisdale is 36.8 per cent renters. Shaughnessy, with its stock of old and new mansions, is made up of 30 per cent renters. Historic Strathcona, with its gentle density, multifamily RT-zoned housing, is 80 per cent renters – the same as the West End. Grandview-Woodland comprises 62.3 per cent renters. Not surprisingly, Marpole, with its significant apartment building stock, is 61.6 per cent renter households. And Fairview, with its multi-family stock, is 61 per cent. Kitsilano, a neighbourhood with a mix of low density housing types, is 54.3 per cent.”1936“Learning from the existing landscape is a way of being revolutionary for an architect. Not the obvious way, which is to tear down Paris and begin again, as Le Corbusier suggested in the 1920s, but another, more tolerant way; that is, to question how we look at things.” 2020 Venturi, Robert, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour. 1972. Learning from las vegas. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.P a r t  2 :I n - B e t w e e n  D e n s i t y( P R O J E C T  P R O P O S A L )S i t e  S e l e c t i o nC i t y  o w n e d  p r o p e r t y H i s t o r y  o f  D e l a m o n tT h e n  v s .  N o wD e v e l o p m e n t S i t e  A n a l y s i s E x i s t i n g  C o n d i t i o n sS e m i - P u b l i c  G r a d i e n t sP r o p o s e d  I n t e r v e n t i o n s T h e  S i t e  a s  a  H o u s e M i s s i n g  M i d d l eP h a s e s  o f  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o p o s e d  I n t e r v e n t i o n sP r e s e n t a t i o n  L a y o u tM o d e l s C o n c l u s i o n. . .   3 7  -  7 7. . .    3 8  -  4 1 . . .    4 2  -  4 7. . .    4 8  -  5 1. . .    5 2  -  7 5. . .    7 63738I n - B e t w e e n  D e n s i t y(PROJECT PROPOSAL)   S i t e  S e l e c t i o nCity Owned Property This  thesis  explores the opportunity that the City of  Vancouver has to set  an example for the range of  development possibi l i t ies in the city.  Looking at  the exist ing housing stock as an opportunity to develop within exist ing s i te condit ions,  the invest igat ion of  c i ty  owned property has ident i f ied a range of  property that is  both scattered and varying in s ize across the city.  The selected city  owned s i te of  this  project  is  s i tuated in the neighbourhood of Kits i lano (out l ined in Figure 44) ,  a  neighbourhood about to experience change and inf lux of development,  adjacent to the future Broadway Skytrain stat ion (dashed in blue in Figure 44) . =  C i t y  O w n e d  P r o p o e r t y=  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r  B o u n d a r y =  N e i g h b o u r h o o d  O u t l i n e s=  K i t s i l a n o=  S k y t r a i n  E x t e n s i o n=  D e l a m o n tU B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sB u r r a r d  I n l e tE n g l i s h  B a yB u r n a b yY V R  S e a  I s l a n dN o r t h  V a n c o u v e r39Figure 44: City of Vancouver Owned Property, Kitsilano and Delamont outlined, and future Skytrain extension line - Author’s Graphics, 2019. E n g l i s h  B a yB UR RA RD  B RI D GEGRANV IL LE  B RI DGEC O R N W A L L  A V EY O R K  A V EW  1 S T  A V EW  2 N D  A V EW  3 R D  A V EW  4 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  7 T H  A V EW  8 T H  A V EW  B R O A D W A YW  1 0 T H  A V EW  1 1 T H  A V EW  1 2 T H  A V EW  1 3 T H  A V EW  1 4 T H  A V EW  1 5 T H  A V EMAPLE STARBUTUS STCYPRESS STBURRARD STYEW STVINE STBALSAM STLARCH STPINE STFIR STGRANVILLE STHEMLOCK STBIRCH STALDER STSPRUCE STOAK STLAUREL STF a l s e  C r e e kC i t y  O w n e d  P r o p e r t yC i t y  O w n e d  L a n dP a r k s  F u t u r e  U n d e r g r o u n d  S t a t i o nC P R  “ R i g h t  o f  W a y ”S k y  T r a i n  E x t e n s i o nB i k e  R o u t e s  N5 0 0m2 50mN e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o n t e x tN1 : 5 0 0 040Figure 45: Delamont’s Larger Neighbourhood Context - Author’s Graphics, 2019. The s i te of  invest igat ion for  this  project  is  Delamont Park,  located between West Broadway and West 4th Avenue,  between Maple and Arbutus Street.  Located next to the Arbutus Greenway,  and adjacent to the future skytrain stat ion,  the s i te is  wel l  connected to the rest of  the city  and i t ’s  surrounding neighbourhood. E n g l i s h  B a yB UR RA RD  B RI D GEGRANV IL LE  B RI DGEC O R N W A L L  A V EY O R K  A V EW  1 S T  A V EW  2 N D  A V EW  3 R D  A V EW  4 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  7 T H  A V EW  8 T H  A V EW  B R O A D W A YW  1 0 T H  A V EW  1 1 T H  A V EW  1 2 T H  A V EW  1 3 T H  A V EW  1 4 T H  A V EW  1 5 T H  A V EMAPLE STARBUTUS STCYPRESS STBURRARD STYEW STVINE STBALSAM STLARCH STPINE STFIR STGRANVILLE STHEMLOCK STBIRCH STALDER STSPRUCE STOAK STLAUREL STF a l s e  C r e e kC i t y  O w n e d  P r o p e r t yC i t y  O w n e d  L a n dP a r k s  F u t u r e  U n d e r g r o u n d  S t a t i o nC P R  “ R i g h t  o f  W a y ”S k y  T r a i n  E x t e n s i o nB i k e  R o u t e s  N5 0 0m2 50mN e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o n t e x tN1 : 5 0 0 0E n g l i s h  B a yB UR RA RD  B RI D GEGRANV IL LE  B RI DGEC O R N W A L L  A V EY O R K  A V EW  1 S T  A V EW  2 N D  A V EW  3 R D  A V EW  4 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  7 T H  A V EW  8 T H  A V EW  B R O A D W A YW  1 0 T H  A V EW  1 1 T H  A V EW  1 2 T H  A V EW  1 3 T H  A V EW  1 4 T H  A V EW  1 5 T H  A V EMAPLE STARBUTUS STCYPRESS STBURRARD STYEW STVINE STBALSAM STLARCH STPINE STFIR STGRANVILLE STHEMLOCK STBIRCH STALDER STSPRUCE STOAK STLAUREL STF a l s e  C r e e kC i t y  O w n e d  P r o p e r t yC i t y  O w n e d  L a n dP a r k s  F u t u r e  U n d e r g r o u n d  S t a t i o nC P R  “ R i g h t  o f  W a y ”S k y  T r a i n  E x t e n s i o nB i k e  R o u t e s  N5 0 0m2 50mN e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o n t e x tN1 : 5 0 0 0E n g l i s h  B a yB UR RA RD  B RI D GEGRANV IL LE  B RI DGEC O R N W A L L  A V EY O R K  A V EW  1 S T  A V EW  2 N D  A V EW  3 R D  A V EW  4 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  7 T H  A V EW  8 T H  A V EW  B R O A D W A YW  1 0 T H  A V EW  1 1 T H  A V EW  1 2 T H  A V EW  1 3 T H  A V EW  1 4 T H  A V EW  1 5 T H  A V EMAPLE STARBUTUS STCYPRESS STBURRARD STYEW STVINE STBALSAM STLARCH STPINE STFIR STGRANVILLE STHEMLOCK STBIRCH STALDER STSPRUCE STOAK STLAUREL STF a l s e  C r e e kC i t y  O w n e d  P r o p e r t yC i t y  O w n e d  L a n dP a r k s  F u t u r e  U n d e r g r o u n d  S t a t i o nC P R  “ R i g h t  o f  W a y ”S k y  T r a i n  E x t e n s i o nB i k e  R o u t e s  N5 0 0m2 50mN e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o n t e x tN1 : 5 0 0 0E n g l i s h  B a yB UR RA RD  B RI D GEGRANV IL LE  B RI DGEC O R N W A L L  A V EY O R K  A V EW  1 S T  A V EW  2 N D  A V EW  3 R D  A V EW  4 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  7 T H  A V EW  8 T H  A V EW  B R O A D W A YW  1 0 T H  A V EW  1 1 T H  A V EW  1 2 T H  A V EW  1 3 T H  A V EW  1 4 T H  A V EW  1 5 T H  A V EMAPLE STARBUTUS STCYPRESS STBURRARD STYEW STVINE STBALSAM STLARCH STPINE STFIR STGRANVILLE STHEMLOCK STBIRCH STALDER STSPRUCE STOAK STLAUREL STF a l s e  C r e e kC i t y  O w n e d  P r o p e r t yC i t y  O w n e d  L a n dP a r k s  F u t u r e  U n d e r g r o u n d  S t a t i o nC P R  “ R i g h t  o f  W a y ”S k y  T r a i n  E x t e n s i o nB i k e  R o u t e s  N5 0 0m2 50mN e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o n t e x tN1 : 5 0 0 041Figure 46: Delam nt’s L rger Neighbourhood Context, zoomed in - Author’s Graphics, 2019 D e l a m o n t ,  V a n c o u v e r ,  1 9 2 742Figure 47: Delamont, Vancouver 1927 Fire Insurance Map. Bruce Macdonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010.Figure 48: Delamont, Vancouver 2018 Building foot prints- Author’s Graphics, 2019. H i s t o r y  o f  D e l a m o n tThen vs.  Now As the selected s i te of  invest igat ion,  Delamont contains 22 c i ty  owned houses,  which are current ly  being rented out by the City of  Vancouver (highl ighted in Figure 48) .  Whi le the houses on s i te have been subdivided into rental  units  and renovated s ince the City’s possession in the 1960s,  the s i te as a whole remains s imi lar  to i t ’s  ear ly  development in 1900. Delamont was establ ished in 1900,  before the neighbourhood of  Kits i lano was even named. I t ’s  s i te is  t ied to ear ly  logging industry in the city,  streetcar t ransportat ion corr idors,  and remains as the oldest  surviv ing group of  houses in Kits i lano.  ( refer  to Figure 56:  Delamont, Vancouver History and T imel ine) . Delamont has a long history of  community involvement and proposed re-development. The City of  Vancouver or iginal ly  acquired these houses in the 1960s,  and their  plan was to demolish the s i te in order to create a f reeway connect ion,  part  of  a larger development plan in the city.   However,  Delamont’s  proposed re-development has been met with opposit ion on mult iple occasions by both the community and the city,  and the fai lure to demolish and re-bui ld these houses has led to their  conservat ion. In 2016,  the City of  Vancouver acquired the Canadian Paci f ic  ra i lway r ight of  way,  which runs through the s i te.  Whi le the corr idor,  has been redeveloped into a greenway s ince then,  the future fate of  the houses remains undetermined.Figure 49: Delamont, Vancouver 1927 + 2018 Map overlay. Author’s Graphics, 2019. 43Proposed Re-development met by opposition (refer to Figure 56: Delamont, Vancouver History and Timeline):1930 - Kitsilano Rent Payers Association + other community groups oppose highway plan1969 - Delamont + Strathcona citizen uprising against freeway plan1982 - Opposition to Vancouver Parkboard’s plan to demolish houses + expand Delamont Park1999 - CPR attempted re-zone “right-of-way” land for high density development44W E S T  5 T H  AV E N U EARBUTUS STREET  A D D R E S S      N A M E      Y E A R    H E R I T A G E  S T A T U S1  2 2 0 0  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T    A R B U T U S  G R O C E R Y    19 0 7    A2  2 210  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T    B E T T E R T O N  D U P L E X  ( N )    1911   2 2 2 0  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T     B E T T E R T O N  D U P L E X  ( S )    1910 3  2 0 8 4  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    F R A Z E R / D I X O N  H O U S E    19 01  &  19 2 0 s4  2 0 7 8  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    V I C T O R I A N  M U R P H Y  H O U S E   19 01    C5  2 0 6 8  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    E D WA R D I A N  M U R P H Y  H O U S E   19 0 7    C6  2 0 9 7  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    S C A R L E T T  B U I L D I N G    1910    7  2 0 8 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C H A R L E S  J O N E S  B U I L D I N G   19 01  &  19 0 8    B8  2 0 7 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C H A R L E S  C H U R C H  H O U S E   19 0 9    C  9  2 0 5 9  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    R A D E L E T  H O U S E    19 0 6    C10  2 0 5 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C L A R A  D O R N A N ʼ S  H O U S E   191011  2 0 9 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    B O Y D  H O U S E     19 0 5    B12  2 0 8 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E     O L D  T U R N E R  H O U S E    19 0 0  &  194 113  2 0 8 6  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    M A T H I E S O N  H O U S E    1911    C14   2 0 7 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    E . O .  T U R N E R  H O U S E    19 0 5    C15  2 0 6 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V E R N O N  B R O S  H O U S E  ( W )   1910    C16  2 0 6 2  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V E R N O N  B R O S  H O U S E  ( E )   1910    C17  2 0 5 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    O P H E L I A  M I L L A R D  H O U S E   1913    C17 b       W H I T E  H O U S E  ( R E A R )    19 0 518  2 0 5 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    M c C A R T H Y / T H O M P S O N  H O U S E   1911    C19  2 0 4 4  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    B U R T O N  H O U S E     19 0 7  2 0  2 0 3 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    C O WA N  H O U S E  ( W )    1910    C21  2 0 3 2  W E S T  5 T H  AV E     C O WA N  H O U S E  ( E )    1910    C2 2  2 0 2 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V I R K  H O U S E  ?     19 0 0  &  1911132W E S T  6 T H  AV E N U EMAPLE STREET W E S T  4 T H  AV E N U E4 5768 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 1717 b18 19 2 0 212 2W E S T  7 T H  AV E N U EW E S T  8 T H  AV E N U ECITY OWNED PROPERTY1- 22GR EENWAYD E L A M O N T PA R KFigure 50: Delamont, Vancouver site Plan 2018 - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Additional information from Bruce MacDonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010.W E S T  5 T H  AV E N U EARBUTUS STREET  A D D R E S S      N A M E      Y E A R    H E R I T A G E  S T A T U S1  2 2 0 0  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T    A R B U T U S  G R O C E R Y    19 0 7    A2  2 210  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T    B E T T E R T O N  D U P L E X  ( N )    1911   2 2 2 0  A R B U T U S  S T R E E T     B E T T E R T O N  D U P L E X  ( S )    1910 3  2 0 8 4  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    F R A Z E R / D I X O N  H O U S E    19 01  &  19 2 0 s4  2 0 7 8  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    V I C T O R I A N  M U R P H Y  H O U S E   19 01    C5  2 0 6 8  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    E D WA R D I A N  M U R P H Y  H O U S E   19 0 7    C6  2 0 9 7  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    S C A R L E T T  B U I L D I N G    1910    7  2 0 8 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C H A R L E S  J O N E S  B U I L D I N G   19 01  &  19 0 8    B8  2 0 7 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C H A R L E S  C H U R C H  H O U S E   19 0 9    C  9  2 0 5 9  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    R A D E L E T  H O U S E    19 0 6    C10  2 5 5  W E S T  6 T H  AV E    C L A R A  D O R N A N ʼ S  H O U S E   191011  2 0 9 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    B O Y D  H O U S E     19 0 5    B12  2 0 8 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E     O L D  T U R N E R  H O U S E    19 0 0  &  194 113  2 0 8 6  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    M A T H I E S O N  H O U S E    1911    C14   2 0 7 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    E . O .  T U R N E R  H O U S E    19 0 5    C15  2 0 6 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V E R N O N  B R O S  H O U S E  ( W )   1910    C16  2 0 6 2  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V E R N O N  B R O S  H O U S E  ( E )   1910    C17  2 0 5 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    O P H E L I A  M I L L A R D  H O U S E   1913    C17 b       W H I T E  H O U S E  ( R E A R )    19 0 518  2 0 5 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    M c C A R T H Y / T H O M P S O N  H O U S E   1911    C19  2 0 4 4  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    B U R T O N  H O U S E     19 0 7  2 0  2 0 3 8  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    C O WA N  H O U S E  ( W )    1910    C21  2 0 3 2  W E S T  5 T H  AV E     C O WA N  H O U S E  ( E )    1910    C2 2  2 0 2 0  W E S T  5 T H  AV E    V I R K  H O U S E  ?     