UBC Graduate Research

A Very Deep Salad Bowl MacGillivray, Shannon Lee 2019-12-19

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A Very Deep Salad Bowl Shannon Lee MacGillivray B.Sc. UBC 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty ofGraduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee members: Bill PechetAnnalisa MeyboomNeal LaMontagne© December 2019A Very Deep Salad Bowl Shannon Lee MacGillivray B.Sc. UBC 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty ofGraduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee members: Bill PechetAnnalisa MeyboomNeal LaMontagne© December 2019 r   l  l Shannon Lee MacGillivray B.Sc. UBC 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty ofGraduate Studies, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Architecture ProgramCommittee members: Bill PechetAnnalisa MeyboomNe l L Montagne© December 2019iiiiiAbstractThe underground parking garage is architectural garbage of our culture.  How many tons of earth have been removed to create parking spaces?  How will radical shifts in transportation technologies affect this existing built condition?   In a future of autonomous mobility, ridesharing and rapid transit, there will be an unprecedented amount of underused underground parking space in major metropolitan areas like Vancouver. This project adopts four levels of underground parking in a ubiquitous podium tower in downtown Vancouver as a testing ground for a new spatial typology. Through a series of architectural interventions, occupants are confronted with our cultural garbage and challenged to shift their perception of the underground as non-space in the city.ivTables1 Underground design strategies. ........................................................................................................ 79vFigures 1. Conceptual collage. ...........................................................................................................................2. The Butterfly, Revery Architecture. ........................................................................................................3. Former Vancouver Empire Landmark Hotel. .........................................................................................4. 1335 Howe St, Onni Group. ...............................................................................................................5. Concord Pacific before and after. Source: https://www.concordpacific.com/communities/. ......................6. Roy Arden, Condominium Advertisement, Vancouver BC 1992. .............................................................7. Neighbourhood map of Vancouver highlighting neighbourhood vicinity of 888 Beach Ave. .....................8. 888 Beach Ave in context. ..................................................................................................................9. 888 Beach Ave in today's Vancouver context. .......................................................................................10. Main entrance to Beach Tower from Hornby Street. ...............................................................................11. Beach Ave ramp. ...............................................................................................................................12. Reflecting pool. ..................................................................................................................................13. Ocean tower. .....................................................................................................................................14. Garden tower. ...................................................................................................................................15. Site Plan, existing condition. ................................................................................................................16. Isometric, existing above ground condition. .........................................................................................17. Isometric, existing below ground condition. ..........................................................................................18. Site plan, neighbourhood strategy. ......................................................................................................19. Conceptual collage. Restaurant entrance from bike path. ......................................................................20. Conceptual collage. Market entrance from Beach Ave. .........................................................................21. Conceptual collage. Vehicle entrance from Howe St. ............................................................................22. Conceptual collage. Central courtyard. ................................................................................................23. Financial overview. .............................................................................................................................24. Conceptual collage. Germination carts for hydroponic farming. ............................................................25. Mushroom bags hanging for fruiting. ..................................................................................................26. Hydroponic farming overview. .............................................................................................................27. Process model. ...................................................................................................................................28. Trace paper sketch overlaid on existing plans. All four levels overlaid on one plan to understand how the spaces could vertically connect. ...........................................................................................................29. Trace paper sketch overlaid on existing plans. ......................................................................................30. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 and P2 plans. Yellow indicates existing drive aisles. Red are townhouses and tower cores. ..............................................................................................................31. Trace paper sketch overlaid on North-South section through Beach Ave ramp. Yellow indicates existing drive aisles. Blue is parking stalls. Red are townhouses. ........................................................................32. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Green is available space for intervention. Red is off-limits. .........33. Trace paper sketch overlaid on sections and P2 plan. Green is available space for intervention. Red is off-limits. ...........................................................................................................................................34. Trace paper sketch overlaid on site plan. An early iteration of a neighbourhood strategy of how parking and other amenities will be consolidated. ............................................................................................35. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Here I began to start thinking about circulation through the site..36. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure. .............246810121416181920202121232425262828292930323233343636373738383939vi404141424243434444454546485051525354555657575859606162626364-65667072-74767880818284848688929394-9596-9737. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure for circulation. ........................................................................................................................................38. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure. .............39. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. ..............................................................................................40. Trace paper sketch overlaid on Courtyard plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm. .................................................................................................................................................41. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm. ........42. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P2 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm. ........43. