UBC Graduate Research

Past Present Future Vilac, Trevor 2019-12-18

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iiiiiPast Present FutureVancouver is a coastal city, yet lacks engagement with the water.  The city is branded as an active lifestyle hub, where connection to nature is key.  Yet, the city itself is separated from the water by the fi xed track that is the Vancouver Seawall.  People simply pass by the water instead of engaging with it.  The water is on exhibition, banished to the periphery instead of being touched.  Further, the coast of Vancouver stands to be dramati-cally redefi ned within the next 100 years.  Protecting the city from the eff ects of sea level rise necessitates the redefi nition of the coast.  The key in protecting our-selves from the destructive eff ects of water is to engage with water.  The impending problems facing our coast brings along with it opportunities. Statement of ThesisTo engage with water is to engage with time.  Tides rise and fall, registering where we are in time.  We perceive space through the various timescales of hours, days, seasons, and years.  Time is both cyclical and linear.  How do our actions today shape our experiences of the future?  This thesis seeks to protect our coast by creat-ing a future fi lled with waterfront enjoyment through the acts of creation, participation, and competition.AbstractivvContentsAbstractContentsList of Figures and IllustrationsAcknowledgmentPast Present Future - An OverviewResearch MethodologyPrecedents: Architecture, Water and The PublicHarbour CircleLjubljana River Canal InterventionsManifesta Art Biennale ETH Zurich PavilionLeca Swimming PoolsTherme ValsQuerini Stampalia GallerySite Mapping: The Vancouver CoastFirst Touch MapEdge ConditionsFloating StructuresUltra PrivateTemporal ElementsTen Versions of the Same SiteProgram and WaterTesting the Language of WaterAspirational CollagesDeveloping an InterventionA Question of Timelines - Site AnalysisA Question of Scope - Site Analysis The Cradle and the On-Water NetworkDiversity of Program A Weave of Public SpacesArchitectural DrawingsNarrative and Presentation Panels EndnotesBibliographyiiivvixiii0109111214161820222426283032344042434451535563676970799495viFigure 1.  Querini Stampalia Gallery restoration (Fondazione Querini Stampalia) by Carlo Scarpa.  1949-1959.  Venice, Italy. Figure 2.  Copenhagen Harbour Bath, by Bjarke Ingels Group.  2003.  Copenhagen, Denmark.  Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/11216/copenhagen-harbour-bath-plot.  Accessed on February 11, 2019.Figure 3.  Blur Building, by Diller & Scofi dio.  2002.  Swiss Expo 2002, Yverdon-les-Bains, Swi$ erland.  Im-age sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/795388/when-droplets-create-space-a-look-at-liquid-architec-ture/57daa0d3e58ece3795000011-when-droplets-create-space-a-look-at-liquid-architecture-photo.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.Figure 4.  Norwegian National Opera and Ballet by Snøhe# a.  2000-2008. Oslo, Norway.  Images sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/440/oslo-opera-house-snohe# a/500ebd1928ba0d0cc7000116-oslo-op-era-house-snohe# a-photo?next_project=no.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.Figure 5.  Mind Map - Design with Water: concepts and areas of inquiry.  Original size 24” x 24”.Figure 6.  Timeline.  Blue nodes identify events that celebrate water, pale nodes identify events that dominate water.  Original size 24” x 36”.Figure 7.  Methodology diagram.Figure 8.  Splash activities.  This activation of the waterfront creates passive and active participation in the public realm.  Harbour Bath by BIG + JDS.  2003.  Copenhagen, Denmark.  Image sourced from h# ps://www.archdaily.com/11216/copenhagen-harbour-bath-plot.  Accessed on February 11, 2019.Figure 9.  Activation of the waterfront through engaging with water.  Kalvebod Bølge (Waves).  JDS + KLAR.  2008.  Copenhagen, Denmark.  Image sourced from h# ps://www.archdaily.com/423048/kalvebod-waves-jds-archi-tects.  Accessed on April 1, 2019.Figure 10.  Diff erent edge conditions create diff erent opportunities for engagement along the water.  Kalve-bod Bølge (Waves).  JDS + KLAR.  2008.  Copenhagen, Denmark.  Image sourced from h# ps://www.archdaily.com/423048/kalvebod-waves-jds-architects.  Accessed on April 1, 2019.Figure 11.  Steps along the river create the infrastructure for a variety of program.  Trnovski Pristan Embankment.  Ljubljana, Slovenia.Figure 12.  Triple Bridge mediates between new and old.  The bridges become programmed space and off er dif-ferent ways to get close to the water.  Ljubljana, Slovenia.  h# ps://kongres-magazine.eu/2017/07/joze-plecnik-tri-ple-bridge-tromostovje/.  Accessed on April 12, 2019.Figure 13.  Steps along embankment create a multi-functional infrastructural datum.  Trnovski Pristan Embank-ment.  Ljubljana, Slovenia. Figure 14. Cross-section of pavilion through theatre seating.  Datum line of the water level is shown.  The-atre seating descends below the water line, to create an embodied feeling of submersion within the the-atre.  Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/790430/pavilion-of-refl ections-studio-tom-emer-son/57736a58e58ece1f43000081-pavilion-of-refl ections-studio-tom-emerson-section.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.Figure 15.  Cross-section of pavilion through theatre seating.  Datum line of the water level is shown.  Diff erent level viewing platforms create diff erent opportunities for connections to water.  The platform combines public swimming pool with cinema. Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/790430/pavilion-of-refl ections-stu-dio-tom-emerson/57736a3ce58ece9af30000b1-pavilion-of-refl ections-studio-tom-emerson-plan?next_project=no.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.List of Figures and IllustrationsviiFigure 16.  Photo of completed pavilion.  All wood material pale# e was used to construct the fl oating pavilion. Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/790430/pavilion-of-refl ections-studio-tom-emerson/57735f-f6e58ece9af300007e-pavilion-of-refl ections-studio-tom-emerson-image.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.Figure 17.  Approach to the Leca Swimming Pools.  An otherwise hostile portion of the landscape is transformed into a space of leisure.  Image sourced from: h# p://archdaily.com/150272/ad-classics-leca-swimming-pools-alva-ro-siza.  Accessed on March 1, 2019.Figure 18.  Sensible massing and materiality blurs the line between what is built and what is natural at the Leca Swimming Pools. Image sourced from: h# p://archdaily.com/150272/ad-classics-leca-swimming-pools-alvaro-siza.  Accessed on March 1, 2019.Figure 19.  Outdoor pool showing play of materiality, light and water. The materiality and light blur the line  be-tween the built environment and natural environment.  Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/13358/the-therme-vals.  Accessed on April 13, 2019.Figure 20.  Indoor view, play with water, light and materiality.  Image sourced from: h# ps://www.archdaily.com/13358/the-therme-vals.  Accessed on April 13, 2019.Figure 21.  Play of light, water, massing and temporal datum at the steps near the entry of the gallery.  The fl ood-ing of the stairs provides a strong temporal element to the space, and sets the tone for the rest of the sequence through the gallery.  Figure 22.  Opposite view of the steps at the Querini Stampalia Gallery.  The user can orient themselves within the temporal cycle based on the level of the water and the steps.  The careful a# ention to materiality complements the water within the space, evoking a sense of gravity, lightness and fl ow.  Figure 23.  Section study of the Querini Stampalia Gallery steps, with respect to water levels of the adjacent canal.Figure 24.  Sunset Beach, Vancouver.  The range of activities permi# ed by the infrastructure of the beach is typi-cally extremely limited.  Si# ing on a log or jogging along the Seawall sums up close to 90% of how we can “inter-act” with water in Vancouver. Figure 25.  Public art illustrating the potential rise in sea levels along the coast near the Cambie Street Bridge, Vancouver.  Image sourced from: h# ps://vancouver.ca/fi les/cov/vancouvers-changing-shoreline.pdf.  Accessed on December 16, 2019.Figure 26.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 27.  Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path and nearby buildings.Figure 28.  Beaches and walking/cycling path.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 29.  Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks and fl oating structures (docks/piers).Figure 30.  Beaches and walking/cycling path.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 31.  Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks and fl oating structures (docks/piers).viiiFigure 32.  Beaches, walking/cycling path, dock structures and parks.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 33.  Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks with pop-up program-ming and datum.Figure 34.  Beaches, walking/cycling path, docks and parks.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 35.  From City of Vancouver Archives, CVA 260-312 - Stanley Park Seawall, 1930.  Partial view of Seawall and steps registering as a temporal datum for the tides.  Image sourced from: h# ps://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/stanley-park-seawall-18.  Accessed on April 10, 2019.Figure 36.  Rocky beach near Burrard Street bridge.  The beach re-animates into a dog park for short periods of the day when the tide is low.  Access to this beach provides a temporal indicator.Figure 37.  Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.  English Bay Beach. Goad Company, The, 1912 “Goad’s Atlas, City of Vancouver and Surrounding Municipalities.”Figure 38.  Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.  English Bay Beach.  Goad Company, The, 1912 “Goad’s Atlas, City of Vancouver and Surrounding Municipalities.”Figure 39.  Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.  Kitsilano Beach.  Goad Company, The, 1912 “Goad’s Atlas, City of Vancouver and Surrounding Municipalities.”Figure 40.  Collage:  Vanier Park meets Harbour Bath swimming pool and platform.  A site along a rocky-coast portion of Vanier Park was selected.  The rocky coast restricts access to the water.  Although the rocky landscape provides a connection to nature to some degree, it under-serves an area of the coast where many recreational seekers pass by on kayaks or other boats.  An intervention that straddles built environment and nature, while allowing for connections between the participants can strengthen the connection between people and the water.  Additionally, a thoughtful intervention on the coast near Vanier Park can also strengthen the public park as the water can be engaged instead of being exhibited. Figure 41.  Collage:  Near Burrard Bridge: Kalvebod Bølge (Waves) swimming and sunbathing meets Kayak Share.  This style of intervention combines a diversity of program that allows for leisure space to extend from land onto the water and beyond.   The architectural language of wood combines a haptic material with the tradi-tional language of the coast, also wood.  The Kalvebod Waves example shows how a playful form can enhance a leisure space to promote diff erent levels of activity: from pedestrians passing by, to leisure-seekers sunbathing, or water sport enthusiasts launching paddleboards or kayaks. Figure 42.  Collage:  Floating Kayak Club meets Stanley Park.  The Floating Kayak Club can provide an opportu-nity for a kayak-share type program, promoting a diff erent type of commute across the water with a type of craft typically used for leisure.  The combination of pragmatic transportation with a leisure activity off ers a unique way to activate the coast of Vancouver that is in-keeping with the ethos of the active-lifestyle focused city. Figure 43.  Collage:  Leca Pools meets Sunset Beach Inukshuk.  The Leca Pools are a strong example of how a leisure space can straddle the line between the built environment and nature to create something that enhances both.  Not only can a Leca Pools style pool near Sunset Beach enhance a currently under-utilized portion of the coast, but can also respect and intensify the engagement of nature in the process.Figure 44. Collage:  Ljubljana embankment meets Stanley Park (near Second Beach).  There is a stretch of Seawall between Second Beach and English Bay Beach that is a hard-edge, the water is not engaged.  The steps of the Ljubljana embankments show how a infrastructural element can become programmed space.  Deploying a similar move at this stretch of Seawall can act as a programmed public gathering space, and also act as seating for the stage that is English Bay.  The steps as a temporal datum can also serve as seating for activities such as the annual polar bear swim or summer fi reworks.  A subtle move such as the stepping embankment will not subtract from this stretch of coast, only add and strengthen. ixFigure 45. Collage:  Ljubljana embankment and ETH Zurich cinema pavilion meets Sunset Beach.  Similar to the steps proposed near Second Beach: a stretch of coast near Sunset Beach and the Burrard Bridge is under-served, generally not accessible and forge# able.  Pedestrians are quickly discharged from this path along the Seawall.  During some periods, few people can be seen si# ing on the edge of the Seawall.  There is a desire to activate this space in a way.  This stretch of coast can act as seating for the stage that is opposite False Creek: Vanier Park.  Even Granville Island can become a spectacle given an a# ention to sight-lines.  Further, this area can act as seating for various fl oating platforms that can also act as stages for activity.  The steps also allow keen people to easily jump in the water or launch paddleboards or other fl otation devices.  Figure 46. Impending sea level rise will have a signifi cant impact on the coasts of Vancouver.  In the year 2100, sea levels will be 1 meters higher than they are currently, and by 2200 they will be 2 meters above current levels.  These changes in sea level will be even more prolifi c when storm surges and king tides are factored in.  This map shows the changes to the coast of Vancouver if no action is taken to address the impact of rising sea levels.Figure 47. Diagram of the tidal variation in Vancouver over the course of a day.  