19 0 0  &  1911132W E S T  6 T H  AV E N U EMAPLE STREET W E S T  4 T H  AV E N U E4 5768 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 1717 b18 19 2 0 212 2W E S T  7 T H  AV E N U EW E S T  8 T H  AV E N U ECITY OWNED PROPERTY1-22K I T S I L A N O C O M M U N I T Y G A R D E NARBUT USE X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YFigure 51: Site Section through West 7th Avenue, Looking South - Author’s Graphics, 2019E X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YE X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YE X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YE X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YE X I S T I N G  D A Y C A R EA R B U T U SS T M A P L E  S TK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E NA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E EC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TM A P L E  S TC Y P R E S S  S TA R B U T U SS TA R B U T U SC O F F E ED E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YW  5 T H  A V E W  6 T H  A V E W  7 T H  A V EW  6 T H  A V EW  5 T H  A V EK I T S  C O M M U N I T YG A R D E ND E L A M O N T  P A R KA R B U T U S  G R E E N W A YFigure 52: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking North - uthor’s Graphics, 2019Figure 53: Site Section through West 5th Avenue, Looking South - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 54: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking South - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 55: Site Section through West 6th Avenue, Looking North - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 55: Site Section through Arbutus Street, Looking East  - Author’s Graphics, 2019 45461900Delamont is  establ ished, with i ts  area’s f i rst  house bui l t  in 19011902CPR l ine opens along 6th Avenue to Steveston1905Streetcar service to Kits i lano BeachStreetcar service along 6th Avenue & south along Arbutus“Kits i lano” is  named 1907Arbutus Grocery store opens on 7th Ave + Arbutus Street 1909Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long 4th Ave to Arbutus  Streetcar extended along 4th avenue to Alma 1910Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Broadway to Macdonald1911Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Alma, along 10th Avenue to Blanca1929City of  Vancouver adopts Bartholomew plan for  the city   A highway connector along 6th + Arbutus,  is  proposed to run through Vancouver’s  Delamont + Strathcona neighbourhoods1930Community of  Delamont + Kits i lano rent payers associat ion + other community groups oppose highway plan + begin involvement in community upris ing against  top down city  hal l  pol ic ies1932Burrard br idge opens as a connect ing throughfare through Vancouver1938Lionsgate Br idge opens as a major connect ing route to North Vancouver1941 -  1947Wart ime housing cottages bui l t  as af fordable worker housing 1949Lower Mainland Regional  Planning Board Establ ished1953 Vancouver Charter  gives s ignif icant “home-rule” powers to City Counci l  and the Director of  Planning to respond to local  c i rcumstances1956Re-zoning between Larch + Vine Street to al low for high r ise apartments Kits i lano became an affordable renters community for  young people,  as homeowners saw l i t t le point  in maintaining their  homes before tear ing them down + tur ining them into apartments1958Interurban streetcar tra ins ceased operat ion BC Electr ic ’s  “Rai ls  to Rubber” program converted most of  the streetcar l ines to trol ley bus l ines1969Delamont’s  involvement in community upris ing against  top down city hal l  pol ic ies has an important role in the development of  community planning in CanadaDelamont + Strathcona’s 1969 cit izen upris ing against  proposed demolit ion of  whole c i ty  blocks of  their  homes for the construct ion of  f reeway caused cancel lat ion of  nat ionwide funding for such projects1972Community upris ing caused the introduction of  formal  c i t izen input through a new community planning process in Vancouver1974Local  Area planning inst i tuted in Kits i lano to accomodate cit izen input 1982Funding provided by the City of  Vancouver for  City Farmer Demonstrat ion Food Garden (”Kits i lano Community Garden” located at  6th Ave + Maple Street) 1981Lots c leared between Arbutus street + 7th Ave,  alongside curved train track1982Vancouver park board proposed tear down of  houses to expand park (designed by Richard Henriquez) ,  but met by opposit ion of  local  residentsUpgraded city  owned houses in Delamont ,  postponing their  demolit ionParkboard considered creat ion of  a “green vi l lage”,  combining backyards of  houses into publ ic  space,  but decided against  i t1999Canada Paci f ic  Rai lway tr ied to re-zone “r ight-of-way” land for high density  developmentCity of  Vancouver took CPR to courtCity of  Vancouver aquired r ight-of-way,  with the possibi l i ty  for  future revers ion of  the land to a transportat ion corr idor  1850’sIn the 1850s “Vancouver” was inhabited by the Musqueam + Squamish peoplesBefore Non-native immigrants sett led,  Kits i lano was or iginal ly  occupied by a smal l  Squamish sett lement known as “Skwayoo”1868Old growth f i r  and cedar trees in Kits i lano were cut down by loggersThe skid road they used to get to the logging camp was the f i rst  major path in Kits i lano -  a long  ‘Arbutus Street’1870 Granvi l le Townsite ( local ly  known as Gastown) is  establ ished 1885 CPR Western Terminus to be in Vancouver (not Port  Moody)  Hamilton (CPR civ i l  engineer)   begins survey of  the streets of  Vancouver -  Establ ishing Vancouver’s  gr id system ( including45 degree t i l t  downtown) + Stanley Park proposal1886 CPR arr ives Birth of  Vancouver:boundaries of  Burrard Inlet ,  Alma, 16th Avenue +Nanaimo StreetThe Great Vancouver Fire,  June 13,  1886only 3 of  an est imated 1000 exist ingbui ldings survived 2000Arbutus Corr idor Off ic ia l  Development Plan passed by the City of  Vancouver -  designat ing the land for t ransportat ion,  parks,  +/or greenways2001Short  f reight trains continued to use the tracks unt i l l  20012006Supreme Court  agreed that the City of  Vancouver had the r ight to prohibit  development for  uses other than a rai lway,  but the City plan for  the future development of  Delamont remain unresolved2014CPR begins to remove community gardens along Arbutus corr idor rai lway 2016Vancouver aquired Arbutus rai l  corr idor f rom CPR for $55-mil l ionArbutus Corr idor paved with asphalt ,  + off ic ia l ly  converted into a “greenway”2019The Delamont block remains as the oldest  surviv ing group of  houses in Kits i lano + continue to be rented out by the City of  VancouverMID 19TH CENTURY1 8 5 0 ʼ s20TH CENTURY1 9 0 0 ʼ s21ST CENTURY2 0 0 0 ʼ s1920 1940 1960 1980 - W W 1  1 9 1 4  -  1 9 1 8W W 21 9 3 9  -  1 9 4 5G R E A T  D E P R E S S I O N1 9 2 9  -  1 9 3 91910 1930 1950 1970 1990C A N A D A  F O U N D E D  A S  A  C O U N T R Y  1 8 6 71900l ont is  l ished, with i ts  r ’s  f i rst  house bui l t  in 19011902CPR l ine opens along 6th Avenue to Steveston1905Streetcar service to Kits i lano BeachStreetcar service along 6th Avenue & south along Arbutus“Kits i lano” is  named 1907Arbutus Grocery store opens on 7th Ave + Arbutus Street 1909Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long 4th Ave toArbut s  Streetcar extended along 4th avenue to Alma 1910Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Broadway to Macdonald1911Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Alma, along 10th Avenue to Blanca1929City of  Vancouver adopts Bartholomew plan for  the city   A highway connector along 6th + Arbutus,  is  proposed to run through Vancouver’s  Delamont + Strathcona neighbourhoods1930Community of  Delamont + Kits i lano rent payers associat ion + other community groups oppose highway plan + begin involvement in community upris ing against  top down city  hal l  pol ic ies1932Burrard br idge opens as a connect ing throughfare through Vancouver1938Lionsgate Br idge opens as a major connect ing route to North Vancouver1941 -  1947Wart ime housing cottages bui l t  a  af fordable worker housing 1949Lower Mainland Regional  Planning Board Establ ished1953 Vancouver Charter  gives s ignif icant “home-rule” powers to City Counci l  and the Director of  Planning to respond to local  c i rcumstances1956Re-zoning between Larch + Vine Street to al low for high r ise apartments Kits i lano became an affordable renters community f r  young people,  as homeowners saw l i t t le point  in maintaining their  homes before tear ing them down + tur ining them into apartments1958Interurban streetcar tra ins ceased operat ion BC Electr ic ’s  “Rai ls  to Rubber” program converted most of  the streetcar l ines to trol ley bus l ines1969Delamont’s  involvement in community upris ing against  top down city hal l  pol ic ies has an important role in the development of  community planning in CanadaDelamont + Strathcona’s 1969 cit izen upris ing against  proposed demolit ion of  whole c i ty  blocks of  their  homes for the construct ion f  f reeway caused cancel lat ion of  nat ionwide funding for such projects1972Community upris ing caused the introduction of  formal  c i t izen input through a new community planning process in Vancouver1974Local  Area planning inst i tuted in Kits i lano to accomodate cit izen input 1982Fundi  provided by the City of  Vancouver f r  City Farmer Demonstrat ion Food Garden (”Kits i lano Community Garden” located at  6th Ave + Maple Street) 1981Lots c leared between Arbutus street + 7th Ave,  alongside curved train track1982Vancouver park board proposed tear down of  houses to expand park (designed by Richard Henriquez) ,  but met by opposit ion of  local  residentsUpgraded city  owned houses in Delamont ,  postponing their  demolit ionParkboard considered creat ion of  a “green vi l lage”,  combining backyards of  houses into publ ic  space,  but decided against  i t1999Canada Paci f ic  Rai lway tr ied to re-zone “r ight-of-way” land for high density  developmentCity of  Vancouver took CPR to courtCity of  Vancouver aquired r ight-of-way,  with the possibi l i ty  for  future revers ion of  the land to a transportat ion corr idor  1850’sIn the 1850s “Vancouver” was inhabited by the Musqueam + Squamish peoplesBefore Non-native immigrants sett led,  Kits i lano was or iginal ly  occupied by a smal l  Squamish sett lement known as “Skwayoo”1868Old growth f i r  and cedar trees in Kits i lano were cut down by loggersThe skid road they used to get to the logging camp was the f i rst  major path in Kits i lano -  a long  ‘Arbutus Street’1870 Granvi l le Townsite ( local ly  known as Gastown) is  establ ished 1885 CPR Western Terminus to be in Vancouver (not Port  Moody)  Hamilton (CPR civ i l  engineer)   begins survey of  the streets of  Vancouver -  Establ ishing Vanco ver’s  gr id sy em ( including45 degree t i l t  downtown) + Stanley Park proposal1886 CPR arr ives Birth of  Vancouver:boundaries of  Burrard Inlet ,  Alma, 16th Avenue +Nanaimo StreetThe Great Vancouver Fire,  June 13,  1886only 3 of  an est imated 1000 exist ingbui ldings survived 2000Arbutus Corr idor Off ic ia l  D vel pment Plan pass d by the City of  Vancouver -  designat ing the land for t ransportat ion,  parks,  +/or greenways2001Short  f reight trains continued to use the tracks unt i l l  20012006Supreme Court  agreed that the City of  Vancouver had the r ight to prohibit  development for  uses other than a rai lway,  but the City plan for  the future development of  Delamont remain unresolved2014CPR begins to remove community gardens along Arbutus corr idor rai lway 2016Vancouver aquired Arbutus rai l  corr idor f rom CPR for $55-mil l ionArbutus Corr idor paved with asphalt ,  + off ic ia l ly  converted into a “greenway”2019The Delamont block remains as the oldest  surviv ing group of  houses in Kits i lano + continue to be rented out by the City of  VancouverMID 19TH CENTURY1 8 5 0 ʼ s20TH CENTURY1 9 0 0 ʼ s21ST CENTURY2 0 0 0 ʼ s1920 1940 1960 1980 - W W 1  1 9 1 4  -  1 9 1 8W W 21 9 3 9  -  1 9 4 5G R E A T  D E P R E S S I O N1 9 2 9  -  1 9 3 91910 1930 1950 1970 1990C A N A D A  F O U N D E D  A S  A  C O U N T R Y  1 8 6 7Figure 56: Delamont, Vancouver History and Timeline - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Bruce Macdonald. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010. 471900Delamont is  establ ished, with i ts  area’s f i rst  house bui l t  in 19011902CPR l ine opens along 6th Avenue to Steveston1905Streetcar service to Kits i lano BeachStreetcar service along 6th Avenue & south along Arbutus“Kits i lano” is  named 1907Arbutus Grocery store opens on 7th Ave + Arbutus Street 1909Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long 4th Ave to Arbutus  Streetcar extended along 4th avenue to Alma 1910Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Broadway to Macdonald1911Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Alma, along 10th Avenue to Blanca1929City of  Vancouver adopts Bartholomew plan for  the city   A highway connector along 6th + Arbutus,  is  proposed to run through Vancouver’s  Delamont + Strathcona neighbourhoods1930Community of  Delamont + Kits i lano rent payers associat ion + other community groups oppose highway plan + begin involvement in community upris ing against  top down city  hal l  pol ic ies1932Burrard br idge opens as a connect ing throughfare through Vancouver1938Lionsgate Br idge opens as a major connect ing route to North Vancouver1941 -  1947Wart ime housing cottages bui l t  as af fordable worker housing 1949Lower Mainland Regional  Planning Board Establ ished1953 Vancouver Charter  gives s ignif icant “home-rule” powers to City Counci l  and the Director of  Planning to respond to local  c i rcumstances1956Re-zoning between Larch + Vine Street to al low for high r ise apartments Kits i lano became an affordable renters community for  young people,  as homeowners saw l i t t le point  in maintaining their  homes before tear ing them down + tur ining them into apartments1958Interurban streetcar tra ins ceased operat ion BC Electr ic ’s  “Rai ls  to Rubber” program converted most of  the streetcar l ines to trol ley bus l ines1969Delamont’s  involvement in community upris ing against  top down city hal l  pol ic ies has an important role in the development of  community planning in CanadaDelamont + Strathcona’s 1969 cit izen upris ing against  proposed demolit ion of  whole c i ty  blocks of  their  homes for the construct ion of  f reeway caused cancel lat ion of  nat ionwide funding for such projects1972Community upris ing caused the introduction of  formal  c i t izen input through a new community planning process in Vancouver1974Local  Area planning inst i tuted in Kits i lano to accomodate cit izen input 1982Funding provided by the City of  Vancouver for  City Farmer Demonstrat ion Food Garden (”Kits i lano Community Garden” located at  6th Ave + Maple Street) 1981Lots c leared between Arbutus street + 7th Ave,  alongside curved train track1982Vancouver park board proposed tear down of  houses to expand park (designed by Richard Henriquez) ,  but met by opposit ion of  local  residentsUpgraded city  owned houses in Delamont ,  postponing their  demolit ionParkboard considered creat ion of  a “green vi l lage”,  combining backyards of  houses into publ ic  space,  but decided against  i t1999Canada Paci f ic  Rai lway tr ied to re-zone “r ight-of-way” land for high density  developmentCity of  Vancouver took CPR to courtCity of  Vancouver aquired r ight-of-way,  with the possibi l i ty  for  future revers ion of  the land to a transportat ion corr idor  1850’sIn the 1850s “Vancouver” was inhabited by the Musqueam + Squamish peoplesBefore Non-native immigrants sett led,  Kits i lano was or iginal ly  occupied by a smal l  Squamish sett lement known as “Skwayoo”1868Old growth f i r  and cedar trees in Kits i lano were cut down by loggersThe skid road they used to get to the logging camp was the f i rst  major path in Kits i lano -  a long  ‘Arbutus Street’1870 Granvi l le Townsite ( local ly  known as Gastown) is  establ ished 1885 CPR Western Terminus to be in Vancouver (not Port  Moody)  Hamilton (CPR civ i l  engineer)   begins survey of  the streets of  Vancouver -  Establ ishing Vancouver’s  gr id system ( including45 degree t i l t  downtown) + Stanley Park proposal1886 CPR arr ives Birth of  Vancouver:boundaries of  Burrard Inlet ,  Alma, 16th Avenue +Nanaimo StreetThe Great Vancouver Fire,  June 13,  1886only 3 of  an est imated 1000 exist ingbui ldings survived 2000Arbutus Corr idor Off ic ia l  Development Plan passed by the City