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Experimental preservation : Investigations into Collective Forms of Happiness Janeiro, Stephanie 2019-12-19

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EXPERIMENTAL PRESERVATION:INVESTIGATIONS INTO COLLECTIVE FORMS OF HAPPINESSStephanie JaneiroB.A., Bishop’s University, 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in the Faculty of Graduate Studies School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Architecture Program CommitteeJoseph Dahmen (Chair) Luca Perra Erik Fenstad Langdalen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Joseph Dahmen  B.A. (Hons), M.Arch_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Blair Satterfield B.Sc., M.Arch© Dec 2019  /  Stephanie Janeiro  /  University of British Columbia STEPHANIE  JANEIRO INVESTIGATIONS INTO COLLECTIVE FORMS OF HAPPINESS FINAL REPORT iv vABSTRACT This thesis pursues an exploration of collective moments of happiness in the city and their potential under experimental preservation discourse to re-frame normative considerations for architectural preservation. This thesis situates itself in the experimental preservationist’s concern with the current intellectual frames1 used to assess the value of contemporary objects, as conventional criteria, such as “historical significance,” date back to the late 19th century. Experimental preservation aims to challenge and question the conventional notions of cultural heritage preservation by actively choosing to preserve objects that fall outside the official narratives of preservation, in this case specific moments of happiness. This project started with an observation about the inevitable demand for a reconstructed notion of preservation as we move into a period of ever-increasing development and density in the city of Vancouver. In this project, the link between future development increases and public spaces of collective happiness is pushed to the extreme.  This project asks how the current methods of preservation will adapt to contemporary² notions of development and social understandings and obsessions of happiness? 1   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 5.  2   Theodore Prudon, “Preservation, design and modern architecture: the challenges ahead,” Journal of Architectural Conservation (vol. 23, Issue 1-2: Renewing Modernism, 2017) 27. vi viiABSTRACT MOMENTS FOR PRESERVATION  Granville Island SilosStanley Park 1st Generation ForestRobson Square StrampsKitsilano Beach Empire Landmark Hotel Viewing TowerCity Public PlazaCONCEPT Strategy DiagramParti: Preservation DiagramContinuous Frontal Elevation Circulation SectionFLOOR PLANS Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5Level 6Future ContinuityMODELSINTRODUCTION Thesis StatementPROJECT INTRODUCTION Thesis StatementSITEContextLocationMapTABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSGRADUATION PROJECT: PART 1GRADUATION PROJECT: PART 2FIELD OF INQUIRY  PreservationValueTransitional ObjectsExperimental PreservationARCHITECTURAL ISSUESTHEORETICAL PRECEDENTSLayering Experiencing Visualizing ZoningAPPENDICESPresentation BoardsBibliography Figure Sourcesv 718391105046667viiixxi0511107TABLE OF CONTENTSviii ixConception & realization Installation viewsWeaving relationship between the new and existingNew addition to the oldDetails of how the new meets the old Interior relation between new and oldExterior details between new and old materialViews“Imprint” material detailsConcept diagramsGlass facade details Facade material detailsNeighbouring Ise Shrine sitesPhoto-montage of the hypothetical colossal Grand Hotel“Barcode” city planning diagramInteriorMoscow Libraries MapsMoscow Libraries NetworkSite Location Context Map Granville Island 2019Stanley Park 2019Robson Square 2019 Kitsilano Beach 2019Empire Landmark Hotel 2019: Prior to DemolitionCity Plaza 20192019: Many Locations2100: One LocationParti: Preservation Diagram Front Elevation Circulation Section Level 1 ExperienceLevel 1 Floor PlanLevel 2 Experience Level 2 Floor Plan Level 3 ExperienceLevel 3 Floor Plan Level 4 Experience Level 4 Floor Plan Level 5 ExperienceLevel 5 Floor Plan Level 6 ExperienceLevel 6 Floor Plan Future Continuity of Tower Models: IsolatedModels: StackedPresentation BoardsPART 10102030405060708091011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647LIST OF FIGURES        PART 2x xiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThank you to my mentor, Joe Dahmen, and committee members, Luca Perra and Erik Fenstad Langdalen, for their thoughtful insight and guidance throughout.01 02PART  103 04INTRODUCTIONThis thesis starts with a general look at preservation in terms of its history, relation to notions of value, connection to culture, and provocative experimental school of thought. The theories explored under the field of inquiry are that of the subjet-object relationship presented in psychologists Michel Serres and Donald W. Winnicott theories of the quasi-object and the transitional object, respectively. As well as, the relatively developed notion of an experimental method of preservation presented by artist and architect Jorge Otero-Pailos and other contributing members of the field of architecture, preservation and conservation, and the arts. These theories are explored and observed through material precedents/case studies.This preliminary research looks into the complexities associated with the amalgamation of two or more entities, in this thesis future development and our public spaces of happiness within the city. A thorough look into the actions associated with the methods of preservation pursues a way of understanding the successes and failures of the architectural actions performed, as well as, the way in which they have influenced preservation practices. This thesis aims to find an experimental method that will re-frame the way we preserve the moments of happiness we value in the city as a culture and community. 05 06FIELD OF INQUIRY  | PRESERVATION FIELD OF INQUIRY  | VALUEPRESERVATION. The activity or process of keeping something valued alive, intact, or free from damage or decay.3 The act of preserving something stems from the human need to belong. One’s sense of belonging is attached to one’s understanding of place and one’s relationship to it. The first law to define the act of preservation takes place in France, not long after the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under the 1790 Comission for Art and Monuments.4 It is not surprising the issue of preserving monuments takes place within this period of radical social change and destruction as the revolution was a highly critical period that raised questions about what to keep (i.e. politically, architecturally, etc.). Following this, the foundation of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in 1877 marks the first organized attempt to form a theorethical framework around the notion of preservation in Victorian England. As analysed by AMO, the Office for Metropolitan Architecture’s research and design studio, the act of  architectural preservation is a product of modernization:  “If  you look at inventions that were taking place between these two movements — cement, the spinning frame, the stethoscope, anesthesia, photography, blueprints, etc. — you suddenly realize that preservation is not the enemy of modernity but actually one of its inventions.”5According to Mrinalini Rajagopalan, modernization was also responsible for the generation of philosophical inquiries into and generation of policies for the preservation of historic monuments.6 Since the modern era, theories of and policies for preservation have been representative of the time and place in which they were produced. Although preservation discourse concerns itself primarily with the objects of the past, it is arguably the present societal concerns that shape those related to the past.7 VALUE. The regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something.8Value is intrinsically wound in the notion of preservation. It is the measure with which preservationists use to determine what to preserve. Commonly used as the reason to preserve something, value itself can take on many forms and meanings depending on the interests of the subject determining such value. Charters have identified “historical significance” and “universal values” as some of the dominant criteria for the consideration of preservation alongside that of time. The aspect of time has long played an important role in determining the