There are two high-tides and two low-tides.  The cycles of the tides represent a time scale of days.  The variations of the tides over the course of the day and night provide contextual clues about where we are in time.Figure 48. Linear time represented through the variances of the changing tides due to sea level rise.  On the times-cale of years, we consider the changing topography of the site.  If no action is taken, the changes to the coast will be undesirable.Figure 49. Partial view of Vancouver fi rst touch map.  A site near the existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge was selected to test the ideas of creating engagement through creation, participation and competition.Figure 50. Site photo on the Seawall facing the Burrard Street bridge.  This portion of the Seawall is very separated from the public realm, is not accessible, and lacks consideration for a cohesive public realm.Figure 51. Site photo underneath the Burrard Street bridge facing the Vancouver Aquatic Centre.  The existing False Creek Ferry platform (on the left side of the frame) cuts an area of beach off  from the rest of Sunset Beach.  This photo shows the low tide condition.  When the beach is exposed at low tide, large portions of the beach are rocky and generally not accessible.Figure 52. Site photo underneath the Burrard Street bridge facing toward an existing parking lot and Beach Avenue beyond.  This portion of the Seawall is located near a threshold between Downtown and the West End in Vancouver, yet lacks pedestrian friendly elements, lacks a sense of arrival or a sense of place.  Figure 53. Site photo at a rocky portion of Sunset Beach facing the Burrard Street bridge and False Creek Ferries platform in front of the Vancouver Aquatic Centre.  The ferry platform strongly divides the beach and prevents a free fl ow along the beach for use by the public.  This photo shows the low tide condition.Figure 54. Site photo at Sunset Beach facing the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and the Burrard Street bridge.  The portion of the Seawall in front of the Vancouver Aquatic Centre propels people beyond this area, instead of off er-ing opportunities to stop and engage with the landscape.  This photo shows the low tide condition.Figure 55. Site plan illustrating existing conditions near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge.  Shown at approximately 1:1500.Figure 56. Site plan illustrating existing conditions near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge showing the impact of a rising sea level and storm surge.  Not only does this site lack engagement with water and the public realm, but is vulnerable to the eff ects of sea level rise.  Shown at approximately 1:1500.Figure 57. Site plan illustrating introducing the Cradle and a re-shaped site topography, responding to the future rising sea levels. Shown at approximately 1:1500.xFigure 58. Contextual map of Vancouver showing the location of the Cradle as a large node.Figure 59. June 21, 2020.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing the inaugural fl oating pavilion moored in front of the Cradle.  The inaugural pavilion is funded by a private donor.Figure 60. September 21, 2020.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing the inaugural fl oating pavilion has left the Cradle and found its new permanent home at a berth in Olympic Village.Figure 61. September 21, 2025.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing 5 years worth of competition winning pa-vilions at their homes around the coast of Vancouver.  After 5 years of competitions, the On-Water Network and the Cradle are considering forming a non-profi t organization to manage the operation of the competition.Figure 62. September 21, 2050.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing 30 years worth of competition winning pa-vilions at their homes around the coast of Vancouver.  The On-Water Network has grown too large to be managed by a non-profi t organization and has been taken over by the City of Vancouver Parks Board.Figure 63. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View.  Key programmatic elements are highlighted.  Shown at approximately 1:750.Figure 64. Distribution of building programming.  Green represents Rentals area, Cyan represents Public Wash-rooms and Dressing Rooms, Yellow represents Concession, Red represents Workshop and Pink represents Cafe.Figure 65. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View.  Key programmatic elements are highlighted.  Shown at approximately 1:750.Figure 66. Distribution of site programming.  Green represents Water Taxi area, Cyan represents Outdoor Show-ers, Yellow represents Concession, Red represents public plazas and paths.Figure 67. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View near Workshop and Cafe.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  Rhythm is maintained through openings in the facade of the Cafe and Workshop.  There is a break in the rhythm near the Dry Dock.  A folding footbridge and clear gates open up on the fi rst day of summer every year to allow for the launch of a new pavilion.Figure 68. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View near Concession, Public Washrooms and Public Dressing Rooms.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  A new plaza is formed underneath the Burrard Bridge.Figure 69. B1 Floor Plan - Partial View at Workshop.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  The Workshop is carved out of the landscape.  The Dry Dock allows water to trace inside when needed, and the gates provided a bold connec-tion to the exterior and rising sea levels.Figure 70. Site Plan - Partial View.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:1000).  The organization of the Cradle responds to the existing datum of the Burrard Street bridge and the tides near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre.Figure 71. Context Section B.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:400).  The main public path is set 3.5m above current sea levels.  Major landings in the steps to the beach are set at 0.5m intervals above current sea levels.Figure 72. Context Section C.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:400).  The main public path is set 3.5m above current sea levels, with major landings serving as viewing areas for the pavilion launch.  A footbridge folds up on the day of the pavilion launch in order for the clear dry dock gates to open and launch the pavilion.Figure 73. Building Section D - Cafe.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The heavy concrete mass of the Cafe block anchors the lighter mass of the wood-roofed Workshop in the middle of the site.  Figure 74. Building Section E - Workshop.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The Workshop straddles time, above water and below water datum lines for when sea levels rise.  A light wood roof caps the concrete base.  The aper-tures and the wood truss roof structure maintain rhythm across the building and site.xiFigure 75. Building Section F - Dry Dock.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The folding footbridge and dry dock gates open on the fi rst day of summer every year in order to allow the tides to trace into the Workshop and to carefully fl oat the new pavilion outside for use by the public.Figure 76. Building Section G - Workshop Entrance.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  Necessary administrative functions are carved into the topography of the site to support the Workshop.Figure 77. Building Section H - Courtyard.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The break in the massing of the build-ing shapes a Courtyard between the Workshop and the Concession.  The rhythm is maintained through planting and paving.  The Courtyard adds a degree of permeability to the site.Figure 78. Building Section I - Public Washrooms.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The Public Washrooms and Dressing Rooms are a concrete mass, echoing Cafe.  The concrete masses at the ends of the Workshop balance the lighter mass in the middle of the site.Figure 79. June 21, 2020.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 80. July 1, 2025.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 81. January 20, 2030.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 82. February 10, 2035.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 83. May 21, 2040.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 84. June 21, 2045.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Figure 85. Colour scheme adjusted Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Figure 86. Site Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:500.Figure 87. Context Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section A (top) 1:500, Section B (middle) 1:200, Section C (bot-tom) 1:200.Figure 88. Level 1 Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:250.Figure 89. Level B1 Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:250.Figure 90. Building Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section D (top) 1:100, Section E (middle) 1:100, Section F (bot-tom) 1:100.Figure 91. Building Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section G (top) 1:100, Section H (middle) 1:100, Section I (bot-tom) 1:100.xiixiiiThere are many people who assisted me in developing this project, who gave their time and who commi# ed to helping me bring this project to fruition. Firstly, I would like to thank Leslie Van Duzer.  Her advice and mentoring provided to me through this process were tremendously helpful for my growth as a designer.  The discussions about architecture over the year and the books lent to me to read along the way were a great part of the process.  I would also like to extend my thanks to my commi# ee members Andrew Pask and Scot Hein for their valuable insights during our commi# ee meetings and their support throughout the project.  Without the fruitful discussions during our meetings, the richness of this project would not have come to fruition.  I would also like to thank other fac-ulty who have given me advice throughout the course of the project: Bill Pechet, Kees Lokman, and also Mari Fujita who served as my GP Part I mentor.I would also like to extend my thanks to my colleagues, friends and family who have supported me through this process.  All the help, feedback and understanding was appreciated through the whole process.    Acknowledgmentxiv01Past Present Future suggests that water can be a formative element of our modern-day architecture.  Historically, humans have traditionally embraced water whether it is for pragmatic reasons, for faith, or for leisure.  Relatively speaking, it is only recently that humans have asserted dominance over water, typically designing against water or relegating water to a sub-servient role in our lives.  Moving forward, water will become a more integral factor in our daily lives.  An in-creasing global population and more limited access to clean water are likely to become issues in our near fu-ture.  Furthermore, global sea level rise is also another death knell of an era where humans have downplayed the role of water in our lives. Living with water has been a part of human nature for thousands of years.  However, we’ve seen the de-structive impacts of not respecting water throughout the world.  To name a few more prevalent examples, Mexico City continues to deal with frequent fl ooding, Amsterdam is embracing new deployable fl ood wall technology to manage storm surges and Venice faces a shift in its fabric in the face of sea level rise.  Destruc-tive confl icts with water have become more common. Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Sandy, or Hurricane Harvey in the United States served as eye openers.  Water can be a source of joy and enlightenment, or a destructive force.  In some areas, we are starting to see a shift in the de-sign paradigm.  Since Hurricane Sandy, the Rebuild by Design competition has sparked a shift in design think-ing to respect water. Conversely, the 3-11 Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan triggered a rebuilding eff ort to respect the destructive power of water.  This is a step in the right direction.  With the growing trend of rural to urban migration, resilient urban centres are going to be more important than ever.  There are hundreds of cities throughout the world in the crosshairs of rising sea levels that will need to consider a future that integrates with water instead of deploying industrial-era draconi-an infrastructure solutions, or else chaos will inevitably ensue. In recent years, we have seen coastal cities reengage with their waterfronts.  Rebuild by Design may show-case some more dramatic examples.  However, con-temporary urban renewal schemes in post-industrial cities have typically seen waterfront industrial program displaced from the urban and replaced with public realm assets.  Considered all together, coastal cities that are looking to become more resilient and reengage their waterfronts presents great opportunity to celebrate a fundamental aspect of living.Shifting ContextClimate change has now become a cultural issue more than a scientifi c issue.  We’ve seen generations of soci-eties outside of North America embrace living with wa-ter, to the point that it is an integral part of their nature. However, the inevitability of rising sea levels has not hit home for much of the developed world, and more specifi cally North America.  Millions of people globally stand to be displaced, and innumerable coastal commu-nities slated to be submerged.  How can we change the nature of people in the fi rst-world to become proactive against a devastating problem that they otherwise cannot relate to?This need for resiliency in architecture raises an inter-esting opportunity.  Designers have the opportunity to engage with water again.  Water can become a material to be celebrated, instead of dominated.  Past Present Past Present Future - An Overview02Figure 1. Querini Stampalia Gallery restoration (Fondazione Querini Stampalia) by Carlo Scarpa.  1949-1959.  Venice, Italy.Future suggests that engaging with resiliency can be viewed as an opportunity to engage with our senses.  The key in protecting ourselves from the destructive ef-fects of water is to engage with water.  Can leisure and protection exist together?  