of  Vancouver -  designat ing the land for t ransportat ion,  parks,  +/or greenways2001Short  f reight trains continued to use the tracks unt i l l  20012006Supreme Court  agreed that the City of  Vancouver had the r ight to prohibit  development for  uses other than a rai lway,  but the City plan for  the future development of  Delamont remain unresolved2014CPR begins to remove community gardens along Arbutus corr idor rai lway 2016Vancouver aquired Arbutus rai l  corr idor f rom CPR for $55-mil l ionArbutus Corr idor paved with asphalt ,  + off ic ia l ly  converted into a “greenway”2019The Delamont block remains as the oldest  surviv ing group of  houses in Kits i lano + continue to be rented out by the City of  VancouverMID 19TH CENTURY1 8 5 0 ʼ s20TH CENTURY1 9 0 0 ʼ s21ST CENTURY2 0 0 0 ʼ s1920 1940 1960 1980 - W W 1  1 9 1 4  -  1 9 1 8W W 21 9 3 9  -  1 9 4 5G R E A T  D E P R E S S I O N1 9 2 9  -  1 9 3 91910 1930 1950 1970 1990C A N A D A  F O U N D E D  A S  A  C O U N T R Y  1 8 6 71900Delamont is  establ ished, with i ts  area’s f i rst  house bui l t  in 19011902CPR l ine opens along 6th Avenue to Steveston1905Streetcar service to Kits i lano BeachStreetcar service along 6th Avenue & south along Arbutus“Kits i lano” is  named 1907Arbutus Grocery store opens on 7th Ave + Arbutus Street 1909Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long 4th Ave to Arbutus  Streetcar extended along 4th avenue to Alma 1910Streetcar l ine bui l t  a long Broadway to Macdonald1911Stre tcar  l ine bui l t  a long Alma, along 10t  Avenue to Blanca1929City of  Vancouver adopts Bartholomew plan for  the city   A highway connector along 6th + Arbutus,  is  proposed to run through Vancouver’s  Delamont + Strathcona neighbourhoods1930Community of  Delamont + Kits i lano rent payers associat ion + other community groups oppose highway plan + begin involvement in community upris ing against  top down city  hal l  pol ic ies1932Burrard br idge opens as a connect ing throughfare through Vancouver1938Lionsgate Br idge opens as a major connect ing route to North Vancouver1941 -  1947Wart ime housing cottages bui l t  as af fordable worker housing 1949Lower Mainland Regional  Planning Board Establ ished1953 Vancouver Charter  gives s ignif icant “home-rule” powers to City Counci l  and the Director of  Planning to respond to local  c i rcumstances1956Re-zoning between Larch + Vine Street to al low for high r ise apartments Kits i lano became an affordabl  r nters community for  young people, as homeowners saw l i t t le point  in maintaining their  homes before tear ing them down + tur ining them into apartments1958Interurban streetcar tra ins ceased operat ion BC Electr ic ’s  “Rai ls  to Rubber” program converted most of  the streetcar l ines to trol ley bus l ines1969Delamont’s  involvement in community upris ing against  top down city hal l  pol ic ies has an important role in the development of  community planning in CanadaDelamont + Strathcona’s 1969 cit izen upris ing against  proposed demolit ion of  whole c i ty  blocks of  their  homes for the construct ion of  f reew y caused ancel lat ion of  nat ionwide funding for such projects1972Community upris ing caused the introduction of  formal  c i t izen input through a new community planning process in Vancouver1974Local  Area planning inst i tuted in Kits i lano to accomodate cit izen input 1982Funding provided by the City of  Vancouver for  City Farmer Demonstrat ion Food Garden (”Kits i lano Community Garden” located at  6th Ave + Maple Street) 1981Lots c leared between Arbutus street + 7th Ave,  alongside curved train track1982Vancouver park board proposed tear down of  hous s to ex nd park (d signed by Richard Henriquez) ,  but met by opposit ion of  local  residentsUpgraded city  owned houses in Delamont ,  postponing their  demolit ionParkboard considered creat ion of  a “green vi l lage”,  combining backyards of  houses into publ ic  space,  but decided against  i t1999Canada Paci f ic  Rai lway tr ied to re-zone “r ight-of-way” land for high density  developmentCity of  Vancouver took CPR to courtCity of  Vancouver aquired r ight-of-way,  with the possibi l i ty  for  future revers ion of  the land to a transportat ion corr idor  1850’sIn the 1850s “Vancouver” was inhabited by the Musqueam + Squamish peoplesBefore Non-native immigrants sett led,  Kits i lano was or iginal ly  occupied by a smal l  Squamish sett lement known as “Skwayoo”1868Old growth f i r  and cedar trees in Kits i lano were cut down by loggersThe skid road they used to get to the loggin  camp was the f i rst  major path in Kits i lano -  a long  ‘Arbutus Street’1870 Granvi l le Townsite ( local ly  known as Gastown) is  establ ished 1885 CPR Western Terminus to be in Vancouver (not Port  Moody)  Hamilton (CPR civ i l  engineer)   begins survey of  the streets of  Vancouver -  Establ ishing Vancouver’s  gr id system ( including45 degree t i l t  downtown) + Stanley Park proposal1886 CPR arr ives Birth of  Vancouver:boundaries of  Burrard Inlet ,  Alma, 16th Avenue +Nanaimo StreetThe Great Vancouver Fire,  June 13,  1886only 3 of  an est imated 1000 exist ingbui ldings survived 2000Arbutus Corr idor Off ic ia l  Development Plan passed by the City of  Vancouver -  designat ing the land for t ransportat ion,  parks,  +/or greenways2001Short  f reight trains continued to use the tracks unt i l l  20012006Supreme Court  agreed that the City f  Vancouver had the r ight to prohibit  development f r  uses other than a rai lway,  bu  the City plan for  the future development of  Delamont remain unresolved2014CPR begins to remove community gardens along Arbutus corr idor rai lway 2016Vancouver aquired Arbutus rai l  corr idor f rom CPR for $55-mil l ionArbutus Corr idor paved with asphalt ,  + off ic ia l ly  converted into a “greenway”2019The Delamont block remains as the oldest  surviv ing group of  houses in Kits i lano + continue to be rented out by the City of  VancouverMID 19TH CENTURY1 8 5 0 ʼ s20TH CENTURY1 9 0 0 ʼ s21ST CENTURY2 0 0 0 ʼ s1920 1940 1960 1980 - W W 1  1 9 1 4  -  1 9 1 8W W 21 9 3 9  -  1 9 4 5G R E A T  D E P R E S S I O N1 9 2 9  -  1 9 3 91910 1930 1950 1970 1990C A N A D A  F O U N D E D  A S  A  C O U N T R Y  1 8 6 748p a t h w a y s  A r b u t u s  G r e e n w a y  b i k e  a n d  w a l k i n g  p a t h  +  D e l a m o n t  p a r k  p a t hA r b u t u s  G r e e n w a yv i e w  c o r r i d o r s  l o o k i n g  t o w a r d  D o w n t o w n  Va n c o u v e r  +  N o r t h  s h o r e  M o u n t a i n sc i r c u l a t i o n  b e t w e e n  u n i t s  r e q u i r e d  e m e r g e n c y  e x i t s  a d d e d  o n t o  e a c h  h o u s e h o l d  a p a r t m e n t  f o r  r e q u i r e d  e g r e s sc i r c u l a t i o n  +  a p p r o a c h  s t r e e t  l e v e l  h o u s e h o l d  a p p r o a c hFigure 57: Circulation, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019Circulation on the site included a range of stairs - from a street level household approach to therequired emergency egress added onto each household apartment. Figure 58: Pathways and Corridors, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Gr phics, 2019As the Arbutus greenway runs through the site, the presence of pathways is made clear within Delamont - specifically situating the site as a connected node within the larger network of pathways within the city.S i t e  A n a l y s i s Exist ing Condit ions Observat ions of  s i te elements were grouped into larger categories that separated publ ic  and pr ivate space within the s i te.  These categories included circulat ion,  pathways,  and barr iers .c i r c u l a t i o n  +  a p p r o a c h  s t r e e t  l e v e l  h o u s e h o l d  a p p r o a c hc i r c u l a t i o n  b e t w e e n  u n i t s  r e q u i r e d  e m e r g e n c y  e x i t s  a d d e d  o n t o  e a c h  h o u s e h o l d  a p a r t m e n t  f o r  r e q u i r e d  e g r e s sv i e w  c o r r i d o r s  l o o k i n g  t o w a r d  D o w n t o w n  Va n c o u v e r  +  N o r t h  s h o r e  M o u n t a i n sp a t h w a y s  A r b u t u s  G r e e n w a y  b i k e  a n d  w a l k i n g  p a t h  +  D e l a m o n t  p a r k  p a t hA r b u t u s  G r e e n w a yp a t h w a y s  A r b u t u s  G r e e n w a y  b i k e  a n d  w a l k i n g  p a t h  +  D e l a m o n t  p a r k  p a t hA r b u t u s  G r e e n w a y49b a r r i e r s  f e n c e s  m a r k i n g  l o t  d i v i s i o n s  a n d  l i m i t i n g  e n t r a n c e  i n t o  s i t e sb a r r i e r s  v e g i t a t i o n  a n d  c a r s  c r e a t i n g  b a r r i e r s  b e t w e e n  h o u s e h o l d s  a n d  s t r e e t  a p p r o a c hd i s r e p a i rp o o r  c o n d i t i o n  o f  h o u s e s  d u e  t o  n e g l e c t  a n d  u p k e e pt r a n s i t i o n i n g  a r e as i n c e  t h e  19 5 0 ʼ s  t h i s  s u r r o u n d i n g  a r e a  h a s  b e e n  r e - z o n e d  f o r  a p a r t m e n t st h e  f a i l u r e  t o  d e m o l i s h  s i t e s  a n d  r e - b u i l d  h a s  l e a d  t o  t h e  c o n s e r v a t i o n  o f  t h e  h o u s ed i s r e p a i rp o o r  c o n d i t i o n  o f  h o u s e s  d u e  t o  n e g l e c t  a n d  u p k e e pt r a n s i t i o n i n g  a r e as i n c e  t h e  19 5 0 ʼ s  t h i s  s u r r o u n d i n g  a r e a  h a s  b e e n  r e - z o n e d  f o r  a p a r t m e n t st h e  f a i l u r e  t o  d e m o l i s h  s i t e s  a n d  r e - b u i l d  h a s  l e a d  t o  t h e  c o n s e r v a t i o n  o f  t h e  h o u s eFi ure 59: Barriers, Existi g Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019Vegetation and cars create barriers between households and pedestrian approaches to the site. Fences mark lot divisions and limit entrances into the block. Figure 60: Disrepair, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2019Poor condition of the houses is present due to neglected maintenance and upkeep.Figure 61: Tr nsitioning Area, Existing Site Conditions - Author’s Graphics, 2018Since the 1950s, the surrounding area has been re-zoned for apartments.b a r r i e r s  v e g i t a t i o n  a n d  c a r s  c r e a t i n g  b a r r i e r s  b e t w e e n  h o u s e h o l d s  a n d  s t r e e t  a p p r o a c hb a r r i e r s  v e g i t a t i o n  a n d  c a r s  c r e a t i n g  b a r r i e r s  b e t w e e n  h o u s e h o l d s  a n d  s t r e e t  a p p r o a c hb a r r i e r s  v e g i t a t i o n  a n d  c a r s  c r e a t i n g  b a r r i e r s  b e t w e e n  h o u s e h o l d s  a n d  s t r e e t  a p p r o a c hb a r r i e r s  f e n c e s  m a r k i n g  l o t  d i v i s i o n s  a n d  l i m i t i n g  e n t r a n c e  i n t o  s i t e sb a r r i e r s  f e n c e s  m a r k i n g  l o t  d i v i s i o n s  a n d  l i m i t i n g  e n t r a c e  i n t o  s i t e s50Semi-Publ ic  GradientsLooking more specif ical ly  at  the cultural  norms associated with the house,  analys is  through col lage began to represent the dual i t ies of  expected use of  space and a sort  of  misuse of  these semi-publ ic  gradients.  Through the representat ion of  expected use of  space and the real i t ies of  everyday l i fe,  through semi-publ ic  gradients on the s i te,  an extension of the household into publ ic  areas is  created through the accumulat ion of  everyday things. Connect ions to the household temporar i ly  “assign new meaning”to outdoor space,  “blurr ing boundaries of  f ront lawn and s idewalk,  publ ic  and pr ivate” l i fe;  rendering the yard as a room within the city.  21 The fol lowing col lages categorized elements of  the house that dealt  with the gradient zone from the street to the house,  which inf luenced the approach to development in Figure 68 ( t reat ing “the s i te as a house”) . Figure 62: Front Yard Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 63: Backyard Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 64: Garden Suite Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 201921 Armborst, Tobias, Daniel D’Oca, Georgeen Theodore, and Riley Gold. 2017. The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion. New York: Actar Publishers.51Figure 65: Porch Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 66: Back Door Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 67: Front Street Ideals and Realities, Semi-Public Gradients - Author’s Graphics, 201952P r o p o s e d  I n t e r v e n t i o n sThe Site as a House The specif ic  approach to development on the s i te started with this  diagram that treated the s i te as a house,  dispersing elements of  the house throughout the s i te. Inf luenced by the col lages on pages 50-51,  new program was assigned to the street,  and a larger approach to designing for  a col lect ive block,  rather than for  indiv idual  lots  inf luenced larger s i te planning decis ions of  this  proposal .  With this  approach,  the front yard became a shared,  col lect ive condit ion across the s i te. Figure 68: The Site as a House Concept Diagram - Author’s Graphics, 2019 5354P r o p o s e d  I n t e r v e n t i o n sMissing MiddleIn addit ion to larger col lect ive block intervent ions,  this  project  proposes a ser ies of  miss ing middle housing developments that aim to integrat ing new development into the exist ing neighbourhood context.  This  wi l l  be achieved by providing diverse housing choices that f i t within a range of  2-3 story bui ldings. Whi le maintaining the exist ing rental  houses that accommodate mult iple households,  lowest density  one story houses wi l l  be removed and replaced with inf i l l  that  adds density  to the s i te,  in addit ion to proposed col lect ive neighbourhood amenit ies,  retai l ,  and studio space. This  proposal  t reats the s i te as a test ing ground for  options to be explored,  looking at  the ful l  spectrum of miss ing middle development,  f rom subdividing the s ingle family  house,  to adding new forms of  inf i l l . Leaning on recent miss ing middle research that has been proposed and bui l t  within the city of  Vancouver,   a  spectrum of affordabi l i ty  is  added to the miss ing middle diagram (Figure 69) .  This  acts as a tool  to decide which houses remain on the block.  Based on missing middle inf i l l  recent ly  proposed and bui l t  by local  Architecture f i rm Haeccity Studio Architecture,  the spectrum is  based on a s ingle lot  inf i l l  that  accommodates 6-8 units  on one s i te.  22 Based on a proforma for  a typical ly  s ized lot  in Vancouver,  i t ’s  out l ined that 6-8 households on one lot is  st i l l  considered “affordable” when replacing a s ingle-family  house. 22 This  project  ut i l ized this  spectrum to out l ine both new inf i l l  density  targets,  in addit ion to comparing exist ing household affordabi l i ty  on s i te.  Exist ing “single-family” homes that accommodate mult iple households can st i l l  fa l l  into an “affordabi l i ty” spectrum.T h e  M i s s i n g  M i d d l eʻ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ʼ  H o m e D u p l e x1 - 3  S t o r e y s 3 - 6  S t o r e y s“ T h e  M i s s i n g - M i d d l e ”ʻ S i n g l e - F a m i l y ʼ  h o m e+  s e c o n d a r y  s u i t e+  l a n e w a yM i d - R i s e  +  M i x e d - U s e1  H o u s e h o l d2H o u s e h o l d3H o u s e h o l d4 - 8H o u s e h o l d“ U N A F F O R D A B L E ” “ A F F O R D A B L E ”Figure 69: The Missing Middle Affordability Spectrum - Author’s Graphics, 2019. Information from Haeccity, “Micro-Op”, Urbanarium Missing Middle Competition, 2018. 22 Haeccity Studio Architecture. Urbanarium Missing Middle Competition “Micro-Op”, Accessed October 2019. https://www.haeccity.com/#/missingmiddle/.55Phases of  Development + Proposed Intervent ionsThe proposed development of  Delamont is  proposed to happen in a 10-15 year per iod,  over a ser ies of  f ive phases. The proposed development includes:-  cont inued maintenance of  exist ing houses as affordable rental  suites -  removal  of  exist ing one story development on s i te (“unaffordable”)-  erasure of  lot  l ines and removal  of  fences -  conversion of  west 6th Ave into a pedestr ian street-  addit ion of  pathways through the s i te that create publ ic  entr ies into the block- addit ion of  community garden shed- minor intervent ions to the exist ing houses-  s ingle lot  inf i l l-  backyard home inf i l l  (back hal f  of  2 lots) -  townhome development inf i l l  (accumulat ion of  2 lots) -  mixed use development inf i l l  (accumulat ion of  3 lots) P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor Pathways1M i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  C o m m o n  D i n i n g1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d223 3 3 33M a j o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  2 .  