value of an architectural work. Over years, the span between the objects an buildings we preserved has gotten shorter.9 This is representative of today’s social, economical, environmental, and global context. Preservation plays an important societal role as it holds within it the potential, when done with proper consideration, to re-cultivate and re-generate an object or building’s cultural relevance in society. Value in preservation is thus linked to its ability to re-establish cultural significance. The task of determining the value of an architectural work is extremely daunting as it is highly subjective. Charters and legislative acts attempt to monitor the subjective nature of determining unquantifiable value by creating lists of criteria that an object or building must meet in order to be considered for preservation by the governing bodies. Even then, although the list of criteria might create subsequential objectivity when considering what to preserve, the criteria that makes up the list is the product of subjective definitions of value. Much like the historical narratorial bias of the art curator in a museum, the same debate over what narrative to preserve, how to preserve it and why to preserve it occur within the field of architectural preservation.According to Jorge Otero-Pailos, the dated criteria used by organizations like UNESCO are potentially unequipped to determine the value of contemporary objects and buildings that fall within the realm of the architecturally banal.10 The underlining issue with this is that the older notions and criteria for preservation may sometimes dismiss a population’s cultural attachment to the more generic and banal objects and architecture that compose their everyday context and relation to culture. 3   “Preservation,” Merriam-Webster, 2019.4   Rem Koolhaas, “Recent Work: 17 Sept 2004,” Preservation is Overtaking Us, ed. Jordan Carter (GSAPP Transcripts, 2014) 14.5   Ibid., 14.6   Mrinalini Rajagopalan, “Preservation and Modernity: Competing Perspectives, Contested Histories and the Question of Authenticity,” The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory (SAGE Publications, 2012) 308. 7   Ibid., 308.      8   “Value,” English Oxford Living Dictionaries(Oxford University Press, 2019).9   Rem Koolhaas, “Recent Work: 17 Sept 2004,” Preservation is Overtaking Us, ed. Jordan Carter (GSAPP Transcripts, 2014) 15.10   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 5.  07 08FIELD OF INQUIRY  | TRANSITIONAL OBJECTSTRANSITIONAL. Marked by transition: involving, providing, or consisting of a passage, movement, or change from one state, condition, subject, place, etc., to another.11 OBJECT. Something mental or physical toward which thought, feeling, or action is directed.12“Without objects there is no field of cultural production.”13 Cultural objects shape us as subjects to the extent that “we cannot imagine ourselves, or our participation in culture without them.”14 Psychological theorist Michel Serres describes this relation between object and subject using the soccer ball: The ball isn’t there for the body; the exact contrary is true: the body is the object of the ball; the subject moves around this sun. Skill with the ball is recognized in the player who follows the ball and serves it instead of making it follow him and using it. It is the subject of the body, subjects of bodies, and like a subject of subjects. Playing is nothing else than making oneself the attribute of the ball as a substance. The laws are written for it, defined relative to it, and we bend to these laws. Skill with the ball presupposes a Ptolemaic revolution of which few theoreticians are capable, since they are accustomed to being subjects in a Copernican world where objects are slaves.15In this respect, changes to the object affect how the subject moves, uses, and relates to the object. Objects also hold the role of grounding us in social reality. Jorge Otero-Pailos explains the phenomena: “for sane people to perceive a thing as real others must also perceive the thing as real; in other words, our sense of reality is socialized.”16 Donald Winnicott, an English pediatrician and psychoanalysis, is the first to provide compelling evidence of this phenomena through his study of the “process by which infants [grasp] the existence of an external world” 17 with the use of transitional objects. Winnicott’s inquiry into the infant’s relationship to, what he terms, the first possession reveals its relation to both external and internal objects such as a mother’s breast and the infant’s unconsious adoption of the mother’s breast, respectively.18 According to Winnicott, the infant’s early experience of care is perceived as an internal, self applied function, for during this period of an infant’s life a mother adapts herself to the infant’s needs.19 In the following passage, Winnicott explains how the act of caring for the infant at this stage (i.e. providing the infant with her breast anytime he/she cries) nurtures, within the infant, the illusion that the breast is in fact an object of its own creation: “The mother’s adaptation to the infant’s needs, when good enough, gives the infant the illusion that there is an external reality that corresponds to the infant’s own capacity to create.”20 According to Winnicott, a good enough mother is one that actively adapts herself to the infant’s needs in its early experience, and that gradually lessens the active adaptation to his/her needs in relation to the infant’s ability to make up for the failure of adaptation and his/her wait to withstand the resulting frustration from the failure.21 As the mother’s adaptation to the child gradually lessens, the frustrated child becomes increasingly aware of the external world.  At this stage the child turns to an object that will act as a soother for him/her as the mother continues to disappoint. As noted by Otero-Pailos, the important finding from Winnicott’s psychological analysis is the central role objects play in this complex process of human consciousness.22Winnicott defines the child’s specially chosen object (i.e. a specific blanket or teddy bear that he/she must be in possession of) as a transitional object. This special object acts to support the child in his/her testing and experiencing of both realities — the internal and external world.23Winnicott explains that the child’s transitional object lessens in importance as he/she develops interest in culture.24 The need for transitional objects is also present in adulthood. He explains the human need for “an area of experience that is not challenged [... and can] exist as a resting-place for the individual engaged in the perpetual human task of keeping inner and outer reality separate yet inter-related.”25 The transitional objects enable us to engage in safe practices of testing reality.26 Winnicott considers the arts and religion as potential forms of transitional objects chosen in adulthood as he understood these fields to be “realms of experience where illusion was not only socially acceptable but also carefully protected.”27 The relation of this notion with that of realm of preservation is the common acceptance of art and religious objects as cultural heritage.Otero-Pailos draws an interesting comparison between both Winnicott and Serres’ understanding of the transitional object and the quasi-object, respectively, when he points out their similar attempts to describe how objects enable and create social relations: “Both attempt to describe how objects enable us to socialize, and how social relations are in part accommodations to objects.”28For Otero-Pailos, Winnicott’s theories hypothesize the realm of preservation as a safe space to experience objects of cultural production: “preservation appears [...] as an unchallenged area where we can safely experience cultural objects as vitally important to us — where we can experience ourselves as part of cultural objects and even feel that we exist only to the degree that our heritage survives and that without this heritage some vital part of us would die.”29 Most interesting is the way both theories ultimately rely on preservation as an active agent in shaping social reality and facilitating cultural production. 11   “Transitional.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.12   “Object.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.13   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 9.  14   Ibid., 9. 