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Spaces for Witness : Designing for the Post-Extractive Archipelago Winters, Celia 2019-04-26

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|  1  |Spaces for WitnessGraduate ProjectCourseCelia WintersStudentFionn ByrneAdvisors Douglas Robb2019Yea rI  & I I Pa rtS PAC E S  FO R  W I T N E S SDesigning for the Post-Extractive ArchipelagoSubmitted in partial fulfilment for the Master of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of British ColumbiaCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  2  |RELEASE FORMLandscape Architecture  School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture University of British Columbia Name: Celia Winters  Graduate Project Title: Spaces for Witness In presenting this report in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for education purposes in accordance with copyright laws. Name Signature DateCelia Winters 2019-04-26Spaces for WitnessCelia Winters Master of Landscape Architecture Graduate Project Part I & II University of British Columbia Faculty Advisor: Fionn Byrne External Advisor: Douglas RobbGPI Supervisor: Daniel Roher GPII Supervisor: Susan HerringtonS PAC E S  FO R  W I T N E S SDesigning for the Post-Extractive ArchipelagoSubmitted in partial fulfilment for the Master of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of British ColumbiaFIGURE 2 Culverts a t Orpha n 13-18-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) 2017 (OWAA, n.d.)FIGURE 1  (COVER) Orpha n 05-17-21-33 W4 (Three Hills, AB) 2017 (OWAA, n.d.). Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  4  |LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK|  ii  |Spaces for WitnessAs a  prairie native of two decades, my roots and culture can seemingly be tied to the Alberta  oil and gas industry. Long childhood road trips along the Alberta  highways always were adorned with horizon views of “nodding donkeys” or pump jacks. I grew up in a  small town, no less than a  10-minute drive from the 1947 Leduc No. 1 Oil Well in Leduc County which paved the way to the modern oil sector in Alberta. I attended school in a  district affectionately dubbed the Blackgold School District. So, even after 10 years after moving away to beautiful British Columbia, I have continued to maintain a  keen interest in the industry and its transformative effects on landscape and people, in the context of climate change.    When I began to think of ideas my final graduate project, surprisingly it was a  CBC Radio segment on “The Current” that sparked my interest. The segment was discussing the current rise in orphan wells in Alberta  and British Columbia and the issues that are surmounting. Orphan wells was a  term I had not heard before, and no it does not have any relation to “Orson Welles” as much as many of my colleagues have joked! Needless to say, this one podcast led me to this investigation and design graduate project.Acknowledgements Fionn Byrne, Douglas Robb, Lacee Barr and to all my peers and colleagues for all the guidance and support you have given me in  this pursuit.   And special thanks to Mike Tse, my life and criminal partner, I wouldn’t be here if it wasn’t for your unwavering support and food.  PREFACECourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  iii  |LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK|  iv  |Spaces for WitnessThis graduate project analyses the discarded and aging industrial infrastructure of conventional oil and gas wells embedded throughout the North American urban and rural landscapes. The intent of this research aims to explore how design can contribute to the expansion of spatial interventions and environmental justice in these critical landscapes through speculation and provocation. There are two fundamental goals of this design project: Raising awareness of the aging and abandoned oil and gas well infrastructure and their negative impacts.Creating interventions that could explore, provocate, and perhaps mitigate the ongoing adverse affects on the landscape and people. ABSTRACTCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  