S i n g l e - l o t  I n f i l l3 .  B a c k y a r d  I n f i l l4 .  S t r e e t  I n f i l l5 .  T o w n h o m e  I n f i l l444 4455Figure 70: Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 201956Phase 01:The f i rst  phase of  development proposes:-  Continued maintenance of  exist ing    houses as affordable rental  suites -  Conversion of  West 6th Avenue,   between Maple and Arbutus Street,  into   a  pedestr ian street -  Addit ion of  pathways throughout the s i te   that  create publ ic  entr ies into the block -  Removal  of  exist ing one story   development on s i te (dashed in red)-  Erasure of  lot  l ines and removal  of   exist ing fences on s i te-  Addit ional  Minor Intervent ion includes:    Community shedP e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor PathwaysM i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d1Figure 71: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 72: Proposed Community Shed, Garden view looking North, with etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor PathwaysM i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d157Figure 73: Proposed Community Shed Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019The proposed one story community shed, sited on the existing site of Kitsilano Community Garden, will have program that includes a bike kitchen, storage for the existing community garden, and a public bathroom to contribute to needed community amenity on the site. C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 0C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 0Phase 01:Included in the f i rst  phase of development,  minor intervent ions to exist ing houses include the addit ion of :-  Common outdoor diningThe addition of yard laundry lines (dashed in red in Figure 76)is added to site, connecting existing and proposed developments.This contributes to the informal, semi-public gradients of space between buildings. P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor Pathways1M i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  C o m m o n  D i n i n g1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e dFigure 74: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019C o m m o n  C o m m u n i t y  D i n i n g  ( S t r e e t  V i e w  L o o k i n g  N o r t h )  Figure 75: Proposed Common Community Dining, Street View Looking North, etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 201958Figure 76: Proposed Common Community Dining Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019The proposed common community dining is meant to create an informal space between an existing house, while acting as a semi-public informal space that transitions to the adjacent public path added next to the intervention. C o m m o n  C o m m u n i t y  D i n i n gN1 : 2 0 0C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 059Phase 01:Included in the f i rst  phase of development,  minor intervent ions to exist ing houses include the addit ion of :-  Common staircase P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor Pathways1M i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  C o m m o n  D i n i n g1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e dFigure 77: Phase 01 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 78: Proposed Common Staircase + Storage with etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 201960Figure 79: Proposed Common Staircase + Storage, Elevation and Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019The proposed common staircase + storage is meant to create an informal space between  two existing houses, while acting as a semi-public informal space that transitions between a more public pathway network. C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 0C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  +  S t o r a g e  N1 : 2 0 061Phase 02 + 03:The second and third phase of development includes major intervent ions, such as : -  Backyard inf i l l-  S ingle- lot  inf i l l  Single-lot infill (Figure 80) will replace   the removed one story structures. The     new proposals are based on the missing   middle affordable spectrum, and their   forms modify City of Vancouver missing   middle infill recently proposed and   built by local Architecture firm Haeccity. 22   The existing one household per lot will   be replaced with a single lot infill that   accommodates 6 units on one site. This   intervention adds more units to the site,   while maintaining the neighbourhood   fabric.P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor Pathways1M i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  C o m m o n  D i n i n g1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d22M a j o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  2 .  S i n g l e - l o t  I n f i l l3 .  B a c k y a r d  I n f i l l3 3 3 33Figure 80: Phase 02 + 03 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor PathwaysM i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d1Figure 81: Proposed Backyard Infill with etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 20196222 Haeccity Studio Architecture. Urbanarium Missing Middle Competition “Micro-Op”, Accessed October 2019. https://www.haeccity.com/#/missingmiddle/.B a c k y a r d  I n f i l lN1 : 2 0 0Figure 82: Proposed Backyard Infill pathway, relationship plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019Re-thinking how typical lots are envisioned, the proposed backyard infills are a contemporary take on the laneway home. Beginning to connect the new forms of infill to the network of pathways added throughout the site, a front street is developed in the backyard of the existing lots. C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 063Phase 04 + 05:The fourth and f i f th phase of  development includes major intervent ions,  such as : -  Mixed-Use Street inf i l l-  Townhome inf i l l  The addition of townhomes (Figure 83)    will add 2-3 story multi-family housing,   with a semi-public courtyard adjacent to  the greenway. Oriented perpendicular to  the typical grain of the site, the new infill  begins to create semi-public connections   between the buildings and the public   greenway. P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor Pathways1M i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  C o m m o n  S t a i r c a s e  C o m m o n  D i n i n g1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d223 3 3 33M a j o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  2 .  S i n g l e - l o t  I n f i l l3 .  B a c k y a r d  I n f i l l4 .  S t r e e t  I n f i l l5 .  T o w n h o m e  I n f i l l444 4455Figure 83: Phase 04 + 05 - Delamont’s Proposed Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e tM a j o r  P a t h w a yMinor PathwaysM i n o r  I n t e r v e n t i o n s :  1 .  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d1Figure 84: Proposed In-between Space of Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill. Community Garden View Looking West, etched transparent overlay and collage - Author’s Graphics, 2019I n b e t w e e n  S p a c e  o f  P r o p o s e d  M i x e d - U s e  B u i l d i n g  ( C o m m u n i t y  G a r d e n  V i e w  L o o k i n g  W e s t )64Figure 86: Proposed West 6th Avenue Pedestrian Street, Greenway View Looking West - Author’s Graphics, 2019This mid-rise, mixed use proposal adds public space to the ground plane, creating a porous connection to office spaces, studios, produce market, workshop, common kitchen/laundry, and flex spaces. Including a mix of live work units, this building aims to create a central point iwthin the community and larger context of the neighbourhood. M i x e d - U s e  B u i l d i n g  N1 : 2 0 0Figure 85: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill, Reference Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019W e s t  6 t h  A v e  P r o p o s e d  P e d e s t r i a n  S t r e e t  ( G r e e n w a y  V i e w  L o o k i n g  W e s t )  C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 065M i x e d - U s e  B u i l d i n g  N1 : 2 0 0Figure 87: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill Zoomed in Plan - Author’s Graphics, 2019C o m m u n i t y  S h e d  N1 : 2 0 066S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 90: Proposed Community Shed - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 89: Proposed Common Community Dining - Author’s Graphics, 2019Figure 88: Proposed Mixed-Use Street Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 067S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 92: Proposed Common Stair - Author’s Graphics, 2018Figure 94: Proposed Townhome Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 91: Proposed Single-lot Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 93: Proposed Backyard Infill - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 068S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 0Figure 95: Site Axonometric Drawing - Delamont’s Proposed Re-Development - Author’s Graphics, 2019S i t e  A x o n o m e t r i c  -  D e l a m o n t ʼ s  P r o p o s e d  R e - d e v e l o p m e n t1 : 3 0 069Presentat ion Layout Figure 96: Board 1 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 20197071Figure 97: Board 2 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 201972 Figure 98: Board 3 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 201973Figure 99: Board 4 from defense - Author’s Graphics, 2019Site Models Site Context ModelScale 1:1250Dimensions:  28” x 16” x ~ 2”Mater ia ls :  Maple + Basswood74Figure 100: 1:1250 Site Model - Author’s PhotographsFigure 101: 1:1250 Site Model Close Up - Author’s PhotographsFigure 102: 1:1250 Site Model , Top View - Author’s Photographs75Figure 103: 1:500 Site Model - Author’s PhotographsFigure 104: 1:500 Site Model  Close up - Author’s PhotographsFigure 105: 1:500 Site Model, Top View  - Author’s PhotographsSite Context ModelScale 1:500Dimensions:  24” x 16” x ~ 2”Mater ia ls :  Maple (Pr ivate property + exist ing s i te)  + Walnut (Exist ing houses)      + Cherry (Proposed inf i l l )Conclusion This  project  a ims to maintain the exist ing fabric of  the neighbourhood, whi le enhancing spaces between bui ldings -  a l lowing the community of  Delamont to evolve and change over t ime.Proposing a scheme of gradual  change, this  project  has focused on larger ideas about how we can continue to occupy exist ing neighbourhoods,  whi le thinking about how they wi l l  develop in the future.  Providing a range of  development options,  new forms of  inf i l l  are meant to co-exist  with the exist ing structure of  the house.  The s ingle-family  house wi l l  cont inue to exist  in the future,  and this  project  a ims to create new forms of  inf i l l  that  can co-exist  within exist ing s i te constraints of  “s ingle-family” neighbourhoods.  By doing this ,  the project  a ims to ask larger quest ions about how we wi l l  cont inue to occupy “single-family” neighbourhoods, whi le we begin to make room for new forms of  density. 767 778A p p e n d i x  A :  D e s i g n  D e v e l o p m e n tL i s t  o f  F i g u r e s S i t e  P l a n n i n g P r e c e d e n t s  +  E x i s t i n g  H o u s e s S k e t c h e sS k e t c h  M o d e l s. . .   7 9  -  8 7 . . .    8 1. . .    8 2. . .    8 3. . .    8 4 - 8 6. . .    8 7798081L i s t  o f  F i g u r e s Figure 1: Early Development Site Planning Sketches - Author’s Sketches 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2: Precedents and Existing House conditions - Author’s Photograph 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 3: Existing House Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 4: Infill Courtyard Sketch  - Author’s Sketch 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 5: Street View Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 6: Common Stair Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 7: Garden Shed - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 8: Common Stair Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 9: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 10: Common Dining - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 11: Mixed Use Building, 2nd Floor plan - Author’s Sketch 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 12: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 13: Mixed Use Building, Ground Floor plan - Author’s Sketch 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 14: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 15: Common Stair, Sketch Model - Author’s Photographs 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 15: Community Shed, Sketch Model - Author’s Photographs 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p g .8 28 38 38 48 48 48 48 48 48 58 58 58 58 68 78 782 Figure 1: Early Development Site Planning Sketches - Author’s Sketches83Figure 3: Existing House Sketch - Author’s SketchFigure 2: Precedents and Existing House conditions  - Author’s Photograph84Figure 4: Infill Courtyard Sketch  - Author’s Sketch Figure 5: Street View Sketch - Author’s Sketch Figure 6: Common Stair Sketch - Author’s Sketch Figure 7: Garden Shed - Author’s Sketch Figure 8: Common Stair Sketch - Author’s Sketch Figure 9: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch85Figure 10: Common Dining - Author’s Sketch Figure 11: Mixed Use Building, 2nd Floor plan - Author’s SketchFigure 12: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch Figure 13: Mixed Use Building, Ground Floor plan - Author’s Sketch86 Figure 14: Site Development Sketch - Author’s Sketch87Figure 15: Community Shed, Sketch Model - Author’s PhotographsFigure 15: Common Stair, Sketch Model - Author’s Photograph88A p p e n d i x  B :  U r b a n  A n a l y s i sL i s t  o f  F i g u r e s V a n c o u v e r ’s  C o n t e x tD e v e l o p m e n t  R u l e s C o m m u n i t y  S c a l e :  W e s t  E n dH o u s e h o l d  S c a l e :  U n i o n  S t r e e t T h e  S i n g l e - F a m i l y  H o u s e  O f t e n  I s n ’ tU r b a n  S t r a t e g i e sU r b a n  + G r a n g e  Tr i p l e  D o u b l e T h e  B a c k y a r d  H o m e s  P r o j e c t . . .   8 9  -  121. . .    9 0  -  9 3. . .    9 4  -  1 1 5. . .    