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P3 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm. ........44. Process model, 1:200. Top view of Courtyard. ......................................................................................45. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P1. .................................................................................................46. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P2. .................................................................................................47. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P3/P4. ............................................................................................48. Cropped courtyard plan showing farm to table restaurant and community garden. Yellow indicates new interventions, white is left the same. .....................................................................................................49. Cropped section perspective North-South. ...........................................................................................50. Cropped section perspective North-South highlighting restaurant. .........................................................51. Cropped section perspective East-West highlighting pedestrian ramp. ....................................................52. Cropped section perspective East-West. ...............................................................................................53. Cropped P1 plan. ..............................................................................................................................54. Cropped P2 plan. ..............................................................................................................................55. Cropped P3 plan. ..............................................................................................................................56. Cropped P4 plan. ..............................................................................................................................57. Entrance perspective. .........................................................................................................................58. Courtyard perspective. .......................................................................................................................59. Sunken courtyard view. .......................................................................................................................60. View from ramp, P2. ..........................................................................................................................61. Isometric view of mushroom floor connection to surface level. ...............................................................62. Isometric view of lettuce farm germination room. .................................................................................63. 1:500 site model. 888 Beach Ave massing shown in maple. The black voids represent other underground parking areas in the neighbourhood. ..................................................................................................64. 1:500 site model. 888 Beach Ave massing shown in maple. The black voids represent other underground parking areas in the neighbourhood. ..................................................................................................65. Map of major grocery stores in Downtown Vancouver. ..........................................................................66. Final presentation boards and models, December 12, 2019, 11:30 am. ................................................67. Post review smiles. ..............................................................................................................................68. Off-street Parking Requirements Accelerate Urban Sprawl. ....................................................................69. Timeline. ...........................................................................................................................................70. Changing vehicle ownership model. ....................................................................................................71. Parking Typologies. ............................................................................................................................72. Mind Map I. .......................................................................................................................................73. Mind Map II. ......................................................................................................................................74. Peckham Levels photographs. .............................................................................................................75. Diagram of Holding Pattern Design Process. ........................................................................................76. Holding Pattern project diagram. ........................................................................................................77. Photographs of The Water by Hiroshi Sambuichi. .................................................................................78. Photographs of the International Centre for Cave Art. ...........................................................................79. 888 Beach Ave P1 as-built. .................................................................................................................80. 888 Beach Ave P2, P3, P4 as-built. .....................................................................................................81. 888 Beach Ave North-South section through Beach Ave ramp as-built. ..................................................82. 888 Beach Ave North-South section as-built. ........................................................................................viiviiiixAcknowledgmentsWithout the help and enthusiasm of my advisor Bill Pechet, this project would not be what it is. I am deeply grateful to have had the opportunity to learn from Bill.  Thank you to my committee Annalisa Meyboom and Neal Lamontagne for your guidance and support.  Thank you to my peers and friends that helped me with this project:Jenna Joung Mika Ishizaki Emily Scoular Pera Hardy Nick Fernando Théo Van Vugt Hannah LeylandCarmell Bornau  Other thanks to: Larry Beasley Narendra Chandra The residents and strata council of 888 Beach AvexxiContentsFront Matter .................................................................................................................................................. Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... Tables .............................................................................................................................................. Figures ............................................................................................................................................ Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................A Very Deep Salad Bowl ................................................................................................................................. Context ........................................................................................................................................... On Process ...................................................................................................................................... Design Proposal ............................................................................................................................... Conclusion and Next Steps ...............................................................................................................End Matter .................................................................................................................................................... Appendix A: Background .................................................................................................................. Appendix B: 888 Beach Ave As-built Drawings .................................................................................. Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................iiiiivvix1234466669699198xii1A Very Deep Salad Bowl2Fig. 1. Conceptual collage.3The underground parking garage is architectural garbage of our culture.4Fig. 2. The Butterfly, Revery Architecture.5How many tons of earth have been removed to create parking spaces?6Fig. 3. Former Vancouver Empire Landmark Hotel.7How will radical shifts in transportation technologies affect this existing built condition?8Fig. 4. 1335 Howe St, Onni Group.9There is no consolidated, public record of how much underground parking exists in Vancouver. This lack of awareness is leading us to a massive oversupply.10Fig. 5. Concord Pacific before and after. Source: https://www.concordpacific.com/communities/.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright11Parking in cities is the product of static bylaws and market demand. Selling a unit with a parking space can add up to $80,000 to the price of a unit.1 A study conducted by the region of Metro Vancouver found that for both rental and strata apartment buildings, parking supply exceeds use across the region.2  Historically, Vancouver has been praised for its mixed-use slender towers that preserve view corridors. This urban design strategy is known as "Vancouverism" which was imported to Vancouver by Hong Kong developers in the 1980s. An excellent example of how popular this strategy has become in Vancouver is the Concord Pacific development along the north side of False Creek, which is the largest private urban development project underway in North America (fig. 5).3    This project proposes that if we can understand the way that underground parking occupies space in cities, then we can imagine new futures for it as off-street parking needs decrease across North American cities. Even though the City of Vancouver has removed minimum parking requirements for new major developments in downtown, it is still economically beneficial for developers to provide off-street parking as an amenity to future buyers. As a result, it may take some time before the effects of this change in off-street parking bylaws are reflected in new developments.  The unique design challenges of underground parking areas make this a rich condition to explore. Parking areas often lack adequate pedestrian areas, leaving pedestrians confused about where it is safe to walk. These spaces are scaled to the vehicle rather than the body which creates awkward human occupation. This effect is summarized by Christopher Alexander in A Pattern Language, “The problems [of vast parking lots] stem essentially from the fact that a car is so much bigger than a person. Large parking lots, suited for the cars, have all the wrong properties for people. They are too wide; they contain too much pavement; they have no place to linger.”4  Looking at underground parking is more compelling than other parking typologies since it is built into another building and is not easily demolished. The land that has been excavated to create this space will never return to where it was. We will be left with underground voids and their existing structure for a long time. It is worth considering these spaces because of their embodied energy and permanence in the built environment.  Since the invention of the assembly line for the mass production of vehicles in 1913 by Henry Ford, North American city design has focused on accommodating the vehicle. Codes and bylaws have come to reflect our car-dependent culture. This history has set a precedent that bylaws and best practices can be changed to reflect a new culture that is more conscious of the existing built environment.12Fig. 6. Roy Arden, Condominium Advertisement, Vancouver BC 1992. Source: Roy Arden archive, http://www.royarden.com/pages/photo1.html (accessed December 18, 2019).13By creating this much density in Vancouver, an absurd amount of underground parking has emerged to support it.The site for this project is 888 Beach Avenue (fig. 6), which was the first townhouse podium tower in downtown Vancouver. This building is one of James Cheng's first towers in Vancouver, it was built in 1993. Cheng has gone on to design many other podium tower buildings in Vancouver.14Fig. 7. Neighbourhood map of Vancouver highlighting neighbourhood vicinity of 888 Beach Ave. Imagery from Google Earth V 7.3.2.5776. (June 12, 2019). Vancouver BC. 49º 16'32.55"N 123º 07'28.76"W. Eye alt. 3.20 km. Sanborn 2008. https://earth.google.com/ (accessed December 17, 2019).15The first developer interest in this site came from Jim Pattison who wanted to develop a hotel for Expo 86. The site was then sold three times before the developers of 888 Beach obtained the land and proposed apartment towers. The project received generous height variances due to the City of Vancouver's desire to promote family living in downtown Vancouver. The towers were approved to be 87 and 77 metres high while current bylaws allowed for a maximum of 45 metres.5 The developers were also able to have an FSR of 6 which was 30% denser than the bylaws allowed at the time.6 16888 Beach AveFig. 8. 888 Beach Ave in context. Imagery from Google Earth V 7.3.2.5776. (June 12, 2019). Vancouver BC. 49º 16'24"N 123º 07'53"W. Eye alt. 35 metres. Sanborn 2008. https://earth.google.com/ (accessed December 17, 2019).17This building is located in the Granville Slopes between the Granville and Burrard Street bridges (fig. 7). The site is well situated in downtown Vancouver with lots of access to public space such as the False Creek seawall, Sunset Beach Park, May and Lorne Brown Park, George Wainborn Park, community centres, restaurants, entertainment and shopping along Davie and Granville Streets (fig.8). It is worth noting that 888 Beach is kitty-corner to the BIG Architecture and DIALOG Vancouver House site which is the contemporary manifestation of “Vancouverism”. 888 Beach is arguably the first instance of Vancouverism in Vancouver (fig. 9).  Three towers on the site are connected with townhouses and commercial space on the ground level (fig. 10,13,14). The townhouses create human-scale elements on the street which help to integrate the tall and dense towers into the neighbourhood at a time when this kind of construction was non-existent (fig. 10). Cheng was influenced by the Brownstone housing in Brooklyn and Boston and abstracted it for 888 Beach. The site is unique because it does not have a mid-block public lane. As a result, there is a large private garden in the centre of the site (fig. 12). There are two existing vehicular entrances to the underground parking on Beach Ave and Howe Street (fig. 15).  This site was chosen because of its significance in the history of development in Vancouver and the large four levels of underground parking it has.18Fig. 9. 888 Beach Ave in today's Vancouver context.19Fig. 10. Main entrance to Beach Tower from Hornby Street.20Fig. 12. Reflecting pool.Fig. 11. Beach Ave ramp.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright21Fig. 13. Ocean tower. Fig. 14. Garden tower.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright2223N.beach avehornby sthowe stbeachtoweroceantowergardentowertownhousestownhousestownhouses townhousesFig. 15. Site Plan, existing condition.24Fig. 16. Isometric, existing above ground condition.25Fig. 17. Isometric, existing below ground condition.26parkingstudiosdaycareworkshoptheatrestorageparkingstorageearthstoragestorage bunkerNFig. 18. Site plan, neighbourhood strategy.27There are roughly 13 buildings within the neighbourhood vicinity of 888 Beach that have multiple levels of underground parking (fig. 16, 17). As a way to make better use of these redundant parking spaces, I am proposing that parking gets consolidated in the neighbourhood and moved to one or two other sites so that residents that may wish to have a parking space can still have one but elsewhere.   This project uses 888 Beach as one example of how these spaces could be used to benefit residents and the community. Things like storage, workshops, studios, daycares, schools, etc. are just some ideas about what the other underground parking areas could be used for in this neighbourhood or others like it (fig. 18).  I am proposing an urban agriculture centre that consists of a commercial mushroom, lettuce and bell pepper farm. The site will also provide community gardens, a vegetable market and a farm to table restaurant (fig. 19, 20, 21, 22).  