UBC Graduate Research

Vancouver Especially : The Value of Deconstruction Connell, Devin 2019-12

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
42591-Connell_Devin_ARCH_549_Vancouver_deconstruction.pdf [ 70.99MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 42591-1.0387441.json
JSON-LD: 42591-1.0387441-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 42591-1.0387441-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 42591-1.0387441-rdf.json
Turtle: 42591-1.0387441-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 42591-1.0387441-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 42591-1.0387441-source.json
Full Text
42591-1.0387441-fulltext.txt
Citation
42591-1.0387441.ris

Full Text

Vancouver Especially: The Value of DeconstructionDevin ConnellB.Des, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, 2015Blair SatterfieldM.Arch, Rice UniversityBSc, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignJoe DahmenM.Arch, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyBA (Hons), Wesleyan UniversityGPI Mentor: Blair SatterfieldGPII Chair: Blair SatterfieldCommittee Members: Joe Dahmen, Michael Leckie, Zahra TeshniziSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture Program.© December 2019ii iiiThe waste processes in most urban contexts are concealed from their citizens. Complex networks and systems made simple by way of drop-off and pick-up make for a disconnected and ignorant society in regards to how their own waste is actually dealt with. What’s out of sight is out of mind. This especially holds true with buildings, the biggest things we consume. One week a building’s there, the next, it’s gone. Where did it go? How were its materials digested into our waste systems? Was every part of that building ready to be treated as waste?The prevailing methods of demolition waste management for single-family homes are inefficient, ineffective, and not aligned with the cultural consciousness of Vancouver or its goal for zero waste. There is still an immense amount of waste piling up in the landfill, and even a lot of the waste that is being diverted, is simply burned or brought elsewhere. The urgency of improving demolition waste management is a multi-fold issue regarding loss of valuable materials we will never see again, historical and cultural significance, meeting future waste goals, and general issues around sustainability and climate change at large.The completion of one single-family home is the culmination of a symphony of industry perfected over centuries. The harvesting of materials, processing, manufacturing, distribution, and ultimately construction, has adapted over time to be successful through the natural selection process of capitalism - survival of the fittest. But what of when we want to rid ourselves of a product of these outputs? What architectural solution and industrial process reflects the inversion of construction? How can we turn a negative into a positive?These are crucial questions to answer at a critical moment in the history of architectural waste management. Society is finally facing the end result of its architectural decisions made in the 20th century. How we choose to deal with the waste these buildings produce will pave the way for all constructions to follow; up until now, and into the future. Abstract“The waste a building produces at the start and end of its life is taken out of the hands of architect in nearly all situations. Buildings are designed for permanence, yet their obsolescence is unavoidable.”- Ada Louise Huxtableiv vThesis StatementThis project accepts the reality and the consequences of Vancouver’s urban land prices as they climb as high as the mountains they crave to view. A major outcome of this reality is an incredibly high turnover of single-family homes. In place of a system not equipped to manage the volume or variety of architectural waste produced, a new system and new architecture must be established. One which is designed with its program as its core philosophy, one which can adapt to the changing deconstructions over time, and one which engages the public to alter the collective perception of waste and its management.vi viiTable of ContentsAbstract iiiThesis Statement  vTable of Contents   viList of Figures        viiiAcknowledgements        xi WASTE  Waste as Concept 3 Waste in Vancouver 5 Vancouver Waste Flows 9 Vancouver Wood Waste Flows 11CONTEXT Vancouver’s Development 15 Vancouver Housing Situation 17 Teardown Index 19 Teardown Predictions     21 Wood Waste 23 Demolition Waste 25 Green Demolition Bylaw Update 27 Waste Not, Want More 29DECONSTRUCTION  Deconstruction as Concept 33 Unbuilders 35 Vancouver Deconstruction Hub 37 Energy Transfer 39 New Typology 42PRECEDENTS Ship Breakers 45 ReBuilding Center 47 Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility     49 Halley VI British Antarctic Research Station 51 Pont de Calabre 53 Klip House 55GPII PROPOSAL Methodology 59 Vancouver Narrative 61 System Overview 81 House Moving 87 Hub Operations 97 Lumber Operations at Hub 105 Housing Output 117 Final pin-up 121 Bibliography 123viii ixList of Figures1. Waste - Efficiency | Material - Concept Matrix (drawn by author)2. Vancouver Timeline - detail (drawn by author)3. Vancouver Timeline (drawn by author)4. Vancouver Waste Flows 2017 (by weight) stats provided by Metro Vancouver Landfill Annual Report Metro Vancouver Solid Waste and Resource Plan 2017 Metro Vancouver Zero Waste Committee Meeting 2019 (drawn by author)5. Vancouver Wood Waste Flows 2017 (by weight) stats provided by Metro Vancouver Landfill Annual Report Metro Vancouver Solid Waste and Resource Plan 2017 Metro Vancouver Zero Waste Committee Meeting 2019 (drawn by author)6. View down Granville St. in 1895 & 1995  courtesy of vanfun.net and Vancouver Archive7. Relative building value example statistics provided by Dahmen, 2017 8. Screenshot from the Teardown Index courtesy of Dahmen, 20179. Teardown predictions courtesy of Dahmen, 2017 / predictions drawn by author10. Vancouver salvageable wood statistics statistics provided by Teshnizi, 2015 (drawn by author)11. DLC residential waste by weight % to Vancouver landfill - 2015 statistics provided by Tetra Tech, 201512. Average DLC waste by weight % to Metro Vancouver landfills - 2015 statistics provided by Tetra Tech, 201513. Vancouver diversion totals vs. housing demolition rates statistics provided by Metro Vancouver Housing Databook    and Metro Vancouver Waste Composition Study,  2008-2017 (drawn by author)14. Vancouver single-family home diversion rates statistics of City of Vancouver Bylaw Update 2018  (drawn by author)15. Vancouver demolition site courtesy of Globe and Mail16. Deconstruction made simple (drawn by author)17. Screenshots from unbuilders.com courtesy of unbuilders.com18. Basics of new system to be implemented (drawn by author)19. Deconstruction energy transfer (drawn by author)20. Deconstruction energy transfer - detail (drawn by author)21-23. Ship Breakers courtesy of Vice Media, 201524-25. Inside of the ReBuilding Centre courtesy of Communitecture26-27. Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility  courtesy of Seldorf Architects28-29. Halley VI British Antarctic Research Station courtesy of Hugh Broughton Architects30-31. Conceptual drawings of Pont de Calabre courtesy of OXO Architectes32-34. Conceptual drawings of Klip House Interloop Architecture35. 3D scan of a tree fork from the AA Design Build 2016 courtesy of AA Design Build 201636. Vancouver Especially - Logging English Bay courtesy of Vancouver Archives37. Own graphic38. Own graphic39. Own graphic40. Own graphic41. Own graphic42. Own graphic43. Own graphic44. Own graphic45. Own graphic46. Own graphic47. Own graphic48. Own graphic49. Own graphic50. Own graphic51. Own graphic52. Own graphic53. Vancouver Especially - Logging English Bay courtesy of Vancouver Archives54. Surrey mid-century builder travel path (drawn by author)55. Basic system diagram (drawn by author)56. Metro Vancouver Housing Waste Network (drawn by author)57. On-site house moving (drawn by author)58. On-site house moving axonometric (drawn by author)59. Metro Vancouver Housing Characteristics Timeline (drawn by author)60. House moving in residential Vancouver (drawn by author)61. On-site house moving axonometric (drawn by author)62. House moving by barge (drawn by author)63. House arrival at Mitchell Island axonometric (drawn by author)64. House arrival at Mitchell Island (drawn by author)65. Floor Plan - 1:200 scale (drawn by author)66. House intake at Deconstruction Hub (drawn by author)67. House intake at Deconstruction Hub axonometric (drawn by author)68. Housing disassembly at Deconstruction Hub  (drawn by author)69. Housing disassembly at Deconstruction Hub axonometric (drawn by author)70. Assembly skin removal (drawn by author)71. Assembly skin removal axonometric (drawn by author)72. Deconstruction Hub wood flows diagram (drawn by author)73. Stud separation axonometric (drawn by author)74. Denailing axonometric (drawn by author)75. CLT assembly (drawn by author)76. Mitchell Island wood movement axonometric (drawn by author)77. Typical home material flows diagram (drawn by author)78. Potential Vancouver density diagram (drawn by author)79. Housing output example diagram (drawn by author)80. Potential Vancouver arterial density development  (drawn by author)81. Final boards  (own photo)82-83. Final model  (own photo)x xiAcknowledgementsI would like to thank my entire committee for their help in developing this project into what it has become. Their time and thoughtful comments helped move the project forward every meeting. I’d especially like to thank the chair of my committee, Blair Satterfield. Your mentoring and advice since the beginning of this project has been outstanding and highly appreciated.I would also like to thank my family and friends. Your love and support this entire degree has been a constant force pushing me to work harder and be at my best inside and outside of school. I’d like to thank my partner, Celine, your love, support, and understanding this degree and especially this semester has been incredible - you’ve made an extremely challenging Fall much easier.Finally, I’d like to acknowledge and thank the trees. We should all treat trees alive and dead with respect and value, not just economic value, but with spiritual, historical and cultural value.W A S T E3Waste is an elusive concept. For many it can be synonymous with several other words: trash, junk, rubbish, useless, or more generally, unwanted things. But waste isn’t all bad. Waste can be constructive. As Lynch puts it “We are pleased when we lose weight, boil down a fine sauce, clean out the underbrush, subsume complex evidence under a simple theory, edit turgid prose, or cut away a stone to reveal the hidden form” (Lynch, 39). Another example is the decay of organic waste to become useful for the entire biosphere. To gain a more focused footing on my thoughts about waste, and specifically, architecture waste, I designed a matrix that generally encapsulates aspects of my thesis topic (1.). The matrix holds the words Material and Concept at opposite ends in the x-axis, and the words Waste and Efficiency in the y-axis. I see these words each opposite to one another, and all crucial to the understanding and context of my thesis. Within the matrix, I subjectively placed words, projects, people, and ideas where I deemed them to fit. This exercise helped frame my thinking around the topics my thesis rests in, as it constantly made me weigh different words in my own head and then physically place them in space, something we don’t often do. It also helped me pin down my own stance on waste and its place in architecture as I understood it (I write in past tense because this understanding is constantly shifting and evolving and the placement of many of these words is likely to move). This exercise was conducted at the beginning of my research and is highly subjective. If I were to do the exercise of placing these words today or any other day, I’m confident their positions would change as my understanding of these words changes.Waste can be thought of from a multitude of perspectives, but it is most pertinent to us in its physical form. How cities process waste impacts their future sustainable growth for generations to come. Vancouver is recognized by many as a generally green and sustainable city, but