Intimate interactions with water and the tides can create a sense of physicality when speaking of the impacts of climate change, while also acting as a public spectacle. A Finer Grain of Architectural ExpressionAt fi ner grain, phenomenology, form and tectonics can be explored in order to pursue a series of psychologi-cal and architectural questions.  Buildings that engage with water ought to create experiences of submersion, fl ow or temporality and ultimately change how we feel in a space.  Buildings that engage with water ought to act as an experiential educational device for the public.  Luckily, architecture has engaged with water before.  The Romans celebrated water profoundly, even one of the key texts by Vitruvius is dedicated to water.  Before the Romans, earlier societies engaged with water as part of ritual practice.  More closely to our time, architects have been mystifi ed by water, evidenced On Water, Culture and Leisure Focusing on Vancouver, water has traditionally played a vital role in the identity of the city.  Whether it was the First Nations peoples, the early adopters of water-front industry, or the active lifestyle enthusiasts of the city, Vancouver has connected with water.  As of recent memory, the interface with the water in Vancouver has been relegated to simply walking, cycling or si# ing on the beach largely due to the Seawall.  The Seawall is a shared cycling and pedestrian path originally installed along the perimeter of Stanley Park at the interface with the water.  Although the Seawall is considered in projects such as the Querini Stampalia Gallery by Carlo Scarpa (Figure 1).  On one end of the spectrum, the Querini Stampalia shows how the idea of water and architecture can really make one feel as they are “fl owing” through space.  On a more tangible side of the spectrum, the Norwegian Opera and Ballet build-ing by Snohe# a shows how culture and resiliency can be combined to create something holistically more than just architecture and infrastructure, but weave culture and leisure into this fabric.  A new paradigm of archi-tecture that interfaces with water ought to be resilient without removing the poetics of the space.03public space, the extension of the Seawall beyond Stan-ley Park in 1980 essentially limited the realm of public activity along the interface of the water around the coast of Vancouver. Why does public space need to be on solid ground?  In a City with an urban fabric driven so much by land speculation and densifi cation, it would seem more pru-dent to create public space on the water.  The benefi t of water-bound public space appears two-fold, Vancouver can re-engage with a relegated waterfront, and the built fabric of the City can intensify.  The combination of water and leisure within the realm of the urban has been carried out successfully in European cities such as Amsterdam, Copenhagen (Figure 2), Venice and Oslo.  Interaction with water does not have to be simply in the liquid form either.  The changing state of water from liquid to gas or solid presents unique opportuni-ties, evidenced by the Blur Building (Figure 3) or the Therme Vals.  Further to this discussion of water and leisure, Vancouver-based architectural fi rm HCMA be-gan to rightly probe at this issue of “how do we engage our waterfront.”1    Past Present Future can build on the body of work that fi rms such as HCMA, BIG or Snohet-ta have pursued.    There are a number of reasons why Vancouver needs to diversify how the water can be engaged by the public.  Similar to some of the European counterparts refer-enced above, the shoreline of Vancouver has trans-formed from a waterline dominated by industry to an extension of the urban.  The evolution of the City has seen the waterfront reclaimed by the domestic and the urban, to some degree.  With the growth of the domes-tic and the urban comes the growth of population.  Fur-thermore, the travel and tourism industry in Vancouver is expanding.2   Additionally, Vancouver residents typically have more free time when contrasted with their counterparts in the other major Canadian cities. 3  Considered all together, the number of people within the City with free time at their disposal is increasing.  While on the other hand, the supply of leisure and cul-tural spaces is not keeping up.  There is an opportunity to forge a new relationship with water that can become an integral part of the Vancouver urban fabric, similar to how the Rebuild by Design projects are proposing to breathe new life into their respective waterfronts.A cursory review of the activities that are accessible along the Vancouver Seawall reveals a grim selection.  For a City that appears to have water as an intrinsic part of its DNA, why is Vancouver so limited in how to Figure 2. Copenhagen Harbour Bath, by Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) and JDS.  2003.  Copenhagen, Denmark.04interact with the water?  This contradiction of the city also presents us with an opportunity to not only bolster the urban fabric in the name of resiliency, but also to create exemplar cultural and leisure projects that cele-brate our water as an identity. On TypologiesThe research to date suggests that designing with water falls within the categories of either dwelling, infra-structure or culture.  Infrastructure appears to be the mediating element between the categories of dwelling and culture.  That is not to say that these three catego-ries hold equal weight with respect to the agenda of the project.  The interventions suggested later in this report are situated within urban Vancouver.  Cities will need to learn to live with water, design with water and more importantly, celebrate the connection to water. Figure 3. Blur Building, by Diller & Scofi dio.  2002.  Swiss Expo 2002, Yverdon-les-Bains, Swi" erland.To begin understanding the fi eld of inquiry, a mind map exercise and timeline exercise were carried out.  The mind map helps to identify the early core design drivers to focus the research.  The timeline was pro-duced to help orient the fi eld of inquiry within the larger body of work of water and architecture. Mapping the Field of Inquiry and IntentionsAfter the initial diagramming exercises of the mind map and timeline, it became apparent that an agenda of water, architecture and leisure were central to my thinking.  An line of thinking that focused on water, ar-chitecture and infrastructure began to emerge.  Howev-er, the more successful examples of water and architec-ture were (in my view) typically driven by leisure and a sense of playfulness in the design.  That is not to say that the resilient cannot be fun.The focus of Past Present Future is on an agenda of lei-sure, public space and resiliency.  Strong public leisure spaces can enhance and even safeguard our habitat. 05Figure 4. Norwegian National Opera and Ballet by Snøhe# a.  2000-2008. Oslo, Norway.06Figure 5. Mind Map - Concepts and areas of inquiry.  Original size 24” x 24”. 07Figure 6. Timeline.  Blue nodes identify events that celebrate water, pale nodes identify events that dominate water.  Original size 24” x 36”.08Leisure categoryArchitectural categoryContextArchitectSignificance to waterRelation to built environment Role of the architectMapping of activitiesCategorize activitiesLayer activitiesQuantitative analysisQualitative analysisComposition of datumHapticMassingRelationship to contextNarrativeTensionColourI n t e r v e n t i o nCollagePrecedentsMappingFigure 7. Methodology diagram.09Research MethodologyAs Vancouver continues to grow into a coastal leisure city, how can we intensify our opportunities for delight against the backdrop of global sea level rise?  Past Pres-ent Future proposes we engage with our water to create public spaces that allow people to connect to water, engage with our notion of memory and create new op-portunities for delight, that also safeguard our habitat.The methodology is not a linear process.  One area of inquiry informs another.  The methodology is support-ed by the branches of program analysis, site mapping and collage.  The diff erent branches of inquiry aim to inform the creation of an intervention, with a specifi c purpose, location and identity. PrecedentsPrecedents focus on an analysis of architectural projects that engage with that water.  A focus was placed on built works of architecture, less emphasis was placed on works of landscape architecture and urbanism. MappingMapping compiles research from various sources such as fi rst-hand observations, satellite imagery, archive entries, historic photos, historic fi re insurance maps, newspaper articles and City of Vancouver publications.CollageCollages create vigne# es of alternate realities based on fi rst-hunch responses to how we interact with water.  The collages combine inspiration from programmatic analysis and site mapping.  The collages are intended to capture the spiritual feel of a proposed intervention.  Combined with the other two branches, the nature and location of an intervention can be formed. 1011The relationship between architecture and the water is unique.  Unlike traditional building materials, water can dramatically impact our perception of space.The fruitful areas of inquiry with respect to water and architecture are listed below along with the applicable precedents:Diversity of program• Harbour Circle, Copenhagen, Denmark• Ljubljana River Canals, Ljubljana, SloveniaNew connections to water• Manifesta Art Biennale ETH Zurich Student Pavilion, Swi$ erlandReconciliation between nature and design• Leca Swimming Pools, Leca, Portugal• Therme Vals, Vals, Swi$ erlandTemporal datum• Querini Stamplia Gallery, Venice, ItalyPrecedents: Architecture, Water and The Public12Figure 8. Splash activities.  This activation of the waterfront creates passive and active participation in the public realm.  Harbour Bath by BIG + JDS.  2003.  Copenhagen, Denmark.Figure 9. Activation of the waterfront through engaging with water.  Kalvebod Bølge (Waves).  JDS + KLAR.  2008.  Copenhagen, Den-mark.13Project BriefThe Harbour Circle in Copenhagen is a collection of various diff erent built and natural public realm ele-ments.  The various projects that make up the Harbour Circle were constructed over a number of years and is touted as a unique harbourside experience.4  The Har-bour Circle combines diff erent program such as active living, leisure, culture and dining. The architecture that shapes the Harbour Circle show-cases the potential of architecture to interface with wa-ter and really activate the harbour of a city and shape dynamic public space.  For example, the Harbour Bath project within the Harbour Circle combines public gathering space with leisure space that allows for engagement with water and both passive and active engagement.  Passive engagement is generated in the sense that spectators in the public gathering space.  Active engagement is gen-erated by the swimmers and actors jumping from the swimming deck into the water.  This combination of passive and active engagement with the water creates a unique relationship to the water that is facilitated by the architecture.  The proximity of the Harbour Circle to offi  ce buildings creates a unique dialogue between work and leisure. Category:  Diversity of programArchitects: JDS, BIG, Olafur Eliasson, and othersLocation: Copenhagen, DenmarkProgram: Outdoor swimming pools, cycling paths, public plazasYear: 2003-2015Harbour CircleFigure 10. Diff erent edge conditions create diff erent opportunities for engagement along the water.  Kalvebod Bølge (Waves).  JDS + KLAR. 2008.  Copenhagen, Denmark.14Figure 11. Steps along the river create the infrastructure for a variety of program.  Trnovski Pristan Embankment.  Ljubljana, Slovenia.Figure 12. Triple Bridge mediates between new and old.  The bridges become programmed space and off er diff erent ways to get close to the water.  Ljubljana, Slovenia.15Project BriefThe interventions made over, and along the Ljubljanica in Ljubljana by Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik provide a lot of material to study how thoughtful interventions combined with diverse programming can really acti-vate a waterfront.The Trnoski Pristan Embankment steps are another example of how a piece of infrastructure can be pro-grammed space.  Furthermore, the introduction of other elements such as seating, books, and weeping willows help to add elements to pull in pedestrians.  The Triple Bridge provides several paths for pedestri-ans to choose in navigating the waterfront.  This infra-structural element also serves as programmed space and public gathering space.The examples by Plečnik in Slovenia show how a# en-tion to detail with respect to massing, light, fl ows and dialogue between diff erent elements can really activate a waterfront. Category:  Diversity of programArchitect: Jože PlečnikLocation: Ljubljana, SloveniaProgram: Public gatheringYear: 20th centuryLjubljana River Canal InterventionsFigure 13. Steps along the embankment create a multi-functional infrastructural datum.  Trnovski Pristan Embankment.  Ljubljana, Slovenia.16Figure 14. Cross-section of pavilion through theatre seating.  Datum line of the water level is shown.  Theatre seating descends below the water line, to create an embodied feeling of submersion within the theatre.Figure 15. Cross-section of pavilion through theatre seating.  Datum line of the water level is shown.  Diff erent level viewing platforms create diff erent opportunities for connections to water.  The platform combines public swimming pool with cinema.17Manifesta Art Biennale ETH Zurich PavilionCategory:  New connections to waterArchitects: ETH Zurich/Studio Tom EmersonLocation: Lake Zurich, Swi$ erlandProgram: Public swimming platform, theatre and bar.Year: 2016Figure 16. Photo of completed pavilion.  All wood material pale# e was used to construct the fl oating pavilion. Project BriefThe pavilion combines a swimming platform with a cinema and bar.  The diversity of program fl oating on the water allows for new interactions within an other-wise vanilla gathering-type program.  The fl oating pool is located near the theatre seating, allowing for diff er-ent types of movie viewing experience. The pavilion also plays with lighting and massing that fl oats on water to create diff erent spatial eff ects be-tween day and night. The diff erent volumes and heights of the pavilion allow for diff erent visual connections, and diff erent ways for people to engage with the water.  Engagement with water occurs in a number of ways, whether it is fl oating and watching fi lms or jumping from varying heights into the water after having a drink at the bar.  