15   Ibid., 9.16   Ibid., 16.17   Ibid., 16.18   Donald W. Winnicott, “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena” (1951), Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (Routledge, 2018) 242.19   Ibid., 238. 20  Ibid., 239.21   Donald W. Winnicott, “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena” (1951), Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (Routledge, 2018) 238.22   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 16. 23   Ibid., 17.  24   Donald W. Winnicott, “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena” (1951), Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (Routledge, 2018) 242.25   Ibid., 230. 26   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 16. 27   Ibid., 17.28   Ibid., 17.29   Ibid., 17. 09 010FIELD OF INQUIRY  | EXPERIMENTAL PRESERVATION EXPERIMENT. A course of action tentatively adopted without being sure of the outcome.30 To try out ideas or methods.31Experimental preservation is a recently developed discourse and practice within the field of preservation. Experimental preservationists aim at challenging the conventional notions of cultural heritage by choosing objects that fall outside the official narratives.32 Otero-Pailos uses the following description of the objects typically chosen for preservation by official narratives as understood by cultural historian Laurajane Smith: “The Authorized Heritage Discourse focuses attention on aesthetically pleasing material objects, sites, places and/or landscape that current generations ‘must’ care for, protect and revere so that they might be passed to nebulous future generations for their education, and to forge a sense of common identity based on the past.”33The choices made by official narratives are reflective of the charters and legislations to which they are bound. Unlike the bureaucratic organizations of preservation, Otero-Pailos explains that experimental preservationists reserve and protect their freedom to choose objects, from the social and physical context, that might be thought of as ugly or unworthy and that might have been excluded from preservation by official narratives.34The underlaying doubt at the core of experimental discourse lies in the concern that the intellectual framework for critically determining objects for preservation is dated. Otero-Pailos notes that some of the criteria, such as “universal values” and “historical significance,” date back to the 19th century.35 He argues this is not to say they are no longer of value to the field of preservation, rather he is simply pointing to the issue that many of the criteria and policies were coined before the 21st century objects existed.36 It is possible then that these older criteria are not fit to measure the value of today’s objects, as many of them fall beyond the scope of what the 19th century theorist could imagine.37 Experimental preservationists are therefore concerned with the gap in preservation discourse and theory in relation to the new material world. One of the primary ways experimental preservation discourse attempts take on such task is by creating a practice within the field of preservation that serves to cast doubt on the current methods of preservation. The importance placed on the act of instilling doubt through the works of experimental preservation is tied to the belief that “gentle frustrat[ions] and subver[tions of] illusory belief by choosing, as heritage, objects that have appeared too imaginary, too fantastic, too subjectiveto be understood as real heritage [... can open] up new and vital questions about the reality of heritage as an open-ended process of social negotiation.”38 Interested in cultural engagement in the process of choosing objects to test as heritage, experimental preservationists do not attempt to speak for culture rather, they aspire to produce cultural response.39 As heritage objects are arguably representative of collective choices rather than individual ones, experimental preservationists look to implement a culturally rooted, bottom-up approach rather than the top-down approach commonly attributed to the Authorized Heritage Discourse.30   “Experiment,” English Oxford Living Dictionaries(Oxford University Press, 2019).31   Ibid.32   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 1.  33   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 3-4. 34   Ibid., 4. 35   Ibid., 5.36   Ibid., 5.37   Ibid., 5. 38   Jorge Otero-Pailos, “Experimental Preservation,” (Places Journal, September, 2016) 20.39   Ibid., 2. 011 012ARCHITECTURALISSUES  THEORETICAL PRECEDENTS LAYERING  InsertingEncasingWeavingAddingVersioning VISUALIZING  ReferencingIncorporatingEXPERIENCING ZONINGBarcodingSystem0102030401   LAYERING 013 014INSERTING 015 016DOVECOTE STUDIO Haworth TompkinsEngland (2009)INSERTING. To put or introduce into the body of something.1 To place into action.2 Within the realm of architectural preservation, the former definition of the term inserting, refers to the act of inserting a new structure within an existing structure. This first definition of the term establishes the layering of history within the act of inserting, for the existing structure must remain for the action to take place — at least in part. The potential for reestablishing cultural relevance, within the act of inserting, lies in the layering of cultural and material history. As the latter of the two definitions describes, the act of inserting also acts to re-instill cultural relevance to that which has become non-relevant and/or obsolete within its cultural context. With each insertion a new preservational action is placed within the existing structure. This preservational act looks to reestablish the engagement between buildings and people through the insertion of a new culturally relevant structure. Haworth Tompkins’ Dovecote Studio demonstrates this preservational method. In this case, the new structure is entirely independent of the dovecote ruin it is inserted in. This specific example demonstrates the complete physical separation between the existing and the new. The physical relation between the existing and the new is demonstrative of new technologies and the lean towards prefabrication in today’s construction methods. Although separate in form, together new and existing forms both recall and invite, past and new function to the site, respectively. 1   “Insert.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.2   Ibid.Fig 01      Haworth Tompkins, Dovecote Studio, England, 2009. Conception & realization 017 018ENCASING019 020LEGIBLE POMPEIILucia Allais & MOS ArchitectsMonditalia Pavilion at the 14th Venice Architecture BiennaleVenice, Italy (2014)ENCASING. To enclose in or as if in a case.3 A common method amongst preservationists within the realm of museums is to encase objects that require protection. The encasing of an object is a well-known signifier of value within the social construct. The act of encasing an object draws attention to that which is displayed inside, whether truly valuable or not. That which is displayed can be manipulated based on the material of the encasement; it holds the power to hide or reveal that which is inside, as well as, to control its visual reception and perception.  Lucia Allais’ installation, Legible Pompeii, at the Monditalia Pavilion at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale, looks to further explore the conceptual possibilities within the preservational method of encasement. Here, Allais chose to experiment with a classic “formless quasi-object”4 that preservationists use to hold buildings together. Her focus on epoxy resin, an essential material within the preservationist’s material palette,5 unveils an experimental reversal of the hidden and the displayed within the normative practices of architectural preservation. Epoxy resins are most commonly regarded as secondary to the architecture or object being preserved. Conventionally viewed as a supplementary materials, epoxy resins act as the secret binding agent within preservational practices. A material that is thus meant to be hidden from viewing eyes is inversely put on display in Allais’ Legible Pompeii.6 By reversing the conventions of preservational practice, Allais highlights the method of preservation by bringing it to the forefront as that which can encase. The material properties of resin allow a visual layering to occur. Unlike the inserting method, the encasing method distances the viewer from the preserved object whether it chooses to allow a visual connection through its layering or not. This method ensures the newest layer of encasement is always in direct contact with the viewer. It therefore remains in direct relation to the existing context, theoretically unlimited to spacial restraint as its layers expand outwardly. 