8  |LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK|  vi  |Spaces for WitnessCONTENTS PREFACE    iiABSTRACT    iv Graduate Project I 1 .0  PROPOSAL & PROCESS  1.1 Project Sta tement  161.2 Releva nce   191.3 Resea rch Questions  201.4 Objectives   201.5 Methods & Limita tions  21 2.0  CONTEXT SE T TING  2.1 Scales in La ndscape  242.2 Cumula tive Effects  262.3 Historical Overview  282.4 Provincial Context  30 3.0 RESEARCH ATLAS  3.1 Glossa ry    373.2 Infrastructure   393.3 Ecological   483.4 Legisla tion   553.5 Summa ry    57 4.0  THEORE TICAL FRAMEWORK  4.1 Liminal Na rra tives  604.2 Extractive Spaces   624.3 Spaces of Witness  654.4 Role of Design   684.5 Design Stra tegies   71 5.0  SITE T YPOLOGIES5.1 Determining Site   755.2 Site Introductions  77 CONTENTS    viFIGURES LIST    vii  Graduate Project II 6.0  DESIGN INQUIRY6.1 Project Sta tement  806.2 Da ta  Mapping   826.3 Site Studies   866.4 Metha ne Studies   886.5 Well Pad Studies   906.6 Well Pad Edges   92 7.0 DESIGN SOLUTION7.1 Design Proposal   967.2 Scale    987.3 Cumula tive Effects  1007.4 Isla nd Studies   1027.5 Stra tegies   102 8.0  INTERVENTIONS8.1 Interventions   1078.2 Fosse    1088.3 Tumulus    1188.4 Palisade    128 9.0  PRESENTATION FORMAT A APPENDIX Project Schedule   143 References   144 Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  vii  |FIGURES LIST FIG 1  -  Orpha n 05-17-21-33 W4 (Three Hills, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.) FIG 2  -  Culverts a t Orpha n 13-18-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.) FIG 3 -  Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 4 -  Orpha n Well Infrastructure image (Morga n, 2017)FIG 5 -  Orpha n Well Notifica tion Sign image (OWA, 2016)FIG 6 -  Venn diagra m for project methodology. Adapted from Pa trick Beech, Mending Malcolm Island (2018).FIG 7  -  Orpha ns come in all shapes a nd sizes  05-20-48-2-W5 (Wa rburg, AB) (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 8 -  Ca nada’s Reserve Map. Adapted from Ca nada’s Energy Resources (CAPP, n.d.)FIG 9 -  Wells Drilled in Western Ca nada. Adapted from ( JWN Energy, 2016)FIG 10 -  Inactive Wells in BC, AB, SK map (D’Aliesio, 2018).FIG 11  -  Exa mple of the “spider web” of drill pad sites to be a ba ndoned. Vermilion, Alberta. Google Ea rth Images.FIG 12  -  Risks associa ted with conventional drilling, “cumula tive effect.” Adapted from Crossing the Line (Va nucchi, 2015).FIG 13  -  AB a nd BC Timeline History (Alberta  Culture Tourism, 2018) (Government of British Columbia, n.d.)FIG 14A -  Inactive Oil a nd Gas Wells in AB. Adapted from (Fuzeium, 2018)FIG 14B -  Orpha n Oil a nd Gas Wells in AB. Adapted from (Fuzeium, 2018)FIG 15 - Tip of the Iceberg Costs in Clea n Up. Adapted from (C.D.Howe, 2017).FIG 16  - How deep a re the Alberta  wells? Adapted from (Ha rtshorn et al., 2015).FIG 17  -  Orpha n Wells in BC. Adapted from Orpha n Site Ma nagement (BCOGC, 2017) FIG 18 -  BC Resource Activity Map. Adapted from (BCOGC, 2017).FIG 19 -  Ta ble: Surface Area  Used for Oil a nd Gas Activity (BCOGC, 2013).FIG 20- Orpha n Well, Alberta, 2017 (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 21  - Production to Consumption Diagra m. Adapted from Ca nadia n Associa tion of Petroleum Producers (CAPP, n.d.).FIG 22 -  Extraction Footprints Diagra m. FIG 23 -  Conventional vs. unconventional extraction diagra m. FIG 24 -  Conventional extraction associa ted infrastructure diagra m.FIG 25 -  Well Stages. Adapted from Well Infrastructure (AER, n.d.).FIG 26 -  10-23-29-20-W4 (Drumheller, AB)  One of the orpha n wells up for adoption (OWAA, n.d.).FIG 27 -  Orpha n 02-26-031-25W4 (Three Hills, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.).FIG 28 -  Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.).FIG 29 -  Orpha n 16-17-48-02W5 (Wa rburg, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.).FIG 30 -  Structures a t orpha n well 06-20-48-02 W5 image (OWAA, n.d.). FIG 31  -  Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) image (OWAA, n.d.). FIG 32 -  Well Leakage. Adapted from Well Infrastructure