is this actually true? Even if it is, I argue that waste research and improvement in Vancouver’s waste processes are valuable to the city now and into the future. Not only for Vancouver, but for cities around the world, to look to Vancouver’s systems of tomorrow as models of efficient and sustainable design to aspire to.demolitionproductivityrenewableprefabricationdevelopmentconstructiondeconstructionarchitecturesustainabilityRem KoolhaasHermann KaufmannKevin LynchJoel GarreauStephen CairnsJane M. JacobsJeff BylesWilliam McDonoughStewart Brandship breakersgreencreateenvironmentenergychangetimeruindecayadaptentropyheritageresourceisotropicanisotropicglobalismsolidelementsteelphysical stufflocalinorganicorganicdecomposegypsumasphaltsitedesignregenerativeabundancelifecyclecradle-to-gravecradle-to-cradlestoneconsumemodularby-productproductionconcreteplasticwoodsyntheticnaturalrecoveryconvertredeemsalvagerepurposeUrban RepurposeephemeralurbanCopenhillsaveconserveusefulupcycleco-productrecyclepassiveactivewasteless cacotopiareusecleandestructiongarbagerubbleinefficientdirtjunkrefusedisposerazesingle-useobsolescenceuselessdefectivewreckdebristrashtoxicfilthbackfilllandfillwaste cacotopiadesign for deconstruction (dfd)WAS T ECONCEPTE F F I C I E N C YMATERIALDevin ConnellWaste as Concept1. Waste - Efficiency | Material - Concept Matrix5 6Vancouver is a unique place. Its geography, relatively brief history, and several key events have shaped this city into what we know today. As an explorative exercise to gain footing on the relationship between Vancouver and waste, I designed a timeline of significant events within Vancouver (3.). The timeline is divided into five categories: People, Industry, Development, Environment, and Waste. By layering these topics onto time, the viewer can start to infer how certain events may have affected others in the same category and into others as well.For example, the ‘86 Expo had a huge impact on Vancouver. The city was in the spotlight and it wanted to shine. Around this time, Vancouver constructed BC Place, Canada Place, Science World, and the Plaza of Nations, buildings which still to this day help shape its identity. Aside from development, I see this event as a turning point in Vancouver’s self-identity. During the Expo, the world saw Vancouver as this jewel of a city tucked into the mountains, the forest, and the sea, and place embedded in nature. Directly after the Expo, several forward-thinking environmental policies were put into effect in Vancouver (2.). It’s almost as if Vancouver gained a better understanding of who it was, or rather, who it ought to be.Another example of this can be noticed in 1997. In this year, there was a large boom of Asian investment in Vancouver, this led to a surge in development, and in turn construction and demolition waste. This spike can visibly be seen in the graph to the right (2.), in the amount of Demolition Materials heading to the landfill. By overlaying this graph with events specifically linked to waste in Vancouver, we can start to see how certain legislation and waste processing facilities had an impact on the overall waste in the city. For example, the Waste-to-energy facility opening in 1988, the blue box collection program in 1989, the organics ban in 2015, and the closing of the Cache Creek Landfill in 2016, resulting in the Delta Landfill taking on a larger portion of Vancouver’s waste.WASTEENVIRONMENTDEVELOPMENTINDUSTRYPEOPLE1850 1880 1910 1940 1970 2000 20301860 1890 1920 1950 1980 2010 20401870 1900 1930 1960 1990 2020 2050population× 100,000105202515waste to landfill× 100,000 tonnes10515Vancouver Metro VancouverMSW Cover soil Demolition Materials Other Cover & Road MaterialsCoast Salish occupation - small English influenceSmall independent logging operations based near waterSmall Coast Salish and trading settlementsEnvironment is almost completely natural and untouched by industryWaste is not an object of thought for most - land and resources are extremely abundantMetro Vancouver population hits 100,000Metro Vancouver population hits 200,000Metro Vancouver population hits 300,000Japanese Canadians begin being sent to internment campsMetro Vancouver population hits 400,000Metro Vancouver population hits 500,000Streetcar system terminatedMetro Vancouver population hits 1,000,000Metro Vancouver population hits 1,500,000Influx of vulnerable  people to DTESMetro Vancouver population hits 2,000,000Metro Vancouver population hits 2,500,000Population hits 200,000Population hits 300,000Population hits 400,000Population hits 500,000Population hits 600,000Vancouver is Canada’s most densely populated city | Stanley Cup riotsMillennium Line Broadway Extension Phase 1 completeTransportation Plan 2040 enactedTransportation Plan 2040 complete The Economist ties Vancouver with Melbourne as top city to live inNorth America’s first safe injection site opens in DTESCity council votes to acknowledge city located on unceded landsPopulation hits 50,000Gastown riotStanley Cup riotsFirst electric street car service launchesPassenger train service from Vancouver to New West.Japantown attacked by Asiatic Exclusion LeaguePresent-day Vancouver is proclaimed to belong to the CrownSmall pox epidemic kills many Coast SalishSkytrain starts operating from Waterfront to New West.Full accessibility on all of Vancouver’s public transitSkytrain Canada Line starts operatingHastings Lumber Mill starts operating in GastownFirst umber export - to AustraliaGassy Jack convinces millworkers to build him a tavernColonial government lays out a townsite called GranvilleBritish Columbia joins CanadaGreat Vancouver fire | Vancouver General Hospital open on Pender St.Vancouver starts to rebuild with more modern techniquesCharles Woodward opens first Woodward’sWoodward’s building constructedBC legislation establishing the University of British ColumbiaDominion building constructed ( Vancouver’s first skyscraper)Canadian National Railway station completedVancouver International Airport constructedMarine Building is completedSecond Narrows Bridge connects the city to North VancouverOfficial regional and regional parks plansSimon Fraser University establishedSewage system pushing limit - still discharging to rivers and oceanSewage interceptor constructed for English BaySewage master plan adopted for Greater VancouverLions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant opensAnnacis Island  Wastewater Treatment Plant opensIona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant opensFir wood sewer system installed in Van. - outfalls to rivers and oceanConcrete sewer system installed in Van. - outfalls to rivers and oceanHarland Bartholomew presents his city planVancouver port becomes the largest sector of city’s economyWest coast modernism emerges | Concrete highrises and freeways | Changes practices of labour forceDevelopment of West End     Homes for highrisesVancouver City Hall constructedLions Gate Bridge constructedPost-war boom - suburban growth and residential developmentPost-war population boomPlanning board meets - seamless lines to a natural              landscape, view corridors, connection to natureExpo ’86 - BC Place, Canada Place, Plaza of Nations builtOwnership of Granville Island transferred to CMHCGranville Island redevelopment plan approvedHarbour Centre opensFalse Creek development plan approvedDowntown official development plan approvedArthur Erickson designs Museum of AnthropologyResidential use replaces industrial use in False Creek SouthRobson Square opens | Heritage Preservation Program enactedHigh density urban development plan‘Livable Region’ strategic planAsian investment - demolition surge |  Downtown height limits raisedSoutheast False Creek policy statement spurs developmentArbutus Corridor official development plan enactedCentral Area Plan - described as the “Public face of  “Vancouverism”Tower-podium typology established with 888 Beach avenue200+ movie and television productions were filmed in Vancouver97% of BC Hydro electricity from clean or renewable resourcesIndustrial lands retention ensured - secures land from developmentZero Waste 2040 strategy enactedGoal of 240,000 tonnes of MSW to landfill and incineratorIn heavy rainfall, some untreated sewage is releasedGoal of Zero Waste for VancouverDelta landfill retiredInterceptors installed throughout VancouverBC Energy Step Code enacted | Rally to oppose pipeline expansionGreenest City Action Plan complete |All buildings to be carbon neutralNeighbourhood Energy Strategy complete - 100% renewable energy Vancouver attempts to quantify reused materialsVancouver stops transferring waste to Cache Creek landfillBC Energy Step Code goal of net-zero buildingsDelta Landfill opensVPL Central Branch opens |  Rogers Arena opensVancouver Hosts 2010 Olympic GamesShangri-La completedConstruction begins on Oakridge developmentOakridge development completedFalse Creek South leases begin to expireOlympic Village completed | Vancouver Convention Centre opensDowntown Eastside housing plan adoptedHastings Lumber Mill stops operating | Trucks transport introducedOcean Concrete moved to Granville IslandBC surpasses all other provinces in lumber productionBC is producing half of Canada’s lumberChainsaws introduced, forever changing lumber productionEnd of WWII provides surplus of trucks and bulldozersGranville renamed Vancouver | Ocean Concrete foundedConstruction of CPR creates greater demand for lumberSteam powered donkey engine introduced, replacing oxenVancouver displaces Victoria as commercial centre on west coastBC Sugar Refinery opensVancouver Board of Trade incorporatedGranville named as terminus for CPRFraser River Goldrush - large influx of workers to New West.Moodyville Sawmill starts operating - first in areaCity council petitions federal government to lease areas for parksBC Forest Act establishedEconomic depression severely reduces tradeBC Forest Act amended to manage long-term yield of timberBC Forest Act amended establishing “allowable annual cut”Forestry industry employs 1/10 CanadiansPacific Central Station replaces Waterfront Station as main stationSchool board reports nearly 40% of elementary schoolers are ESLVancouver population surpasses WinnipegStanley Park officially opensBC Electric discontinues single-use of carbon filament lampsThe “City Beautiful movement” comes to VancouverVancouver Natural History Society (Nature Vancouver) is foundedAir Pollution Control Society is incorporatedVancouver Charter granted by provinceExpansive urban renewal project beginsFraser River floodsLarge interurban freeway is rejected - only major N.A. city without oneScientific Pollution and Environmental Control Society (SPECS)  foundedSociety Promoting Environmental Conservation ( SPEC) foundedGreen Peace foundedWest coast environmental law enactedBC establishes first plastic deposit return program in North AmericaRecycling Council of BC (RCBC) is foundedPer capita solid waste rate is 866kg annuallyDelta Recycling Society establishes the blue box collection programMetro Vancouver Waste-to-Energy Facility opensBC launches tire and car battery recycling programsLiquid Waste Management Plan developedIntegrated Liquid Waste and Resource Management Plan approvedSolid waste management plans are developed for BCThe LightRecycle program begins accepting light bulbs and fixturesBC’s Recycling Regulation based on EPR principles comes into effectEncorp Pacific begins accepting end-of-life electronics for recycleMetro Vancouver bans food scrap disposal | Clean wood disposal bannedPer capita solid waste rate is 570kg annually Green bin program starts compostable organics make up 40% of MSWWilderness Committee is foundedDavid Suzuki Foundation foundedBC government plans to reserve 12% of forest as park landInternational Institute for Sustainable Cities foundedNonprofit charitable land trust The Land Conservancy (TLC) is foundedPacific Spirit Park ownership transferred to Metro VancouverTree protection measures adopted for new developmentsSmart Growth BC is createdForestEthics is foundedCanada Green Building Council ( CGBC)  launchedBC Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA) is launchedMetro Vancouver adopts sustainability conceptBC’s Green Energy Task Force | Tsouke Nation starts solar power projectEcoDensity Charter adopted by councilGreenest City Action Plan | Metro Van. Regional Growth StrategyClimate Change Adaptation Strategy | Neighbourhood Energy StrategyThe Port of Vancouver ranks first among Canadian ports in tonnageCan. begins selling large amounts of wheat to China | BC Hydro createdBC Hydro builds WAC Bennet Dam - hydro-electric powerVancouver Wharves Terminal opens - home to north shore sulphur pile142 million tonnes of cargo imported and exported valued at $200BWaste in Vancouver2. Vancouver Timeline - detailWASTEENVIRONMENTDEVELOPMENTINDUSTRYPEOPLE1850 1880 1910 1940 1970 2000 20301860 1890 1920 1950 1980 2010 20401870 1900 1930 1960 1990 2020 2050population× 100,000105202515waste to landfill× 100,000 tonnes10515Vancouver Metro VancouverMSW Cover soil Demolition Materials Other Cover & Road MaterialsCoast Salish occupation - small English influenceSmall independent logging operations based near waterSmall Coast Salish and trading settlementsEnvironment is almost completely natural and untouched by industryWaste is not an object of thought for most - land and resources are extremely abundantMetro Vancouver population hits 100,000Metro Vancouver population hits 200,000Metro Vancouver population hits 300,000Japanese Canadians begin being sent to internment campsMetro Vancouver population hits 400,000Metro Vancouver population hits 500,000Streetcar system terminatedMetro Vancouver population hits 1,000,000Metro Vancouver population hits 1,500,000Influx of vulnerable  people to DTESMetro Vancouver population hits 2,000,000Metro Vancouver population hits 2,500,000Population hits 200,000Population hits 300,000Population hits 400,000Population hits 500,000Population hits 600,000Vancouver is Canada’s most densely populated city | Stanley Cup riotsMillennium Line Broadway Extension Phase 1 completeTransportation Plan 2040 enactedTransportation Plan 2040 complete The Economist ties Vancouver with Melbourne as top city to live inNorth America’s first safe injection site opens in DTESCity council votes to acknowledge city located on unceded landsPopulation hits 50,000Gastown riotStanley Cup riotsFirst electric street car service launchesPassenger train service from Vancouver to New West.Japantown attacked by Asiatic Exclusion LeaguePresent-day Vancouver is proclaimed to belong to the CrownSmall pox epidemic kills many Coast SalishSkytrain starts operating from Waterfront to New West.Full accessibility on all of Vancouver’s public transitSkytrain Canada Line starts operatingHastings Lumber Mill starts operating in GastownFirst umber export - to AustraliaGassy Jack convinces millworkers to build him a tavernColonial government lays out a townsite called GranvilleBritish Columbia joins CanadaGreat Vancouver fire | Vancouver General Hospital open on Pender St.Vancouver starts to rebuild with more modern techniquesCharles Woodward opens first Woodward’sWoodward’s building constructedBC legislation establishing the University of British ColumbiaDominion building constructed ( Vancouver’s first skyscraper)Canadian National Railway station completedVancouver International Airport constructedMarine Building is completedSecond Narrows Bridge connects the city to North VancouverOfficial regional and regional parks plansSimon Fraser University establishedSewage system pushing limit - still discharging to rivers and oceanSewage interceptor constructed for English BaySewage master plan adopted for Greater VancouverLions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant opensAnnacis Island  Wastewater Treatment Plant opensIona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant opensFir wood sewer system installed in Van. - outfalls to rivers and oceanConcrete sewer system installed in Van. - outfalls to rivers and oceanHarland Bartholomew presents his city planVancouver port becomes the largest sector of city’s economyWest coast modernism emerges | Concrete highrises and freeways | Changes practices of labour forceDevelopment of West End     Homes for highrisesVancouver City Hall constructedLions Gate Bridge constructedPost-war boom - suburban growth and residential developmentPost-war population boomPlanning board meets - seamless lines to a natural              landscape, view corridors, connection to natureExpo ’86 - BC Place, Canada Place, Plaza of Nations builtOwnership of Granville Island transferred to CMHCGranville Island redevelopment plan approvedHarbour Centre opensFalse Creek development plan approvedDowntown official development plan approvedArthur Erickson designs Museum of AnthropologyResidential use replaces industrial use in False Creek SouthRobson Square opens | Heritage Preservation Program enactedHigh density urban development plan‘Livable Region’ strategic planAsian investment - demolition surge |  Downtown height limits raisedSoutheast False Creek policy statement spurs developmentArbutus Corridor official development plan enactedCentral Area Plan - described as the “Public face of  “Vancouverism”Tower-podium typology established with 888 Beach avenue200+ movie and television productions were filmed in Vancouver97% of BC Hydro electricity from clean or renewable resourcesIndustrial lands retention ensured - secures land from developmentZero Waste 2040 strategy enactedGoal of 240,000 tonnes of MSW to landfill and incineratorIn heavy rainfall, some untreated sewage is releasedGoal of Zero Waste for VancouverDelta landfill retiredInterceptors installed throughout VancouverBC Energy Step Code enacted | Rally to oppose pipeline expansionGreenest City Action Plan complete |All buildings to be carbon neutralNeighbourhood Energy Strategy complete - 100% renewable energy Vancouver attempts to quantify reused materialsVancouver stops transferring waste to Cache Creek landfillBC Energy Step Code goal of net-zero buildingsDelta Landfill opensVPL Central Branch opens |  Rogers Arena opensVancouver Hosts 2010 Olympic GamesShangri-La completedConstruction begins on Oakridge developmentOakridge development completedFalse Creek South leases begin to expireOlympic Village completed | Vancouver Convention Centre opensDowntown Eastside housing plan adoptedHastings Lumber Mill stops operating | Trucks transport introducedOcean Concrete moved to Granville IslandBC surpasses all other provinces in lumber productionBC is producing half of Canada’s lumberChainsaws introduced, forever changing lumber productionEnd of WWII provides surplus of trucks and bulldozersGranville renamed Vancouver | Ocean Concrete foundedConstruction of CPR creates greater demand for lumberSteam powered donkey engine introduced, replacing oxenVancouver displaces Victoria as commercial centre on west coastBC Sugar Refinery opensVancouver Board of Trade incorporatedGranville named as terminus for CPRFraser River Goldrush - large influx of workers to New West.Moodyville Sawmill starts operating - first in areaCity council petitions federal government to lease areas for parksBC Forest Act establishedEconomic depression severely reduces tradeBC Forest Act amended to manage long-term yield of timberBC Forest Act amended establishing “allowable annual cut”Forestry industry employs 1/10 CanadiansPacific Central Station replaces Waterfront Station as main stationSchool board reports nearly 40% of elementary schoolers are ESLVancouver population surpasses WinnipegStanley Park officially opensBC Electric discontinues single-use of carbon filament lampsThe “City Beautiful movement” comes to VancouverVancouver Natural History Society (Nature Vancouver) is foundedAir Pollution Control Society is incorporatedVancouver Charter granted by provinceExpansive urban renewal project beginsFraser River floodsLarge interurban freeway is rejected - only major N.A. city without oneScientific Pollution and Environmental Control Society (SPECS)  foundedSociety Promoting Environmental Conservation ( SPEC) foundedGreen Peace foundedWest coast environmental law enactedBC establishes first plastic deposit return program in North AmericaRecycling Council of BC (RCBC) is foundedPer capita solid waste rate is 866kg annuallyDelta Recycling Society establishes the blue box collection programMetro Vancouver Waste-to-Energy Facility opensBC launches tire and car battery recycling programsLiquid Waste Management Plan developedIntegrated Liquid Waste and Resource Management Plan approvedSolid waste management plans are developed for BCThe LightRecycle program begins accepting light bulbs and fixturesBC’s Recycling Regulation based on EPR principles comes into effectEncorp Pacific begins accepting end-of-life electronics for recycleMetro Vancouver bans food scrap disposal | Clean wood disposal bannedPer capita solid waste rate is 570kg annually Green bin program starts compostable organics make up 40% of MSWWilderness Committee is foundedDavid Suzuki Foundation foundedBC government plans to reserve 12% of forest as park landInternational Institute for Sustainable Cities foundedNonprofit charitable land trust The Land Conservancy (TLC) is foundedPacific Spirit Park ownership transferred to Metro VancouverTree protection measures adopted for new developmentsSmart Growth BC is createdForestEthics is foundedCanada Green Building Council ( CGBC)  launchedBC Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA) is launchedMetro Vancouver adopts sustainability conceptBC’s Green Energy Task Force | Tsouke Nation starts solar power projectEcoDensity Charter adopted by councilGreenest City Action Plan | Metro Van. Regional Growth StrategyClimate Change Adaptation Strategy | Neighbourhood Energy StrategyThe Port of Vancouver ranks first among Canadian ports in tonnageCan. begins selling large amounts of wheat to China | BC Hydro createdBC Hydro builds WAC Bennet Dam - hydro-electric powerVancouver Wharves Terminal opens - home to north shore sulphur pile142 million tonnes of cargo imported and exported valued at $200B3. Vancouver Timeline9Not all waste is created equal. Because of this, not all waste is treated equally. The diagram on the adjacent page (4.) outlines Vancouver’s waste flows from 2017. It is the combination of a few sources of data all sanctioned by the City of Vancouver. By making numerical values visual, we can start to easily see relationships and compare materials and their processes. It’s also a valuable tool for putting into perspective the different sector’s waste allotments and how and what materials they recycle and reuse.Right away we can see that Vancouver is diverting more than it is landfilling. This is good, but it is important to keep in mind that diverting and recycling is not infinite, materials degrade through these processes, and they’re eventually destined for the landfill. Another clear takeaway is the very low amount of material getting reused. At 82,400 tonnes, it represents about 2% of the total material movements for the year. The reuse industry has been growing in recent years, however it is facing an uphill battle trying to compete with the ease of diversion and disposal.The construction and demolition sectors are generally more successful than their counterparts at diverting waste. This is due to stricter regulation and this is a trend we can see improving in recent years. The majority of waste produced by this sector is through demolition, about 90%. If we consider the types of buildings demolished, commercial demolition diverts much more waste than residential, averaging 85% and 40% respectively (City of Vancouver, 2014). It’s easy to make this correlation in the waste flows diagram (4.) as the majority commercial buildings are made mostly of concrete, a highly diverted material from the landfill.Vancouver Waste FlowsResidentialCommercial/IndustrialConstruction/DemolitionEPR ProgramsVancouver waste-to-energyfacilityThird party waste-to-energyfacilities050Kt150Kt500Ktdemolitionconcrete/asphaltaggregateMSWtextilesonlineEPR programsoffice furnitureIT equipmentconstruction/demolitionhospitalityfoodasphaltbatteriesconcreteelectronicsfibre paperglassgypsumHHWmetalotherplastic textilestireswoodyard &  foodcompostedL A N D F I L LR E U S E050Kt150Kt500Ktwood4. Vancouver Waste Flows 2017 (by weight)D I V E R T E D11ResidentialCommercial/IndustrialConstruction/DemolitionEPR ProgramsVancouver waste-to-energyfacilityThird party waste-to-energyfacilities050Kt150Kt500Ktclean woodconstruction/demolitionclean wood050Kt150Kt500KtThe waste flows diagram (5.) now highlights clean wood waste flows in Vancouver. It’s easy to see right away that very little wood is being reused compared to diverted. Again, the salvage and reuse industry