3   “Encase.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.4   Jorge Otero-Pailos, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius. Experimental Preservation. Lars Muller Publishers, Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. p 20.5   Ibid., p 20. 6   Ibid., p 20. Fig 02      Lucia Allais and MOS, Legible Pompeii, Monditalia Pavilion at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale, 2014. Installation views021 022WEAVING023 024AUDITORIUM IN CHURCH OF SAINT FRANCIS’ CONVENTDavid Closes Santpedor, Spain (2011)WEAVING. To produce by elaborately combining elements. To unite in a coherent whole. To introduce as an appropriate element: work in.7 As the definitions describe, the term weaving refers to 3 key elements: an introduction, a combination, and a unification. In the context of architectural preservation this would be understood as an introduction of something new (i.e. program, structural reinforcement, etc.) to an existing structure and a combination of the new and the existing such that it forms a unity between the two. David Closes’ preservational intervention allows an old convent to regain relevence within the local communtiy through the act of weaving in a new program within the existing complex. A carefully composed combination of new and extisting architectural componets, as well as, the choice of contemporary materials and construction practices act to both seperate and strengthen the relation between the new and the existing. The act of weaving provides preservationists with the liberty to experiment with exterior and interior relations between the new and the old. 7   “Weave.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.Fig 03      David Closes, Auditorium in the Church of Saint Francis’ Convent, Spain, 2011. Weaving relationship between the new and existing025 026ADDING027 028LOUVIERS MUSIC SCHOOL REHABILITATION AND EXTENSIONOpus 5 ArchitectesFrance (2012)ADDING. To join or unite so as to bring an increase or improvement.8 A common debate within architectural preservation revolves around how to join or unite the new and the old. A large part of the conversation is concerned with whether preservational methods should be visually understood as an addition to the existing. In this example, Opus 5 Architectes makes the addition of a new auditorium materially different from the preserved structure — identifying it as separate. The material contrast reestablishes a material observation of the old in order to appreciate the new. As a hermetic addition, its material language does not specifically reference the existing materials aesthetically nor experientially. The pure material distinction creates a separate, isolated experience of spaces new and old. This form of addition creates a heterogeneous relationship between the newly added and old. This heterogeneous form of addition is demonstrated by the clear, distinctive layering of the new and the old in all aspects of the architectural addition, from the point where new and old material meet, to the experiencing of the new in relation to the old and vice versa. 8   “Add.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.Fig 04      Opus 5 Architectes, Louviers Music School Rehabilitation and Extension, France, 2012. New addition to the oldFig 05      Opus 5 Architectes, Louviers Music School Rehabilitation and Extension, France, 2012. Details of how the new meets the old 029 030KOLUMBA MUSEUMPeter ZumthorCologne, Germany (2010)Similar to the previous example, a clear material definition is made between the architectural addition and the existing structure, however, in this case, there is no clear separation of the experience. In Peter Zumpthor’s Kolumba Museum, the experiencing of the old cannot be seprated from the experiencing of the new. The addition is a homogenous one in this respect. This form of addition creates an experiential blending of the layers, whereas the previous example creates an isolation of the layers, each with their own experiential and material distinction from the whole. This homogeneous form of addition sets to reframe the existing experience by allowing a non-psysical element — light — to highlight the museum’s collection of objects in a new way. This creates a soft relation between the objects preserved and the archicture that enables their preservation and cultural relevance. It is important to note the power of the softer elements, such as light, to change the way an object is received by a culture. On this topic Peter Zumthor states: “It is essential to the quality of the intervention that the new building should embrace qualities that can enter into a meaningful dialogue with the existing situation. For if the intervention is to find its place, it must make us see what already exists in a new light [...] I believe those buildings will only be accepted by their surroundings if they have the ability to appeal to our emotions and minds in various ways.”9Zumthor’s Kolumba Museum encompasses both heterogeneous and homogeneous forms of addition. The form of addition experienced by the viewer depends on whether the viewer is outside or inside the museum. From the exterior, the experience is much like that of Opus 5 Architectes’ project as the added material sits along the extisting structure adapting to its weathered surface but remaining distinct. The interior condition along this seam remains the same, however, the interior experience is differs from that of the exterior as it has the applied atmospheric effect created by the new material addition. 9   Peter Zumthor, Thinking Architecture, (Birkhauser — Publishers for Architecure, 2006) 17-18.Fig 06      Peter Zumthor, Kolumba Museum, Cologne, 2010. Interior relation between new and oldFig 07      Peter Zumthor, Kolumba Museum, Cologne, 2010. Exterior details between new and old material031 032VERSIONING1.0 1.1033 034INVERTING NEUTRA   Bryony RobertsSite-Specific Installation Neutra VDL House, Los Angeles (2013)VERSIONING. A form or variant of a type or original.10 A versioning method of layering looks to form a new variant of an existing building or to add to an existing building in varying forms of permanence. Here, conventional methods of restoring, conserving, and replicating original buildings are challenged by Roberts’ push for versioning as a new method in architectural preservation.11 Interested in the architect’s common task of revising and transforming the architectural works of their predecessors, Bryony Roberts investigates the act of versioning as a response in the site-specific installation: Inverting Neutra. The installation looked to alter the existing, well-known spatial experience of the closely interlocked interior and exterior spaces in Richard Neutra’s VDL Studio and Residences in Los Angeles.12 Roberts uses aluminum channels to extend the existing spatial grids into the void spaces. Blue cords are hung from the channels such as to fill the original void with coloured volumes.13 Exposed to the natural elements, the cords draw attention to the changing social and climatic environment that occurs within the original void spaces. The fluidity of the cords  allows the natural elements at play to be a visible “register of climate and movement through the house”.14 This new visual understanding of the space generates a version of the original experience by using the existing structure as framework for the project.15This installation demonstrates the creative ability of versioning to redefine one’s experiential understanding of a well-known, even banal space. 10  “Version.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.11   Jorge Otero-Pailos, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius. Experimental Preservation. Lars Muller Publishers, Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. p 62.12   Bryony Roberts. “Inverting Neutra.” Bryony Roberts Studio, 2013. 