1 1 6  -  1 2 18990L i s t  o f  F i g u r e s Figure 1: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 2: Vancouver Zoning Districts, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap. Accessed  online April 2019. https://vancouver.ca/your-government/vanmap.aspx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 3: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 4: West End Zoning, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap Accessed  online April 2019. https://vancouver.ca/your-government/vanmap.aspx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 5: West End, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 6: Mole Hill, Average people per house - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 7: Mole Hill Site plan, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 8: 1136, 1140, 1146 Comox Street Basement Floor Plan and Site - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information  from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 9: 1136, 1140, 1146 Comox Street Lane Elevations - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 10: East Elevation - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic, 2019 Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 11: East West Section - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 12: North South Section - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 13: Main Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 14: Second Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 15: Third Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 16: East West Section - 1140 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 17: North South Section - 1140 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 18: Main Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Figure 19: Second Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 20: East Elevation - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 21: East West Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p g .9 49 59 69 6  -  9 79 89 99 91 0 01 0 01 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 21 0 31 0 391Figure 22: North South Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 23: Main Floor - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community  Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 24: North South Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill  Community Housing 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 25: Middle East-West Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture,  Accessed online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing- haeccity-studio-architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity- studio-architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 26: East-West Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture,  Accessed online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing- haeccity-studio-architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity-  studio-architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 27: North-South Long Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture,  Accessed online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing- haeccity-studio-architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity- studio-architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 28: Third Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture, Accessed  online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity-studio- architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity-studio-  architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 29: Second Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture,  Accessed online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing- haeccity-studio-architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity- studio-architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 30: Main Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio Architecture,  Accessed online April 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/917026/missing-middle-infill-housing- haeccity-studio-architecture/5d0807ca284dd13726000542-missing-middle-infill-housing-haeccity- studio-architecture- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 31: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 32: Strathcona Zoning, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Vanmap 2019. Accessed  online April 2019. https://vancouver.ca/your-government/vanmap.aspx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 33: Strathcona, Vancouver, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 34: Strathcona, Vancouver, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 35: “Union” House 3D View - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 2019. Accessed online April 2019. http://mahg.ca/work#/union/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 0 31 0 31 0 31 0 41 0 41 0 41 0 51 0 51 0 51 0 61 0 71 0 81 0 91 1 092Figure 36: Main Floor - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects,“Union”   2019.  Accessed online April 2019. http://mahg.ca/work#/union/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 37: Second Floor - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019 , Information from MA+HG Architects,  “Union” 2019. Accessed online April 2019. http://mahg.ca/work#/union/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 38: Front Elevation - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects,  “Union” 2019. Accessed online April 2019. http://mahg.ca/work#/union/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 39: Lane Elevation - “Union” House- Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects,  “Union” 2019.  Accessed online April 2019. http://mahg.ca/work#/union/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 40: “Union Street EcoHeritage” Density, Value, Energy consumption infographic - Author’s Graphics  2019, Information from Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage”. Accessed online April  2019. https://shapearchitecture.ca/projects/union-street-ecoheritage/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 41: “Union Street EcoHeritage” - Section facing West  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from  Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage”. Accessed online April 2019. https:// shapearchitecture.ca/projects/union-street-ecoheritage/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 42: “Union Street EcoHeritage” - Section facing East  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from  Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage” 2019. Accessed online April 2019. https:// shapearchitecture.ca/projects/union-street-ecoheritage/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 43: “Union Street EcoHeritage” 3D View from lane  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from Shape  Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage”. Accessed online April 2019. https:// shapearchitecture.ca/projects/union-street-ecoheritage/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 44: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 45: West Kitsilano Neighbourhood, 2018 - Author’s Graphics 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 46: My garden suite, West 1st between Collingwood and Dunbar - Author’s Graphics 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 47: My garden suite in Kitsilano - Author’s Graphics 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 48: My desk - Author’s Graphics 2019 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 49: ‘Urban +’ Infill Typologies, 2019, B9 Architects, “Urban +” - Accessed online April 2019. http://  www.b9architects.com/urban-plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 50: ‘Urban +’ diagram of single-family lot development, 2019, Source - B9 Architects, “Urban +” -   Accessed online April 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/urban-plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 51: ‘Urban +’ areal development view within Seattle’s single-family neighbourhoods , 2019, Source - B9   Architects, “Urban +”,  Accessed online April 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/urban-plus . . . . . . .Figure 52: ‘Urban +’ Infill typologies, 2019, Source - B9 Architects, “Urban +”,  Accessed online April 2019.   http://www.b9architects.com/urban-plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 11 1 11 1 11 1 11 1 21 1 31 1 31 1 31 1 41 1 41 1 51 1 51 1 51 1 61 1 61 1 61 1 793Figure 53: ‘Urban +’ Infill Typologies, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson Architecture, “Grange Triple   Double”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www.williamsonwilliamson.com/arch/projects/grange -triple-double/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 54: Unit types within different housing typologies, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson Architecture,   “Grange Triple Double”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www.williamsonwilliamson.com/arch/  projects/grange-triple-double/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 55: Grange Triple Double Program Diagram in Context, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson   Architecture, “Grange Triple Double”, Accessed online April 2019. https://www.  williamsonwilliamson.com/arch/ projects/grange-triple-double/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 56: Backyard homes program, Source - La-Màs, Accessed online April 2019. https://www.mas.la/  affordable-adus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 57: Backyard home Unit designs + features, Source - La-Màs, Accessed online April 2019. https://www.  mas.la/affordable-adus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 58: Backyard Home Schematic Interior Render, Source - La-Màs, Accessed online April 2019. https:// www.mas.la/affordable-adus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 59: Backyard Home Schematic Exterior Render, Source - La-Màs, Accessed online April 2019. https:// www.mas.la/affordable-adus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 60: Backyard Home Construction timeline, Source - La-Màs, Accessed online April 2019. https:// www.mas.la/affordable-adus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 81 1 91 1 91 2 01 2 11 2 11 2 11 2 1U r b a n  A n a l y s i sVa n c o u v e r ’ s  C o n t e x tIn i t ia l  research for  this  project  began with an invest igat ion of  Vancouver’s  exist ing neighbourhoods and different scales of  household development.  The focus for  this invest igat ion looked at  three di fferent scales of  the household:  the community scale,  the household scale,  and the indiv idual  scale,  and their  interconnected relat ionship to one another. This  is  further documented within Vancouver’s  exist ing neighbourhood condit ions at  3 scales:          West End         Union Street              Occupying the housec o m m u n i t yh o u s e h o l di n d i v i d u a lFigure 1: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 201994U B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sO n e - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR S - 1 ,  R S - 1 S  R S - 1 AR S - 1 B  R S - 2R S - 3 ,  R S - 3 A  R S - 4R S - 5 ,  R S - 5 S  R S - 6R S - 7 SC i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r  Z o n i n g  D i s t r i c t s  =  P a r k s  =  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r yT w o - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR T - 1R T - 2  R T - 3  -  Strathcona/KiwassaR T - 4 ,  R T - 4 A ,  R T - 4 N ,  R T - 4 A N ,  R T - 5 ,  R T - 5 A ,  R T - 5 N ,  R T - 5 A N  R T - 6  ( M o u n t  P l e a s a n t )R T - 7  R T - 8R T - 9  - Kitsilano PointM u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR M - 2R M - 3 , R M - 3 AR M - 4 ,  R M - 4 NR M - 5 ,  R M - 5 A ,  R M - 5 B ,  R M - 5 C - West EndR M - 6  - West EndF M - 1  - Fairview SlopesI n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  M C - 1 - Cedar CottageM - 1M - 1 A  - Cornwall & CypressM - 1 B  - S.E. Marine LandsM - 1 A  - Cornwall & CypressL i g h t  I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  I C - 1 ,  I C - 2I C - 3I - 1I - 2I - 3C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t sC - 1C - 2C - 2 BC - 2 CC - 2 C 1C - 3 AC - 5 ,  C - 6  - West EndC - 7 ,  C - 8  - Arbutus NeighbourhoodF C - 1  - East False CreekH i s t o r i c  A r e a  D i s t r i c t sH A - 1 ,  H A - 1 A  - ChinatownH A - 2 - GastownH A - 3  - YaletownA g r i c u l t u r a l  D i s t r i c t sR A - 1  - Limited Agriculture District           SouthlandsC o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t sC D - 1F C C D D  - False Creek - South SideD D  - DowntownC W D  - Central WaterfrontD E O D  - Downtown-Eastside/OppenheimerB C P E D  - False Creek - North SideF S D  - First ShaughnessyN200 5000 1000mFigure 2: Vancouver Zoning Districts, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap 2019. 95Community Scale:  The West End Vancouver’s  West End is  composed of  mainly mult i - family  dwel l ing distr icts ,  commercial str ips,  and park space ( refer  to Figure 4:  West End Zoning,  2019) . As a v ibrant neighbourhood in Vancouver,  the invest igat ion of  the West End looks specif ical ly at  the community development of  Mole Hi l l  (page 98 -  105) ,  a  grouping of  her i tage houses that have been preserved. 96R M - 5 ,  R M - 5 A ,  R M - 5 B ,  R M - 5 CM u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t s  ( W e s t  E n d )“The intent is to permit a variety of residential developments and some compatible retail, office, service and institutional uses. Emphasis is placed on achieving development which is compatible with neighbouring development with respect to streetscape character, open spaces, view retention, sunlight access and privacy. The RM-5A, RM-5B and RM-5C Districts permit greater densities than RM-5.”M u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t s : C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t s :W e s t  E n d  Z o n i n g  D i s t r i c t s :  C - 5 ,  C - 6C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t s  ( W e s t  E n d )“The intent is to provide for retail and services uses and forms of development which are compatible with the primarily residential character of the West End, and to provide for dwelling units designed compatibly with commercial uses. Emphasis is placed on requiring the external design of buildings to be oriented to the pedestrian in terms of scale and functional considerations. The C-6 district provides a transition between Downtown and the West End by permitting a greater density and scale and range of uses than C-5.”C o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t s :C D - 1C o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t“A separate CD-1 bylaw exists for each area or site zoned CD-1, tailor-made to the intended form of development.”R M - 6M u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t  ( W e s t  E n d )“The intent is to permit high density residential development and some compatible retail, cultural, recreational, service and institutional uses. Emphasis is placed on achieving development which recognizes the formal character of Georgia Street and is compatible with the West End residential character along Alberni Street.”c o m m u n i t yh o u s e h o l di n d i v i d u a lFigure 3: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019U B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sO n e - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR S - 1 ,  R S - 1 S  R S - 1 AR S - 1 B  R S - 2R S - 3 ,  R S - 3 A  R S - 4R S - 5 ,  R S - 5 S  R S - 6R S - 7 SW e s t  E n d  Z o n i n g  D i s t r i c t s  =  P a r k s  =  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r yT w o - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR T - 1R T - 2  R T - 3  -  S t r a t h c o n a / K i w a s s aR T - 4 ,  R T - 4 A ,  R T - 4 N ,  R T - 4 A N ,  R T - 5 ,  R T - 5 A ,  R T - 5 N ,  R T - 5 A N  R T - 6  ( M o u n t  P l e a s a n t )R T - 7  R T - 8R T - 9  -  K i t s i l a n o  P o i n tM u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR M - 2R M - 3 , R M - 3 AR M - 4 ,  R M - 4 NR M - 5 ,  R M - 5 A ,  R M - 5 B ,  R M - 5 C - West EndR M - 6  - West EndF M - 1  - Fairview SlopesI n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  M C - 1 -  C e d a r  C o t t a g eM - 1M - 1 A  -  C o r n w a l l  &  C y p r e s sM - 1 B  -  S . E .  M a r i n e  L a n d sM - 1 A  -  C o r n w a l l  &  C y p r e s sL i g h t  I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  I C - 1 ,  I C - 2I C - 3I - 1I - 2I - 3C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t sC - 1C - 2C - 2 BC - 2 CC - 2 C 1C - 3 AC - 5 ,  C - 6  - West EndC - 7 ,  C - 8  -  A r b u t u s  N e i g h b o u r h o o dF C - 1  -  E a s t  F a l s e  C r e e kH i s t o r i c  A r e a  D i s t r i c t sH A - 1 ,  H A - 1 A  -  C h i n a t o w nH A - 2 -  G a s t o w nH A - 3  -  Y a l e t o w nA g r i c u l t u r a l  D i s t r i c t sR A - 1  -  L i m i t e d  A g r i c u l t u r e  D i s t r i c t           S o u t h l a n d sC o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t sC D - 1F C C D D  -  F a l s e  C r e e k  -  S o u t h  S i d eD D  -  D o w n t o w nC W D  -  C e n t r a l  W a t e r f r o n tD E O D  -  D o w n t o w n - E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e rB C P E D  -  F a l s e  C r e e k  -  N o r t h  S i d eF S D  -  F i r s t  S h a u g h n e s s y=  W e s t  E n d  L i m i t sRM- 5 B RM- 5 ARM- 5C - 6C - 5 ARM- 5 BRM- 5 AC - 5C - 5 AC -5RM- 5 CWe s t  E n d200 5000 1000mFigure 4: West End Zoning, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap 2019 97N980 50 250 500mE n g l i s h B a yL o s t l a g o o nS t a n l e yP a r kVa n i e rp a r kB ur r ar d  S t re etWES T  GEORGI A S T R E E TDAVI E  S T R E E T P ENDR E L L  S T R E E TCOMOX  S T R E E TCARDE RO ST RE ETPACI F I C S T R E E TBEACH AVENUENE L SON S T R E E TROB SON S T R E E TDENMAN ST RE ETs uns et  beac h par kWes t  EndVa n c o u v e r H a r b o u rFigure 5: West End, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019“ M o l e  H i l l C o m m u n i t y H o u s i n g ”S t . P a u l ’ s H o s p i t a l“ M o l e  H i l l M i s s i n g  M i d d l e “  b y  H a e c c i t yGr an vi ll e St re et N0 50 250 500mMole Hi l l  Community Housing  Providing affordable market and low-income rental  housing,  Mole Hi l l  community housing (a non-prof i t  organizat ion)  has leased land from the city,  whi le preserving the character  of 27 “single-family” Edwardian and Victor ian houses,  bui l t  between 1888-1914.  