is only recently getting established, and there hasn’t been enough of a market for it. The majority of the wood moving through the waste flow system is from Construction and Demolition, and this pertains to mostly demolition of single-family homes. It should also be noted that the wood shown here is only clean unpainted and untreated wood, other wood can be disposed of in the landfill.In recent years, legislation has banned clean wood from being disposed of in the landfill (excludes painted wood or similar). However, this simply means that disposal of clean wood is more expensive, and some still choose to dispose out of ease. This policy change is a win for diversion, though this material is only getting used to fuel waste-to-energy facilities. Waste-to-energy diverts a significant amount of waste from going to the landfill, however, about 1/5 of the material still ends up there in the form of ash. These facilities are also not highly effective in producing energy, annually they produce less than 1% of the energy that BC Hydro produces (Metro Vancouver, 2017).There is great potential for Vancouver’s salvageable lumber to be reused at a much higher rate, and potentially recycled into other useful materials. Vancouver will never see wood that is this high quality ever again, and it deserves to be treated as a treasure. Vancouver Wood Waste Flows5. Vancouver Wood Waste Flows 2017 (by weight)L A N D F I L LR E U S ED I V E R T E DC O N T E X T15 16In a little over a century, Vancouver has completely transformed. Sky-reaching trees have been replaced with sky-scraping buildings. The lush forest has been replaced with a densely populated urban landscape. This city’s rapid development has come at a cost in many regards. One of these is the immense waste this city produces. With more buildings, comes more waste from the death of buildings past. The global industry of construction has made for mass standardization. This is especially evident through construction practices for single-family homes. Vancouver is a prime example of the result of this phenomenon. Vancouver’s single-family housing stock has all generally been built in a similar way, with similar materials, and has been for quite some time. The material industries and methods surrounding stick frame housing have evolved over the years, but the basic practice has remained the same. The ubiquitous nature of the construction industry offers a latent opportunity to manage waste efficiently that is not being taken advantage of. Stick frame housing is the result of several industries working together in tandem to create a mass housing stock. Housing is an extremely efficient and well-oiled machine that pumps out units. But what of demolition? What types of organization go into the tearing down of these homes? Vancouver’s teardown culture results in a dichotomy between the environmentally conscious city and the environmentally unconscious practice of tearing buildings down.1895 | 1995Vancouver’s Development6. View down Granville St. in 1895 & 1995 17 18Vancouver Housing SituationVancouver holds the title of Canada’s densest city. Much of this is in part to its geographic location, and the inability for it to sprawl outwards. With westward coast, northward mountains, and a southward border, the result has been a very dense downtown core and low-rise residential zoning most elsewhere. The title of Canada’s densest city is hard to believe in some sense because of the blanket of single-family homes that makes up most of Vancouver’s area. It is a rigorous grid of almost completely single-family detached homes. The result is an aggressive, spatially inefficient urban planning scheme that has been followed meticulously. Vancouver is also expensive. There are numerous reasons and theories as to why this is the case, though the single-family home market is one of the core reasons; and is an effective lens through which to review this situation. A beautiful place, foreign investment, and limited space has forced a situation in which the relative building value is too little compared to the value of the land (7.). Because the land value is so high, when the property exchanges hands, the quality of the home is often not high enough to be worth keeping, and it is torn down. 1940 - A home is built for $10,000 and is sold for $15,000. This makes the land value worth $5,000 and the relative building value 66% in relation to the total value of the property.2014 - The value of the land has climbed up to almost $1.8M, while the home on the property is worth about $68,000 in today’s dollars. The relative building value is now under 5%, and the home is in danger of being torn down.2016 - The 1940 home has been torn down and replaced with a new home. The new home is worth much more than its predecessor, but the land it sits on has ballooned in value, and the relative building value is only moderately healthy even after a fresh build. The cycle starts again.7. Relative building value example (Dahmen, 2017)65%65%65%55%55%55%45%45%45%35%35%35%25%25%25%15%15%15%60%60%60%50%50%50%40%40%40%30%30%30%20%20%20%10%10%10%5%5%5%0%0%0%$15,000$1,833,900$4,350,000$10,000$67,900$1,345,000Less HealthyLess HealthyLess HealthyHealthierHealthierHealthierRelative Building ValueRelative Building ValueRelative Building Value70%70%70%19 20The Teardown Index is a report that analyzes the rate of teardowns in Vancouver since 1985 and uses trends as a metric to predict the future of teardowns in Vancouver. This index is an important project for framing and understanding the problem of single-family home demolition waste in Vancouver. It doesn’t suggest a solution but more frames the problem. By quantifying and studying teardowns in Vancouver, they become an understandable phenomenon and not just an ambiguous issue that looms over the city. I think acceptance of the reality of Vancouver’s teardown cycle is critical. Obviously less teardowns and less waste would be a positive thing. However, the economic forces on Vancouver for housing turnover are too great. Government legislation has instituted measures to slow this turnover, but efforts are futile in a capitalist market. The most effective and realistic option I believe, is to change how this waste is managed. Rather than trying to change Vancouver’s diet for consuming homes, I believe the more impactful approach, at least for the near future, is to change how it digests these homes.Teardown Index8. Screenshot from the Teardown Index21 22The Teardown Index analyzes housing market transactions of the past and arrives at a formula to predict the likelihood of a home getting torn down when the property exchanges hands (9.). Using these predictions, we can map the eras of homes getting torn down, and in turn, the constructions of the time and the waste materials produced by these constructions.PRESENTThe present condition is that most of the homes we are tearing down are pre-1950’s, still with a large stock of character homes remaining as well. These older homes often have more simplistic constructions and are easier to divert waste from. PREDICTION - 2030The total number of homes remaining in the 2030 stock is based on analyzing the chance of teardowns from the present stock, assuming the property exchanges hands in this period. Within this period we see a large depletion of the homes built in the 1920’s and 1940’s to late 1950’s. Most of these fall under the current Green Demolition Bylaw diversion requirements; a silver lining. However, with fewer of these older homes existing, the demolition dial starts to push towards more newer constructions.PREDICTION - 2040The total number of homes remaining in the 2040 stock is based on analyzing the chance of teardowns from the predicted 2030 stock, assuming the property exchanges hands in this period. The newer constructions coming down since 2030 add complexity in the effort to deconstruct. In this period we start to see a lot of post-1960’s constructions. In Vancouver, this means a lot of Vancouver Specials. These homes were built quickly and with fairly low quality materials, making them harder to divert waste from while still competing with demolition prices. This far into the future, we can start to expect even newer constructions being at risk that involve even more complexity with the introduction of spray foams and stronger glues. What materials will be valued at this time for reuse and recycle?Teardown Predictions9. Teardown predictions19001900190019111911191119211921192119311931193119411941194119511951195119611961196119711971197119811981198119911991199120012001200120112011201170%70%150015001500100010001000500500500 Number of Homes Number of Homes Number of HomesBuilding AgeBuilding AgeBuilding AgeChance of TeardownChance of Teardown00060%60%50%50%40%40%30%30%20%20%10%10%0%0%PRESENTPREDICTION - 2030PREDICTION - 2040Demolitions Present - 2030Demolitions Present - 2030Demolitions 2030 - 2040Remaining Housing Stock 204023 24There is a wealth of high quality wood buried in the homes of Vancouver. Zahra Teshnizi has attempted to estimate the salvageable wood laying under our noses (10.). Teshnizi arrives at the result of 10% of the annual housing stock potentially being built with reclaimed lumber (Teshnizi, 2015). This is a significant figure, and it would be amazing to reach this number in the next few years. However, this figure brings up an important  point - just because mass numbers of homes are getting deconstructed at a high percentage of waste diversion, it doesn’t mean their salvage will be used in the best way possible. What is really needed to make this possibility a reality is demand. Mass deconstruction in Vancouver would result in a large supply, but it risks sitting uselessly without demand for it.The reality of the situation currently is that wood reuse cannot compete with the fresh dimensional lumber market. There’s too much wood coming in at too cheap, and the reused wood requires too much labour to keep the price low, even when sourced for free from a deconstructed home. If a reused wood product is to succeed, it will need to be a value-added product. In a conversation I had with Zahra, she mentioned an idea to stamp reused wooden members. This would make them a unique and desirable piece of Vancouver’s history. This idea of traceability in these members is a key concept. If we imagine a future where a high quality mass timber member can live out its functional life in potentially numerous houses when they are deconstructed, the ability to document and track these members is crucial.TOTALANNUALPRE-1940’SHOMES130,000t(100,000t SALVAGEABLE)1,000 - 1,500t8,000 HOMES100 - 130 HOMES10% OF BUILDSWood Waste10. Vancouver salvageable wood statistics25 26Demolition waste is a huge problem. It is especially difficult to manage in single-family homes because of the variety of materials. In several cases, there are recycling streams in place to reduce the waste directed to the landfill, however it’s often easier just to tip it in anyways. The city estimates that about 56% of the CRD waste that is sent to landfills in Metro Vancouver is wood waste (12.) (Metro Vancouver, 2015). In recent years, there have been policy efforts to increase the amount of construction and demolition waste diverted in Vancouver; although, the reality is that it’s still a huge problem. Residential teardowns in Vancouver are general not well-managed from a waste perspective, and result in a huge amount of waste. In single-family homes, wood tends to be the predominant material at about 50% of the home (City of Vancouver, 2014). Vancouver is very much aware of this issue and has responded by issuing a clean wood ban at the landfill. A surcharge of 50% is applied to any load containing clean wood (City of Vancouver, 2015). Because wood is a heavily used material in homes, after the clean wood ban in 2015, one would expect an uptick in the amount wood getting diverted due to this legislation; however, this hasn’t been the case. In fact, there has been a decrease in the amount of wood diverted since 2013 (13.). The fact that demolition statistics don’t align with the city’s wood diversion statistics is alarming. In the last few years, it’s actually been an inverse relationship. This kind of discrepancy in statistics is hugely problematic, especially when left unexplained by the city. Demolition Waste13. Vancouver diversion totals vs. housing demolition ratesMetro Vancouver