By 2050 the world’s population will grow by another 2 billion and 67% of people will live in cities.7 Earth has lost a third of its arable lands over the last 40 years.8 Producing food in urban areas has the potential to ease the demand on agricultural lands and reduce the distance food travels to get to our homes.28Chez Sergefarm to tableChez Sergefarm to tableFig. 19. Conceptual collage. Restaurant entrance from bike path.Fig. 20. Conceptual collage. Market entrance from Beach Ave.29Chez Sergefarm to tableChez Sergefarm to tableFig. 21. Conceptual collage. Vehicle entrance from Howe St.Fig. 22. Conceptual collage. Central courtyard.30=     1 metric ton=     1 metric ton=     1 metric tonweekly yields*https://grocycle.com/how-to-set-up-a-low-tech-mushroom-farm/** Statistics Canada***Bayley, J.E., Yu, M., & Frediani, K. (2010). Sustainable food production using high density vertical growing (Verticrop). In XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 921 (pp. 95-104).****https://portablefarms.com/2012/bell-peppers/financial overviewweekly crop yield (kg/wk/sq. ft.)weekly crop yield (kg/wk)annual crop yield (kg/yr)crop area (sq. ft.)price per kg ($)annual gross sales ($)annual net sales ($)people fed per weekoyster mushroom0.155*lettuce0.143*** 0.333****bell peppertotals8.77Canada’s food guide: 1.25kg of fruits and vegetables per dayNeed 788,750 kg of fruit and vegetables everyday for all of Vancouver to eat to this standardBased on DT Vancouver pop. of 62,0309,11458,800 202,209 202,20967,3362,693,4249.20**3,353,9521,341,5801,042 3,304 7,6958.5028,916364,560 1,156,6409,831,440 23,621,4683,932,576 9,448,587463,218105,3664,214,62426.4712,04136,806,86014,722,7431,042 1.7% of DT Vancouver population19.4% of DT Vancouver population3,3045.3% of DT Vancouver population7,69512.4% of DT Vancouver populationannual profit$36,806,860annual gross sales$14,722,743annual net sales (40% of gross)28,916 kg= $245,786weekly net yield and sales67,336 kg= $590,537weekly net yield and sales9,114 kg= $83,850weekly net yield and salesFig. 23. Financial overview.31Based on a calculation of crop yields per square foot and assuming a 40% profit with the remainder being operating costs, I estimate that this site has the potential to generate 14.7 million dollars in profit annually (fig. 23). The ownership of the underground parking is maintained by the strata and leased to the farm operators.105,366 kg of vegetables can be grown on the site each week which is enough to feed almost 20% of downtown Vancouver its recommended vegetable intake by Canada’s food guide (fig. 23).There is limited access to natural light on the site which makes it an ideal space for hydroponic and mushroom farming. Hydroponic farming does not require soil to grow plants but rather uses water and nutrients to grow without dirt. The plants will be grown under LED grow lights to replace the need for natural day-light (fig. 24, 26). Oyster mushrooms grow in bags when mixed with a substrate (e.g. coffee grounds) and hang in rooms to fruit (fig. 25).32Fig. 24. Conceptual collage. Germination carts for hydroponic farming.Fig. 25. Mushroom bags hanging for fruiting.33grow traywater / nutrientsreservoirair pumptimerFig. 26. Hydroponic farming overview.Notes1. Author unknown. The Metro Vancouver Apartment Parking Study, Technical Report. Vancouver BC: Translink and Metro Vancouver, 2012. Accessed December, 2019. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/Apartment_Parking_Study_TechnicalReport.pdf.2. Author unknown. The 2018 Regional Parking Study, Technical Report. Vancouver BC: Translink and Metro Vancouver, 2018. Accessed December, 2019. http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/RegionalParkingStudy-TechnicalReport.pdf.3. "Communities." Concord Pacific. https://www.concordpacific.com/communities/ (retreived Dec. 16, 2019).4. Alexander, A Pattern Language, 505.5. Punter, John Vincent. 2004. The Vancouver Achievement: Urban Planning and Design. Vancouver: UBC Press, 92.6. Ibid, 92.7. Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). The 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. United Nations, 2012. Accessed December, 2019. https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf.8. Duncan Cameron, Colin Osborne, Peter Horton, Mark Sinclair. A sustainable model for intensive agriculture. Sheffield UK, 2015. Accessed December, 2019. http://grantham.sheffield.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/A4-sustainable-model-intensive-agriculture-spread.pdf. 34Fig. 27. Process model.35On ProcessOne of the most time consuming and challenging parts of this project was understanding the existing built condition of 888 Beach Ave. Many rolls of tracing paper were used to draw over top of the as-built drawings (see appendix b) to block out areas that could be used in the design proposal and find connections between levels. Model making also contributed significantly to my understanding of the site. This process took longer than expected but resulted in a deep knowledge and intuition of the site. It allowed me to more easily make design decisions once the program was decided. The following pages show a small sampling of the analysis.36Fig. 28. Trace paper sketch overlaid on existing plans. All four levels overlaid on one plan to understand how the spaces could vertically connect.Fig. 29. Trace paper sketch overlaid on existing plans.37Fig. 30. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 and P2 plans. Yellow indicates existing drive aisles. Red shows townhouses and tower cores.Fig. 31. Trace paper sketch overlaid on North-South section through Beach Ave ramp. Yellow indicates existing drive aisles. Blue is parking stalls. Red shows townhouses.38Fig. 32. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Green is available space for intervention. Red is off-limits.Fig. 33. Trace paper sketch overlaid on sections and P2 plan. Green is available space for intervention. Red is off-limits.39Fig. 34. Trace paper sketch overlaid on site plan. An early iteration of a neighbourhood strategy of how parking and other amenities will be consolidated.Fig. 35. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Here I began to start thinking about circulation through the site.40Fig. 36. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure.Fig. 37. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure for circulation.41Fig. 38. Trace paper sketch overlaid on a section. Exploring how to make cuts into the existing structure.Fig. 39. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. 42Fig. 40. Trace paper sketch overlaid on Courtyard plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm.Fig. 41. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P1 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm.43Fig. 42. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P2 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm.Fig. 43. Trace paper sketch overlaid on P3 plan. Starting to think about programming the space for a farm.44Fig. 44. Process model, 1:200. Top view of Courtyard.Fig. 45. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P1.45Fig. 46. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P2.Fig. 47. Process model, 1:200. Top view of P3/P4.46open to belowrestaurantopen to belowshedshedmarketFig. 48. Cropped courtyard plan showing farm to table restaurant and community garden. Yellow indicates new interventions, white is left the same.47Design Proposal   The drawings for the final review are colour coded to help orient viewers. Anything in yellow is accessible to the public. The light grey indicates the commercial farm. Light brown, green and orange represent the mushroom, lettuce and pepper crops respectively. Skylights are shown in light blue circles in the plan. Anything in white is left out of this design intervention (fig. 48).  The major design challenges of this site and many other underground parking lots are getting natural light below ground, circulation for non-vehicular traffic and negotiating the relationship between the existing use of the towers and townhouses and the agriculture centre.  