image (AER, n.d.).FIG 33 -  Ecological Risks of oil a nd gas infrastructure. diagra mFIG 34 -  Concentra tion of active a nd a ba ndoned wells across North America. image (Nikiforuk, 2014).FIG 35 -  Rusting pipes in agricultural field image.FIG 36 -  Visible gas bubble leaks a t well image.FIG 37 -  Conta mina ted wa ter from well image.FIG 38 -  Aba ndoned well in Alberta  image.FIG 39 -  Aba ndoned well in Ta ber, AB image.FIG 40 -  Surface Well Leak image. FIG 41  -  Da ryl Bennett poses beside inactive oil a nd gas infrastructure nea r Ta ber, Alberta. image (Riley, 2018)FIG 42 -  Oil a nd Gas Development: a  Producer’s Perspective image by Bria n Weedon, Weedon Ra nch. FIG 43 -  A pump jack on display a t New Mexico Institute of Mining a nd Technology, Socorro, New Mexico image CoversIns. Cover121416192022222324252729292929313131303738393940 - 42434343434343454750505050505052555659|  viii  |Spaces for WitnessFIG 44 -  Tra nsitional process of liminality diagra m. Adapted from NGX Interactive (Beringer, 2017). FIG 45 -  Process of interventions diagra m.FIG 46 -  SOCAR Oil Fields #1a b Baku, Azerba ija n, 2006 (Burtynsky, 2018)FIG 47 -  Oil Fields #22, Cold Lake Alberta, 2001 (Burtynsky, 2018)FIG 48 -  Oil Fields #2, Belridge, California, USA, 2003 (Burtynsky, 2018)FIG 49 -  Oil Perspective Rendering (Byrne, n.d.) FIG 50 -  Sa nd Perspective Rendering (Byrne, n.d.)FIG 51  -  Architecture Exhibition (Pedonic Opera tions, 2015)FIG 52 -  Pa nora mic View from the pa rk (Wikipedia, 2018)FIG 53 -  Event ga thering a t the pa rk (Ha rtford, 2017)FIG 54 -  In Blood and Bone Exhibition, TRUNK Galley (Ba rtol, 2018)FIG 55 -  In Blood and Bone Exhibition, TRUNK Galley (Ba rtol, 2018)FIG 56 -  Orpha n Well Adoption Agency Website (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 57 -  Orpha n Well Adoption Correspondence Letters (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 58 -Anima tion Stills on proposed design interventions (SCAPE, 2018)FIG 59 -  Anima tion Stills on proposed design interventions (SCAPE, 2018)FIG 60 -  Exhibition Installa tion (WLA, 2018) F IG 61  -  Boubya n Isla nds: There Was Once An Isla nd Renderings (Na tional Council, 2016)FIG 62 -  Das Crude, Drill Ba by Drill Specula tive Project Renderings (Na tional Council, 2016)FIG 63 -  Oil Derrick in Agricultural Field by Donald Gia nna tti Image.FIG 64 -  Inactive Wells in BC, AB, SK map (D’Aliesio, 2018).FIG 65 -  A well CNRL Owl 08-16-86-18 (DSF, 2018).FIG 66 -  Google Ea rth image showing portion of route map with well sites a nd potential emitters indica ted in red. (DSF, 2018).FIG 67 -  Orpha n Wells in Fort St. John Region, BC (BCOGC, n.d.).FIG 68 -  Orpha n Wells Map in BC (BCOGC, n.d.).FIG 69 -  A fa rmer checks his whea t crop outside of La ncer, Sask.(Korol, 2018).FIG 70 -  Spider-web development in the Llyodminster Region, Alberta  (D’Aliesio, 2018).FIG 7 1  -  Orpha n Wells in Llyodminster Region, AB (BOE Report, 2017)FIG 72 -  Orpha n Wells Map in Alberta  (BOE Report, 2017).FIG 73 -  Orpha n Wells Map in Alberta  (BOE Report, 2017)FIG 74 -  A well, measured leaking a t a  ra te of 1,000,000 ppm currently cordoned off (Wood, 2017).FIG 75 -  Church’s exterior has been fenced off due to eleva ted metha ne levels being detected (Wood, 2017).FIG 76 -  Hitch’n Post Saloon, sits on a  1890’s well. Building is to be demolished due to metha ne leaks (Murray, 2018).FIG 7 7  -  Pump jack a t sunset by Delfino Ba rboza  image. FIG 78 -  Orpha n 7-29-031-23 W4 (OWAA, n.d.)FIG 79 -  Project Process. By Author. 2019.FIG 80 -  Ecoregions Map.  (GOC, n.d.).FIG 81  -  Geology Map (AGS, n.d.).FIG 82 -  Total Groundwa ter Use Map. (ERCB, 2009). FIG 83 -  Seismic Lines Alberta  Map. (Ma rtin, 2018). FIG 84 -  Crude Oil a nd Ra il Infrastructure Map (NEB, 2017). FIG 85 -  Na tural Gas Infrastructure Map.. (NEB, 2018).FIG 86 -  Na tural Gas Resources Map (Alberta  Oil & Gas Industry, 2017). FIG 87 -  Oil Resources Map (Alberta  Oil & Gas Industry, 2017). 