13   Ibid.14   Ibid.15   Jorge Otero-Pailos, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius. Experimental Preservation. Lars Muller Publishers, Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. p 62.Fig 08     Bryony Roberts, Inverting Neutra, Bryony Roberts Studio, 2017. Views035 03602   VISUALIZING 037 038REFERENCING039 040IMPRINT  Bryony RobertsSite-Specific Installation Orange County Museum of Art (OCMA)California (2017)REFERENCING. Something (such as a sign or indication) that refers a reader or consulter to another source of information.16 The act of referencing in the realm of architecture is as old as architecture itself. Referencing continues to raise debates over authenticity in the realm of architectural preservation. Bryony Roberts’ Imprint is a site-specific installation commissioned for the OCMA California-Pacific Triennial — the last exhibition before the building is demolished. Roberts uses the existing Brutalist concrete facade of the OCMA as a negative mold for the casting of the referential positive. Much like the title of the piece reveals, the existing walls’ textural profile is imprinted in the fiberglass cast such as to reproduce an exact copy of the existing walls down to the individual aggregates in the concrete.17 Placed on the interior of the window fronted entrance, Imprint casts a new relationship to its surroundings. The piece’s artificiality is highlighted by the backlit window display which openly conveys the piece’s transparency in relation to its artificiality. This installation looks to question the way architects document and reproduce buildings in relation to authenticity.This piece arguably maintains both sides of the debate around the issue of authenticity for its formal imprint is physically equivalent to the existing structure, while its material properties are visually distinct from the existing. 16  “Reference.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.17   Bryony Roberts. “Imprint.” Bryony Roberts Studio, 2017. Fig 09      Bryony Roberts, Imprint, Orange County Museum of Art, 2017. “Imprint” material details 041 042CHANEL  MVRDVAmsterdam (2016)Original Façade Existing Situation Houses Replaced with Larger VolumesGlass to Terracotta Brick Gradient Façade Stretched to Fit New Volume Old Pleiter Façade Rebuilt in GlassMVRDV’s Chanel department store in Amsterdam demonstrates a complete break with authenticity in relation to reference. Conceptually designed to reconnect the facade with that of the street’s historic past, Chanel artificially refers to the historic Dutch canal house for its design. Rather than simply recreating the original facade from new red brick, MVRDV instilled modern construction methods and technology within the new facade through the use of the structural glass brick. Here, the visual reference to the past is connected to the evolution of construction and commerce. Fig 10      MVRDV, Chanel, Amsterdam, 2017. Concept diagramsFig 1 1      MVRDV, Chanel, Amsterdam, 2017. Glass facade details  043 044INCORPORATING045 046Ningbo Museum   Wang ShuNingbo, China (2008)INCORPORATING. Take in or contain (something) as part of a whole; include.18 This method includes materials from various sources to make them part of a larger whole. In the realm of architectural preservation, this could be represented in the repurposing of existing materials as a way of maintaining a visual link to the previous architecutral context. In China, the Ningbo Museum by Wang Shu exemplifies the method of incorporation as a visual reminder of and tribute to the site’s history. In this case, the pre-existing site plays an important role in shaping the museum’s architecture. Imbedded in the building’s facade are the bricks and roof tiles that belonged to the buildings in the villages that previously occupied the site. The incorporation of the extisting historic material in the newly constructed facade helps to acknowledge the displacement of thousands in the making of the museum. This method of preservation allows for the physical continuity of architectural history in its literal incorporation of authentic building materials from the pre-existing site condition. The visual and physical link to the site’s history in Ningbo also provides insight for understanding of the cultural and social context in China at the time the Ningbo Museum was built.18   “Incorporate.” English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, 2019.Fig 12     Wang Shu. Ningbo Historical Museum, China, 2011. Facade material details  047 04803   EXPERIENCING049 050ISE SHRINE (62nd Iteration)    Ise, Japan (2013)EXPERIENCING. The fact or state of having been affected by or gained knowledge through direct observation or participation.19 The events that make up the conscious past of a community or nation or humankind generally.20 The notion of experience in the realm of architectural preservation is highly debated as it is, once again, tied to notions of authenticity and restoration — an everlasting theoretical dualism within the field of preservation. The Ise Shrine is an exceptional example of the experiential method of preserving architecture. Its method of destruction for reconstruction facilitates the transfer of knowledge across generations through the direct participation in the act of re-building every detail of the shrine, from the ornaments inside to the structure itself. In this example, it is the knowledge of Shinto tradition, skill and traditional construction practices that is transfered to the future generations of people in Ise.This particular example disregards material authenticity. Instead, it advocates for a more profound, non-materially bound form of perservational practice laced in action. The act of destruction and resconstruction within Japan’s social and cultural understanding of architectural growth and practice is very strong. As Jorge Otero-Pailos explains, the financial and cultural backing behind the Ise Shrine is what allows this conceptually beautiful method of preservational practice to occur. He states the cost alone prevent this method from being replicated in other situations. However, the idea of preserving an experience rather than a physical architectural work is something that can potentially liberate the normative and conventionally binding practices within the field of architectural preservation. The following example will demonstrate how this idea may be applied to a more globalized reality of architectural preservation. 19  “Experience.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.20   Ibid.Fig 13      Ise Shrine, Japan. Neighbouring Ise Shrine sites   051 052GRAND HOTEL COLOSSEO 1969   II Monumento ContinuoSuperstudio Architectural manifesto first presented in Trigon, an exhibition in Graz (1969) Superstudio’s Grand Hotel Colosseo 1969  is exactly the theoretical provocation needed within the realm of architectural preservation to invite discussion on the topic of contemporary architectural preservation practices and the experiences they create. The Grand Hotel Colosseo 1969 is one of the many projects within the studio’s architectural manifesto, II Monumento Continuo (the continuous monument). The project places and/or introduces notions of doubt about the current methods in place for preserving the Roman Colosseum through the use of photo-montages and supplemental publications — a method for which Superstudio is renowned. My interest in this precedent lies in its potential to hypothesize the preservation of experience. In Superstudio’s project the Colosseum in Rome is repurposed into a grand hotel. This proposal is understood to be radical as it fundamentally changes one’s experience of the ruin and perhaps, even more radical is its act of physically altering the monument rather than leaving it as a “ruin”. There are many discrepancies between practice and theory within the realm of architectural preservation and this proposal contests them with this radical move. The proposal first contests the fear associated with the touching and manipulating of historical objects in the field of preservation by proposing to build on the protected site. Its proposition of replacing the existing touristic program with that of a hotel demonstrates an interest in and the desire for a more functional use of the Colosseum. However, I’d criticise the program it proposes as it does little in terms of adding to the understanding of the past lived experiences on the site. If the program were to be more along the lines of an amphetheater or sports stadium, it would have the potential to reestablish the historical sonic experience of the Colosseum through the universal sounds of human joy, cheer, laughter, protest, etc. Using this hypothetical, the idea of experience as a method for preservation is more tangible as everyone can understand and relate to the sounds of pure human emotion. It could then be said that universally understood qualities, like the sound of human