The overall organizational strategy for the site was to place public activity on the levels closer to the surface and use the deepest levels underground for the commercial farm (fig. 49). The courtyard and P1 levels contain community gardens and indoor workshop space to hold educational events about urban farming. These activities require more access to natural light and are thus placed closer to the surface level. Levels P2-P4 are where most of the commercial farm activity takes place since it requires less natural light. A general strategy for this site is to create a pedestrian observation ramp from the existing Beach Ave vehicle ramp that allows the public to circulate below ground and see the space being used as a farm (fig. 51).   The three cores of the towers remain untouched on the underground levels (fig. 54). One townhouse is overtaken to host the farm to table restaurant which serves dishes made from vegetables grown on the site and from other local food producers (fig. 48, 50). The townhouses have private garages that connect to the underground parking (fig. 50, 79). The existing four units of commercial space are consolidated and used as a market to sell food grown on the site.  As you enter the site you may either enter onto the community garden level or begin descending into the underground (fig. 57). The underused reflecting pool and garden are replaced with a more “fruitful” community garden (fig. 58). The garden has circular planters arranged in a non-hierarchical way to allow for users to cluster them together as they may need. The circle is used as a formal juxtaposition to the rigid rectilinear form of parking structures. It is also used formally to make cuts into the existing building, for example, the skylights.  On P1 there is a sunken courtyard with a large opening to the community garden above to visually connect the two levels (fig. 59). P1 hosts public events for people to learn about urban farming and food production (fig. 53). This level also maintains the existing vehicle ramp to allow for goods to flow in and out of the site. It serves both the farm and the towers. 48Fig. 49. Cropped section perspective North-South. 49Continuing the descent brings you to the mushroom farm on P2 (fig. 54). There are places along the ramp to stop and observe the farm in various stages of production (fig. 60). Mushroom farming consists of three stages: mixing and inoculation, incubation and fruiting. Mixing and inoculation must occur in a sterile room.1 In this room, the substrate and mushroom spawn is mixed together and bagged.2 Various substances can be used as a substrate, a simple and readily available one is coffee grounds.3 Once coffee grounds have been used to make coffee they make for an excellent substrate for the mushroom spawn. Here lies a great opportunity to further engage with the community by collecting used coffee grounds from nearby coffee shops. Sawdust pellets and straw can also be used as a substrate in this process. The incubation phase requires a warm and dark space.4 The room should be around 20-24 degrees Celcius.5 In this phase, the mushroom spawn begins to grow throughout the bag. During fruiting, the bags are hung and exposed to fresh air, humidity and 10-12 hours of sunlight per day (fig. 61).6 This allows the mushrooms to fruit and become ready for harvest. Mushroom farms produce very toxic fumes so there must be an adequate ventilation system in place.7 Fortunately, the underground parking garage has a mechanical ventilation system in place to deal with car exhaust. Further analysis is required to determine if any further mechanical ventilation is required. Many people have died on commercial mushroom farms because of inadequate ventilation.   The lower two levels have hydroponic lettuce and bell pepper farms with similar opportunities to view the stages of farming (fig. 55, 56). The lettuce and bell pepper hydroponic farms require two large rooms. One for germination and one for growing. Because the plants will grow without soil, the seedlings need to be germinated so that roots can sprout before they are placed into the hydroponic growing system.8 This process requires a lot of moisture and light so the germination carts have LED lights placed on each shelf (fig. 62). Lettuce germination takes approximately eleven days.9 The growing room is where the main hydroponic system is set up. Many different systems allow for hydroponic farming.10 The lettuce and bell pepper crops allow for much greater yields than the mushrooms because the hydroponic technology allows for the crops to be stacked on six levels on a cart. Both the growing room and germination room require a high degree of environmental control and plenty of LED grow lights. The space also requires a significant cleaning area where trays can be cleaned and sanitized for the next round of crops.11   I hope that this site can operate outside of the prevailing global food market and create a new local food market for Vancouver that could pop up in other neighbhourhoods as well. This site has the potential to provide fresh, healthy food that is grown in the neighbourhood (fig. 65).50Fig. 50. Cropped section perspective North-South highlighting restaurant.51Fig. 51. Cropped section perspective East-West highlighting pedestrian ramp.52Fig. 52. Cropped section perspective East-West.53multipurposemultipurposeopen tobelowprocessingstorage & loadingloadingstorageFig. 53. Cropped P1 plan.54fruitingincubationmixing & inoculationstorage & washingFig. 54. Cropped P2 plan.55germinationgrowing roomstorage & washingFig. 55. Cropped P3 plan.56 Fig. 56. Cropped P4 plan.germinationgrowing roomstorage & washing57Fig. 57. Entrance perspective.Fig. 58. Courtyard perspective.58Fig. 59. Sunken courtyard view.59Fig. 60. View from ramp, P2.60Fig. 61. Isometric view of mushroom floor connection to surface level.61Fig. 62. Isometric view of lettuce farm germination room.62Fig. 63. 1:500 site model. 888 Beach Ave massing shown in maple. The black voids represent other underground parking areas in the neighbourhood.Fig. 64. 1:500 site model. 888 Beach Ave massing shown in maple. The black voids represent other underground parking areas in the neighbourhood.63major grocery stores in downtown vancouverFig. 65. Map of major grocery stores in Downtown Vancouver. Imagery from Google Earth V 7.3.2.5776. (June 12, 2019). Vancouver BC. 49º 16'32.55"N 123º 07'28.76"W. Eye alt. 3.20 km. Sanborn 2008. https://earth.google.com/ (accessed December 17, 2019).Notes1. Sayner, Adam. "How to Set Up a Low Tech Mushroom Farm."Grocycle. https://grocycle.com/how-to-set-up-a-low-tech-mushroom-farm/ (accessed December 16, 2019).2. Ibid.3. Ibid.4. Ibid.5. Ibid.6. Ibid.7. Ibid.8. Melissa Brechner and A.J. Both. Hydroponic Lettuce Handbook. Ithaca NY: Cornell Controlled Environment Agriculture, 2013. http://cea.cals.cornell.edu/attachments/Cornell%20CEA%20Lettuce%20Handbook%20.pdf (accessed December 16, 2019), 9.9. Ibid, 20.10. Ibid, 6.11. Ibid, 26.64Fig. 66. Final presentation boards and models, December 12, 2019, 11:30 am.6566Fig. 67. Post review smiles.67Conclusion and Next StepsThe feedback received at the final presentation suggested that I do a more specific analysis of the spatial requirements of the hydroponic and mushroom farming technologies. Specifically regarding lighting, ventilation and plumbing. This would be an important next step in making this project even more feasible for real-world applications. Although the project is more about the idea that the site could be anything, by doing a more specific analysis to see what the limitations and challenges will be is something I would like to investigate further.   I would like to continue working on this project by more rigourously documenting underground parking spaces in Vancouver. I plan to do this through photographic and mapping exercises. I would like to start a database of this information that is pubic and open source. Maybe others can add to it as well. I think the City of Vancouver would be interested in this study and there may be an opportunity for them to support it as well. 6869Appendix A: Background History of the Vehicle and Parking Vehicles as a Service Automotive Infrastructure Parking Typologies Underground Architecture Mind Map and Precedents70increasing parkingrequirementsrising carownershipincreasing urbansprawdeclining publictransitdeclining centralcityincreasing vehicletraveldeclining urbandensityFig. 