59616161626262646465656565676767686871727373737374747474757575757714179818282838384848585Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  ix  |FIG 88 -  Image wetla nd. FIG 89 -  Image la ndfill. FIG 90 -  Image gas well, metha ne fla ring.FIG 91  -  Boreal, Boone Lake, AB. (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000).  FIG 92 -  Cultiva ted, Vermilion, AB. (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000). FIG 93 -  Urba n, Medicine Ha t, AB.  (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000).  FIG 94 -  Wellpad Isla nd Illustra tion. FIG 95 -  Well-site scena rio conditions. Adapted from (DACC, 2015). FIG 96 -  Well site construction section deta il. Adapted from (IGas Energy, n.d.). FIG 97 -  Well site construction deta ils. (IGas Energy, n.d.). FIG 98 -  Orpha n 13-18-048-02 W5 (OWAA, n.d.). FIG 99 -  Design Proposal Concept Diagra m. FIG 100 -  Alberta  well loca tion map, circa  ~1963. FIG 101  -  Cumula tive Effects Diagra m. FIG 102 -  Isla nd studies a nd stra tegies diagra m. FIG 103 -  Cultiva ted La nds (Tumulus Isla nd) Render. FIG 104 -  Boreal Forest Map 1:7000. By Author. FIG 105 -  Fosse Isla nd Stra tegy. By Author. FIG 106 -  Fosse Isla nd Section. By Author. FIG 107 -  Fosse, Edge Condition Deta ils. FIG 108 -  Fosse, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. FIG 109 -  Fosse, Structure Deta ils. FIG 110 -  Fosse, Aerial Render.FIG 11 1  -  Fosse, Render, perspective view of the la ndscape demonstra ting the reuse of infrastructure.FIG 112  -  Fosse, Render, moa t edge with central isla nd. FIG 113  -  Cultiva ted La nds Map 1:7000. FIG 114  -  Tumulus Isla nd Stra tegy. FIG 115 -  Tumulus Isla nd Section. FIG 116 -  Tumulus, Edge Condition Deta ils. FIG 117  -  Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. FIG 118 -  Tumulus, Structure Deta ils. FIG 119 -  Tumulus, Aerial Render.FIG 120 -  Tumulus, Render, perspective view of the ha rvest a nd compost of the seasonal flowers. FIG 121  -  Tumulus, Render, Tumulus mound situa ted within a  fa rm la ndscape.FIG 122 -  Urba n Map 1:7000. FIG 123 -  Palisade Isla nd Stra tegy. FIG 124 -  Palisade Isla nd Section. FIG 125 -  Tumulus, Edge Condition Deta ils. FIG 126 -  Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. FIG 127 -  Tumulus, Structure Deta ils. FIG 128 -  Palisade, Aerial Render, va ria nts in deployed interventions illustra ting the interconnected process system. FIG 129 -  Palisade, Render. Perspective from office window eleva ted a bove Palisade perimeter.FIG 130 -  Palisade, Render, Palisade perimeter ga bion wall a  former city urba n block. FIG 131  -  Presenta tion Boa rd Layouts for Gradua te Project Presenta tion on April 18, 2019. 86868788888990919293959799101103105108109110112112113115116117118119120122122123125126127128129130132132133135136137138|  x  |Spaces for WitnessLEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANKCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  14  ||  15  |Spaces for WitnessPROPOSAL & PROCESSFraming the IdeasFIGURE 3  Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) 2017 (OWAA, n.d.). Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  16  |The boom and bust of the oil industry in the last few decades have led to a  major economic destabilization, resulting in companies falling into insolvency and abandoning more than “190,000 oil and gas wells” just in Alberta  alone (Kenyon, 2017). The accumulation of abandoned infrastructure begins to exceed astronomical numbers when calculated across the provinces and states of North America. Ownership and reclamation responsibilities of these wells are tied up within the court systems due to company insolvencies and lack of funds; meanwhile wells are left to deteriorate and contaminate the surrounding systems, leaving residents unaware or helpless, with no legal power or resources to remediate the decaying infrastructure (Glen, 2018).As the global availability of oil resources dwindles, rural and urban landscapes are left with detrimental transformations from decades of extraction. The petrochemical companies are abandoning responsibilities in reclamation and clean up, leaving behind an abundance of artificial landscapes and contaminated environments. It is a  