Whi le the rest of  the West End continues to change and develop into mid -to high-r ise developments,  this block of  houses remains.  Renovated in the ear ly  2000s,  the houses were subdivided into a mix of  apartment units .Situated between Thurlow, Pendrel l ,  Bute,  and Comox Street,  a weekly Farmers market on Comox street act ivate the block in addit ion to nelson park.  Furthermore,  a pr ior i t ized pedestr ian lane,  health/rehab cl in ic  and low density  development ,  contr ibute to the greater community. 118 0 117 0 116 4 116 0 115 4 115 0 114 6 114 0 113 6 112 6 112 2 112 0 1114 1110C o m o x  S t r e e t P e n d r e l l  S t r e e tThurlow StreetBute Street11051107111311191122111611101104S T R A T H M O R EL O D G EA PA R T M E N T S117 3 116 9 116 3 115 9 115 7 114 7 113 9 113 7 112 9 112 7 112 5 110 3D R . P E T E RC E N T R EJ e p s o n - Yo u n g  L a n eN=  C i t y  O w n e d  H o u s e s  L e a s e d  t o  M o l e  H i l l  H o u s i n g  S o c i e t yN e l s o n  P a r k=  P a r k  S p a c e  /  G a r d e n sS e e - E m - l a  L a n eS A I N TPA U L ’ S H O S P I T A L11  p e o p l e  /  h o u s ea v e r a g e  b a s e d  o n  3 0 0  p e o p l e  + / - l i v i n g  i n  t h e  h o u s e s  a t  M o l e  H i l l2 7  h o u s e s 17 0  r e n t a l  u n i t s ( b o t h  m a r k e t  +  s u b s i d i z e d  s u i t e s )Figure 7: Mole Hill Site plan, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019 99Figure 6: Mole Hill, Average people per house - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 20190m 2.5m 5m 10mC o m o x  S t r e e t S U N K E N PA T I OP L A N T E RP L A N T E RPLANTERP L A N T E RD O W ND O W ND O W ND O W ND O W ND O W ND O W NC R AW L  S PA C E C R AW L  S PA C EC R AW L  S PA C ES U N K E N  PA T I OS U N K E N PA T I OB U I L D I N G S E R V I C E S K I T C H E N W / CB E D R O O ML I V I N GB E D R O O ML I V I N GB E D R O O MW / CK I T C H E N B U I L D I N G S E R V I C E S B U I L D I N G S E R V I C E S L I V I N GK I T C H E N W / CB E D R O O MB E D R O O MB E D R O O ML I V I N GK I T C H E N B E D R O O MW / CB E D R O O M B E D R O O MC O M M -U N I T Y T O O L S H E D C O M M U N I T Y  G A R D E N  P L O T S RECYCLE + GARBAGEL A N E  E N T R Y C O N N E C T I O N T O  L A N E CONNECTION TO JEPSON-YOUNG LANE CONNECTION TO JEPSON-YOUNG LANE B A C K  YA R D B A C K  YA R DB A C K  YA R DF R O N T  YA R D F R O N T  YA R D F R O N T  YA R DS I D E WA L KJ e p s o n - Yo u n g  L a n e 114 6  C o m o x  S t r e e t G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  10 5 4  S F    =  3  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 94 6  S F )114 0  C o m o x  S t r e e t G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  10 6 0  S F    =  3  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 8 0 0  S F )1136 Comox Street G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  10 9 5  S F     =  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 5 8 4  S F )     =  1  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 3 51  S F )Figure 9:: 1136, 1140, 1146 Comox Street Lane Elevations - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 8: 1136, 1140, 1146 Comox Street Basement Floor Plan and Site - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019100N0m2.5m5m10mL I V I N G  / D I N I N G R O O MW / CB E D R O O MK I T C H E ND O W ND E C KB E D R O O MB E D R O O ML I V I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NW / CF O Y E RP O R C HD E C KD O W NU PU PU P0m2.5m5m10m0m2.5m5m10mS T U D I O S T U D I OL I V I N G  / D I N I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NB E D R O O MW / CW / CD E C KU PU PW/CD O W N1136 Comox Street 2x Studio 3x One Bedroom 2x Two BedroomB E D R O O MB E D R O O MK I T C H E N W / CW / CW / CW / CW / CK I T C H E N K I T C H E N L I V I N GL I V I N GB E D R O O M B E D R O O MW / CS T U D I OK I T C H E NL I V I N G B E D R O O MG r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  110 3  S F=  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 8 6 0  S F )G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  115 0  S F=  1  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 3 6 3  S F )=  S t u d i o  U n i t   ( 2 2 8  S F  &  2 8 4  S F )G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  5 5 0  S F=  1  B e d r o o m  U n i t   ( 4 4 8  S F )Figure 10: East Elevation - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic, 2019 Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 12: North South Section - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 11: East West Section - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 14: Second Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 13: Main Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 15: Third Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019 101N1140 Comox Street 2x Studio 2x One Bedroom2x Two Bedroom1x Three BedroomFigure 16: East West Section - 1140 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 18: Main Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 19: Second Floor - 1136 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 17: North South Section - 1140 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 20190m2.5m5m10mL I V I N G  / D I N I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NU PD O W NB E D R O O MW / CW/CS T U D I OS T U D I OD E C KU PW / C0m2.5m5m10mL I V I N G  R O O MB E D R O O MK I T C H E NW / C B E D R O O MF O Y E RP O R C HD E C KD O W ND O W N U PU P0m2.5m5m10mW / CW / CL I V I N G B E D R O O MS T U D I O D I N I N G /L I V I N GD I N I N G K I T C H E N F O Y E RD I N I N GK I T C H E N B E D -R O O MB E D R O O MP O R C H0m2.5m5m10mW / CW / CB E D R O O MB E D R O O M B E D R O O M102G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  10 7 5  S F=  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 8 4 7  S F )G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  115 2  S F=  S t u d i o  U n i t  ( 2 2 8  S F  &  2 8 4  S F ) =  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 3 6 3  S F )N1146 Comox Street  5x One Bedroom1x Three Bedroom0m2.5m5m10mFigure 21: East West Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 22: North South Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 23: Main Floor - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 24: North South Section - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Mole Hill Community Housing 2019Figure 20: East Elevation - 1146 Comox Street - Author’s Graphic 20190m2.5m5m10mK I T C H E N    L I V I N GB E D R O O MB E D R O O M B E D R O O MW / CF O Y E R B E D R O O M K I T C H E N L I V I N G B E D R O O M W / CB U I L D -I N GS E R V -I C E S L I V I N G K I T C H E N S U N K E N PA T I OP O R C H0m2.5m5m10mW / CF O Y E R L I V I N GB U I L D I N G S E R V I C E SB E D R O O MW / C0m2.5m5m10mW / CW/CK I T C H E NL I V I N G B E D R O O ML I V I N G B E D R O O MK I T C H E NU PU PDOWN0m2.5m5m10mB E D R O O MF O Y E RB E D R O O ML I V I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NW/CL I V I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NW/CP O R C HD E C KU PU PD O W ND O W N103G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  115 2  S F=  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 4 0 2 S F  &  5 4 0 S F )G r o s s  F l o o r  A r e a  =  115 2  S F=  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t  ( 4 9 7 S F  &  3 3 4 S F )N0m 2.5m 5m 10m1041180 Comox Street Mole Hi l l  Miss ing Middle Inf i l l  by HaeccityDedicated rentalFigure 27: North-South Long Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureFigure 25: Middle East-West Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureFigure 26: East-West Section - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureK I T C H E NB E D R O O ML I V I N G R O O ML I V I N G R O O MK I T C H E NK I T C H E NB E D -R O O MB E D -R O O ML I V I N G R O O MK I T C H E NB E D -R O O MK I T C H E NL I V I N G R O O MB E D -R O O MK I T C H E NB E D -R O O MB E D -R O O ML I V I N G R O O MB E D -R O O MB E D -R O O MB E D -R O O M3x One Bedroom2x Two Bedroom1x Three Bedroom0m 2.5m 5m 10m N105Figure 30: Main Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureFigure 29: Second Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureFigure 28: Third Floor Plan - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Haeccity Studio ArchitectureK I T C H E NL I V I N G R O O MB E D -R O O MW / C B E D R O O M W / C B E D -R O O MB E D -R O O MW / CK I T C H E NL I V I N G  R O O MB E D -R O O M B E D -R O O M W / CW / CK I T C H E NL I V I N G  R O O MK I T C H E NL I V I N G R O O MW / C B E D -R O O M K I T C H E N L I V I N G R O O MB E D -R O O M B E D -R O O M L I V I N G R O O MK I T C H E NB E D -R O O M W / CW / CL A N D S C A P I N GPA T I O=  1  B e d r o o m  U n i t =  2  B e d r o o m  U n i t=  3  B e d r o o m  U n i tR T - 3T w o - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t  ( S t r a t h c o n a / K i w a s s e )“The intent is to encourage the retention of neighbourhood and streetscape character, particularly through the retention, renovation and restoration of existing character buildings. Redevelopment is encouraged on sites with existing buildings of style and form which are inconsistent with the area’s pre-1920 architecture. Emphasis is placed on the external design of additions to existing buildings and new buildings to encourage the preservation of the historic architectural character of the area. Floor area incentives are included to achieve the creation of affordable housing and the rehabilita-tion of original buildings which are important to the neighbourhood’s character.”T w o - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t  C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t s :S t r a t h c o n a  Z o n i n g  D i s t r i c t s :  F C - 1C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t  ( E a s t  F a l s e  C r e e k )“The intent is to permit and encourage the development of a high density mixed commercial use neighbourhood, including some residential and compatible industrial uses. For commercial development, a variety of small-scale retail and service uses are encouraged. Larger, more regional-oriented office and retail commercial uses are limited in size and extent for individual sites.” C o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t s :C D - 1C o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t“A separate CD-1 bylaw exists for each area or site zoned CD-1, tailor-made to the intended form of development.”R M - 3 AM u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t  “The intent is to permit medium density residential development, including high-rise apartment buildings, and to secure a higher quality of parking, open space and daylight access through floor area bonus incentives.”M u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c tI n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s :M C - 1I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t  ( C e d a r  C o t t a g e )“The intent is to permit commercial, residential and industrial uses which are compatible with one another and with nearby residential districts.”M - 1I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t  “The intent is to permit industrial and other uses that are generally incompatible with residential land use but are beneficial in that they provide industrial employment opportunities or serve a useful or necessary function in the city. It is not the intent, however, to permit uses that are potentially dangerous or environmentally incompatible when situated near residential districts.”I - 2I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t  “The intent is to permit industrial and other uses that are generally incompatible with residential land use but are beneficial in that they provide industrial and service employment opportunities or serve a useful or necessary function in the city. It is not the intent, however, to permit uses that are potentially dangerous or environmentally incompatible when situated near residential districts.”H i s t o r i c  A r e a  D i s t r i c t sH A - 1 AH i s t o r i c  A r e a  D i s t r i c t  ( C h i n a t o w n )“The intent is to encourage the preservation and rehabilitation of the significant early buildings of Chinatown, while recognizing that the evolving activities that make this district an asset to the City need to be accommodated contextually. The Schedule may permit a range of uses provided that reasonable, but not rigorous, concerns for compatibility are met.”Household Scale:  Union Street,  Strathcona  Situated in Vancouver’s  oldest  residential  neighbourhood, Union Street is  home to many of the cit ies oldest  houses.  With mandate to develop based on exist ing her i tage retent ion, s ingle-family  housing development in this  neighbourhood typical ly  a ims to develop new inf i l l that  reacts to exist ing bui l t  forms at  both the community and household scale.   106c o m m u n i t yh o u s e h o l di n d i v i d u a lFigure 31: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019U B CE n d o w m e n t  L a n d sS t r a t h c o n a  Z o n i n g  D i s t r i c t s  =  P a r k s  =  C i t y  o f  V a n c o u v e r   b o u n d a r y=  S t r a t h c o n a  L i m i t sO n e - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR S - 1 ,  R S - 1 S  R S - 1 AR S - 1 B  R S - 2R S - 3 ,  R S - 3 A  R S - 4R S - 5 ,  R S - 5 S  R S - 6R S - 7 ST w o - F a m i l y  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR T - 1R T - 2  R T - 3  -  Strathcona/KiwassaR T - 4 ,  R T - 4 A ,  R T - 4 N ,  R T - 4 A N ,  R T - 5 ,  R T - 5 A ,  R T - 5 N ,  R T - 5 A N  R T - 6  ( M o u n t  P l e a s a n t )R T - 7  R T - 8R T - 9  -  K i t s i l a n o  P o i n tM u l t i p l e  D w e l l i n g  D i s t r i c t sR M - 2R M - 3 , R M - 3 AR M - 4 ,  R M - 4 NR M - 5 ,  R M - 5 A ,  R M - 5 B ,  R M - 5 C -  W e s t  E n dR M - 6  -  W e s t  E n dF M - 1  -  F a i r v i e w  S l o p e sI n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  M C - 1 - Cedar CottageM - 1M - 1 A  -  C o r n w a l l  &  C y p r e s sM - 1 B  -  S . E .  M a r i n e  L a n d sM - 1 A  -  C o r n w a l l  &  C y p r e s sL i g h t  I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s  I C - 1 ,  I C - 2I C - 3I - 1I - 2I - 3C o m m e r c i a l  D i s t r i c t sC - 1C - 2C - 2 BC - 2 CC - 2 C 1C - 3 AC - 5 ,  C - 6  -  W e s t  E n dC - 7 ,  C - 8  -  A r b u t u s  N e i g h b o u r h o o dF C - 1  - East False CreekH i s t o r i c  A r e a  D i s t r i c t sH A - 1 ,  H A - 1 A  - ChinatownH A - 2 -  G a s t o w nH A - 3  -  Y a l e t o w nA g r i c u l t u r a l  D i s t r i c t sR A - 1  -  L i m i t e d  A g r i c u l t u r e  D i s t r i c t           S o u t h l a n d sC o m p r e h e n s i v e  D e v e l o p m e n t  D i s t r i c t sC D - 1F C C D D  -  F a l s e  C r e e k  -  S o u t h  S i d eD D  -  D o w n t o w nC W D  -  C e n t r a l  W a t e r f r o n tD E O D  -  D o w n t o w n - E a s t s i d e / O p p e n h e i m e rB C P E D  -  F a l s e  C r e e k  -  N o r t h  S i d eF S D  -  F i r s t  S h a u g h n e s s yS t r a t h c o n a1 - 2F C - 2F C - 1M - 1H A - 1 A R T - 3M C - 1R M - 3 ARM-3AR T - 3N200 5000 1000mFigure 32: Strathcona Zoning, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019, Information from Vanmap 2019. 