68. Off-street Parking Requirements Accelerate Urban Sprawl. Adapted from Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking (2005).71The Vehicle and ParkingIn the twentieth century, the demand for parking greatly increased with private vehicle ownership. By 1923 cities were beginning to think about how to allocate sites for off-street parking facilities.1 Since then, parking requirements have been embedded in zoning requirements leaving us with a horrifying amount of parking in cities. Off-street parking requirements reduce density because each building has its own, unshared parking that is often unavailable to the general public.2 This reduction in density results in decreased attractiveness of the dense and accessible area that people initially were drawn to.3 Cities get to a point where there is so much parking that there is nothing worth driving to these areas for anymore. This effect is shown in fig. 1.Off street parking requirements result from political and market forces that planners have also contributed to. By ensuring that parking remains free, we have exacerbated urban sprawl, however, the off street parking requirements themselves have not been the sole cause of this.4 The city has forced people to subsidize cars. By requiring off street parking for residential zoning, the price of housing has become more expensive.5 This is an example of how the cost of parking has been disguised in other forms as Donald Shoup highlights in his book, The High Cost of Free Parking. In 1935 Los Angeles began requiring one off-street parking space per dwelling unit for multifamily housing.6 Many other cities including Vancouver adopted similar requirements.The cost for a developer to add one parking stall in a housing development in Vancouver can vary between $20,000 and $45,000.7 This has contributed to high construction and housing costs in Vancouver and North America. By identifying the changing demand for off street parking in new buildings, there is potential to reduce these costs.Data from 1999 shows that in Vancouver there were 46,053 parking spaces which is 42% parking coverage in the city.8 Cities like Vancouver obtain a lot of revenue from paid parking. From 2009-2015 parking revenue in Vancouver rose 58%.9 In 2015 parking revenue in Vancouver was $49.5 million.10 There is fear that this reduced income for the city will reduce social services. However, there is potential for the city to find new ways of recouping this revenue from the parking spaces they have. There are no doubt other great needs in the city, such as affordable housing, affordable business tenant space and effective pubic space. These are all potential new futures for parking spaces in cities.In 2018, the City of Vancouver updated the off-street parking bylaw to eliminate the minimum parking requirements for residential uses in downtown. This is an indication that the need for residential parking is decreasing. The previous bylaw was enacted in 2014 and required the lesser of one parking space for each 140m2 of gross floor area or one parking space per dwelling unit.The timeline in fig. 2 is an attempt to temporally map the history of the vehicle since 1908 when the Ford Model T was first mass produced on the assembly line. It shows how individual car sales have increased over the twentieth century with corresponding impacts on the building of cities. For example, in 1974 in Detroit, land devoted to vehicles covered 74% percent of downtown.11 The aim of the timeline is to show how with the increased mass production of the vehicle, starting with the Ford Model T, we have increased our reliance and usage of privately owned vehicles. As the timeline begins to look into the future, you can see that private car ownership is expected to decrease and new forms of transportation will emerge.Vehicles as a Service (VaaS) Within the discourse of autonomous vehicles and the future of transportation, terms such as mobility as a service and transport as a service (TaaS) are often 72image removed for copyright73image removed for copyright74 Fig. 69. Timeline.image removed for copyright75used. I am choosing to use the term Vehicles as a Service (VaaS) since the focus of this project will be the vehicle, with the understanding that the vehicle fits into a larger network of mobility and transportation. By narrowing the scope of the project in this way, I will be able to study the vehicle and automotive infrastructure more deeply. The terms vehicle and automobile will be used interchangeably both referring to a land-based machine that is used for the transportation of people and goods. With the introduction of the autonomous vehicle, the vehicle becomes a service rather than a consumer product. People will cease to purchase their own vehicle and instead will purchase the service of mobility from autonomous vehicle fleets. This has the potential to end private ownership of vehicles.12 The conversation around the introduction of autonomous vehicles into mainstream society is still very speculative. There are many potential future scenarios that are likely.13 I will take it as given that within the next fifty years autonomous technology in passenger vehicles will be widespread. This stance is supported by a recent report published by ReThinkX, “an independent think tank that analyzes and forecasts the speed and scale of technology-driven disruption and its implications across society.”14 Their report, Rethinking Transportation 2020-2030 finds that “within 10 years of regulatory approval of autonomous vehicles (AVs), 95% of U.S. passenger miles traveled will be served by on-demand autonomous electric vehicles owned by fleets, not individuals, in a new business model we call “transport-as-a-service (TaaS).”15 The findings of this report have helped me to clearly locate the project in time and contemporary issues.  What interests me is what will be left behind as we become a VaaS society. There is no doubt that we have dedicated a lot of space the automobile in our cities. These spaces are what I will call automotive infrastructure.Automotive Infrastructure  I will define the term automotive infrastructure as services and facilities necessary for independently owned vehicles to function. This includes roads (of all scales and types), gas stations, parking areas, service garages, car dealerships, tire shops and car graveyards. This is different from transportation infrastructure since I am only looking at vehicular transportation where transportation infrastructure would include other modes of transportation  such as public transportation and air travel. Transportation infrastructure is a more general, all-encompassing term than automotive infrastructure.  With the shift to VaaS, this definition of automotive infrastructure will change and thus, affect many industries such as automobile insurance, auto repair shops and car dealerships. These businesses operate in a way that is suited to private ownership of vehicles. These types of businesses face challenges in the world of VaaS. The ReThinkX report presents some evidence of this,  “traditional roles of car dealers will be taken over by TaaS providers/fleet owners. We, therefore, see the car dealership industry in terminal decline from the advent of the TaaS disruption.”16 I am identifying this future terminal decline as an opportunity for design to imagine the future of automotive infrastructure. I will anticipate the future infrastructural needs in a society where autonomous vehicles are widespread. What is the fate of automotive infrastructure? Will it continue to serve the transportation industry or change its use completely?  Defining automotive infrastructure has helped me to locate the project in space. Parking TypologiesFig. 4 diagram of parking typologies. 76Individual vehicle ownership Vehicles as a serviceX car dealershipsX gas stationsX parkingX auto repair shopsX auto department of Canadian TireX internal combustion vehiclesX wide roads2019 2030 2031Automotive infrastructure becomes waste and spaceFig. 