Wood Diversion TotalsMetro Vancouver Housing Demolitions11. DLC residential waste by weight % to Vancouver landfill - 2015VANCOUVER WOOD DIVERSION VS. DEMOLITION RATES12. Average DLC waste by weight % to Metro Vancouver landfills - 20152008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 201700t1000100000t2000Homes DemolishedWood Diverted (by weight)200000t4000400000t3000300000t5000500000t28.7% - Dimensional Lumber(unpainted)2.1% - All Other Materials4.8% - Flooring2.5% - Roofing1.5% - Metals1.5% - Plastic1.2% - Land-clearing14.0% - Hog Fuel Shredded Wood18.7% - Dimensional Lumber (painted/treated)24.9% - Composite Wood56.5% - Wood7.2% - Rubble1.6 % - Miscellaneous 1.6% - Land-clearing1.7% - All Other Materials2.0% - Metal9.0% - Asphalt1.9% - Bulky Items7.4% - Misc. Building4.8% - Textiles1.5% - Paper1.4% - Household6.3% - Plastic27 28In 2018, Vancouver updated its Green Demolition Bylaw. This update was the most recent big step towards Vancouver reducing is demolition waste. The update has several new mandates and goals introduced. Most notably, the expansion of high diversion rate demolitions to pre-1950’s homes (previously only pre-1940’s). The update also requires deconstruction of pre-1910 and character homes, and $250,000 in funding to go towards the establishment of a deconstruction hub.The by-law has been amended a handful of times since its inception in 2014, and with this update, the by-law requires a 75% diversion rate for pre-1950’s homes (although the average rate for pre-1940’s homes under the same requirement has been 86%). This diversion rate is high in comparison to typical home teardowns which generally deliver a diversion rate of 45-50% (14.). City of Vancouver’s plan as of now is to target a low number of homes to be deconstructed to kick start the deconstruction industry in Vancouver (14.) (City of Vancouver b, 2018). As it stands, the majority of homes being demolished are those that contain a lot of mass timber members. Eventually the dial will move to more “typical constructions” (see figure 9.). Diversion is better than going directly to the landfill, but the overwhelming majority of diverted materials are recycled or burned. Both of these operations are fairly inefficient. It’s safe to assume that over time this demolition by-law will expand and evolve to encompass a higher rate of diversion for typical homes. However, as of now the demolition of these homes remains highly inefficient and wasteful. It is this sector of the housing market that I believe needs better understanding moving forward if Vancouver plans to attain its goal of zero waste by 2040 and beyond. Post-WWII constructions contain lower quality lumber, asbestos, and more synthetic, difficult to recycle materials. The challenge we face as a society, in Vancouver, and around North America, is how the waste from these more modern constructions is dealt with. As of now, they do not appear possible to draw profit from. Without government control and/or subsidy, it may be impossible to leave it to the market economy to properly divert this waste.DIVERSION RATES40-50%75%90%CHARACTERHOMESPRE-1950HOMESTYPICALHOMESGreen Demolition Bylaw Update14. Vancouver single-family home diversion ratesTEARDOWN RATES29%70%1%CHARACTERHOMESPRE-1950HOMESTYPICALHOMES29 30One of Vancouver’s most identifying characteristics is that it is generally an environmentally conscious place. It is closely linked to nature and has some of the most forward-thinking conservation and environmental policies in North America. The reality of Vancouver’s demolition waste practices are that they don’t align with the cultural consciousness of Vancouver, they are dirty, inefficient, and unsustainable. Moving forward, the city needs expand its willingness to change and adapt to the issue, even if it is difficult, and potentially costly at first.The Vancouver Landfill has plans to close in 2037 (Gyarmati, 2012). If that is to happen, and Vancouver is to truly manage its waste properly and not send it elsewhere, the city needs to reassess its waste management practices across the board and particularly from the demolition waste from single-family homes. The current method for removing these buildings is far from sustainable, and needs stricter and more effective regulation. Deconstruction - with a high rate of diversion, and ideally, reuse, needs to become the norm. Older homes that currently require higher rates of diversion contain a valuable material, high quality lumber; typical homes do not. The waste management from typical homes is a critical issue to be dealt with because these methods will pave the way for the future of deconstruction, including the homes we build today. Even if the deconstruction of typical constructions isn’t profitable, it is still necessary. The government has the ability and responsibility to step in and mandate deconstruction across the board. This program could be a similar situation to the blue box program or composting where it would be cheaper to tip into the landfill, albeit much more wasteful. In both of these cases, the city instituted legislation that helped make it easier for people and companies to divert their waste, and punished those that didn’t. Waste Not, Want More“May we now enter another stage, as the costs of raw resources and of disposal rise, and as we become more concerned about environmental degradation or see values in old things? May we move into more highly organized ways of recycling, which do not discard the advantages of large-scale production? Industries might  be designed to rebuild, as much as to build new. Equipment might be designed for ease of repair, rather than for obsolescence. Material recovery imposes costs of energy, space, new material, and human labour. Nevertheless, we cannot throw anything away, since there no longer is an “away.” As far as we can tell from our  experience to date, although materials may change in form, they cannot disappear.”- Kevin Lynch15. Vancouver demolition siteD E C O N S T R U C T I O N33 34Throughout history the term for the removing of retired buildings has been ‘demolition’. This term is synonymous with: destroy, raze, flatten, tear down, topple, and several other wasteful words. Demolition is an admission of defeat in the fight to reuse buildings. But there is another way - deconstruction. By deconstructing, a much higher rate of diversion and reuse is attainable. This is a widely understood, albeit rarely used technique for retiring buildings that Vancouver and many other cities have set their eyes to.For this change from demolition to deconstruction to work, it will take a change in how we as a society think about the topic from several perspectives. It’s not just government legislation and processing, but entire systems, and engaging and teaching the public about the status quo and how things could be. In an ideal world, all buildings could come apart like an organized Lego set (16.). Just as simply as a home comes together, it comes apart; the home is designed for deconstruction. In reality, homes do not come apart like this. There are nails and screws that need to come out, hazardous materials, many types of materials that have been fixed together by glues or otherwise, and a whole host of often unforeseeable issues. The overwhelming majority of the time, the impedances result in homes being demolished. It’s easier and cheaper to tear down buildings in large strokes rather than to cautiously take them apart. Having said this, the mass standardization that makes the construction industry possible also offers a latent opportunity to deconstruct and process materials efficiently.The design for deconstruction model, or DfD is the future of sustainable building practices. It’s becoming more and more common, often in large buildings, but I believe we will start to see it at the scale of homes too. However, designing for deconstruction, and managing current demolition waste, are two separate issues. There is potential to connect the two ends of the issues and use salvaged materials to create materials to be used in the DfD model. However, the prime concern of deconstruction is to better manage the waste coming out of the current housing stock. Perhaps by making the inherent challenges of deconstruction more widely understood, it will help push the dial towards DfD on a broader scale.Deconstruction as Concept16. Deconstruction made simple35 36The Unbuilders are a local deconstruction contractor that are heading the charge in Vancouver in the field. They are well-versed in removing buildings in an organized way and diverting the waste to the proper and most environmental streams. The Unbuilders boast the highest recorded diversion rate for a home removal in Vancouver at 97% (Unbuilders, 2017).Currently their business model involves donating the salvaged lumber to Habitat for Humanity. It is then sold at the ReStore. Because it moves through a charity organization, the wood can be written off as a tax receipt for the client removing their home (17.). Through this exchange, the Unbuilders can remain competitive with demolition contractors. The scalability of this model is limited because it’s unrealistic to assume the quantity of wood in a years worth of home deconstructions could be transferred through charity organizations. This business model limits the Unbuilders in some sense as they can only deconstruct older homes with reusable timber members.Unbuilders17. Screenshots from unbuilders.com37 38In the most recent update to the Green Demolition By-law, the City of Vancouver has expressed its interest and desire to have a privately owned and operated deconstruction hub. The city has offered $250,000 to go towards the establishment and operation of a deconstruction hub. This funding would be awarded if a private company is able to at least match the funds. An RFEI for this project is expected to be made public in the coming months. These efforts are a clear signal of Vancouver understanding that its waste practices need improvement and it’s a positive sign to see the city doing something about it.A foreseeable issue with this hub is the scalability of it. It’s essentially a grassroots operation that is built from the bottom-up, and happens to have a small bit of government support. Perhaps more deconstruction contractors and more deconstruction hubs will pop up, although the government is still leaving demolition waste up to its people to sort. Why is it that the government has built programs, systems, and services around other forms of recycling such as the blue bin program, and composting, but not this? Why should this be left to the people? What effect could the government have?As mentioned previously, the systems and networks around salvage and reuse will only be successful if there is demand; Pietra Basilij on the subject of demand - “although a central piece of infrastructure for deconstructing, storing, and reselling materials could aid the development of a stronger circular economy in Vancouver, the industry needs to show proven demand for such a piece of infrastructure in order to catalyze its development” (Basilij, 2015). The success of this deconstruction hub will require an entirely new system of waste management to be put in place at the scale of the city. This involves new technical skill sets and training, new machinery, and a broader understanding of waste in general. The basics of this system can be seen on the right (18.). In its simplest form, this system involves deconstructing and/or disassembling on site, transporting materials to a hub or hubs, processing at the hub, and remanufacturing a product or products from waste materials.Vancouver Deconstruction HubDECONSTRUCTION DECONSTRUCTIONHUBPRODUCTTRANSPORT MANUFACTURE/TRANSPORT18. Basics of new system to be implemented39 40Energy TransferRECYCLESteel Ventilation FixturesDISASSEMBLEFull roof assemblies moved off-site for disassembly and processingREUSEWindowsREUSEBricksRECYCLEStandard dimensional lumber for plywood and strand boardREUSEHigh quality mass timber membersRECYCLELow quality wood into wood chips for farms, etc.REUSEDoorsREUSEKitchen and Bathroom FixturesDISASSEMBLEFull wall assemblies moved off-site for disassembly and processingRECYCLEConcrete stepsRECYCLEConcrete foundationBIOMASSBurn remaining low quality wood Several parallels between systems in nature and deconstruction resource management can be drawn, one of