107Figure 33: Strathcona, Vancouver, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019S t r a t h c o n aU n i o n  S t r e e t0 50 100m108JACKSON AVEHEATLEY AVEHAWKS AVEP R I O R  S T R E E TM A L K I N  AV EMAIN STREETPA C I F I C C E N T R A L S T A T I O NT E L U S W O R L D  O F S C I E N C ES T R A T H C O N A PA R KNS t r a t h c o n aU n i o n  S t r e e t0 50 100m109U n i o n  S t r e e t0 10 50 100m“ U n i o n  S t r e e t  E c o H e r i t a g e ”b y  S h a p e  A r c h i t e c t u r e  I n c“ U n i o n ”b y  M A + H G  A r c h i t e c t sS T R A T H C O N A PA R KM a l k i n  A v ePA C I F I C C E N T R A L S T A T I O NHeatly AveJackson AveMain StreetHawks AveCampbell AveP r i o r  S t r e e tE  G e o r g i a  S t r e e tK e e f e r  S t r e e tE  P e n d e r  S t r e e tE  H a s t i n g s  S t r e e tE  C o r d o v a  S t r e e tP o w e l l  S t r e e tA l e x a n d e r  S t r e e tGore AveStation StreetT e r m i n a l  A v eFigure 34: Strathcona, Vancouver, 2019 - Author’s Graphic 2019. Information from Vanmap 2019. NU n i o n  S t r e e t0 10 50 100m“UNION”Union Street,  Vancouver,  BCMA+HG ArchitectsType:  Character Retent ion + New Inf i l l  Bui lding,  RT-3Complete 2019Area:  5800 sf5 Unit  DevelopmentFigure 35: “Union” House 3D View - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 20191100m2.5m5m10m0m2.5m5m10mU PUPFigure 38: Front Elevation - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 2019Figure 39: Lane Elevation - “Union” House- Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 2019Figure 36: Main Floor - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 2019Figure 37: Second Floor - “Union” House - Author’s Graphics 2019 , Information from MA+HG Architects, “Union” 2019S H A R E D  G A R A G EW / CB E D R O O ME N T R YUPB E D RO O MB ED RO OM W/ CE N T RYE N T R YKITCHENL I V I N G  R O O MD I N I N GR O O MNL I VI N G R OO ML I V I N G R O O MD I NI N G R OO MD I N I N GR O O MB E D R OO MB E D RO O MW / CKITCHENL I V I N G R O O MW / CB E D R O O MPA T I OPA T I OPA T I OKITCHEND O W ND O WND O W NUPU P0m2.5m5m10m0m2.5m5m10mW / C111L A N E WAY L A N E WAY F R O N T  YA R D F R O N T  YA R D“Union Street EcoHeritage”Union Street,  Vancouver,  BCShape Architecture Inc.Type:  Heritage + inf i l l Complete:  July 2013Area:  6,500 ft7 Unit Development Figure 40: “Union Street EcoHeritage” Density, Value, Energy consumption infographic - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage” 2019$    $ $    $    $    $    $    $Before Af ter Dwell ings Densi tyValueEnergy Use 1120m 2.5m 5m 10m0m 2.5m 5m 10mFigure 41: “Union Street EcoHeritage” - Section facing West  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage”0m 2.5m 5m 10mFigure 42: “Union Street EcoHeritage” - Section facing East  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage” 2019Figure 43: “Union Street EcoHeritage” 3D View from lane  - Author’s Graphics 2019, Information from Shape Architecture Inc., “Union Street EcoHeritage” 2019S T R E E TL A N E WAY N o r t h S t r e e tS o u t h L a n e w a yGF DEC E N T R A LM E C HABCG0m 2.5m 5m 10m=  H E R I T A G E    H O U S E =  N E W  I N F I L L113N o r t h  S t r e e tS o u t h  L a n e w a y“The Single-Family  House Often Isn’t” “The zoning may say it’s “single family,” but in reality, many of those houses are being used as rental and they might be housing extended families, or multiple families. For that reason, there’s a strong argument that the term “single-family neighbourhoods” should be phased out entirely. The term better belongs to an era of Vancouver when “family” meant nuclear family.”24Within Vancouver’s documents Family means “either:(a) one or more individuals all related to one another by blood, marriage, or adoption or(b) a maximum of three unrelated individuals living together as a household.”25Often more complex than they seem from the outside,  what might appear to be a s ingle-family  house can often be div ided and converted into a ser ies of  units ,  funct ioning more of  an apartment.  Within this  ser ies of  drawings,  I  chose to represent my rented garden suite in Kits i lano s imi lar  to Nol l i  Mapping techniques.  This  was done using f igure ground representat ion to block out pr ivately owned space,  whi le exposing the f loor plan of  my garden suite.  The different scales of  invest igat ion in plan v iew contrast  my apartment,  represented as publ ic  space,  to the bui lding out l ines of  pr ivately owned homes or community bui ldings. Furthermore,  each scale of  invest igat ion represents an increasing level  of  detai l ,  meant to highl ight the occupant (me).  Whi le at  a 1:5000 scale,  bui ldings become abstract  shapes, by comparison,  my apartment scale (1:50)  and desk (1:5)  show that someone is  actual ly occupying the unit .  Invest igat ing the div is ion of  typical  lots ,  this  ser ies of  drawings started from a point  of  understanding how I  occupy the home I  l ive in -  not by i t ’s  ent i rety,  but more 24 “In Vancouver, a ‘single Family’ House Often Isn’t.” The Globe and Mail. February 01, 2018. Accessed 2019. ht tps://www.theglobeandmai l .com/real -estate/vancouver/ in-vancouver-a-s ingle- fami ly-house-often- isnt/article37802086/.25 Vancouver, City Of. “Zoning District Descriptions.” City of Vancouver. September 12, 2012. Accessed 2019. https://vancouver.ca/home-property-development/descriptions-of-zoning-districts.aspx.Figure 45: West Kitsilano Neighbourhood, 2018 - Author’s Graphics 2019C o m m u n i t y  S c a l e  i n  K i t s i l a n o :  “ N o r t h  o f  4 t h  n e i g h b o u r h o o d ”N e i g h b o u r h o o d  S c a l e  i n  K i t s i l a n o :  R o y a l  V a n c o u v e r  Y a c h t  c l u b ,  J e r i c h o  t e n n i s  c l u b  &  s u r r o u n d i n g  r e s i d e n t i a l114c o m m u n i t yh o u s e h o l di n d i v i d u a lFigure 44: Community, Household, Individual Diagram - Author’s Graphic 2019D e s k  S c a l e :  p e r s o n a l  s c a l e“ G a r d e n  s u i t e ”  S c a l e  i n  K i t s i l a n o :  M y  a p a r t m e n tT y p i c a l  L o t  D e v e l o p m e n t  P a t t e r n s3 3 ’120’S t r e e t  E l e v a t i o n  P a t t e r n s1 9 0 0 P r e - w a r 1 9 4 0 s 1 9 5 0 s P o s t - 1 9 5 8 1 9 6 0 s P o s t - 1 9 7 4 P o s t - 1 9 8 6 P o s t - 1 9 8 8V a n c o u v e r  S p e c i a lT y p i c a l  1 2 0 ʼ x 3 3 ʼ  V a n c o u v e r  L o t  D e v e l o p m e n t  P a t t e r n sB l o c k  S c a l e  i n  K i t s i l a n o :  1 s t  A v e n u e  b e t w e e n  D u n b a r  a n d  C o l l i n g w o o dFigure 46: My garden suite, West 1st between Colli gwood and Dunbar - Author’s Graphics 2019D e s k  S c a l e :  p e r s o n a l  s c a l e“ G a r d e n  s u i t e ”  S c a l e  i n  K i t s i l a n o :  M y  a p a r t m e n tFigure 47: My garden suite in Kitsilano - Author’s Graphics 2019Figure 48: My desk - Author’s Graphics 2019 115U r b a n  S t r a t e g i e s  B9 Architects,  Seatt le,  WashingtonB9 Architects is  an architecture f i rm based out of  Seatt le,  Washington,  that focuses their  work on “urban s ingle-  and mult i - family  housing projects,  l ive-work dwel l ings and commercial inter iors.”23 Their  work aims to preserve the “qual i ty  of  exist ing housing stock,  whi le providing addit ional  density  in the form of micro-communit ies.”23Urban + As part  of  the f i rm’s on-going research,  “Urban +” catalogs a recurr ing typology within the f i rms body of  work,  seen as a typology of  inf i l l  bui ldings they are cal l ing “Urban +”.24Simi lar  to Vancouver,  Seatt le’s  populat ion growth has tr iggered a demand for  density, and as a result ,  “the default  strategy [within the city ]  for  residential  developments is  to demolish everything that exists  on a s i te and maximize the number of  units  in a mult i family development.”24 B9 approaches s i te development in a di fferent way.  Rather than demolishing the exist ing housing stock in the city,  the f i rm f inds possibi l i t ies to “preserve a s i te’s  exist ing structures whi le placing new structures in inf i l l  posit ions in current dr iveways or  backyards. Not only [affording]  more f inancial  safety to a development project ,  this  typology also al lows a developer to maintain exist ing urban fabric whi le adding surrounding density.”24S i n g l e  S F  L o t S i n g l e  L R  L o t S i n g l e  L R  L o t Z o n e s :     S i n g l e  F a m i l y     L o w r i s e     N e i g h b o u r h o o d  C o m m e r c i a l     P a r k i n g  L o t      P a r kU r b a n  +  :     + A p a r t m e n t     + T o w n h o m e     + S i n g l e  F a m i l y     + D A D U23 “Our Practice.” B9 Architects. Accessed 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/about.24 “URBAN.” B9 Architects. Accessed 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/urbanplus.Figure 49: ‘Urban +’ Infill Typologies, 2019, B9 Architects, “Urban +”Figure 50: ‘Urban +’ diagram of single-family lot development, 2019, Source - B9 Architects, “Urban +”Figure 51: ‘Urban +’ areal development view within Seattle’s single-family neighbourhoods , 2019, Source - B9 Architects, “Urban +”116D o u b l e  L R  L o t T r i p l e  L R  L o t S i n g l e  M R  L o t S i n g l e  S F  L o t S i n g l e  L R  L o t“Some parcelswithout off-street parking rely on street parking. This may free up space on site for an addition or a detached structure.” 24 “Due to general urban patterns and zoning constraints, a large portion of the yard or recreation space is maintained at the front of the site as a buffer to the street and at the rear of the site as a buffer to the neighbor.” 24“Existing single family structure remains. The potential of the lot is to add a Detached Accessory Dwelling Unit (DADU) behind, generally in the rear yard. This solution allows the existing structure to remain in place.” 24“Detached accessory dwelling unit (DADU) is placed in the rear yard. It’s design and scope are determined by the land use code and the size and location of the existing house.” 24S i n g l e  L R  L o t D o u b l e  L R  L o tT r i p l e  L R  L o t S i n g l e  M R  L o tFigure 52: ‘Urban +’ Infill typologies, 2019, Source - B9 Architects, “Urban +”11724 “URBAN.” B9 Architects. Accessed 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/urbanplus.“Triple LR lot with three existing single family structures. Determine which existing structures present the highest value to be preserved based on locations, condition and project goals.”24“Middle single family structure proposed to be demolished and be replaced by a new 6-unit rowhouse structure. This new structure proposes a contextual design approach, positioned between the two preserved single family houses.”24“Parking area behind all structures for the majority of the existing and proposed homes, accessed from the street along the rear of the development site.”24“Located in the MR zone, the existing structure lowrise apartment structure contributes to the strong neighbourhood character. A small garage located at the rear of the site provides space for a future opportunity.”24“Existing three-story apartment structure.” 24“New 19-unit apartment structure replaces a single-story garage structure at the alley.”24“A new single family home is located at the rear of the corner lot, with street frontage, creating a condition that is common in Seattle neighbourhoods with multiple homes at block ends.”24“A townhouse structure is built in place of backyard with parking beneath it. In this scenario a courtyard may be provided at the center of the site.” 24“Existing house must be in good repair, and placed on the site to allow room for structure behind, and vehicle access to require parking, proposed for the new structure. If feasible, existing house can be moved as required.” 27 “Specific existing site conditions and correct zoning are required for this solution.”24“New duplex or triplex townhouse structure requires parking solution and vehicle access. This can be achieved via a shared driveway with existing single family home, or if conditions allow, a private access. Consider providing a space that is shared between vehicles and pedestrians, similar to a woonerf where possible.”24 “Urban +, a new duplex, or three townhouse structure situated behind existing, traditional single family house.” 24“Existing single family structure. Placed appropriately on site, and in good repair remains as part of neighbourhood character.” 24 “Due to platting patterns, a 60-foot wide lot, consisting of two 30-foot wide lots, provides ample space for adding a new single family structure adjacent to the existing single family structure. This new single family house is placed in a portion of the existing lot that is unoccupied, undeveloped space.”24“Alley located at rear of site provides access to parking for each home, including the existing single family that is preserved.” 24“Feasibility of adding a new infill structure relies on the location on the lot of the existing structure. LR zone’s code requirements allows for more total area on the lot when compared with the SF zone.” 24“Existing driveway is removed to be replaced by new single family structure. Parking solution is shared by both the existing and new homes.” 24“New single family home designed around existing site constraints. Situated in the space of the former driveway in between the existing home and the lot boundary.” 24“Large portion of backyard remains intact, but is shared between both single family homes. Can be designed as either communal space, or sectioned into two private spaces.” 24U r b a n  S t r a t e g i e s   Grange Tr iple Double Wil l iamson Wil l iamson Architecture,  Toronto,  Ontar ioDeveloped on a corner lot  in Toronto’s  Chinatown neighbourhood, this  mult igenerat ional housing project  developed within the constraints of  the city ’s  housing typologies “is  a prototype for  mult i -generat ional  l iv ing -  readi ly  conf igurable to al low for  [a]  home’s evolv ing and mult iple blends of  l iv ing arrangements.”25 Invest igat ing the house as an urban condit ion, i t ’s  development aims to accommodate density  within Toronto’s  urban center. “Stacking a rental  unit ,  a  grandparent’s  suite,  and l iv ing spaces for  a young family  on a double-wide lot  a l lows,  this  modest home [to recognize]  the possibi l i t ies of  intensi f icat ion latent in the morphology of  Toronto’s  urban fabric.”25 Bui lding for  two generat ions of occupants,  scenarios of  downsiz ing,  empty nest  scenarios,  and spat ia l  organizat ion of  the project  a l lows for  a mix of  unit  types -  creat ing an adaptable dwel l ing.  Shi f t ing f inancial  and spat ia l  needs accommodated by the mix of  unit  types gives the occupants di fferent methods of  either ownership or rent ing,  through different unit  s izes and conf igurat ion within the house.  Not only does this  project  consider the needs of  mult iple l iv ing scenarios of  di fferent generat ions,  family  s ize,  and income levels ,  i t  invest igates the l i fecycle of  the house over a per iod of  75 years. 