70. Changing vehicle ownership model.77Underground ArchitectureHistorical and contemporary use of underground space appears limited to urban services. The shallow subsurface up to depths of 1 m below grade has already become an urban service layer.17 These urban service layers consist of primarily horizontal orientations which make it difficult to insert vertical interventions (geothermal, aquifers, human circulation) into this context. The development of these underground services is often executed without a resolved plan but with randomness generated from necessity for example, underground parking. Underground urbanism can be defined as a way to think about city planning in underground space that contributes to cities and their livability beyond infrastructural uses. It appears there are two main issues with underground urbanism: physical and psychological. The issues of access to natural light and ventilation make these spaces challenging for human occupation. The associations people have with being underground are highly negative. This is problematic. Underground urbanism should aim to integrate underground developments with above ground urban fabric.18 Underground urbanism is the ideal car free environment. Currently, many underground areas are privately owned, such as the Toronto PATH which is mostly retail space. It is critical that access to underground spaces are not controlled by the opening hours of the businesses that occupy them to ensure their success as public space.19 The Beurstraverse sunken shopping street in Rotterdam is a good example of this. It has a central axis of public space that is lined with privately owned businesses. As a result, the public space remains open to the public at all times of the day regardless of the opening hours of the businesses surrounding it. In underground spaces, the progression between street and interior is critical. It should be instinctive to enter.Many projects underground tend to have some “natural” element to them, exposed rock or existing caves converted into a museum (see Snohetta precedent). For example, the Temppeliaukio Church in Helsinki has exposed bedrock in the main hall. The condition I plan to work with has completely separated the “natural” elements of the underground with concrete. This creates a unique existing condition to work within. It will be challenging to find ways to bring natural light and ventilation into these spaces since they have large buildings constructed above them.Table 1 is an outline of some basic design strategies for underground from Underground Space Design: A Guide to Subsurface Utilization and Design for People in Underground Spaces.Mind Map and PrecedentsThe following mind maps, fig. 5 and fig. 6 are an attempt to unify the ideas previously discussed in order to identify the urgency of this graduation project. Fig. 5 was a first attempt at the mind map where the organization of the page was not considered but rather, as words and ideas came to mind, they were recorded and connections between the nodes were drawn as necessary. There was not an overriding organizational strategy. The second iteration, fig. 6 was a refinement of fig. 5. The key nodes were organized vertically on the page and solid lines were only used to connect major topics to each other. The other nodes of text that float around major topics within the dashed lines indicate related topics that are not central to the project but are still relevant.Key precedents and corresponding analysis can been found on pages following.78surface lotresidential garageparking garagestreet parkingunderground garageParking TypologiesFig. 71. Parking Typologies.79Exterior and entranceLayout and spatial configurationInterior elements and systemsLighting Life Safety• entrance through a sunken courtyard• above grade entrance pavilion• entrance through large above-grade building mass• open stairways, ramps and escalators• glass enclosed vertical and included elevators• system of paths, activity nodes and landmarks• sunken exterior courtyard• interior atrium space• building thoroughfare• short, lively passageways• zones of distinct character• interior windows overlooking activity• hierarchy of privacy• complex room shapes and interconnected spaces• colourful, warm and spacious environment• pattern, line and texture• natural elements and materials• sculptures and man-made artifacts• uncluttered furnishings• mirrors• alcoves and window-like recesses• paintings and photographs• transmitted and reflected exterior views• clear system of signs and maps• well-ventilated, comfortable environment• natural light through windows and skylights• transmitted and reflected natural light• artificial light with natural characteristics• skylights and wall panels with artificial back-lighting• indirect lighting of ceilings and walls• dark, ambiguous boundaries• patterns of light and shadow• clear internal organization and egress system• safe vertical egress - stairwells, elevators and escalators• compartmentalization and places for safe refuge• clear signs and emergency lighting• effective detection. alarm and communication systems• effective smoke removal and air handling• effective fire suppression• fire-resistant construction and restriction of hazardous materialsTable 1. Underground design strategies.80mobility as a serviceprivate carownershipautonomous vehicleselectric vehiclesride sharecar share obsolete buildingtypologiesparking lotsundergroundarchitecturewhat do we need?underground parkadeshousingno natural lightpoorly plannedbulding bylawsurban servicesutilitarianpublic spacesomething to save us from climate changepodium condo towersdowntownvancouverconcord pacificenvelope repairsBC step code?retrofittingin 10 yearsFig. 72. Mind Map I.81mobility as a serviceautonomous vehiclesride sharecar shareobsolete buildingtypologiesparking lotsundergroundarchitecturewhat do we need?underground parkadeshousingno natural lightpoorly plannedbulding bylawsurban services utilitarianpublic spacesomething to save us from climate changepodium condo towersdowntownvancouverconcord pacificFig. 73. Mind Map II.82 Fig. 74. Peckham Levels photographs. Source: https://turner.works/works/view/peckham-levels-2/.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright83Peckham LevelsKeywords: parking, retrofit, temporaryLocation: London, EnglandYear constructed: 2017Architect: Carl Turner ArchitectsClient: Make Shift CommunityProject description from the Make Shift Community website:“Peckham Levels is our second project, created to showcase the cultural talent at work in Peckham and offer much needed affordable workspace for artists and entrepreneurs.It has transformed seven levels of an underused multi-storey carpark in Peckham into a cultural destination and workspace for local creative workers.The space includes 50 studios for artists, makers and small businesses; as well as space for food businesses, retailers, markets, events and more.The project building a new creative workshop and cultural destination that showcases its members and connects them with the world outside.“The idea for Peckham Levels was born when Southwark Council announced an open call, asking the community to propose a positive alternate use for the empty levels within the multistorey car park in the centre of Peckham.The council issued a brief highlighting the potential this space had to support employment and the arts and asked for suggestions for temporary projects that could take up residence in the car park for 5 years. Dozens of ideas were submitted by architects, entrepreneurs and community groups; and in November 2015 Peckham Levels was selected as the winning bid.Over the last two years Make Shift continued to develop the concept, working closely with the local community to identify members, developing designs and bringing the space to life.Peckham Levels its doors for the first time in December 2017.”20This project is an excellent example of a retrofit of a parking garage that successfully contributed to the community. The ideas about programme in this project are what I could see myself adopting from this project in GP2. The need for affordable business space in Vancouver and many other dense urban cities is high. This project has become one of the “hottest work/life hubs” in London, perfect for artists and designers.21 I also like that it seems to offer a variety of scales of spaces for people which is also what makes it so successful. It beautifully combines work, retail and social space. I also think that the scale of this project is comparable to what I will propose for GP2.84sitebuildconventionsitesInterburobuild disassemble reassembledemolitiondesigndesignsitesite“What do you need?”