these being energy transfer. When a whale dies at sea, the components of its carcass are integrated into several different trophic levels of the ecosystem by way of energy transfer. At the surface, sharks tear away chunks of buoyant blubber, it then sinks down to the ocean floor where bottom feeders feast on different nutrients and materials, until all that’s left is bones for zombie worms to finish off.This analogy can easily be transferred to the deconstruction of a house (19.). Full wall assemblies can be pulled apart from the house on site to be processed at another location, different materials reused and recycled. With wood, mass timber members can be reused, others recycled into plywood and strand board, and lower quality wood chipped to be used for animal beds and biomass. Different parties benefiting from the process at different scales. In this model, waste is utilized as a resource to its maximum capacity. Through the sorting of materials, I predict that new recycling industries for certain materials like insulation and wood will begin to emerge. This system accepts materials that are often thought to be waste and turns them into something useful.19. Deconstruction energy transfer42RECYCLESteel Ventilation FixturesDISASSEMBLEFull roof assemblies moved off-site for disassembly and processingREUSEWindowsREUSEBricksRECYCLEStandard dimensional lumber for plywood and strand boardREUSEHigh quality mass timber membersRECYCLELow quality wood into wood chips for farms, etc.REUSEDoorsREUSEKitchen and Bathroom FixturesDISASSEMBLEFull wall assemblies moved off-site for disassembly and processingRECYCLEConcrete stepsRECYCLEConcrete foundationBIOMASSBurn remaining low quality wood The emergence of a deconstruction hub in Vancouver, I believe, is an important building for architecture as a whole. It’s a new typology, and it raises questions about aesthetic, functionality, and identity. My fear is that is will not be designed with care, and it will be an ad hoc solution that isn’t optimized for its function, where it could be so much more than that. It may be that this new architecture needs outside intervention and support from the government to properly operate, but once running can be efficient and possibly self-sufficient.This building learns from the mistakes of its predecessors. Architecture as it’s typically designed is inherently bound to its site, and often the materials and structure it was born with, no matter how outdated they become. The building designed to consume architecture will not be hindered by these characteristics. This new architecture is not static. It doesn’t sit in the ground to live out a single life. It evolves and adapts over time to the changing types of consumables over time. It adapts to its locale, its inputs, and the results of its output. New Typology“A standing building is easier to mine than is its debris in a landfill. Resource recovery is an unmixing. Pure deposits, if not poisonous, are better suited for unknown future uses. A waste of accessible space may be room for future growth. In that way, we allow for future branchings.”- Kevin Lynch20. Deconstruction energy transfer - detailP R E C E D E N T S45 46In Chittagong, Bangladesh, the economy of the city is built around its ship breaking industry. Here, the largest ships in the world are retired and run ashore to be dismantled piece by piece. These colossuses of international trade are pulled apart by any means necessary and organized into individual parts. Ship breakers work long hours from a young age with little training. The work has no government regulation and is extremely dangerous, taking dozens of lives annually. Aside from the immediate dangers of working at heights with no harnesses, power tools with no safety equipment, and a whole host of other potential risks; there are little to no safety measures for dealing with hazardous materials, leading to potential long term health risks.That being said, the work the ship breakers do is highly detailed and truly impressive. From an efficiency standpoint, these ship breakers serve as a valuable precedent for the rate of reuse they are able to achieve. Over 80% of Bangladesh’s steel comes from ship salvaging where it is melted down to make rebar for construction (Vice, 2015). Chittagong relies heavily on the waste of other countries to help its own industry. In fact, it has created an entire industry based on waste. Because the city has developed such an integrated approach recycling, the country is able to save an immense amount of capital rather than buying steel from a first hand use.Ship BreakersChittagong, Bangladesh21-23. Ship Breakers47 48ReBuilding CenterCommunitecturePortland, Oregon, USA2005The ReBuilding Center in Portland is one of the most developed and successful deconstruction hubs in North America. It has built a strong following and community around it that has been key to its success. The construction of the hub itself actually used a lot of reclaimed materials, further pushing its methodology and leading by example. This hub also features the highest recycled and natural context of all commercial architecture in the USA (Communitecture, 2005). The ReBuilding Center is an extremely useful precedent to continue to research as it is an example of a deconstruction hub in action. It is also very visible, accessible, and engaging to the public. In addition to selling used materials, they also offer deconstruction services and a variety of classes. This hub isn’t the be-all-end-all solution to demolition waste, but it is certainly a start, moving 8 tonnes of material through its facility daily (Rebuilding Center, 2019).24-25. Inside of the ReBuilding Centre49 5026-27. Sunset Park Material Recovery FacilitySunset Park Material Recovery FacilitySelldorf ArchitectsBrooklyn, New York, USA2014This waste treatment facility in New York City is a strong and informative precedent. The facility is open to the public and educationally oriented. The function of recycling inside the building inspired the material use of 98% recycled steel in the architecture (Selldorf, 2014). Another important aspect of this building is its location. It is centrally located and in the public eye, being on the water. This contrasts the often concealed city services buildings.The facility’s engagement with the public seems to be a positive aspect for the community and teaches people about their waste and how to better recycle. This feature, among others, will be valuable to research further and implement similar programs for the deconstruction hub in Vancouver.51 52Halley VI British Antarctic Research StationHugh Broughton ArchitectsBrunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica2005 - 2013The Halley Antarctic Research Facility is located in the extreme locale of the Brunt Ice Shelf. Temperatures here can drop to -56˚C and winds can blow above 160 km/h. The snow level rises 1 metre per year, and the sun doesn’t rise for 105 days during winter. The Brunt Ice Shelf also moves 400m towards the sea annually. Halley V was completed in 1992, however, due to the moving ice shelf, it eventually flowed too far from the mainland and became precarious. Because the legs of the Halley V station were fixed, it couldn’t move with the ice shelf. To remedy this problem, a design competition was opened up to create a mobile architecture for a very specific context.The design solution for the Halley VI station was completed with many lessons learned from her predecessors. A key feature of the design is modularity. This aspect made the building easy to deliver on site, and allows for replacement of a portion of the building without much interference to the rest of the operations of the facility. Another critical feature is its ability to move to keep its distance from the calving edge of the shelf. For this aspect of the design, the feet of the building are outfitted with large skis to slide around the ice shelf. When the modules need to be moved, the hydraulic legs lower the pods onto the skis and the whole building is towed inland. In 2017, the station made its first relocation, 23km away (Broughton, 2013).This research facility is a strong and informative precedent from several aspects. Due to the unique site constraints and desires of the client, a new architectural typology was created. This building is suited only for this specific place and situation and would be out of place in most other areas of the planet. Aspects of this typology relevant to my design proposal are its mobility and modularity. These are factors I intend to include in my design, however they will be suited to the specific context and functionality of my design solution.28-29. Halley VI British Antarctic Research Station53 54Pont de CalabreOXO ArchitectesSicily, Italy2010In southern Italy, a bridge was going to be decommissioned, and instead of demolishing it, the government created an open design competition for solutions for its adaptive reuse. Several exciting proposals were developed for this competition, but OXO Architectes was selected as the winner. A key requirement of the proposals is that they were supposed to incorporate forward-thinking sustainable principles into their designs.OXO Architectes’ proposal features residential units climbing up the legs of the bridge. These differentiated units are based on the meter created by the bridge’s structure, and rely on the structure of the bridge to support them in a parasitic relationship. The bridge community harvests rainwater and produces energy from the organic waste of its inhabitants as well as geothermal energy (OXO Architectes, 2010).This precedent is a strong example of an effective way to occupy undesirable, underutilized space. Infrastructures offer a latent opportunity for this type of engagement where they are over-designed structurally and can be used for alternative purposes. Proposals for the adaptive reuse of infrastructure projects such as this one are exciting, although there are potential opportunities to engage with infrastructure that is still operating in a sort of adaptive alternative use exchange.30-31. Conceptual drawings of Pont de Calabre55 56Klip House came out of Interloop Architecture’s participation in a project called Sixteen Houses. Sixteen Houses was organized by Fifth Ward Redevelopment Corporation & DiverseWork, it invited sixteen architects to generate innovative concepts for low-income housing. Interloop’s strategy began by altering a government-run system already in place; a program that awarded vouchers to some qualified families and individuals to serve as the down payment on a house. The voucher system doles out lump sums of money, such that one voucher provides one house. Beneficiaries of the voucher program still need to pay a mortgage on these homes, and this can obviously be a complication for some low-income families who may not have stable incomes.Interloop Architecture was frustrated by the bureaucratic constraints on the voucher program, and decided to adapt the voucher program to bundle all the potential vouchers together instead of distributing them. Rather than designing and building house-by-house, Interloop Architecture developed the idea of combining the vouchers to pay for a housing infrastructure system. Klip House is a service-based platform, rather than a product-based one. Providing a housing service reduces the risk for the customer, and allows them to add to their unit when they are prepared, rather than trying to pay off one expensive product, a typical house. The Klip House service provides modular units that combine to form homes and buildings of different sizes, uses, and appearances. These modular components can house specific functions that allow the customer to tailor the components to their specific needs. Example modules include: toilet, shower, bike-port, fridge, filler (floor space), sink, etc. A key aspect of the Klip House system is the adjustable footing system. These are mass produced pieces of equipment that raise the units off the ground and fix them to one another. The footing system is what allows for the adaptability of configuration options with each modular grouping.Klip House is an intriguing precedent in regards to its modular and service-based system. By making architecture modular, it expands the potential functionality of the building into specific, focused tasks. Modular units also make for easier repair and