The opportunities for programmatic overlap are rich, all focused on leisure. 18Figure 17. Approach to the Leca Swimming Pools.  An otherwise hostile portion of the landscape is transformed into a space of leisure. 19Project BriefThe Leca Swimming Pools are a careful blend of nature and design that eff ectively blurs the line between both.  The hand of the designer is subtle yet the interventions are bold.  The moves that shape the built environment do not overpower the integrity of the natural environ-ment.  The relationship appears fairly balanced. The tension between built and nature is important to recognize.  A similar language can be deployed in an urban environment, given the appropriate site context.  The Leca Swimming Pools transform a rocky portion of a beach that would be otherwise inaccessible to a strong leisure space.  The architecture not only allows for more engagement with water, but also creates more leisure space from an otherwise hostile portion of the landscape. Leca Swimming PoolsCategory: Reconciliation between nature and design.Architect: Alvaro SizaLocation: Leca de Palmeira, PortugalProgram: Outdoor Swimming PoolYear: 1966Figure 18. Sensible massing and materiality blurs the line between what is built and what is natural at the Leca Swimming Pools. 20Figure 19. Outdoor pool showing play of materiality, light and water. The materiality and light blur the line  between the built environ-ment and natural environment. 21Project BriefThis precedent was selected as Peter Zumthor com-bines the cultural function of public bathing with very carefully sculpted architectural spaces driven by light and water.  Water is deployed in diff erent states (water and steam) to become formative elements of the archi-tecture in this project.  In expected Zumthor fashion, the use of strong mate-riality, water and light create a strong sense of atmo-sphere within this work of architecture.Category: Reconciliation between nature and design.Architect: Peter ZumthorLocation: Vals, Swi$ erlandProgram: Outdoor and Indoor Bathing PoolsYear: 1996Figure 20. Indoor view, play with water, light and materiality.Therme Vals22Figure 21. Play of light, water, massing and temporal datum at the steps near the entry of the gallery.  The fl ooding of the stairs provides a strong temporal element to the space, and sets the tone for the rest of the sequence through the gallery. Figure 22. Opposite view of the steps at the Querini Stampalia Gallery.  The user can orient themselves within the temporal cycle based on the level of the water and the steps.  The careful a# ention to materiality complements the water within the space, evoking a sense of gravity, lightness and fl ow. 23 canal lowgallery floorcanal highbridgegallery ceilingFigure 23. Section study of the Querini Stampalia Gallery steps, with respect to water levels of the adjacent canal. Project BriefThis precedent was selected as there is rigorous detail in the composition and the interplay between water, light and form.  The elements of water and light give a unique temporal element to the space that can inform how to use water as a key element in creating space.  The high level of detail design and thoughtfulness of the interplay between water and light serve as an inspiration.  Diff erent levels of reading of the Querini Stampalia provide diff erent fi ndings each time.  The temporal na-ture of the space can mystify the occupant.  Theory and writing available regarding the Querini Stampalia also provide another level of understanding about water and architecture.Category: Temporal datumArchitect: Carlo ScarpaLocation: Venice, ItalyProgram: Art galleryYear: 1959Querini Stampalia Gallery24Figure 24. Sunset Beach, Vancouver.  The range of activities permi# ed by the infrastructure of the beach is typically extremely limited.  Si# ing on a log or jogging along the Seawall sums up close to 90% of how we can “interact” with water in Vancouver. 25Figure 25.   Public art illustrating the potential rise in sea levels along the coast near the Cambie Street Bridge, Vancouver.Mapping of the Vancouver coast is crucial in trying to understand how the water is currently engaged, what is already provided, and what could be. The scope of the mapping was a characterized as a “fi rst-touch” approach.  Elements that are located immediately adjacent to the water along the coast, or a fi rst-touch, a included on the map.The categories of inquiry included on the master fi rst-touch map include: • Beach• Park• Building• Outdoor Pool• Program• Temporal Datum• Pier - Public• Dock - Private• Dock - Ferry (Semi-Private)Site Mapping: The Vancouver CoastResearch from various sources such as fi rst-hand observations, satellite imagery, archive entries, historic photos, historic fi re insurance maps, newspaper articles and City of Vancouver publications are used to pop-ulate the map.  Furthermore, the fi rst-touch map also documents changes in the edge conditions around the coast.  Major streets are identifi ed to provide orienta-tion. Other important aspects of the coast to know are the variations in the tides, and the projected changes to the shoreline that relates to the certainty of sea level rise due to climate change.  Low-tide lines have been identifi ed.  Projected sea-level rise datum lines have been mapped.The site mapping provides a tool for observations and analysis.  The mapping also provides direction as to where interventions should be placed.  On the fi rst-touch map, several interventions have been marked along the coast at areas that are generally under-uti-lized or could benefi t with some other form of connec-tion. 26Datum: Low-Tide Beach: Locarno BeachBeach: Jericho BeachBeach: Spanish BanksPark: Jericho Beach ParkPark: Hastings Mill ParkPark: Jean Beatty ParkPier: Jericho PierDock: Royal Vancouver Yacht ClubBuilding: ConcessionBuilding: Public RestroomBuilding: Concession and Public RestroomBuilding: The Galley Patio and GrillBuilding: Jericho Sailing CentreBuilding: Jericho Tennis ClubProgram: Music FestProgram: Drum CircleAlma StreetBlanca StreetBeachProgramBuildingPier - PublicParkDock - PrivateOutdoor PoolDock - Ferry Temporal DatumInterventionE x i s t i n gP r o p o s e dV a n c o u v e r :  F i r s t  T o u c h  M a pB u r r a r d  I n l e tEasy AccessDi!cult AccessNo/Restricted AccessS h o r e  C o n d i t i o nLow-Tide LineFuture Sea Level (Year 2100)Figure 26. Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).27Beach: Kitsilano BeachBeach: Sunset BeachBeach: English Bay BeachBeach: Second BeachBeach: Third BeachBeach: Zeus BeachPark: Volunteer ParkPark: Point Grey Park SitePark: Vanier ParkPark: Kitsilano Beach ParkPark: Ron Basford ParkPark:Charleson ParkPark: David Lam ParkPark: George Wainborn ParkPark: Habitat IslandPark: Creekside ParkPark: Sunset Beach ParkPark: Hinge ParkPark: Cooper’s ParkPark: Harbour Green ParkPark: Cardero ParkPark: Crab ParkPark:Stanley ParkPark: Margaret Piggot ParkDock: Kitsilano Yacht ClubDock: Fishermen’s WharfDock: Maritime MarinaDock: Granville Island Ferry TerminalDock: Pelican Bay MarinaDock: Spruce Harbour MarinaDock: Hornby Ferry TerminalDock: Maritime-Museum Ferry TerminalDock: Heather Civic MarinaDock: Stamps Landing Ferry TerminalDock: Quayside MarinaDock: Yaletown Ferry TerminalDock: David Lam Ferry TerminalDock: Olympic Village Ferry TerminalDock: Dragon Zone Paddling ClubDock: Royal Vancouver Yacht ClubDock: Vancouver Rowing ClubDock: Bayshore West MarinaDock: Harbour Green MarinaDock: Harbour AirDock: Burrard Civic MarinaDock: Aquatic Centre Ferry TerminalPool: Kitsilano PoolBuilding: Restaurant + Wash/ChangeBuilding: CoastguardBuilding: Cactus Club CafeBuilding: Public Washroom /ChangeBuilding: ConcessionBuilding: TAPHouse PatioBuilding: Vancouver Aquatic CentreBuilding: Mixed Use TowerBuilding: Science WorldBuilding: Plaza of NationsBuilding: Harbour Event CentreBuilding: Ancora PatioBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuilding: Creekside Community CentreBuilding: Harbour Air TerminalBuilding: Vancouver Convention Centre WestBuilding: Mahony and Sons PubBuilding: Bellagio CafeBuilding: Vancouver Convention Centre EastBuilding: Canada PlacePlaza: Jack Poole PlazaBuilding: Cactus Club CafeBuilding: Tap and Barrel PatioBuilding: Waterfront Skytrain StationBuilding: Waterfront SeabusBuilding: Lumberman’s Arch ConcessionBuilding: Lumberman’s Arch WashroomBuilding: Brockton Point LighthouseBuilding: Lift Bar GrillBuilding: Coal Harbour Community CentreBuilding: Mixed Use TowerPool: Second Beach PoolProgram: Symphony at SunsetProgram: Bard on the BeachDatum: StepsDatum: Siwash RockDatum: FishingDatum: Prospect PointDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: InukshukDatum: RampDatum: StepsProgram: Drum CircleIntervention: Siwash ImmersionIntervention: Access/PoolIntervention: Kayak Share + SunbathingIntervention: Harbour BathIntervention: Kayak Share + SunbathingIntervention: Stanley Park StepsIntervention: Sunset Beach StepsMacdonald StreetBurrard StreetGranville StreetCambie StreetMain StreetWest 4th AvenueWest 10th AvenueCardero StreetDenman StreetChilco StreetThurlow StreetBurrard StreetGranville StreetE n g l i s h  B a y28Beach: Sunset BeachBuilding: CoastguardBuilding: Public Washroom /ChangeBuilding: ConcessionBuilding: TAPHouse PatioBuilding: Vancouver Aquatic CentreBuilding: Mixed Use TowerBuilding: Ancora PatioBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuildings: Yaletown TownhomesBuilding: Vancouver Convention Centre EastBuilding: Waterfront Skytrain StationGranville StreetCambie StreetThurlow StreetBurrard StreetGranville StreetFigure 27. Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path and nearby buildings.29Figure 28. Beaches and walking/cycling path.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Edge ConditionsBeaches - Soft EdgesWithin the study area, there are 9 beaches: • Spanish Banks• Locarno Beach• Jericho Beach• Kitsilano Beach• Sunset Beach• English Bay Beach• Second Beach• Third Beach• Zeus BeachThe beaches form approximately 25% of the length of the study area.  The other 75% are generally inaccessi-ble hard edges of the walking and cycling path (Sea-wall). The beaches, or soft edges, are long established along the coast of Vancouver.  In contrast, hard edges along the coast are typically formed by the Seawall.  The Seawall has been constructed incrementally since 1917, beginning with the Stanley Park portion.5  Outside of the Stanley Park portion of the Seawall, much of the coast of Vancouver was relegated to industrial use.  Reclaimed industrial land, largely since Expo ‘86, has been converted into the modern walking and cycling path that separates the built environment from the wa-ter.  The piecemeal approach to reclaiming the harbour in Vancouver is refl ected in the ability for people to engage with the water, as opportunities are somewhat limited. Seawall - Hard Edges The Seawall is a strong dividing threshold that spans most of the Vancouver coast.  The prominent walking and cycling path serves as a strong separating barrier from areas of engaging the water.  The seawall is a large facilitator of exhibiting the water in Vancouver, preventing strong engagement.Figure 22 zooms in to the coastal area near False Creek.  The edge conditions are emblematic of much of the coast: the Seawall acts as a barrier dividing line be-tween the built environment and the water.Research QuestionsWhat would the nature of the waterfront be like if there were more buildings touching the water, instead of being restrained by the Seawall? If a more comprehensive approach was deployed in the redevelopment of the harbour around False Creek instead of a piecemeal approach, how could the interac-tion with water be more holistic? 30Park: Vanier ParkPark: Ron Basford ParkPark:Charleson ParkPark: David Lam ParkPark: George Wainborn ParkPark: Habitat IslandPark: Sunset Beach ParkBeach: Sunset BeachDock: Fishermen’s WharfDock: Maritime MarinaDock: Granville Island Ferry TerminalDock: Pelican Bay MarinaDock: Spruce Harbour MarinaDock: Hornby Ferry TerminalDock: Heather Civic MarinaDock: Stamps Landing Ferry TerminalDock: Quayside MarinaDock: Yaletown Ferry TerminalDock: David Lam Ferry TerminalGranville StreetCambie StreetThurlow StreetBurrard StreetGranville StreetFigure 29. Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks and fl oating structures (docks/piers).31Floating Structures Private DocksThere are 14 groups of private/semi-private docks for pleasure boats, 8 water-taxi docks and 1 public pier.  Access on the docks are restricted.  Over 60% of the dock structures are not accessible for use by the public.  33% of the docks are for transient users.  Less than 5%, (1 pier total), can be freely used by the public. Floating structures such as docks and piers act as a me-diator between the land and water.  However, approx-imately 95% of the dock structures deployed along the coast of Vancouver cannot be used freely to access the water: access is restricted or the programming is tran-sient and doesn’t allow for engagement with the water. Access is restricted in the sense that members of clubs, such as yacht clubs, or boat owners, are allowed to inhabit the docks.  The public need not inquire.Other restricted access docks include the Water Taxi docks.  Anyone can generally buy a ticket to use the Water Taxi, but again the dock is a point of sale or facil-itator of a transit service.  The Water Taxi docks are not public and do not foster engagement of the water.The docks however do act as a temporal datum.  These fl oating structures respond to changes with the tides Figure 30. Beaches, walking/cycling path, dock structures and parks.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).and will rise and fall.  The strong temporal elements can create a unique opportunity for engagement. Public Pier - Jericho Pier Jericho Pier is an important structure along the coast of Vancouver in that it can be easily accessed by the public, and is a facilitator of diff erent programmatic activities.  The language of the pier may be a remnant of earlier times, but the activities it can foster provide important clues.  If one public pier can have such a strong impact on how the public can engage with the water, what would happen if all the restricted access docks were turned into public space?Research QuestionsThere are a number of parks located in close proximity to the various fl oating structures throughout Van-couver.  