“What do you need?”site landfillsitesFig. 75. Diagram of Holding Pattern Design Process. Fig. 76. Holding Pattern project diagram. Source: http://www.interboropartners.com/projects/holding-pattern.image removed for copyright85Holding PatternKeywords: temporary, material flows, urbanLocation: Long Island City, NYYear constructed: 2011Architect: Interboro PartnersClient: MoMA PS1 and neighboursInterboro Partners designed a temporary environment for a MoMa event. Instead of disposing of the materials used after the event was over, they went out to institutions in the neighbourhood to see what they needed and then paired those needs with the choice in materials and objects for the design project in the MoMa courtyard.Project description from the Interboro website:“Because we expanded our client base from one client (MoMA PS1) to over 50, Holding Pattern operated like an urban design project. The environment we created responded to different desires in ways that a fixed piece of architecture couldn’t, and giving the neighborhood a stake in the design made locals more likely to patronize the museum.During the summer, these objects sat in the MoMA PS1 courtyard under a canopy constructed by stringing ropes from holes in MoMA PS1’s 16-foot tall concrete wall to the parapet across the courtyard. Just as Hugh Ferris revealed the potential of New York City’s 1916 zoning code by drawing the theoretical building envelope, we revealed the very odd, idiosyncratic space of the courtyard and created an inexpensive and column-free space for the activity below. From the ground, the experience was of a soaring, hyperboloid surface.”22What I like about this project is the way that Interboro has so simply redefined the conventional design process that many architects would take for this kind of project. I attempted to diagram this rethinking in a diagram (fig. 8).86 Fig. 77. Photographs of The Water by Hiroshi Sambuichi. Source: https://www.designboom.com/art/hiroshi-sambuichi-cisternerne-installation-water-copenhagen-rasmus-hjortshoj-07-31-2017/.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright87The Water Keywords: underground, dankness, nature, phenomenologicalLocation: Copenhagen, DenmarkYear constructed: 2018Architect: Hiroshi SambuichiClient: Cisterns MuseumProject description from ArchDaily:“In designing the “shrine-like” installation, Sambuichi reopened the ground above the cistern for the first time in 150 years, allowing the sun and water to meet in a tranquil embrace. Accessed via a 120-meter-long corridor, the experience is that of a journey through light and atmosphere that connects visitors to the specific qualities of the place. Several mirrors reflect light through the space, while a camera obscura projects an image of the Frederiksberg Palace onto the cistern walls as a reminder of the site’s wider context.”23This project is an installation within a former underground water reservoir in Copenhagen. The intent of the project is to return the natural elements that once occupied the site to it. The opening times of this installation depend on the length of day. Only during daylight can this project be visited because of minimal artificial light. The project also doesn’t attempt to provide an ideally conditioned space. It is often cold, humid and dark. This kind of temporal and environmental variation is an idea I would like to explore in my project.88 Fig. 78. Photographs of the International Centre for Cave Art. https://snohetta.com/project/322-lascaux-iv-the-international-centre-for-cave-art.image removed for copyrightimage removed for copyright89Lascaux IV: The International Centre for Cave Art by Snøhetta Keywords: underground, museumLocation: Montignac, FranceYear constructed: 2012-2016Architect: SnøhettaClient: Conseil Général de la DordogneProject description excerpt from Snøhetta website:"Throughout the museum, the visitor experience sequences a balance of stark differences in atmospheres, light and intensities – from the enclosed exhibition spaces ensconced in the hill, to the light-filled lobby and transition spaces. The juxtaposition between descent and ascent, inside and outside, earth and sky, or nature and art, evoke the analogous experience of the caves."24This project carefully considers the circulation sequence into the replica of the prehistoric caves that the museum showcases. The circulation considers how the body transitions from above ground to below ground and back by creating a gradient of these conditions. This also informs the organization strategy for program.Notes1. Ben-Joseph, Rethinking A Lot, 69.2. Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking, 159.3. Ibid, 159.4. Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking, 129.5. Ibid, 141.6. Ibid, 143.7. The Metro Vancouver Apartment Parking Study, Technical Report, 5.8. Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking, 163.9. Robinson, Vancouver addicted to Parking Revenue http://www.vancouversun.com/news/vancouver+addicted+parking+revenue/11736950/story.html10. Ibid.11. Ben-Joseph, Rethinking A Lot, 76.12. Sperling, Three Revolutions, 152.13. Meyboom, Driverless Urban Futures.14. Arbib, Rethinking Transportation 2020, 3.15. Ibid, 6.16. Ibid, 72.17. Admiraal, Underground Spaces Unveiled, 59.18. Ibid, 70.19. Ibid, 71.20. https://www.makeshift.org/new-index.21. https://www.standard.co.uk/go/london/attractions/peckham-levels-where-to-eat-drink-and-get-creative-at-this-onestop-shop-a3744331.html.22. http://www.interboropartners.com/projects/holding-pattern.23. https://www.archdaily.com/873169/hiroshi-sambuichi-architecture-begins-with-water-air-and-sun.24. https://snohetta.com/project/322-lascaux-iv-the-international-centre-for-cave-art.9091Appendix B: 888 Beach As-built Drawings 92ramp upramp upramp down1XWBA21 2 8 9 10 11 12 141313 14P15P14P13P12P11P9P7P676543WMPEPDPCPBPAABNPQRSTUVXCDEFGHMTHTGTFT10T7T6T4T3T2T1LJKTEParking level 11:200loadingloadingcouriercommercialelec.storagemech. lower lobby ramp up tolobbyelec.garbageelec.mailbike parkingt.h.t.h.t.h.t.h. t.h. t.h. t.h. t.h. t.h. t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.foyergarbage & mech.ramp upto foyerA BA BFig. 79. 888 Beach Ave P1 as-built.93XVUTSRQPNBAPAPBPCPDPEMW3 4 5 6 7CDEFGHIJKNOAABBCCMP6 P7 P9 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 141313 1412111098P10P8P5P4P3P2P12121ABWXParking level 2, 3, 41:200A BA Bstorageramp upmech.elec.storage/sprinklerstorageFig. 80. 888 Beach Ave P2, P3, P4 as-built.94Level 3Level 4Level 5Parking 3Parking 2Parking 1Level 2Level 2Parking 1Parking 2Parking 3Parking 4Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6Level 7Level 6Level 7Parking 4Section B-B1:200Section A-A1:200beach avewalkwaywalkwaybeach avet.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.gymt.h.Fig. 81. 888 Beach Ave North-South section through Beach Ave ramp as-built.95Level 3Level 4Level 5Parking 3Parking 2Parking 1Level 2Level 2Parking 1Parking 2Parking 3Parking 4Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6Level 7Level 6Level 7Parking 4Section B-B1:200Section A-A1:200beach avewalkwaywalkwaybeach avet.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.gymt.h.96Level 3Level 4Level 5Parking 3Parking 2Parking 1Level 2Level 2Parking 1Parking 2Parking 3Parking 4Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6Level 7Level 6Level 7Parking 4Section B-B1:200Section A-A1:200beach avewalkwaywalkwaybeach avet.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.gymt.h.Fig. 82. 888 Beach Ave North-South section as-built.97Level 3Level 4Level 5Parking 3Parking 2Parking 1Level 2Level 2Parking 1Parking 2Parking 3Parking 4Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6Level 7Level 6Level 7Parking 4Section B-B1:200Section A-A1:200beach avewalkwaywalkwaybeach avet.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.t.h.gymt.h.98BibliographyTransportationAppleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch, and John Randolph Myer. 1964. 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