replacement when units are damaged or obsolete.Klip HouseInterloop ArchitectureHouston, Texas, USA199732-34. Conceptual drawings of Klip HouseG P I I  P R O P O S A L59 60MethodologyDuring my research for this project I met and interviewed stakeholders, policy makers, researchers, and deconstructors. These were extremely valuable and informative experiences as they all shared their side of the current situation in Vancouver, and where they think the deconstruction industry is going. These interviews helped me frame my project and the needs and limitations of the current situation regarding deconstruction in Vancouver. Right now, there’s a lot of red tape surrounding the Vancouver Deconstruction Hub, but this doesn’t tell the whole story of what’s possible, it frames it in only the current context of what’s easy. This thesis imagines a Vancouver where we’re able to move past these limitations and develop a hub that will be efficient and effective in processing waste in both the short term and long term, all while acting as an important piece of social infrastructure to help develop community within Vancouver.My approach for the design of this project came out of a process of designing a system that the deconstruction hub can function within. This system involves removal of the homes on site, transportation of the homes to the hub, separating and processing materials, delivering materials to their proper recycling or reuse facility, denailing and regrading wood, and resale of wood. The hub itself will be designed to accommodate this system in the most effective way.The deconstruction hub marks a new era in architecture, reuse, and recycling. It has the potential to change our collective understanding of what a building can be and how it can operate. Several deconstruction hubs have begun to pop up around the globe; however, they are not optimized for their primary function. Instead, they are typically similar to a standard building. Some operate under the adaptive reuse model, and others are simply a warehouse used to store old materials. These hubs are a step in the right direction, though they don’t reveal the true potential of a deconstruction hub that is built to operate at a large scale. Most hubs share a flaw in their functionality. They aren’t actually designed with their primary function at their core - to deconstruct. They are ad hoc solutions fed by ad hoc deconstruction methods. They are not optimized to deconstruct the homes they are meant to consume. A deconstruction hub that is true to its typology should be designed with its functions as the backbone of its design.35. 3D scan of a tree fork from the AA Design Build 201661 62Vancouver is a city shaped and defined by its lumber industry. The city’s history is deeply tied to this resource and often times its presence in the cultural consciousness of the city is latent. This project outlines a Vancouver narrative about the city’s systems and development which have paved the way for the residential housing system we know today. Over the course of the 20th century, industry, infrastructure, and architecture all developed at a rapid pace resulting in a ubiquitous nature in the front end of a home’s life - construction. This thesis poses a system where these same qualities can be leveraged and reused in the back end of a home’s life - deconstruction. This narrative is based around the truth of the problem of architectural waste in this city, and proposes a multi-fold systematic solution to the problem. It frames the project in a context that separates it from what can be done today, and rather what should be done moving forward. It’s a chance to view architecture’s complicit relationship with materials - as explicit. This project takes on issues that many North American cities can relate to, though due to this city’s past, present, and potential future condition, this project is suited for Vancouver Especially.Vancouver Narrative36 . Vancouver Especially - Logging English Bay63 64From Vancouver’s inception, its success has been dependent on the Fraser River. The river has been a source of free energy as a method for transporting mass amounts of lumber of out BC’s remote interior to the Lower Mainland. Millions of logs floated to the Fraser Valley where they could then be milled and made into useful lumber.The river served as a generative tributary system where large logs could easily be transported via the artery that is the Fraser River. Once milled, these logs were the primary material for homes all around the Lower Mainland. Their carbon was stored in the fabric of Vancouver for the life of the home.37. Own graphic 38. Own graphic65 66With more homes, construction standards developed over time that led to ubiquity in the construction of single-family homes. Stud frame assemblies became more similar and standardized and homes became increasingly efficient to erect. Lumber mills acted as an intermediary interface between the river and the land. They made large trees useful by cutting them into small and predictable pieces of lumber. The success of this system is clear as the tradition continues today.39. Own graphic 40. Own graphic67 68The increased distribution of lumber and residential development that the mills allowed for, led to a new man-made tributary system, the road network - this one, however, was petroleum based. This tributary system amplified the effectiveness of the waterways and lumber was able to reach farther and more people than ever.The road network, in tandem with the urban planning scheme for Vancouver, caused the suburbanization of the city. Single-family homes dominated the landscape south of downtown, a pattern that continues today. 41. Own graphic 42. Own graphic69 70This network also made large quantities of land undesirable and underutilized. Elements such as bridges and overpasses created pockets of deadspace around and underneath them that rarely saw development.As all the systems of the city developed, standardization on all scales became widespread. This included industry, infrastructure, and all of architecture. This efficiency led to unitization and ubiquity throughout our materials and our cities.43. Own graphic 44. Own graphic71 72These standards paved the way for a system where homes could be built bigger, faster, and cheaper than ever. There was no consideration for the value of the material in what stood before. People wanted newer and bigger. As the city became more desirable and its limited space filled up, the relationship between homes and the land they inhabited flipped - the land was no longer expendable, instead, the homes were.45. Own graphic 46. Own graphic73 74As the city grew higher and wider, the more distant its connection and respect was to the resource that allowed it to thrive, its lumber. A lack of regulation, and home buyers wanting homes built as fast as possible, led to homes being torn down as a mass rather than being treated as something that can be taken apart. Materials of aged homes weren’t considered for their value, but merely as an obstacle in the way of free-flowing capital.47. Own graphic 48. Own graphic75 76To manage the wood waste from tearing down homes and to pacify public outrage surrounding the amount of wood ending up in the landfill, the city decided to burn its wood. This operation was masked as energy production, but the energy it produced was negligible. Waste-to-energy facilities allowed for a reduction in the volume of the wood, while still landfilling it. This operation only accelerated the carbon release of the materials it burned, and accounted for 15% of the city’s CO2 production.Deconstruction of homes was attempted - though this effort could only target pre-WWII homes. The wood in these homes was of a high enough quality to be considered a value-added product, whereas the wood in newer homes, was not. The end of this resource was in sight, and the government was not doing enough to incentivize or legislate deconstruction of post-WWII homes. Even if they did, the output of this model of deconstruction was dimensional lumber slated for more single-family homes, something Vancouver didn’t need more of - Vancouver needs density.49. Own graphic 50. Own graphic77 78As the climate crisis is looming, Vancouver has made drastic commitments for carbon emissions reductions. These commitments appear to be hollow and are not on target to be fulfilled. As public pressure wears on, people have begun protesting in the streets for action. Their calls are for climate action, layered on top of a rejection for the status quo of blind profiteering that drives Vancouver’s development and creates a city that benefits so few.In the near future, these protests will shift to be more drastic, and the government will be forced to act. They’ll be forced to meaningfully reduce carbon emissions and to properly manage its waste - in particular, the waste from single family homes - an outlier in the system. And to develop housing that’s affordable to a much broader range of the population.51. Own graphic 52. Own graphic79 80This project outlines the system to be put in place that would respond to the outcome of this narrative. Capital gains are now contingent on responsible waste management. Wood - the major outlier in the residential teardown waste system, would now be viewed as a resource to be harvested and act as a catalyst in reshaping Vancouver for the many, rather than the few. 53. Logging English Bay81 82005km5km10km15km10km5km 5km015km10km 10km 15km5km 5km010km 10km 15km5km5km10km15km10km15kmSystem OverviewThe goal of this system is to separate the materials of each and every house and to harvest the wood that typically goes to waste in the current waste management system. The carbon in this lumber is to be reconstituted into new building materials to remedy Vancouver’s lack of housing density. In effect, the more homes that are torn down, the more mid-rise residential buildings would be constructed.This drawing set describes the process in chronological order by following one house through the system. The heart of the system is the Mitchell Island Deconstruction Hub. It’s sited at a junction of 2 major industrial axes - Knight Street and the Fraser River -  and connects two of the major tributary systems in Vancouver, the road network and the river network.This drawing (54.) shows the path of the house that we’ll follow through most of the system, a mid-century builder in Surrey that is headed to Mitchell Island.54. Surrey mid-century builder travel path83 84This diagram (55.) describes the deconstruction system at a basic level. Houses are transported to hubs using the road network and water network if needed. Wood is harvested and sorted, and other materials are delivered to appropriate recycling facilities. From ancillary hubs, wood is transported to Mitchell Island where it is manufactured into reclaimed Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), or Oriented Strand Board (OSB) depending on its size and quality. These materials are then transported to sites around Vancouver to be built into mid-rise housing in a variety of forms.55. Basic system diagram85 86CORE HUBMETRO VANCOUVER HOUSING WASTE NETWORKANCILLARY HUBSWATER ACCESSROAD ACCESSFULL/PARTIAL HOUSESHOUSING ASSEMBLIESMAJOR ROADSPHASED ELEMENTSVANCOUVERMITCHELLISLANDNORTHVANCOUVERSURREYNEW WESTMINSTERCOQUITLAMBURNABYRICHMONDDELTAThis drawing (56.) describes the waste network throughout Vancouver. Over time, other hubs and docks would be phased into the system to create a network of deconstruction hubs to take on more areas of Metro Vancouver and have a higher intake of homes. The system starts with a focus on Vancouver and the surrounding area, but has the potential to expand to North Vancouver, Coquitlam, and potentially much farther up the Fraser River.56. Metro Vancouver Housing Waste Network87 88House MovingThe path to deconstruction of any house of course, begins on-site. Here (57.), the effort is get the house off-site as quickly and effectively as possible, and to focus deconstruction at the hubs. This approach opposes typical deconstruction techniques that keep almost all work on-site and take weeks to complete a single home. By centralizing the effort, the system reduces on-site time, mess, and increases overall efficiency.57. On-site house moving89This mid-century builder is transported in its entirety from above the foundation. It’s jacked up