There is a missed opportunity for a dialogue between elements of nature: what if public spaces on land could speak to public places on the water? What sparked the privatization and restriction of access to fl oating structures on the water of Vancouver?  Do these same forces serve as a barrier to implementing a more public language of public fl oating structures in Vancouver?32Park: Hastings Mill ParkPark: Jean Beatty ParkPark: Volunteer ParkPark: Point Grey Park SitePark: Margaret Piggot ParkDock: Royal Vancouver Yacht ClubDock: Kitsilano Yacht ClubBuilding: Jericho Tennis ClubAlma StreetMacdonald StreetWest 4th AvenueWest 10th AvenueFigure 31. Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks and fl oating structures (docks/piers).33Figure 32. Beaches, walking/cycling path, docks and parks.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).Ultra PrivateFrom Alma Street to Balsam Street, access to the water is hyper restricted and seemingly ultra private.  The stretch of shoreline between these two streets are only accessible from a shoreline walk from Kitsilano Beach or Jericho Beach, or from an essentially hidden stairs at such as the Point Grey Park Site at Trafalgar Street. This stretch of coast in Point Grey does not engage with the water particularly well.  The stretch of mostly single family homes not only constructs a largely impassible wall along the coast, but the back yards of the houses are typically barricaded with fences and greenery, as if the water is an element to be blocked and forgo# en.There are pocket parks interspersed between the homes along the coastal stretch of Point Grey.  However, the parks tend be elevated above the shoreline, adding a degree of separation.The prolonged development of the Seawall at the En-glish Bay portion saw a delay in the City of Vancouver purchasing the properties along Point Grey Road.6  Fast forward to the modern day and there is a similar prob-lem: the properties along Point Grey Road are some of the most expensive plots of land in all of Canada.In examining primary historical map sources, such as Goad’s 1912 Fire Insurance Map, the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners Map (1930s), and historical narratives of Vancouver, the stretch of land along Point Grey Road was from a very early point in Vancouver’s history allocated for residential land use for wealthy Canadian Pacifi c Railroad executives.7  It is concerning that this stretch of shoreline has been expensive, selec-tive, and private for so much of the history of the city.  However, there may be ways to operate within this fact to be# er engage the waterfront along this stretch. Research QuestionsGiven the history of private ownership and exclusivi-ty of this neighbourhood, how can we break from the norm and create more engagement along this stretch of waterfront? What intervention in this area could balance the exclu-sivity of the neighbourhood, and activate the coast?What would happen if all of the houses that barricade the water were bought up and changed into public space?34Park:Stanley ParkBeach: Third BeachBeach: Zeus BeachDatum: Siwash RockDatum: FishingDatum: Prospect PointDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: StepsDatum: RampDatum: StepsProgramme: Drum CircleFigure 33. Partial view of First Touch map, showing beaches, walking/cycling path, parks with pop-up programming and datum.35Temporal ElementsTemporal DatumThere are various infrastructural elements along the coast in Vancouver that function not just as a means of accessing the water, but also as a temporal datum for the coast. Steps and RampsStairs and ramps into water register the tides.  Tides change through day and night, and the sea level will ultimately rise due to climate change.  There are several stairs along the Seawall that provide access to water, and have been around for decades.  The stairs along the Seawall are typically a missed opportunity.  The stairs act as a datum, but are very utilitarian.  Further, the stairs are often steep and uncomfortable. Pop-Up ProgrammingThere are a number of pop-up events that act as a temporal element along the coast.  For example, drum circles at Third Beach.  There are other pop-up or tem-porary events that are hosted along the coast, such as Bard on the Beach at Vanier Park, Symphony at Sunset Beach or other music festivals at Jericho Beach.  These events are typically hosted on the grass in the parks, or the sand of the beaches.  The se# ings are informal but could benefi t from structure.  These events require out-door public space, yet the choice of venue in Vancouver Figure 34. Beaches, walking/cycling path, docks and parks.  Reduced size view - Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).is extremely limited.  Parks may be public space, but in many cases typically lack infrastructure for many types of performing arts activities.  People already travel to these locations to participate in these activities.  How-ever, could this scene become more popular if there was the public space to more purposefully support this pop-up programming? Research QuestionsAre informal pop-up activities on the coast be# er left informal, or would they benefi t from an intervention of public space? Should all temporal datum and infrastructure along the water be accessible to the public at all times?  Is denial of the use of datum a strength or weakness of infra-structure as public space? 36Figure 35.  From City of Vancouver Archives, CVA 260-312 - Stanley Park Seawall, 1930.  Partial view of Seawall and steps registering as a temporal datum for the tides.37Figure 36. Rocky beach near Burrard Street bridge.  The beach re-animates into a dog park for short periods of the day when the tide is low.  Access to this beach provides a temporal indicator.38Figure 37. Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.  English Bay Beach. 39History: English Bay Bathing BeachFigure 39. Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.        Kitsilano Beach.Figure 38. Partial view of 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance Map.      En-glish Bay Beach.map from 1912.  There has consistently been a structure at this location since 1912, however there is a history of demolition and replacement of the structure: such as the original bath house structure shown on the map, followed by an Arts and Crafts style bath house in the 1920s9, and eventually the current bath house and Boat-house Restaurant (built in 2005).Both fi re insurance maps show these beaches as places of leisure (identifi ed as bathing beaches).  The popula-tion of Vancouver has increased substantially, yet the leisure infrastructure has remained stagnant.The 1912 Goad’s Fire Insurance provides some valuable insights regarding the history of the built environ-ment interface with the water in English Bay.  Of note, there was a pier with a public pavilion in the water of English Bay near Gilford Street and Beach Avenue.  Furthermore, a Bath House at English Bay, at the end of Denman Street was present in 1912.  A newer structure replaced the original structure in the 1930s.8  Addi-tionally, the bandstand shown on the beach has been moved inland to Alexandra Park.  The few structures on the beach have been present for quite some time. A bath house structure is identifi ed on the fi re insurance History: Kitsilano Bathing Beach40In the essay by D.W. Meinig: The Beholding Eye, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, Meinig posits that landscape can be seen through diff erent lenses.  Or how in “dif-ferent ways our varied group might describe a common scene.” 10 In the essay, Meinig proposed the following groups of observations of viewing landscape: as Nature, as Habitat,as Artifact,as System,as Problem,as Wealth,as Ideology,as History,as Place,as Aesthetic.11The above prompts provide inspiration for a more fl uid commentary of observations and analysis of the Vancouver coast:NatureWith nature as the dominant view, man is second-ary.  Meinig suggests with this view that man is to be removed from the scene and to view nature its pristine condition.12  In the case of the Vancouver coast, there is a somewhat timid language of landscape as nature embodied in the built fabric.  There are swaths of sandy beaches that appear as if man has never been there.  Some people in Vancouver quickly identify with this view.  As Meinig argues, the standpoint of landscape as nature is a view for which to measure the “more they see pristine nature as perfection, as a baseline from which to measure corruption.”13  The view of the coast as pure nature is a bit reductivist, but can be appreciated.  Ten Versions of the Same SiteHabitatFlowing from the view of landscape as nature is landscape as habitat.  Habitat is a blend of nature and man.   There is a tension between the scene of nature and habitat along the coast.  The swath of habitat is segregated from the swath of nature by a walking and cycling path.  The relationship is somewhat delineated, likely for the means of democratic access to manicured coast.  The notion of habitat could be stronger with a more thoughtful immersion of domesticity and nature. ArtifactFurther to the discussion of viewing the landscape as nature, the “nature” of Vancouver can be argued to be constructed in many areas.  A manicured language exists throughout much of the built fabric.  A rhythm of trees and other greenery provide order and access to “nature.”  The heavy hand of urban planning stands in deep contrast to nature.  Rigid datum versus organic free form.  The fabric of Vancouver is a matrix with plots of nature, with some breaks along the coast.  The promenade of “nature” along the coast is a curated artifact. SystemThe coast of Vancouver is part of a larger matrix of fl ows, movement and capital that we may never be capable of fully understanding.  The systems give clues to the processes that form them.  To see the landscape as a system requires a specialized or trained eye.  The urban planner will see the system of zoning areas, the environmentalist will see the corruption of the built environment, and so on.41Problem A more scientifi c reading of the landscape would sug-gest the coast represents a problem.  Sea levels will rise. The interface of the built environment and the water is one of a piecemeal development, not appreciating the destructive power of water.WealthThe coast embodies wealth.  This includes the opulent pleasure boats, the coming and going cruise ships, or the plethora of capital assets in the form of real estate.  Overlapping with the problem standpoint, the wealth embodied on the coast represents a great opportunity for disaster.  Wealth is harboured on the coast, and could be destroyed by the problematic landscape.IdeologyMeinig suggests that “just as the scientist looks through the facade of obvious elements and sees processes in opera-tion, so other may see those same elements as clues and the whole scene as a symbol of the values, the governing ideas, the underlying philosophies of a culture.”14  What would an ideology of respecting the harbour look like in Van-couver?  It is likely an extension of the active lifestyle driven values embodied in the fabric of so much of the city.  The landscape as an ideology is a view that many Vancouverites may sympathize with. HistoryViewing the landscape as a history is perhaps the most intriguing standpoint for myself.  The landscape reveals diff erent information from the diff erent eras of its existence.  The narrative behind a landscape is rich.  Landscapes change, but certain elements remain the same.  The landscape as history is a standpoint that provides a sense of continuity and identity in an a relatively new city fi nding its identity.PlaceSimilar to the viewpoint of a landscape as history, the landscape as a place suggests there is a narrative or a set of larger intangible values that defi ne the place.  The coast should be a place, with purpose.  The landscape as a place will create history.AestheticThere are many ways to interpret aesthetic.  Meinig suggests that the “purest form of landscape as aesthetic is a more comprehensive abstraction in which all specifi c forms are dissolved into the basic language of art: into color, tex-ture, mass, line, position, symmetry, balance, tension.  The versions and variations are infi nite in the most individualist view of landscape.”15Meinig’s view that landscape can incorporate the lan-guage of art is very poetic.  Not only can a landscape embody all the other elements such as the language of systems or history, but this can also be translated into the aesthetic of the landscape.  As designers, the notion that the landscape as an aesthetic can be a fruitful area of inquiry when we start considering how we can bring in the elements of texture, mass or tension to our inter-ventions.  Ultimately a landscape as an aesthetic can strengthen how the landscape embodies all the other standpoints discussed.42Program and WaterBuildings and activities touch water in a variety of ways.  Some buildings choose to elevate above the wa-ter.  Some buildings feature submersion as an integral part of the sequence through spaces.  Some buildings completely integrate water as part of the space. The list below provides potential programmatic op-tions that can be combined with integration of water activities: Building TypesAmphitheaterBath HouseBoat/Kayak RentalCafeChanging RoomsCinemaConference CentreContemporary Art CentreCruise Ship Terminal DwellingHarbour BathHarbour Traffi  c Control CentreHotelMuseumOffi  ce BuildingPerforming Arts CentrePower PlantScience CentreWater Purifi cation FacilityOutdoor PlacesBeachOutdoor PoolSplash ParkSunbathing ParkInfrastructure as DatumDocksPiersRampsStepsTransportation Kayak Share Water TaxiWater ActivitiesCanoingDragonboatingKayakingSailingStandup PaddleboardingSwimming43Testing the Language of WaterA variety of building types, outdoor activates, infra-structure and transportation typologies can be com-bined with water activities to guide the interventions that activate the harbour.  To test varying programs, water activities and sites were tested for an initial response:Vanier Park meets Harbour Bath A rocky stretch of shoreline near Vanier Park was cho-sen to test an intervention that allows for activation of the shoreline with swimming. Burrard Bridge - Kalvebod Waves meets Kayak ShareKalvebod Bølge (Waves) swimming and sunbathing meets Kayak Share.  What if kayak was a viable form of transportation?  