25Figure 53: ‘Urban +’ Infill Typologies, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson Architecture, “Grange Triple Double”25 “Grange Triple Double.” Williamson Williamson Inc. Accessed 2019. https://www.williamsonwilliamson.com/arch/projects/grange-triple-double/.118D e t a c h e d S e c o n d  S u i t e R o o m i n g  H o u s e B e d - S i t t i n g  R o o mS e m i - D e t a c h e d D u p l e x T r i p l e x F o u r p l e xT o w n h o u s e R o w  H o u s e R o w p l e x A p a r t m e n t s R o w p l e x A p a r t m e n t s T o w n h o u s e R o w  H o u s e + + =Figure 54: Unit types within different housing typologies, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson Architecture, “Grange Triple Double”Figure 55: Grange Triple Double Program Diagram in Context, 2016, Source - Williamson Williamson Architecture, “Grange Triple Double” 119U r b a n  S t r a t e g i e s  La-Màs,  Los Angeles,  Cal i forniaLa-Màs is  a non-prof i t  urban design organizat ion that works to help “lower- income and under served communit ies shape their  future through pol icy and architecture.”26  Working col laborat ively with community groups,  developers,  and city  departments,  La-Màs acts as “an advocate,  a translator,  and intermediary to raise up what is  a l ready working local ly”, support ing and preserving community ident ity  in areas with l imited resources.26 The Backyard Homes ProjectWorking with a “col lect ive of  partners — Genesis  LA Economic Growth Corporat ion,  Sel f -Help Federal  Credit  Union,  Restore Neighborhoods LA (RNLA),  LA Family  Housing,  St . Joseph Center,  Housing Rights Center and the Housing Authority  of  the City of  Los Angeles (HACLA)”,  The Backyard Homes project  is  an “incent ive program [that]  offers homeowners optional  f inancing,  design,  permitt ing,  and construct ion support  to bui ld a new [accessory dwel l ing unit  (ADU)]  in the City of  Los Angeles.”27As an affordable housing init iat ive,  this  incent iv ised program “enables the average homeowner to  contr ibute to [ the City of  Los Angeles]  affordable housing.”27 Support ing homeowners in the bui lding,  f inancing,  and rent ing out of  an ADU “in exchange for  rent ing their  unit out to a Sect ion 8 voucher holder for  a minimum of 5 years” (a sect ion 8 voucher holder, being someone who receives subsidies for  their  rent payments) . 27 “El igible homeowners can apply i f  they agree to house a Sect ion 8 voucher holder in their  new ADU for a minimum of 5 years and i f  their  property is  in a s ingle family  residential  area located within the City of L.A.”27 Creat ing new opportunit ies to include divers i ty  into s ingle-family  neighbourhoods, this  program offers a larger c i ty  wide approach creat ing more affordable housing supply in the city. The Backyard Homes Project1What is an ADU?An ADU is an Accessory Dwelling Unit — also called a backyard home, in-law unit, or granny flat. An ADU is a secondary residential unit that can be added to a lot with an existing single family home. ADUs are independent rental units that have their own entrances, kitchens, bathrooms, bedrooms, and living rooms. They can be attached or detached from the primary residence, or they can be garage conversions. PrimAry HoUseADUWhat are the benefits of building more ADUs?increase Homeowner equityBuilding an additional unit on your property can add a stream of rental income. Additionally, building a secondary unit will increase the overall value of your property. support Affordable HousingBuilding an ADU is a quicker and more affordable way to build new housing units. Since you own the land, the primary costs are in construction. Since these units are cheaper to build, they can be paid off by renting to tenants at an affordable rate. This in turn increases the amount of affordable housing in the rental market. maintain Neighborhood scaleADUs are not large-scale developments; they are small-scale and increase housing in neighborhoods without compromising the character of the community. ADUs can also help keep families in their neighborhoods by accommodating adult children living at home, aging parents, or alleviating overcrowded households.The Backyard Homes Project6sizeApproximately 400-800 square feet Type •	 New detached construction or a garage conversion•	 A studio, one bedroom, or two bedroom — each with a bathroom, kitchen, and living area•	 ADUs will be delivered with the following appliances: stove, refrigerator, dishwasher, and washer/dryer•	 Landscaping includedDesign•	 There will be pre-vetted design models to choose from, including site plans, elevations, materials and finishes, that will be adapted to each site.•	 We are committed to both thoughtful design and affordable construction.•	 Homeowners will have some options for materials and finishes. Size + Design400-800sqftNeW coNSTrUcTIoNGArAGe coNverSIoNor1-BeDSTUDIooror2-BeDThe Backyard Homes Project4WhatThe Backyard Homes Project provides design, permitting, construction, and financing services for homeowners throughout the City of LA who would like to build a rentable ADU. This program will help up to 10 homeowners build an ADU that is up to 800 square feet in size. At any time, up to 4-6 units will benefit from financing support.WhyThe process of building an ADU requires a lot of time, expertise, and money to navigate through design, permits, and construction. In addition, the traditional financing system for constructing ADUs is not accessible to most homeowners. This program will test a new approach to support homeowners throughout this process. This program was informed by five focus groups with over 100 homeowners throughout LA and a working group of about 30 professionals with expertise in various fields related to housing. HowThe homeowner will enter into a contract with RNLA (Contractor) who will work with all project partners to ensure that the ADUs are successfully designed, permitted, and constructed within a 15-month time period. requirementsAll participating homeowners in this program must work with LA-Más and RNLA for design, permitting, and construction. Financing support will only be provided for to up to four to six homeowners at a time and is not required if homeowners have other sources of funding. Homeowners must meet certain eligibility requirements to qualify for financing through Self-Help FCU.All homeowners will be required to rent their ADU to Section 8 tenants for at least five years after construction. Homeowners will also be required to participate in landlord training from Housing Rights Center and the Housing Authority of the City of LA (HACLA), which makes for successful participation with the Section 8 program.What is the Backyard Ho e  Project? THe BAckyArD HomeS ProjecT•	Program Management•	Design•	Permitting•	Construction Management•	FinancingNew ADU: Increased Equity +  More Affordable Housing for LAHomeowners who want an ADU, but need helpThe Backyard Homes Project6sizeApproximately 400-800 square feet Type •	 New detached construction or a garage conversion•	 A studio, one bedroom, or two bedroom — each with a bathroom, kitchen, and living area•	 ADUs will be delivered with the following appliances: stove, refrigerator, dishwasher, and washer/dryer•	 Landscaping includedDesign•	 There will be pre-vetted design models to choose from, including site plans, elevations, ma erials and finishes, hat will be adapted to each site.•	 We are committed to both thoughtful design and affordable construction.•	 Homeowners will have some options for materials and finishes. Size + Design400-800sqftNeW coNSTrUcTIoNGArAGe coNverSIoNor1-BeDSTUDIooror2-BeD26 “About Más.” LA Más. Accessed 2019. https://www.mas.la/about-us-1. 27 “Affordable ADUs.” LA Más. Accessed 2019. https://www.mas.la/affordable-adus.Figure 56: Backyard homes program, Source - La-Màs120The Backyard Homes Project8Timeline0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Here is an approximate 15-month project timeline that can be expected once a homeowner signs a contract with us!Homeowner signs contract to participate in program; ADU budget and financing plan is determinedmilestoneADU design is streamlined (1 month)ADU plans submitted to plan check for permitting (2-3 month)Building permit secured; Construction begins; Homeowner attends landlord training (6-8 months)Certification of occupancy issued; section 8 application submittedHomeowner works with housing provider to select a tenantsection 8 tenant moves in to ADU; Homeowner receives rent!0month12511-131415T h e  N e a p o l i t a n2  B e d r o o m ,  1 . 5  B a t h r o o m710  S FS t u d i oC o n v e r s i o n  o r  N e w 3 74  S FG a r a g e  C o n v e r s i o n1  B e d r o o m ,  1  B a t h r o o m3 81  S FI n c l u d e d  B u i l t - i n  F e a t u r e s L i v i n g R o o m  D e s kB e d  R o o m D e s kW i n d o w  S e a tW i n d o w T a b l eK i t c h e n  I s l a n d T a b l e K i t c h e n I s l a n d  T a b l e G a r a g e  C o n v e r s i o n2  B e d r o o m ,  1  B a t h r o o m4 9 0  S FT h e  M i c r o - U n i t2  B e d r o o m ,  1  B a t h r o o m5 9 6  S FFigure 57: Backyard home Unit designs + features, Source - La-MàsFigure 58: Backyard Home Schematic Interior RenderSource - La-Màs Figure 59: Backyard Home Schematic Exterior Render Source - La-MàsFigure 60: Backyard Home Construction timelineSource - La-Màs 121B i b l i o g r a p h y “Affordable ADUs.” LA Más. Accessed 2019. https://www.mas.la/affordable-adus. Ahrentzen, Sherry B. “Choice in Housing.” Housing and Community No., no. 8. Accessed December 2018. http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/8/choice-in-housing. Armborst, Tobias, Daniel D’Oca, Georgeen Theodore, and Riley Gold. 2017. The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion. New York: Actar Publishers.Bartholomew, Harland, and Vancouver (B.C.). Town Planning Commission. 1929. A plan for the City of Cancouver, British olumbia: Including a general plan of the region, 1928. Vancouver: Vancouver Town Planning Commission.Bell, L. I., and Jan Constantinescu. 1974. The housing game: A survey of consumer preferences in medium-density housing in the greater vancouver region. Vancouver, B.C: Social Policy & Research Dept., United Way of Greater Vancouver. Desjardins, Jeff. “Infographic: Vancouver Real Estate Mania.” Visual Capitalist. June 02, 2016. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/vancouver-real-estate-mania/.“Designed to Engage: Policy Recommendations for Promoting Sociability in Multi-family Housing Design.” Accessed 2019. https://www.refbc.com/sites/default/files/Designed to Engage_policy recommendations.pdf.Bula, Frances. “Vancouver Opens the Door to Duplexes.” The Globe and Mail, October 4, 2018. Accessed December 2018. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/real-estate/vancouver/article-vancouver-opens-the-door-to-duplexes/.“Duplex Use in Most RS Zones Proposed Zoning Amendments.” September 2018. https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/duplex-use-in-rs-zones-proposed-zoning-ammendments.pdf.Dömer, Klaus, Hans Drexler, and Joachim Schultz-Granberg. 2014. Affordable living: Housing for everyone. Berlin: Jovis.Förster, Wolfgang, William Menking, Sabine Bitter, and Aedes am Pfefferberg (Berlin, Germany). 2016. Das wiener modell: Wohnbau für die stadt des 21.jahrhunderts = the vienna model : Housing for the twenty-first-century city. Berlin: Jovis.Gehl, Jan. 2010. Cities for people. Washington, DC: Island Press.“Grange Triple Double.” Williamson Williamson Inc. Accessed 2019. https://www.williamsonwilliamson.com/arch/projects/grange-triple-double/.Greater Vancouver Regional District. Strategic Planning Dept. 1994. Housing demand projection scenarios for the metropolitan vancouver region, 1991 to 2021. Burnaby: Gvrd.122Haeccity Studio Architecture. Urbanarium Missing Middle Competition “Micro-Op”, Accessed October 2019. https://www.haeccity.com/#/missingmiddle/.Hayden, Dolores. 2003. Building suburbia: Green fields and urban growth, 1820-2000. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books.Hayden, Dolores. 2002. Redesigning the american dream: The future of housing, work, and family life. Rev. and expand ed. New York: W.W. Norton.Hoffmann, Hubert. 1967. One-family housing: Solutions to an urban dilemma: Terrace houses, patio houses, linked houses. London: Thames & Hudson.“House Styles By Name and Era • Vancouver Heritage Foundation.” Vancouver Heritage Foundation. Accessed 2019. https://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/learn-with-us/discover-vancouvers-heritage/vancouver-house-styles/house-styles/.“Housing Approval Study (HAS) Report 2017.” Greater Vancouver Home Builders Association, 2017. https://gvhba.org/has-report-2017/.“Housing Vancouver Strategy.” Appendix A:. November 28, 2018. https://council.vancouver.ca/20171128/documents/rr1appendixa.pdf.Jacobs, Jane. 2011. The death and life of great american cities. 50th anniversary ed. New York: Modern Library.Jackson, J. B. “The Westward-Moving House: Three American Houses and the People Who Lived in Them.” Places. Accessed 2019. https://placesjournal.org/article/the-westward-moving-house/.Keil, Roger. 2018. Suburban planet: Making the world urban from the outside in. Cambridge, UK;Medford, MA, USA;: Polity Press.Korstrom, Glen. “Major Players Not Optimistic about Metro Vancouver’s Housing Market Mora, Rodrigo. 2012. Andrés duany, jeff speck & mike lydon. the smart growth manual. Revista De Geografía Norte Grande(51): 185-7.Larsen, Karin. “Vancouver’s New Duplex Rules Explained | CBC News.” CBCnews. September 20, 2018. Accessed 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/vancouver-s-new-duplex-rules-explained-1.4831741.Lauster, Nathanael Thomas, and ProQuest (Firm). 2016. The death and life of the single-family house: Lessons from vancouver on building a livable city. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Leupen, Bernard, Harald Mooij, Rudy Uytenhaak, Birgit Jürgenhake, Robert Nottrot, John Zondag, Mohamad Ali Sedighi, Alexander van Zweeden, P. Bouvier, and Laura Vroomen. 2011. Housing design: A manual. 2nd rev. English language ed. Rotterdam;New York;: NAi Publishers.Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The image of the city. Cambridge [Mass.]: Technology Press.123Martin-Breen, Patrick, and J. Marty. “Resilience: A Literature Review.” OpenDocs Home. January 01, 1970. Accessed 2019. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/3692.Macdonald, Bruce, and Wallace B. Chung and Madeline H. Chung Collection. 1992. Vancouver: A visual history. Vancouver: Talonbooks.Macdonald, Bruce. “Kitsilano’s Historic Delamont.” Review. Living Histories Publication, October 10, 2010.Montgomery, Charles. 2013. Happy city: Transforming our lives through urban design. First ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.McAlester, Virginia, Suzanne Patton Matty, Steve Clicque, A. Lee McAlester, Lauren Jarrett, and Juan Rodriguez-Arnaiz. 2013. A field guide to american houses: The definitive guide to identifying and understanding america’s domestic architecture. Second ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.“Missing Middle Housing.” CNU. July 29, 2015. Accessed 2019. https://www.cnu.org/our-projects/missing-middle-housing.Notteboom, Bruno. 2016. The westward-moving house and other stories : J.B. jackson, reading and writing the landscape. In .Prospects.” Vancouver Courier, November 20, 2018. Accessed December 2018. https://www.vancourier.com/real-estate/major-players-not-optimistic-about-metro-vancouver-s-housing-market-prospects-1.23503918Punter, John Vincent. 2003;2004;. The vancouver achievement: Urban planning and design. Vancouver: UBC Press..Ren, Xuefei, Roger Keil, and Taylor & Francis eBooks A-Z. 2018;2017;. The globalizing cities reader. Second ed. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Ross, Benjamin. 2014. Dead end: Suburban sprawl and the rebirth of american urbanism. New York;Oxford;: Oxford University Press.Smithson, Alison, and Team 10. 1968. Team 10 primer. Cambridge: MIT Press.Stanilov, Kiril, and Brenda Case Scheer. 2003;2004;. Suburban form: An international perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.Steuteville, Robert, and Philip Langdon. 2009. New urbanism: Best practices guide. 4th expand & completely rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: New Urban NewsPublications.Teige, Karel, and Eric Dluhosch. 2002. The minimum dwelling: L’habitation minimum = die kleinstwohnung : The housing crisis, housing reform . Chicago, Ill;Cambridge, Mass;: MIT Press.124Turcotte, Martin. “The City/suburb Contrast: How Can We Measure It?” December 11, 2007. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-008-x/2008001/article/10459-eng.htm.“URBAN.” B9 Architects. Accessed 2019. http://www.b9architects.com/urbanplus.“Urbanization.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed 2019. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/urbanization.Vancouver, City Of. “Zoning District Descriptions.” City of Vancouver. September 12, 2012. 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