onto beams and rolled away from the foundation this process is shown here (58.).Most housing typologies in Vancouver have a method of transport that is deemed by a number of factors outlined on this timeline (59.). This timeline overlays population, number of homes built in each year/teardown index, average FSR, and lumber produced over the last century. All houses are going to be different, but generally this timeline dictates whether a home will typically be suited to be moved by any of the three approaches.In the case of the mid-century builder in this example, it’s suited to be moved in its entirety based on its size, site condition, and path of travel to the hub. By overlaying this information, it’s easy to draw parallels to major events such as world wars and how this effected housing output and in turn the general quality of the homes built before and after.When moved in their entirety, houses are lifted off their foundation, rolled on steel I-beams, and loaded onto a truck, this process is further described here (61.).If far away from a hub, homes are loaded onto barges and use the waterways to travel to a hub. This reduces the amount they’re on the road, and is a more energy efficient form of transportation. Given this house is located in Surrey and destined for Mitchell Island, it’s loaded onto a barge and floated to the hub (62.).58. On-site house moving axonometric91LUMBERFSR# OF HOMESTRANSPORT METHODPEOPLE1910 1940 1970 20001920 1950 1980 20101900 1930 1960 1990 2020population× 100,000average single family home FSRtimber volume(millions m3)teardown index10520250.8500010%20%50%30%60%40%70%100015000.60.40.215Vancouver Metro Vancouver1003060802050407090CUT TO ASSEMBLIES ON SITEMOVE FROM ABOVE FOUNDATIONCUT INTO MULTIPLE PIECESINTERWAR ARTS AND CRAFTSSTORYBOOKDUTCH COLONIAL REVIVALMID-CENTURY BUILDERRANCHERSPLIT-LEVELAsbestos use beginsWWI ends WWII endspine beetle epidemic2” x 4” now1.5” x 3.5”VANCOUVER SPECIALWEST COAST MODERNCRAFTSMAN MILLENNIUM BUILDERDUTCH COLONIAL REVIVALRANCHERMID-CENTURY BUILDERDUTCH COLONIAL REVIVAL VANCOUVER SPECIAL MILLENNIUM BUILDERWEST COAST MODERNSPLIT-LEVELSTORYBOOKINTERWAR ARTS AND CRAFTSCUT TO ASSEMBLIES ON SITEMOVE FROM ABOVE FOUNDATIONCUT INTO MULTIPLE PIECES59. Metro Vancouver Housing Characteristics TimelineWorld Population Review, 2019Dahmen, 2017Dahmen, 2017Environmental Reporting BC, 20189360. House moving in residential Vancouver 61. On-site house moving axonometric95 9662. House moving by barge 63. House arrival at Mitchell Island axonometric97 98Hub OperationsThe Mitchell Island hub is sited along the banks of the Fraser and under the Knight Street bridge. By locating here, the hub is able to reuse the deadspace caused by the bridge overhead, and actually uses the overhead structure further on in the process. All hubs within the system are sited at similar junctures where the road infrastructure and water meet causing undesirable spaces for typical occupation. This system aims to reuse as much of Vancouver as possible. Mitchell Island as a whole is quite industrial with a constant flow of materials - there are shipping yards, scraps yards, lumber yards it’s really a place for raw and retired materials. This drawing (64.) shows the Mitchell Island Hub from above. Here we can see the barge arriving with the mid-century builder on it. The core of the hub is located under the Knight Street Bridge, a plan for this building can be viewed on the next page (65.).Houses are off-loaded by driving onto the dock (63.) or if in containers the crane moves them off the barge - or off the truck if there are arriving by road. They’re loaded onto the conveyor and moved into the hub (66./67.). Wall, roof, and floor assemblies are cut away from the home one by one using a Kuka robot on a gantry and an overhead gantry moves the assemblies to the next step of deconstruction (68./69.). 64. House arrival at Mitchell Island1 - YARD2 - CONVEYOR LOADING3 - DISASSEMBLY4 - SKIN SEPARATION5 - STUD SEPARATION6 - DENAILING7 - OFFICE8 - CLASSROOM9 - SHOWROOM10 - LOADING BAY11 - VIEWING ROOMFLOOR PLAN - 1:200123451011678965. Floor Plan - 1:200 scale101 10266. House intake at Deconstruction Hub 67. House intake at Deconstruction Hub axonometric10368. Housing disassembly at Deconstruction Hub 69. Housing disassembly at Deconstruction Hub axonometric105 10670. Assembly skin removalLumber Operations at HubExterior and interior assemblies have predictably different materials, and by planning for this, we can use it to our advantage when sorting materials. Each has a different path based on composition and complexity - for example we can expect a roof assembly to take longer than an interior stud wall. This aspect of different paths for different assembly types can be seen here (72.). All materials excluding wood are removed, sorted and collected into larger containers where they’re transported to their proper recycling facility. Here (70.), we can see the red door departing the hub to be reused elsewhere.108GYPSUMINSULATIONSKINAUTOMATIC STUD SEPARATIONSORTINGLENGTHDECONSTRUCTIONMANUFACTURECLTLSLOSBDENAILINGCUTTINGSORTINGBARGEBARGEMANUAL STUD SEPARATIONROOFEXTERIOR WALLINTERIOR WALLFLOOR71. Assembly skin removal axonometric 72. Deconstruction Hub wood flows diagram109The machine shown here (73.) is designed to separate base members of orthogonal stud assemblies. Remaining connected pieces and irregular roof assemblies are separated by hand on the floor. This machine plays into the predictability of assemblies and allows for even more efficiency in separating stud assemblies.  To keep this entire process competitive, the hub has to move through assemblies as quickly as possible.73. Stud separation axonometric111Lumber is sorted into bins by members that are over or under 1.2m. Larger members then have their nails removed using pneumatic denailers shown here (74.). They then pass through a metal detector, and if there are remaining nails, they’re marked and the member goes for a second pass. After repeated fails, the section of the wood is cut off and the member may be destined for a different recycled product.The lumber is then once again sorted based on size and quality, and different members are sent to their appropriate facility for recycling. As I mentioned earlier, the lumber is recycled into CLT, LSL, or OSB depending on its size and quality. These factories are sourced by the Mitchell Island hub and the other hubs in the Metro Vancouver area via barge, shown here (76.).This diagram (77.) describes the housing material waste flows for an average home under the current system and the new system to be implemented. In the current system, almost all the wood is either burned or dumped in the landfill. By recycling a large portion of this lumber, an immense amount of waste gets a second life. And by nature of the system, all building materials find their proper recycling facility, drastically reducing the overall waste of teardowns.74. Denailing axonometric113 11475. CLT assembly 76. Mitchell Island wood movement axonometric115CLEAN LUMBERCLT~6T/HOUSEFLOOR/WALL/ROOFBEAM/COLUMN/TRUSSSHEATHING/DECKING/JOIST CORE~2.5T/HOUSE~3.5T/HOUSELSL0 1T 5T 15TOSBMULCHTREATED LUMBERCOMPOSITE PRODUCTSHOG FUELINSULATIONMISCELLANEOUSMETALASPHALTSTUCCOGYPSUMLANDFILLBURNREUSEREUSEPRESENT SYSTEMMATERIALS NEW SYSTEMRECYCLEBURNLANDFILL77. Typical home material flows diagramLumber values (Teshnizi, 2015)117 118These next few drawings describe a general sense of what these outputs could be. This project suggests that we continue to densify the major corridors in the city, a trend that’s already happening today. However, this development in large part could be sourced by this deconstruction system output. In effect, sequestering Vancouver’s history and carbon back into the city.This diagram (79.) suggests a potential massing for one of these buildings. It’s a 28 unit building that takes up 3 lots, and would take the lumber from about 20 houses to produce. To put this in context at the city scale, an estimate with this system if we were able to run all demolitions through it, it could produce about 3900 housing units a year. Comparatively, a study from a few years ago in Vancouver looking at reusing lumber from pre-1940’s homes found that they could potentially build 100-130 single family homes a year (Teshnizi, 2015).This project doesn’t assess the aesthetic of the output, these are still design decisions left up to the architect. This project is concerned about the sourcing of materials and is much more focused on the operations upstream and downstream from our typical point of production and how to engage that. As designers and architects, we can’t be happy just to occupy any given site. We have to think about where are materials are coming from and where they’re going. This project is a lens through which we can view the problems of the current system and envision a system that serves the greater public in a much more effective way.78. Potential Vancouver density diagramHousing Output1191 BED UNIT72 m228 UNIT BUILDING1980 m2~20 HOMES TO PRODUCE1 BED UNIT72 m21 BED UNIT~70 m2STUDIO UNIT60 m21 BED UNIT~70 m257TH AVEGRANVILLE STOAK STCAMBIE STMAIN STFRASER ST49TH AVE41ST AVEQUEEN ELIZABETH PARKOAKRIDGELANGARA GOLF COURSEMOUNTAIN VIEW CEMETERYVANDUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENKING EDWARD AVE33RD AVE79. Housing output example diagram 80. Potential Vancouver arterial density development121 12282-83. Final model81. Final boardsFinal Pin-up123 124Metro Vancouver. Metro Vancouver Recycling and Solid Waste Management Report. www.metrovancouver.org/services/solid-waste/SolidWastePublications/2017SolidWasteManagementAnnualSummary.pdf. 2008 - 2017.OXO Architectes. Pont de Calabre. www.oxoarch.com/project/12. 2010.ReBuilding Center. Making a Material Difference. www.rebuildingcenter.org. 2019.Selldorf Architects. Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility. https://www.selldorf.com/projects/sunset-park-material-recovery-facility. 2014.Teshnizi, Zahra. Opportunities and Regulatory Barrier for the Reuse of Salvaged Dimensional Lumber from Pre-1940s Houses. City of Vancouver, 2015.Tetra Tech. 2015 Waste Composition Study. www.metrovancouver.org/services/solid-waste/SolidWastePublications/2015DLCWasteCompositionMonitoring.pdf. 2015.Unbuilders. www.unbuilders.com. 2010.Vice Media, producer. The Ship Breakers of Bangladesh. www.youtube.com/watch?v=JU0DXdAhdsA. 2015.World Population Review. www.worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/vancouver-population. 2019.Basilij, Pietra. Vancouver Upcycle Project. Vancouver Economic Commission, 2015.Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn. New York, Viking Press, 1995.Broughton, Hugh. Halley VI British Antarctic Research Station. www.hbarchitects.co.uk/halley-vi-british-antarctic-research-station. Hugh Broughton Architects, 2013.Cairns, Stephen, and Jane M. Jacobs. Buildings Must Die: A Perverse View of Architecture. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2014.City of Vancouver. Disposal Ban Program. www.metrovancouver.org/services/solid-waste/bylaws-regulations/banned-materials/Pages/default.aspx. 2015.City of Vancouver. Green Demolition By-law update. 2018.City of Vancouver. Heritage Action Plan: Encouraging Reuse and Recycling of Construction Waste from Pre-1940 Homes and Construction and Demolition Waste Diversion Strategy. Vancouver, BC: City of Vancouver. 2014.Communitecture, ReBuilding Center. www.communitecture.net/the-rebuilding-center.html. 2005.Dahmen, Joseph, and Jens von Bergmann. Vancouvers Teardown Cycle. Vancouver, Mountainmath, 2017.Grant, Jill. “Canada’s Experience in Planning for Sustainable Development.” Towards Sustainable Cities: East Asian, North American and European Perspectives on Managing Urban Regions. Burlington, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, pp. 147-60.Gyarmati, Sandor. “25 years left for Vancouver Landfill.” Delta Optimist, 2012, www.delta-optimist.com/news/25-years-left-for-vancouver-landfill-1.452300.Huxtable, Ada Louise. “Anatomy of a Failure,” The New York Times. March 17, 1968.Lynch, Kevin. Wasting Away. San Francisco, Sierra Club Books, 1990.Metro Vancouver. Metro Vancouver Housing Data Book. www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/MV_Housing_Data_Book.pdf. 2019.Bibliography

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.42591.1-0387441/manifest

Comment

Related Items