There are several desire-lines in the water between destinations along the coast that are not served by water taxi or other forms of transportation.  Enter kayak share.  Additionally: combining kayak share with other program adds an element of staying power or lingering potential to the programmed space. Floating Kayak Club meets Stanley ParkThe Floating Kayak Club by FORCE4 Architects in Co-penhagen, Denmark incorporates a diversity of moves into the shaping of the fl oating structure.  The language developed for the kayak club can also support other activities such as sunbathing, swimming, and of course kayaking launching.  Introducing this language to a site on the east side of Stanley Park can not only activate a somewhat passive portion of the coast, but also provide an opportunity for a connection between Stanley Park and Coal Harbour.    Leca Pools meets Inukshuk at Sunset BeachThere is a rocky, otherwise unfriendly stretch of shore-line located between Sunset Beach and English Bay Beach.  This location is marked with an Inukshuk rock structure along the main pedestrian and cycling path (Seawall).  This location can be enhanced by creating a tension between nature and a built environment.  Looking to the Leca Pools in Portugal by Ceza can provide important direction.  Implementing an outdoor pool that straddles built environment and nature while maintaining the informal feel of this area can provide a high degree of activation. Ljubljana Embankment meets Stanley ParkA stretch of Seawall between Second Beach and English Bay incorporates a hard edge along the Seawall.  This area does not currently foster engagement with the water.  This presents an opportunity to create a piece of infrastructure to mediate between the two beaches.  The steps of the Ljubljana embankments are a very applicable language here.  This move can foster a diver-sity of program along this area, and create a temporal datum.  Further, the stepping language of the embank-ment can serve as seating for performances in English Bay though the year such as the Polar Bear Swim or Celebration of Light Fireworks. Ljubljana Embankment and ETH Zürich Pavilion meet Sunset BeachThe embankment language can be interwoven with a fl oating structure along a rocky stretch of Sunset Beach. The steps provide an important datum, and can serve as a platform for viewing the activities taking place on a fl oating structure.  Further, the fl oating structure can host other program such as kayak sharing, sunbathing or other performance based activities.The aspirational fi rst-pass collages on the following pages are intended to act as a road-map in developing a cohesive intervention. 44Figure 40. Collage:  Vanier Park meets Harbour Bath swimming pool and platform.  A site along a rocky-coast portion of Vanier Park was selected.  The rocky coast restricts access to the water.  Although the rocky landscape provides a connection to nature to some degree, it under-serves an area of the coast where many recreational seekers pass by on kayaks or other boats.  An intervention that straddles built environment and nature, while allowing for connections between the participants can strengthen the connection between people and the water.  Additionally, a thoughtful intervention on the coast near Vanier Park can also strengthen the public park as the water can be en-gaged instead of being exhibited. 45Figure 41. Collage:  Near Burrard Bridge: Kalvebod Bølge (Waves) swimming and sunbathing meets Kayak Share.  This style of interven-tion combines a diversity of program that allows for leisure space to extend from land onto the water and beyond.   The architectural lan-guage of wood combines a haptic material with the traditional language of the coast, also wood.  The Kalvebod Waves example shows how a playful form can enhance a leisure space to promote diff erent levels of activity: from pedestrians passing by, to leisure-seekers sunbathing, or water sport enthusiasts launching paddleboards or kayaks. 46Figure 42. Collage:  Floating Kayak Club meets Stanley Park.  The Floating Kayak Club can provide an opportunity for a kayak-share type program, promoting a diff erent type of commute across the water with a type of craft typically used for leisure.  The combination of pragmatic transportation with a leisure activity off ers a unique way to activate the coast of Vancouver that is in-keeping with the ethos of the active-lifestyle focused city. 47Figure 43. Collage:  Leca Pools meets Sunset Beach Inukshuk.  The Leca Pools are a strong example of how a leisure space can straddle the line between the built environment and nature to create something that enhances both.  Not only can a Leca Pools style pool near Sunset Beach enhance a currently under-utilized portion of the coast, but can also respect and intensify the engagement of nature in the process.48Figure 44. Collage:  Ljubljana embankment meets Stanley Park (near Second Beach).  There is a stretch of Seawall between Second Beach and English Bay Beach that is a hard-edge, the water is not engaged.  The steps of the Ljubljana embankments show how a infrastructural element can become programmed space.  Deploying a similar move at this stretch of Seawall can act as a programmed public gathering space, and also act as seating for the stage that is English Bay.  The steps as a temporal datum can also serve as seating for activities such as the annual polar bear swim or summer fi reworks.  A subtle move such as the stepping embankment will not subtract from this stretch of coast, only add and strengthen. 49Figure 45. Collage:  Ljubljana embankment and ETH Zurich cinema pavilion meets Sunset Beach.  Similar to the steps proposed near Sec-ond Beach: a stretch of coast near Sunset Beach and the Burrard Bridge is under-served, generally not accessible and forge# able.  Pedestri-ans are quickly discharged from this path along the Seawall.  During some periods, few people can be seen si# ing on the edge of the Seawall. There is a desire to activate this space in a way.  This stretch of coast can act as seating for the stage that is opposite False Creek: Vanier Park.  Even Granville Island can become a spectacle given an a# ention to sight-lines.  Further, this area can act as seating for various fl oat-ing platforms that can also act as stages for activity.  The steps also allow keen people to easily jump in the water or launch paddleboards or other fl otation devices.  5051Developing an InterventionVancouver is a coastal city, yet lacks engagement with the water.  The water is a backdrop, banished to the periphery.  Further, the coast of Vancouver stands to be dramatically redefi ned within the next 100 years.  Pro-tecting the city from the eff ects of sea level rise necessi-tates the redefi nition of the coast.  The key in protecting ourselves from the destructive eff ects of water is to engage with water.  The impending problems facing our coast brings along with it opportunities. In documents provided by the City of Vancouver such as the VanSplash16 document and the OnWater17 study, the people of the city have expressed a desire to inter-act with water in new ways, and to have more access to carry out activities they already love.The mapping research revealed a number of diff erent potential locations for interventions.  The aspiration-al collages tested diff ering languages of intervention along the coast of Vancouver, illustrating the vibrant potential of engaging with water. To engage with water is to engage with time.  Tides rise and fall, registering where we are in time.  We perceive space through the various timescales of hours, days, seasons, and years.  Time is both cyclical and linear.  How do our actions today shape our experiences of the future?  By engaging with the notions of memory and antici-pation in architecture, we situate ourselves within the fl ow of time.  Time and water are two sides of the same coin.  This thesis seeks to protect our coast by creating a fu-ture fi lled with waterfront enjoyment through the acts of creation, participation, and competition.521m2m3m0m4mDayNightDayNightDayNightDayNightDayNightDayNightDayNightDayNightFigure 46. Impending sea level rise will have a signifi cant impact on the coasts of Vancouver.  In the year 2100, sea levels will be 1 meters higher than they are currently, and by 2200 they will be 2 meters above current levels.  These changes in sea level will be even more prolifi c when storm surges and king tides are factored in.  This map shows the changes to the coast of Vancouver if no action is taken to address the impact of rising sea levels. Figure 47. Diagram of the tidal variation in Vancouver over the course of a day.  There are two high-tides and two low-tides.  The cycles of the tides represent a time scale of days.  The variations of the tides over the course of the day and night provide contextual clues about where we are in time. 53A Question of Timelines - Site Analysis1m2m3m0m4m5m6m7m2100 High Tide2200 High Tide2019 High Tide2200 High Tide and King Tide2200 High Tide, Storm Surge and King Tide9m8mIn the year 2100, sea levels will be 1 meter higher than they are currently, and by 2200 they will be 2 meters above current levels.  There are king tides and storm surges which can also have an impact on sea levels.  In the face of impending sea level rise, we need to rede-fi ne how we interact with our coast or else calamity will ensue.Within the context of Vancouver, certain areas will be more impacted than others.  However, the changing topography around the coast represents great risk and yet also great opportunity. When we start considering longer time scales, we start to consider a changing topography.  On a long enough timeline, the changing topography of the coast is unde-sirable.  However, time is both linear and cyclical.  On the scale of days, the scale of cycles, much of the day to day life along the coast is forge# able.  The public realm is forge# able and lacks a sense of identity or Figure 48. Linear time represented through the variances of the changing tides due to sea level rise.  On the timescale of years, we consider the changing topography of the site.  If no action is taken, the changes to the coast will be undesirable. continuity.  There is a richness of cyclical time that is embodied in the cycle of the tides.  However, this opportunity for temporal engagement is often not seized in our space along the coast, and water provides the key.This approach requires the reshaping of the land-scape of the site.  The high point of landscape ele-ments such as steps and ramps are set 3.5m above current sea levels in order to adapt to the changing environment due to sea level rise. Steps and platforms in the landscape can serve as a temporal datum.  As sea levels become higher, the landscape will reveal itself diff erently.  The land-scape incrementally shrinks, but the high ground remains safe. By engaging with water we engage with the ele-ments that register where we are in time. 54Figure 49. Partial view of Vancouver fi rst touch map.  A site near the existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge was selected to test the ideas of creating engagement through creation, participation and competition. 55A Question of Scope - Site AnalysisIn order to give this thesis proposal a degree of speci-fi city, a site needs to be selected to test these notions of temporality.  The earlier fi rst-touch mapping research identifi ed a number of locations for potential interven-tions.  For the purpose of this proposal, an area along the coast near the current Vancouver Aquatic Centre (VAC) was selected. The site near the VAC was selected because it is an em-bodiment of the issues described so far.  This particular area lacks a diversity of program, it lacks a sense of purpose and it lacks any sort of meaningful identity. There is a lot of untapped potential with this particular location, as it is located at a gateway site, near the Bur-rard Street bridge.  From the point of view of a traveler on the water, the Burrard Street bridge is a signifi cant threshold, and the dialogue between the land and wa-ter at this site is forge# able. Additionally, the threat of changing sea levels at this site is real.  It is evident that this area needs an inter-vention to protect the coast, but to also create a land-scape that engages with the water and with time.  The notions of memory and anticipation are the antithesis of the forge# able.  How do our actions today shape our experiences of the future?  In relation to time, how can the notions of memory and anticipation play a role in our architec-ture?  This is achieved by engaging with the elements that register where we are in time.  Figure 50. Site photo on the Seawall facing the Burrard Street bridge.  This portion of the Seawall is very separated from the public realm, is not accessible, and lacks consideration for a cohesive public realm.  56Figure 51. Site photo underneath the Burrard Street bridge facing the Vancouver Aquatic Centre.  The existing False Creek Ferry platform (on the left side of the frame) cuts an area of beach off  from the rest of Sunset Beach.  This photo shows the low tide condition.  When the beach is exposed at low tide, large portions of the beach are rocky and generally not accessible.  57Figure 52. Site photo underneath the Burrard Street bridge facing toward an existing parking lot and Beach Avenue beyond.  This portion of the Seawall is located near a threshold between Downtown and the West End in Vancouver, yet lacks pedestrian friendly elements, lacks a sense of arrival or a sense of place.    58Figure 53. Site photo at a rocky portion of Sunset Beach facing the Burrard Street bridge and False Creek Ferries platform in front of the Vancouver Aquatic Centre.  The ferry platform strongly divides the beach and prevents a free fl ow along the beach for use by the public.  This photo shows the low tide condition. 59Figure 54. Site photo at Sunset Beach facing the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and the Burrard Street bridge.  The portion of the Seawall in front of the Vancouver Aquatic Centre propels people beyond this area, instead of off ering opportunities to stop and engage with the land-scape.  This photo shows the low tide condition. 60Figure 55. Site plan illustrating existing conditions near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge.  Shown at approximate-ly 1:1500.61Figure 56. Site plan illustrating existing conditions near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Burrard Street bridge showing the impact of a rising sea level and storm surge.  