emotions, have the ability to reconnect one’s present experience to that of others throughout history on that site, for those universally understood qualities transend generations. This hypotetical argues the validity of experience as a method of preservation within the field of architecture. Under the conditions of Superstudio’s Grand Hotel Colosseo 1969, it also questions the fear associated with the touching of historical architecture and inspires dicussion and re-evaluation of current ideals. Fig 14     Superstudio, II Monumento Continuo, Grand Hotel Colosseo, 1969. Photo-montage of the hypothetical, colossal Grand Hotel 053 05404   ZONING1  2 3 4 055 056BARCODING057 058“BARCODE” PRESERVATION SCHEME    Rem Koolhaas with OMABeijing Government Commission (2002)BARCODE. A code consisting of a group of printed and variously patterned bars and spaces.21 Something that uniquely identifies [something].22  In this scheme, Rem Koolhaas applies the universial alternating pattern of the barcode to preservation. The inherent dualism of preservation is in that of the new and the old. Here, Koolhaas hypothesizes a preservation scheme for the city of Beijing in China, wherein which the solid bands of the barcode could represent a protected area that is forever preserved or one that is gradually and systematically destroyed and replaced.23  Koolhaas argues the democratic nature of this scheme as potentially the most authentic as everything within the band is preserved:“In this case, you would have the certainty that you preserved everything in a very democratic, dispassionate way — highways, Chinese monuments, bad things, good things, ugly things, mediocre things — and therefore really maintained an authentic condition.”24Furthermore, the scheme could account for aspects of construction such as phasing and even help to promote an actively changing city center instead of the current stagnant solution.25 The starck duality between old and new that this scheme would create is described as one holding the potential for a complementary curation and planning of the confrontations.2621  “Barcode.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.22   Ibid.23   Rem Koolhaas, “Recent Work: 17 Sept 2004,” Preservation is Overtaking Us, ed. Jordan Carter (GSAPP Transcripts, 2014) 16-17.24   Ibid., 17. 25   Ibid., 17. 26   Ibid., 17. Fig 15     OMA, “Barcode” preservation scheme for Beijing, 2014. “Barcode” city planning diagram 059 060SYSTEM061 062THE SYSTEM AS A MONUMENT  Alexander Sverdlov & Anastasia Smirnova, SVESMIMoscow, Russia (2012)SYSTEM. A group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose. 27The System as Monument by SVESMI is a project that set out to document and preserve the public library system of Moscow. The Moscow public libraries are a system comprised of 448 branches dispersed across the city within diverse architectural building types.28 The network of library branches functioned during Soviet Russia until they finally faced financial bankruptcy by 2010.29 The act of documenting the material conditions of the libraries by SVESMI and Falanster, a local a bookstore, allowed others with the opportunity to visualize and understand the system as a network. Although the libraries themselves were aesthetically outdated and physically worn down due to neglect, the system as a whole had the potential to revive the libraries’ past functions as spaces in the city where one could have access to information, as well as, to an indoor public space.30 The active role of documenting the system as a tangible network granted the project 5 pilot sites to test the system as a site for preservation. Studies, after the completion of the pilot libraries in different distinct areas of Moscow, proved the need and cultural desire for the re-establishment of these spaces by means of the increase in pedestrian traffic through the space. According to Otero-Pailos, the site previously saw 300 visitors per month whereas now, they can see up to 300 visitors in a day.31This precedent illustrates the preservation of a system rather than any physical interior of any of the libraries. For the power, here, was in the preservation of a type of space (i.e. public, community space) and applying to it the understanding of contemporary functional and aesthetic needs. 27  “System.” Merriam-Webster, 2019.28   Jorge Otero-Pailos, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius, Experimental Preservation (Lars Muller Publishers, 2016) 68. 29   Ibid., 68. 30  Ibid.,68.31   Ibid.,68.Fig 16     SVESMI, Dostoevsky Library, No.8, Moscow, 2013. InteriorFig 17     SVESMI, Moscow’s Libraries Atlas: 448 Rooms with a View, 2012. Moscow Libraries NetworkFig 18     SVESMI, Moscow’s Libraries Atlas: 448 Rooms with a View, 2012. Moscow Libraries Model063 064PART  2065 066PROJECT INTRODUCTIONThis thesis situates itself somewhere between the existent and the non-existent, the real and the imagined. This thesis uses the act of experimental preservation as the method for speculating on the inevitable tension between the desire to develop the city and the desire to keep the city’s public spaces of happiness. Through the exploration of selected moments of public spaces of happiness within the city, this thesis proposes a tower as the future form of collective spaces of happiness within the city of Vancouver. This thesis assembles the explored moments of existing public happiness and selectively preserves a key quality, distinct to each moment, to explore through an inventive hyperbole made possible through the practice of experimental preservation. 067 068SITE  CONTEXTThis thesis frames the current obsession with development and happiness within the city of Vancouver. This thesis imagines a future context in which the economic value of land within Vancouver challenges the value of public spaces of happiness, and the value of happiness in the city. Pivoting at the point where public spaces of collective moments of happiness meets the ever-increasing desire to further develop and densify the city, this thesis identifies an eventual conflict between the two and uses experimental preservation as grounds for invention.32SITE  LOCATION W GEORGIA STHOWE STHORNBY STThe project is located on a public city plaza along West Georgia Street between Howe Street and Hornby Street. This city plaza has a long history within the city of Vancouver for as a place for both casual and organized gathering. Throughout its history, the public plaza has been used as a space for public demonstrations — a space in which public opinion could be heard. This project is sited on this particular plaza because the building itself looks to become the embodiment of public opinion — a visual opinion and agreement on what we value as citizens within the city (i.e. public spaces of happiness) and on what we as citizens believe are moments we should preserve. Located at the center of the city, this site becomes the best place to site this project that is, in its essence, the accumulation of the citizens’ most cherished moments within the city. 32  David Verbeek, “A Speculative Archipelago”, 2017.Fig 19     Site Location 069 070SITE  MAPThe map to the right identifies the moments of happiness selected for preservation and their locations in the city of Vancouver today. Each coloured circle depicts the environment in question for preservation. Fig 20     Context Map  071 072MOMENTS  GRANVILLE ISLAND SILOS The drawing on the right depicts the current activity around the Ocean Concrete concrete silos on Granville Island. In 2014, the 6 concrete silos were painted by two Brazilian mural artists. The application of bright colours within a larger-than-life narrative depicting giants brought lightness and happiness to an otherwise grey and heavily laborious environment. These colourful silos have brought life, colour and a sense of playfulness and joy to the city skyline over the years. Citizens can view them from many locations, including Granville Island, the Granville Brigde, and False Creek. From this particular moment, the physical painted silos are selected as the objects of experimental preservation. Fig 21     Granville Island 2019073 074MOMENTS  STANLEY PARK 1ST GENERATION FORESTStanley Park is beloved by the citizens of Vancouver. The park was established in 1886 and constructed in 1888 as a place for citizens to relax and escape the stresses of the city and its work environment. Located on the West End of Vancouver, the park boasts a perimeter wall that allows citizens to walk, run