Not only does this site lack engagement with water and the public realm, but is vulnerable to the eff ects of sea level rise.  Shown at approximately 1:1500.62Figure 57. Site plan illustrating introducing the Cradle and a re-shaped site topography, responding to the future rising sea levels. Shown at approximately 1:1500. 63The Cradle and the On-Water NetworkHow do our actions today shape our experiences of the future?  In relation to time, how can the notion of mem-ory and anticipation play out in our architecture? This is achieved by engaging with water, and by engaging with the elements that register where we are in time.  This is achieved through the acts of creation, participa-tion, and competition.Introducing: the Cradle.  The Cradle is a collaborative maker space with direct access to the water.  Local woodworkers, overseen by a shop steward, can take up residency in this space to work on boats, canoes or oth-er woodworking projects while sharing the space.  The Cradle is also slated to become the home for an annual design competition.The CompetitionThe Cradle, with permission from the City of Van-couver, has announced the initiation of the On-Water Network annual design competition.  The focus of the design competition is to create a new fl oating pavilion for use by the public every year. The objective is to bring together the best local minds in architecture and planning with local makers in order to celebrate our connection with the water.  The competition teams need at least one architect and one engineer but can otherwise be composed of mem-bers of the public at large.  The deadline for entries is January 3, 2020, winners will be announced on January 15, 2020.  The inaugural pavilion will help to establish the devel-opment of a larger network of fl oating public spaces.  The competition winners will move into the Cradle for a temporary residence and receive the resources to construct their pavilion.  The competition winners will share the Cradle space with the resident woodworkers and collaborate with the shop steward to construct their pavilion.The pavilions are to be constructed in-situ, are to be fl oating structures and must be mobile.  Each year, the winning pavilion will stay temporarily moored off  the coast near the Cradle for a summer of enjoyment by the public before being shipped off  to its permanent home.The act of the pavilion launch becomes a datum through the timeline of the site.  Figure 58. Contextual map of Vancouver showing the location of the Cradle as a large node.64Figure 59. June 21, 2020.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing the inaugural fl oating pavilion moored in front of the Cradle.  The inau-gural pavilion is funded by a private donor. Figure 60. September 21, 2020.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing the inaugural fl oating pavilion has left the Cradle and found its new permanent home at a berth in Olympic Village. 65Figure 61. September 21, 2025.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing 5 years worth of competition winning pavilions at their homes around the coast of Vancouver.  After 5 years of competitions, the On-Water Network and the Cradle are considering forming a non-profi t organization to manage the operation of the competition. Figure 62. September 21, 2050.  Contextual map of Vancouver showing 30 years worth of competition winning pavilions at their homes around the coast of Vancouver.  The On-Water Network has grown too large to be managed by a non-profi t organization and has been taken over by the City of Vancouver Parks Board. 66Site Plan1:250DN8R+3.5m+3.5m+3.5m+3.5mDNDN21RDN21R+0.5m+2.5mDNDN21R+2.5m+3.5m+2.5m+3.5m+1.5m+2.5m+1.5mDNDN DN+3.5m+0.5m1    2     3     45     6     7     8    9     10   11  1213 142361114DNDNCafeCafe overlook into WorkshopWorkshop (below)Folding bridgeDry dock gateCourtyardConcessionPublic washroomsDressing roomsShower stallsRentalsOutdoor shower area (lower)Outdoor shower area (upper)Water taxi121345 I H F E D B A & C GDN8RFigure 63. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View.  Key programmatic elements are highlighted.  Shown at approximately 1:750.1   Cafe2   Cafe overlook into Workshop3   Workshop (below)4   Folding bridge5   Dry dock gate6   Courtyard7   Concession8   Pu lic washroom9   Dressing rooms10 Sh wer stalls11 Rentals2 Outdoor shower area (lower)13 Outdoor shower area (upper)14 Water taxi17891011121167Diversity of ProgramIn order to successfully activate the site and ensure the success of the Cradle, a series of overlapping program-matic spaces are needed.  A diversity of the program will not only help the operation of the Cradle, but will also defi ne a more engaging public realm.Workshop: the key programmatic component of the Cradle is the workshop.  The workshop provides tool storage, administration, work benches, and access to a dry dock to allow for the construction of fl oating pavil-ion and subsequent launching of the pavilions through the dry dock gates.Cafe: a cafe program was selected in order to create visual, audible, and olfactory connections between the workshop space and the cafe.  The cafe is intended to provide a point of stasis along the public paths and public plazas of the site.Concession: a smaller, on the go type concession is included beyond the south end of the workshop to provide a diff erent type of food experience for people engaging with the site or passing by the site.  The con-cession provides a diff erent type of moment of stasis to overlap with the other active program on the site. Public Washrooms and Dressing Rooms: there will be people coming and going, and people engaging with the water on the site.  This portion of the public realm is severely lacking public washrooms, and especially a place for people engaging the water to change.  Fur-thermore, with the addition of kayak and paddle board rentals to the site, it is important to provide access to facilities for changing and hygiene for when occupants fi nish their leisure activity. Rentals: to facilitate more on-water activity, a rental shop with access to kayaks, paddle boards, canoes and other on-water devices will be provided.   Furthermore, canoes built in the workshop of the Cradle can be sold or rented for recreational use in the rentals building.  The rentals building will give the makers in the work-shop an additional platform to showcase their work and create a dialogue with the community. Figure 64. Distribution of building programming.  Green represents Rentals area, Cyan represents Public Washrooms and Dressing Rooms, Yellow represents Concession, Red represents Workshop and Pink represents Cafe. 68Site Plan1:250DN8R+3.5m+3.5m+3.5m+3.5mDNDN21R+0.5m+2.5mDNDN21R+2.5m+3.5m+2.5m+3.5m+1.5m+2.5m+1.5mDNDN DN+0.5m11    2     3     45     6     7     8    9     10   11  1213 14236789101114DNDNCafeCafe overlook into WorkshopWorkshop (below)Folding bridgeDry dock gateCourtyardConcessionPublic washroomsDressing roomsShower stallsRentalsOutdoor shower area (lower)Outdoor shower area (upper)Water taxi121345 I H F E D B A & C GDN8R CourtyardThresholdsFigure 65. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View.  Key programmatic elements are highlighted.  Shown at approximately 1:750.Mediator69A Weave of Public SpacesThe distribution of the building program across the site is intended to create a weave of public thoroughfares, plazas and thresholds. The shaping of the public plazas is driven by response to several diff erent contextual prompts.  Firstly, the public space needs to provide a degree of order and rhythm along the site.  The length of the building required to house this functional program will be lengthy.  With a lengthy building and site, there is an opportunity to provide order with rhythm.  Secondly, the public space needs to accommodate the linear timeline of the site.  On the timeline of years, the topography of the site will change from the standpoint of not just sea level rise, but demographics.  As the progress through the timeline of the site continues, the population of Vancouver will increase.  Consequently, more public space will be needed for this increasing population.  As such, the shaping of public space needs to be generous to allow for the hosting of events and pop-up programming. Thirdly, the site currently lacks a sense of arrival.  The deployment of building program to defi ne the thresh-olds of public space is of utmost importance.  The placement of the rentals, public washrooms and change rooms respond to the datum created by the structure of the Burrard Street bridge. At the north side of the site, the form of the cafe serves as a mediator between two paths: layered public space that provides access to the water, and a service path between the Cradle and the Vancouver Aquatic Centre. There is a courtyard defi ned by the edges of the conces-sion and the workshop.  The placement of the court-yard is at the overlap of several paths and points of access to the Cradle.  The courtyard straddles the realm of stasis and movement.  The courtyard is located at a permeable break in the form of the Cradle, promoting movement, but also promoting stasis. Thoughts on CompositionThe length of the intervention allows for the expression of rhythm to provide order across the site.  The rhythm is communicated through the facade of the architecture and the placement of mass on the site.  A 2.5m rhythm line is repeated across the whole intervention. To incorporate a deep sense of rhythm across the site, tectonic expression at the interior is an important element to connect the rhythm between indoors and outdoors.  The rhythm is carried through the material language of the building.  Horizontal lines of board formed concrete echo the language of the horizontal lines of the wood siding, a lighter material of wood is supported by the heavy material of concrete.  The horizontal lines intersect the repetition of the vertical rhythm that extends across the facade and across the site.  Horizontal datum lines across the facade intersect the implied vertical lines of the rhythm.  The datum lines provide continuity across the whole composition, and allow for play with the workshop mass.  The mass of the workshop incorporates the lighter material of wood, and is anchored at the extreme ends by heavy concrete boxes.  The ordering principles of rhythm and datum are ap-plied across the site and the facade unwaveringly. Figure 66. Distribution of site programming.  Green represents Water Taxi area, Cyan represents Outdoor Showers, Yellow represents Concession, Red represents public plazas and paths. 70+3.5m+3.5m+3.5mDNDN21RDN21R+0.5m+2.5mDN+2.5m+3.5m+0.5m123645 H F E D GFigure 67. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View near Workshop and Cafe.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  Rhythm is maintained through open-ings in the facade of the Cafe and Workshop.  There is a break in the rhythm near the Dry Dock.  A folding footbridge and clear gates open up on the fi rst day of summer every year to allow for the launch of a new pavilion. 1   Cafe2   Cafe overlook into Workshop3   Workshop (below)4   Folding bridge5   Dry dock gate6   Courtyard71Site PlanDN8R+3.5m+3.5mDNDN21RDNDN21R+2.5m+3.5m+2.5m+3.5m+1.5m+2.5m+1.5mDNDN DN+3.5m+0.5m6789101114DNDN121345 I H F A & C GDN8RFigure 68. L1 Floor Plan - Partial View near Concession, Public Washrooms and Public Dressing Rooms.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  A new plaza is formed underneath the Burrard Bridge.7   Concession8   Public washroom9   Dressing rooms10 Shower stalls11 Rentals12 Outdoor shower area (lower)13 Outdoor shower area (upper)14 Water taxi11472UP21RUP21RUP21R12365710911 H F E GFigure 69. B1 Floor Plan - Partial View at Workshop.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:500).  The Workshop is carved out of the landscape.  The Dry Dock allows water to trace inside when needed, and the gates provided a bold connection to the exterior and rising sea levels.1   Large tool storage2   Loading area3   Workshop4   Gate controls5   Staging area 6   Dry dock gate7   Dry dock8   Lockers9   Kitchen10 Reception11 Meeting room12 Offi  ce456789 01273123 B A & CFigure 70. Site Plan - Partial View.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:1000).  The organization of the Cradle responds to the existing datum of the Burrard Street bridge and the tides near the Vancouver Aquatic Centre. 1   Pedestrian and cycling path2   Service area path3   Existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre4   Burrard Street bridge (above)5   Restaurant / Pub1245744     Service alley between existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Workshop12341 23 4Figure 71. Context Section B.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:400).  The main public path is set 3.5m above current sea levels.  Major landings in the steps to the beach are set at 0.5m intervals above current sea levels. Figure 72. Context Section C.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:400).  The main public path is set 3.5m above current sea levels, with major landings serving as viewing areas for the pavilion launch.  A footbridge folds up on the day of the pavilion launch in order for the clear dry dock gates to open and launch the pavilion. 1   Steps and ramp down to beach2   Public path3   Workshop4   Service alley between existing      Vancouver Aquatic Centre and      Workshop5   Vancouver Aquatic Centre1 24 51   Steps and ramps2   Folding footbridge3   Dry dock gate4   Dry dock2754     Service alley between Vancouver Aquatic Centre and Workshop1341 3 422Figure 73. Building Section D - Cafe.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The heavy concrete mass of the Cafe block anchors the lighter mass of the wood-roofed Workshop in the middle of the site.  1   Public path2   Cafe outdoor seating3   Cafe indoors4   Secondary path1   Public path2   Cafe sight line into Workshop3   Stairs4   Service alley5   Vancouver Aquatic     CentreFigure 74. Building Section E - Workshop.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The Workshop straddles time, above water and below water datum lines for when sea levels rise.  A light wood roof caps the concrete base.  The apertures and the wood truss roof structure maintain rhythm across the building and site. 3 4 57623lding Section F - Dry Dock4lding Section G - Workshop Entrance12 3 4 5Figure 75. Building Section F - Dry Dock.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The folding footbridge and dry dock gates open on the fi rst day of summer every year in order to allow the tides to trace into the Workshop and to carefully fl oat the new pavilion outside for use by the public.Figure 76. Building Section G - Workshop Entrance.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  Necessary administrative functions are carved into the topography of the site to support the Workshop. 1   Folding footbridge2   Dry dock gate3   Dry dock1231   Public path2   Storage3   Meeting room4   Workshop reception5   Entrance2 3 4 577142 31 23Figure 77. Building Section H - Courtyard.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The break in the massing of the building shapes a Courtyard between the Workshop and the Concession.  The rhythm is maintained through planting and paving.  The Courtyard adds a degree of permeability to the site.Figure 78. Building Section I - Public Washrooms.  Reduced 50% (shown at 1:200).  The Public Washrooms and Dressing Rooms are a concrete mass, echoing Cafe.  The concrete masses at the ends of the Workshop balance the lighter mass in the middle of the site.1   Public path2   Courtyard3   Concession seating4   Stairs1   Public path2   Public washrooms3   Ramp27879Narrative and Presentation PanelsThe following pages include reproductions of the pre-sentation panels that were presented by the author on December 12, 2019. Renderings (Included at 25% size)Renderings were presented as panels and within a slide presentation as illustrations of a narrative that took the audience on a journey through the timeline of the site from 2020 to 2045.The narrative is an embodiment of the architectural rationale for the devices of memory and anticipation.  First Touch Map (Included at 33% size)The research portion of this proposal was includ-ed with the presentation of the design resolution to provide context regarding the design process. The fi rst touch map situates the Cradle within the larger whole of Vancouver. Plans and Sections (Included at 33% size)Orthographic drawings are included to communicate what architectural infrastructure is required in order to program the site over the decades of the annual design competition.80Figure 79. June 21, 2020.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Today is the fi rst day of summer and is the inaugural launch day.  Today, the fi rst node in the On-Water Network will be deployed.   The competition winners, a group of design-build students from the UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, were announced earlier in the year.  Their classes were held in the Cradle during the semester.  With the help of the shop steward, and some of the resident woodworkers, the pavilion has taken shape behind the gates of the dry dock.  Today, the gates to the dry dock open, allowing the tides to trace into the workshop and for the pavilion to slowly drift into the Bay.  The pavilion has emerged outside for the fi rst time.  The crowd outside looks on eagerly as a silver screen drifts out from behind the gates.  Soon, this fl oating cinema will be taxied out beyond the reach of the tides, kicking off  a summer of cinema. 81Figure 80. July 1, 2025.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).Let’s move forward again, to July 1st, 2025.  The winning pavilion designs from years past have been launched and have since found their homes around the city.  A fl oating kayak share, a sunbathing deck, a diving platform and meditation pavilion have joined the fl oating cinema along the coast.  The previous years’ winning entries were the products of various post-secondary schools around the area, UBC, SFU, BCIT, Emily Carr and the Art Institute.  The winning entry this year however was the creation of a small architectural studio.  This year, a pavilion of fl oating saunas is testing the waters.  At the end of the summer, the sauna pavilion will travel along the coast to its permanent home near Jericho Beach.   The waterfront is beginning to animate.  People have rented kayaks to make their way to the platform, while others opt to swim.  From the steps on land, curious onlookers ponder if they too should make the trip.82Figure 81. January 20, 2030.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).  Here we see the alley between the existing Vancouver Aquatic Centre and the Cradle.  At this point, a decade of nodes forms the On-Water Network.   The challenging early period of trying to secure competition funding by donations is over, the Cradle residents and the On-Water Network competition organizers have formed a non-profi t organization. The competition winners this year were announced last week: a joint venture between a local architectural studio and a small group of architecture students.  Keen to get started, the shop steward ordered the materials earlier than usual.  Some of the materials arrived today, and the team can get started right away. 83Figure 82. February 10, 2035.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).It is fi eld trip day in the Cradle!   This group of school children are being shown around the Cradle, as the competition winners are working on this year’s pa-vilion and cha# ing with the other resident workers in the space.  Even the onlookers up in the cafe are curious, looking down from their vantage point.  For some of these children, it is the fi rst time they’ve seen anything like it in the City.  The array of diff erent projects, all in-progress, and the sounds of the diff erent tools are all on display today.  The non-profi t decided that off ering tours of the works in progress would be a good way to create even more dialogue amongst the community, while raising some extra funds for the competition pavilion. 84Figure 83. May 21, 2040.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).  It is May 21, 2040.  The tides are a bit higher today compared to the inauguration day of the Cradle. Pedestrians along this section of the Sea Wall  peer into the Cradle to watch the new pavilion being constructed. Off  in the distance water-taxi passengers queue up in the new plaza under the Burrard Street bridge.  Kayaks and paddle boards are rented, swimmers rinse off  in the outdoor showers, onlookers straddle the steps between land and water.  We are seeing activation of both the water and the land.85Figure 84. June 21, 2045.  Shown at 25% size (Original size 28” x 14.75”).It is June 21, 2045.  The fi rst day of summer.  Today another pavilion was launched.  Most pavilions are still in use and going strong, while some of the initial pavilions have been recently decommissioned.  The operation of the Cradle has been taken over by the City of Vancouver Parks Board.  This network of pavilions in the On-Water Network is now too large for the non-profi t to manage.   The operation of the Cradle is now essentially self-suffi  cient.  The concession, the café, the renting of canoes, kayaks and pad-dle boards, and the continued rental of the space to local makers have all been a boon to the operation.  Some people from the earlier crowd, those that gathered to watch the pavilion launch, are still lingering.  The folding bridge has since been lowered and re-instated, the Cradle gates shut once again.   At this point, 26 nodes have been launched into the On-Water Network, all originating from this spot. 86Figure 85. Colour scheme adjusted Vancouver First Touch Map (Original size 48”x24”).8788Figure 86. Site Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:500.89Figure 87. Context Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section A (top) 1:500, Section B (middle) 1:200, Section C (bo# om) 1:200.90Figure 88. Level 1 Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:250.91Figure 89. Level B1 Plan.  Original size 22”x28”, 1:250.92Figure 90. Building Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section D (top) 1:100, Section E (middle) 1:100, Section F (bo# om) 1:100.93Figure 91. Building Sections.  Original size 22”x28”, Section G (top) 1:100, Section H (middle) 1:100, Section I (bo# om) 1:100.94Endnotes 1 Hughes Condon Marler and Associates (HCMA), Harbour Deck.  Theoretical project by  HCMA investigates a new way for Vancouver to interface with the harbour.  Accessed February 7, 2019.  From Web. 2  Tourism Vancouver.  h# ps://www.tourismvancouver.com/media/articles/post/new-record-103-million-vancouver-vis-itors-in-2017/.  Tourism Vancouver indicates travel to the City has increased due to a number of factors.  Accessed February 7, 2019.  From Web. 3 Statistics Canada  .  2016-2018 Census data of Hours Worked and Full-time Employment in Canada.  h# ps://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1410009501&pickMembers%5B0%5D=2.4&pickMembers%5B1%5D=3.1&pickMem-bers%5B2%5D=4.1  From Web.  Accessed February 7, 2019. 4 Wonderful Copenhagen. The Offi  cial Tourist Organization of Copenhagen.  “Discover Copenhagen’s Harbour Cir-cle”.  h# ps://www.visitcopenhagen.com/harbourcircle.  Accessed on April 8, 2019.  From Web.  5 The History of the Vancouver Seawall.  City of Vancouver Parks and Recreation.  h# ps://vancouver.ca/parks-recre-ation-culture/seawall.aspx .  A brief history of the Stanley Park portion of the Seawall is included on the City of Vancouver Parks and Recreation department website.   6 John Mackie, Vancouver Sun, “This Week in 1967”. h# p://www.vancouversun.com/news/this+week+histo-ry+1967/9565460/story.html.  February 28, 2014.  Accessed on April 11, 2019.  Newspaper Article.  From Web.    This article in the Vancouver Sun newspaper coroborates with data from other historical sources such as the Goad’s Fire Insurance Maps and the Vancouver Harbour Commissionaires map of the coast. 7 Jean Barman, “Neighbourhood and Community in Interwar Vancouver”, 1986, 101. Accessed April 12, 2019.  Publication.  Information from this publication, applicable City of Vancouver Archives photos and satellite imagery confi rm the narrative regarding the timeframes of the Kitsilano Beach Bath House.  8 Vancouver Heritage Foundation, English Bay Bathhouse.  h# ps://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/loca-tion/1750-beach-ave-vancouver-bc/  9 Vancouver Heritage Foundation, Historic Kitsilano.  h# ps://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/wp-content/up-loads/2014/11/Final-Version-Kits-Map-Nov-12-KM-web.pdf.   .  Accessed on April 11, 2019.  From Web. 10  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 1. 11  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 1-8.  Overview of the diff erent standpoints of viewing a scene are transposed into the list. 12  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 1. 13  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 1. 14  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 6. 15  D.W. Meinig, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, 1979, 8. 16 City of Vancouver, Board of Parks and Recreation. VanSplash: Vancouver Aquatics Strategy, 2017,  52.  17  City of Vancouver, Board of Parks and Recreation. OnWater, 2018, 6.95BibliographyAllan, Stan.  Landscape Infrastructures as Architecture, eds. Katrina Stoll and Sco#  Lloyd.  Zurich: ETH Zurich.  2010.Arnell, Peter.  Aldo Rossi: Buildings and Projects.  New York: Rizzoli.  1991.Barman, John. “Neighbourhood and Community in Interwar Vancouver.” BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly. 1986.Cadwell, Michael. Strange Details.  Cambridge: The MIT Press. 2007.City of Vancouver.  Board of Parks and Recreation. “The Seawall in Vancouver.”  h# ps://vancouver.ca/parks-recreation-culture/seawall.aspx.  Accessed on April 8, 2019.City of Vancouver, Board of Parks and Recreation.  “VanSplash: Vancouver Aquatics Strategy.”  2017.  h# ps://vancouver.ca/images/web/draft-vansplash-fi nal-strategy-report.pdf .Accessed on March 1, 2019.City of Vancuover, Boards of Parks and Recreation.  “OnWater.”  2018.  h# ps://vancouver.ca/fi les/cov/on-water-feb-march-open-house-in-formation-displays.pdf.  Accessed April 10, 2019.Easterling, Keller.  Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space.  London: Verso Books.  2014. Frampton, Kenneth. Thoughts on Tadao Ando.  New York: Columbia University.  h# ps://www.pri" kerprize.com/sites/default/fi les/inline-fi les/1995_essay.pdf.  1995.  Accessed February 7, 2019.Friedman, Mildred.  Carlo Scarpa: Interveing with History, 1953-1978.  New York: The Monacelli Press.  1999.Goad Company, The, 1912 “Goad’s Atlas, City of Vancouver and Surrounding Municipalities.”  Fire Insurance Map.  Reproduced 2015, original map produced in 1912.  Accessed via h# p://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/goadsFireInsuranceMap1912.htm Accessed on March 13, 2019.Hughes Condon Marler and Associates (HCMA), Harbour Deck.  2016  h# ps://hcma.ca/harbour-deck/.  Accessed February 7, 2019.Mackie, John.  “This Week in 1967.”  Vancouver Sun, February 28, 2014.  h# p://www.vancouversun.com/news/this+week+histo-ry+1967/9565460/story.html. Accessed on April 11, 2019.Meinig, D.W.  Ten Versions of the Same Scene.  1979.Moore, Charles W.  Water and Architecture.  New York: Harry N. Abrams.  1994.Mostafavi, Mohsen and Doherty, Gareth, eds.  Ecological Urbanism.  Zurich: Lars Muller.  2010. Pallasmaa, Juhani.  The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses.  Hoboken: Wiley.  1996. Ryan, Zoe.  Building with Water.  Basel: Swi" erland.  2010. Statistics Canada.  Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, unadjusted for seasonality.  h# ps://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1410009501&pickMembers%5B0%5D=2.4&pickMembers%5B1%5D=3.1&pick-Members%5B2%5D=4.1. Accessed February 7, 2019.Tourism Vancouver.  New Record 103 Million Vancouver Visitors in 2017.  2018.  From Web.  Accessed February 7, 2019.Tschumi, Bernard.  Architecture and Disjunction.  Cambridge: The MIT Press.  1996. Vancouver Heritage Foundation.  English Bay Bathhouse. h# ps://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/location/1750-beach-ave-vancou-ver-bc/.  Accessed April 12, 2019.Vancouver Heritage Foundation.  Historic Kitsilano. h# ps://www.vancouverheritagefoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Final-Version-Kits-Map-Nov-12-KM-web.pdf.  Accessed April 12, 2019.  Publication.Wonderful Copenhagen. The Offi  cial Tourist Organization of Copenhagen.  h# ps://www.visitcopenhagen.com/harbourcircle.  Accessed April 8, 2019.  From Web.Zumthor, Peter.  Atmospheres.  Boston: Birkhäuser Architecture.  2006.

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