or bike between water and forest. The park holds 1001 acres of  protected forest. From this particular moment, the park’s 1st generation forest is selected as the environment for experimental preservation. Fig 22     Stanley Park 2019075 076MOMENTS  ROBSON SQUARE STRAMPSCreated by renowned architect Arthur Erickson, the Robson Square plan holds a series of stramps which merge the classic stair and ramp into a single architectural feature. The stramps are part of a larger public space that straddles a pedestrianized Robson Street at its location. Enjoyed by the public walking within the downtown core on a work day or weekend, the Stramps’ effective and beloved architectural form is selected as that which to experimentally preserve. Fig 23     Robson Square 2019077 078MOMENTS  KITSILANO BEACH SANDThe drawing to the right depicts Kitsilano Beach — one of the city of Vancouver’s many beaches. This specific beach was selected for its particulary playful environment and its threatened existence in the future in light of the eventual increased effects of climate change. In the last years, the effects of see level rise through yearly increasing high tide levels have been distinctly noticable at Kitsilano Beach. For this reason, the project experiments with the preservation of the beach’s elemental material — sand. Fig 24     Kitsilano Beach 2019 079 080MOMENTS  EMPIRE LANDMARK HOTEL VIEWING PLATFORMLocated in the West End of Downtown Vancouver, the Empire Landmark Hotel, depicted in the drawing to the right, was demolished in 2019. At its time of construction, the hotel boasted a revolutionary rotating restaurant on its top floor and was one of the tallest buildings in Vancouver. Being one of only two rotating viewing platforms in the city, the Empire Landmark Hotel was a special space in the city where the public could have a 360˚ view of the city. From this particular moment, the hotel’s rotating, 360˚, elevated view is selected for experimental preservation. Fig 25     Empire Landmark Hotel 2019: Prior to Demolition081 082MOMENTS  PUBLIC CITY PLAZA  The plaza depicted on the right is the plaza on which the project is located. As previously described, the plaza is a space in the city in which the public is known to gather on casual occasions, as well as, organized occasions. The plaza’s non-programmed space allows the pubic to program it as they wish. From this particular moment, the public plaza as host for public gathering is selected for experimental preservation. Fig 26     City Plaza 2019Fig 27     2019: Many Locations Fig 28     2100: One Location 083 084CONCEPT This map describes the spread of public spaces of collective happiness in the city of Vancouver today. A selection of locations are highlighted in the map above. These selected moments will be used as examples of a possible experimental method for preservation in the future. In the future, the previously highlighted locations will be gathered onto one site through the act of experimental preservation. In a context where the need to develop overtakes the spaces of public happiness within the city, these spaces will be preserved through the stacking of these moments in a single tower on the central, public city plaza. OBJECTENVIRONMENT FORM  MATERIAL  VIEWGATHERFig 29     Parti: Preservation Diagram 085 086CONCEPT   PRESERVATION DIAGRAM This thesis is a collection of narratives. The stacking of these narratives form a tower of collective moments of happiness based on the existing moments selected as moments to preserve. When gathered, these fragmented narratives of preserved moments of happiness have a greater story to tell about the city and how it places value on such spaces for collective happiness in the future through the act of experimental preservation. The fragments are both an invention and an objectification of a specific condition from the existing context. Every narrative (or level) presents an inventive hyperbole based on the individual act of preservation intended for the specific moment. The diagram to the right is indicative of each quality selected for preservation from each existing moment described in the previous section. Fig 30     Front Elevation  087 088CONCEPT   FRONT ELEVATIONThe elevation to the right begins to illustrate the idea of stacking distinctly individual narratives such as to form an ever-growing tower through the act of experimentally preserving fragments from existing moments of collective happiness within the city. This thesis simply begins to imagine what could come of this idea — it encourages one to imagine what other moments of happiness within public spaces in the city one might like to experimentally preserve within the tower. ?Fig 31     Circulation Section 089 090CONCEPT   CIRCULATION SECTION The individually distinct worlds presented in the of the stacked levels of the tower are brought together by internal spiral stairs and external linear stairs. A spiral stair was used when the visitor’s experience could be enhanced through an internal circulation system, however, the overall circulation approach was an external one. This approach was used to allow for maximum separation between the level, such as to ensure the narratives of experimental preservation based on the respective moment of reference remains distinct from one experience to the next — from level to level. Fig 32     Level 1 Experience Fig 33     Level 1 Floor Plan091 092FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 1The ground level looks to preserve the 6 concrete silos from Ocean Concrete on Granville Island. As seen in the image below, this imagined scenario allows the visitor’s to form a new relationship with these silos through the act of physically replacing them from a private property to a public one. This new home for the silos would provide a brightly coloured backdrop to those walking on the formed hard and soft landscape on the tower’s ground floor. The silos also provide spaces in which the public could gather in small groups for activities or lounging, as well as, for ascending to the next level or experience. Fig 34     Level 2 Experience Fig 35     Level 2 Floor Plan093 094FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 2The second level looks to recreate the environment in which Stanley park was found. This environment focuses on the loss of most of the first generation trees within the forest today. This level wishes to create an experience that experimentally preserves the feeling of a first generation forest for the public.In this space, humidity, temperature, sent and sound are at play. The casting of fog-white resin in the form and size of first generation trees is used to recall the lost trees in the forest and to highlight them as such in the space. They also form the level’s structure. Fig 36     Level 3 Experience Fig 37     Level 3 Floor Plan095 096FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 3The third level looks to experimentally preserve a successful and beloved form through the material used to perform reverse casting, silicone. In this space, the stramps are recalled not through their actual physical material but through their form. Casting an existing form requires a layer of silicone to separate the existing material from the material of the mold. In this imagined moment, the silicone layer itself becomes the level’s ground material and texture. A bold silicone red-pink colour overtakes the space and accentuates the method used to preserve the stramps. The space is also designed to compliment the form by completing it and giving it a complete amphitheater-like form for increased public happiness and gathering. The space also recalls the stramps straddling of a central space, in this case, a shallow pool, skating rink or stage. Fig 38     Level 4 Experience Fig 39     Level 4 Floor Plan097 098FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 4The fourth level looks to preserve the elemental material of sand from Kitsilano Beach. The experience of this level in the tower of collective happiness is designed around the material’s creative and playful nature. Looking to trigger moments of happiness through play, this level exaggerates the structuring capabilities and playfulness of sand thus, inviting visitors to engage with it as such. Fig 40     Level 5 Experience Fig 41     Level 5 Floor Plan099 0100FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 5The fifth level preserves the 360˚ elevated view, as well as, the rotating feature of the Empire Landmark Hotel. The design looks to emphasize the changing views through its many distinct frames, inviting the viewer to engage with the architecture as well as the view. Fig 42     Level 6 Experience Fig 43     Level 6 Floor Plan0101 0102FLOOR PLANS   LEVEL 6The sixth level looks to preserve the plaza on which the tower is located. As an important space for gathering in the city, this level in the sky looks to preserve the citizens’ ability to gather in a large open space. This plaza also shares the original plaza’s patterned floor through stenciling. Fig 44     Future Continuity of Tower0103 0104FLOOR PLANS   TO BE CONTINUED...To conclude, this thesis simply begins to imagine what moments of collective happiness within the city’s public spaces that we might like to experimentally preserve in the future. Through this speculated context of future uncertainty — in respect to our collective moments of happiness identified here in this thesis through successful public spaces — this thesis further questions “how the normalization of the extraordinary might be resisted”33 through the inventive acts possible through experimental preservation. ?33  David Verbeek, “A Speculative Archipelago”, 2017.Fig 45     Models: Isolated Fig 46     Models: Stacked0105 0106MODELS   Fig 47     Presentation Boards0107 0108APPENDICES                 | PRESENTATION BOARDS0109 0110Canadian Centre for Architecture. Our Happy Life: Architecture and Well-Being in the Age of Emotional Capitalism. Edited by Francesco Garutti. Sternberg Press, 2019. Haworth Tompkins. “Dovecote Studio, 2009 — the re-purposing of an industrial ruin on the coast.” 2009. http://www.haworthtompkins.com/work/dovecote-studio.Koolhaas, Rem. Preservation is Overtaking Us. Edited by Jordan Carter. GSAPP Transcripts, 2014. Monocle. The Monocle Guide to Building Better Cities. Edited by Andrew Tuck. Gestalten, Berlin, 2018. Montgomery, Charles. Happy City: Transforming our Lives Through Urban Design. Anchor Canada, 2014. Oslo School of Architecture and Design and Columbia University GSAPP. Tabula Plena: Forms of Urban Preservation. Edited by Bryony Roberts. Lars Muller Publishers. Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. Otero-Pailos, Jorge. “Experimental Preservation.” Places Journal, September, 2016. 1-25. https://placesjournal.org/article/experimental-preservation/. Otero-Pailos, Jorge, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius. Experimental Preservation. Lars Muller Publishers. Zurich, Switzerland, 2016.  Prudon, Theodore. “Preservation, design and modern architecture: the challenges ahead.” Journal of Architectural Conservation. Vol. 23, Issue 1-2: Renewing Modernism, 2017. 27-35.Rajagopalan, Mrinalini. “Preservation and Modernity: Competing Perspectives, Contested Histories and the Question of Authenticity.” Ed. Greig Crysler, Stephen Cairns and Hilde Heynen. The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory. SAGE Publications, 2012. 308-324.Roberts, Bryony. “Imprint.” Bryony Roberts Studio, 2017. http://www.bryonyroberts.com/#/imprint/.Roberts, Bryony. “Inverting Neutra.” Bryony Roberts Studio, 2013. Verbeek, David. “A Speculative Archipelago.” 2017. https://davidverbeek.ca/ A-Specula-tive-ArchipelagoWinnicott, Donald W. “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena” (1951), Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis. Routledge, 2018. 229-242. Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Birkhauser — Publishers for Architecure, 2006. APPENDICES       | BIBLIOGRAPHY0111 0112Conception & realization Installation viewsWeaving relationship between the new and existingNew addition to the oldDetails of how the new meets the old Interior relation between new and oldExterior details between new and old materialViews“Imprint” material detailsConcept diagramsGlass facade details Facade material detailsNeighbouring Ise Shrine sitesPhoto-montage of the hypothetical, colossal Grand Hotel“Barcode” city planning diagramTITLENo. SOURCE010203040506070809101112131415Haworth Tompkins. “Dovecote Studio, 2009 — the re-purposing of an industrial ruin on the coast.” 2009. http://www.haworthtompkins.com/work/dovecote-studio.Lucia Allais and MOS, Installation view. Otero-Pailos, Jorge, Erik Langdalen and Thordis Arrhenius. Experimental Preservation. Lars Muller Publishers, Zurich, Switzerland, 2016. p 17.Surroca, Jordi. Amy Frearson. “Auditorium in the Church of Saint Francis’ Convent.” 26 July 2012. Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2012/07/26/convent-de-sant-francesc-by-david-closes/.Boegly, Luc and Bruno Decaris. “Louviers Music School Rehabilitation and Extension / Opus 5 Architectes” 13 Apr 2013. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/359050/louviers-music-school-rehabilitation-and-extension-opus-5-architectes/.Boegly, Luc and Bruno Decaris. “Louviers Music School Rehabilitation and Extension / Opus 5 Architectes” 13 Apr 2013. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/359050/louviers-music-school-rehabilitation-and-extension-opus-5-architectes/.Hjortshoj, Ramus. Philip Stevens. “Peter Zumthor’s Kolumba Museum in Cologne Photographed by Rasmus Hjortshoj.” https:// https://www.designboom.com/architecture/peter-zumthor-kolumba-museum-cologne-germany-rasmus-hjortshoj-07-26-2017/.(Left) Vazquez, Jose Fernando. Karen Cilento. “Kolumba Museum / Peter Zumthor” 06 Aug 2010. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/72192/kolumba-musuem-peter-zumthor/.(Right) Hjortshoj, Ramus. Philip Stevens. “Peter Zumthor’s Kolumba Museum in Cologne Photographed by Rasmus Hjortshoj.” https:// https://www.designboom.com/architecture/peter-zumthor-kolumba-museum-cologne-germany-rasmus-hjortshoj-07-26-2017/.Roberts, Bryony. “Inverting Neutra.” 2013. Site-specific installation VDL House. California. http://www.bryonyroberts.com/#/inverting-neutra/Kowal, Jaime. Bryony Roberts. “Imprint.” 2017. Site-specific installation at the Orange County Museum of Art. California. http://www.bryonyroberts.com/#/imprint/.Poesia, MVRDV. “Crystal Houses / MVRDV.” 20 Apr 2016. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/785923/crystal-houses-mvrdv/.Poesia, MVRDV. “Crystal Houses / MVRDV.” 20 Apr 2016. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/785923/crystal-houses-mvrdv/.(Top) Chakroff, Evan. “Ningbo Historical Museum (24).” 23 July 2011. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/evandagan/5980051222.(Left) Wohler, Till. “Ningbo Museum by Pritzer prize winner Wang Shu.” 1 Mar 2010. The Architectural Review. https://www.architectural-review.com/buildings/ningbo-museum-by-pritzker-prize-winner-wang-shu/5218020.article. (Right) Evan Rawn. “Material Masters: The Traditional Tiles of Wang Shu & Lu Wenyu” 03 Jun 2015. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/638948/material-masters-amateur-architecture-studio-s-work-with-tile/.History of Architecture, CCA. “Ise Shrine, Ise, Japan.” 17 Nov 2009. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/30650590@N03/4113333989/in/photostream/.Superstudio. II Monumento Continuo, Grand Hotel Colosseo, 1969. “‘Superstudio 50’ at MAXXI Rome” Apr 25 2016. BigMat International Architecture Agenda. https://www.bmiaa.com/superstudio-50-at-maxxi-rome/.OMA. “Barcode” preservation scheme for Beijing where different preservation scenarios can be implemented in horizontal bands.” Koolhaas, Rem. “Recent Work: 17 Sept 2004” in Preservation is Overtaking Us. Edited by Jordan Carter. GSAPP Transcripts, 2014. p 16.APPENDICES                 |PART 1                FIGURE SOURCESPART 2        All images from this section are of the author’s own production. InteriorMoscow Libraries MapsMoscow Libraries NetworkTITLENo. No. SOURCESOURCE161718 19-47SVESMI, Dostoevsky Library, No.8, Moscow, 2013. James Taylor-Foster. “Reimagining 448 Local Libraries in Moscow, One Space at a Time” 03 Oct 2014. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/553341/reimagining-448-local-libraries-in-moscow-one-step-at-a-time/.SVESMI, Moscow Libraries Maps. James Taylor-Foster. “Reimagining 448 Local Libraries in Moscow, One Space at a Time” 03 Oct 2014. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/553341/reimagining-448-local-libraries-in-moscow-one-step-at-a-time/.SVESMI, Moscow Libraries Model. James Taylor-Foster. “Reimagining 448 Local Libraries in Moscow, One Space at a Time” 03 Oct 2014. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/553341/reimagining-448-local-libraries-in-moscow-one-step-at-a-time/.

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