problem that cannot be solved instantaneously and could take decades to resolve. This epidemic is not confined just to the oil capital of Alberta’s provincial borders, but has national and global implications.As landscape architects, designers and advocates for sustainable futures, we can rethink politically, imaginatively, and theoretically on how we can contribute positively to this changing environment. “The act of envisioning alternative futures – something landscape architects excel at – is a  political act. It’s time we build upon our design acumen by participating directly in the legislative landscape” (Urban Geography, 2016). While working to protect and sustain environments, landscape architects seek to creative positive experiences for all. Often seen as the collaborators that hold trans-disciplinary teams together, landscape architects are instrumental in negotiating with and between users regarding the built environment. “In exploring opportunities as landscape architects, we can use the design and media tools at our disposal to deeply listen, carefully observe, and elevate voices that have not previously had a  platform to be heard” (Karaman, n.d.). “Insisting on the imperative to experiment and to work without certainty, in the face of increasing pressure to adopt best management practices and to establish ecosystem service metrics, may be the most pressing challenge for the next generation of landscape architects who care to design places that matter culturally as well as ecologically” (Meyer, 2015). While acknowledging the traditional approaches to landscape design and management, this graduate project hopes to position itself in “experimenting without certainty” to design spaces that explore experimentation and provocation at different scales to prioritize visual forms of knowledge in the ongoing conversation of the conventional oil and gas well abandonment issues, at social and ecological levels. 1 .1  PROJECT STATEMENT|  17  |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 4 Orpha n Well Infrastructure (Morga n, 2017).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  18  ||  19  |Spaces for Witness“Landscape architecture is the discipline that designs the spaces where… conditions and relationships are perceived, studied, and celebrated by scholars in anthropology, philosophy, sociology and the sciences. We are designing these “experiments in the living” in the entanglement of social practices and living systems. We need to be reflective about them, claim them and try to measure their qualitative contributions to a  sustainable future. This will require us to find bridges between existing scholarly pursuits-between the body, landscape tectonics/materials research, ecological landscape performance standards, and urban design” (Meyer, 2015).In Meyer’s argument, she states that the limited use of landscape architects is due to the miscommunication and lack of integration between the design and the scientific worlds. This is due to the misconception that landscape architects are solely artists or horticulturists. It is up to us to create a  dialogue with the science and petrochemical industry that the design profession in fact has a  great deal to offer. Landscape architect skill sets have the ability to fuse a  range of disciplines and perspectives to create one dynamic solution- a  true sense of place, aesthetics, and environmental impacts.For example, the Marcellus Shale Well, Wyoming County Pennsylvania  in 2010 had “3000 drilling permits [were] approved.” In Pennsylvania, landscape architects are licensed to do erosion and sedimentation plans, “that’s a  lot of work for landscape architects, particularly ones who work for engineering companies” (Gilliland, 2011). It’s not just a  question of making a well pad or drill pad aesthetically pleasing, or hiding it from the eyes of the sceptical public, it’s an opportunity for landscape architects to marry varying practitioners to create a  more holistic design that will mitigate future issues. In Pennsylvania, landscape architects are involved at the beginning of the process, and this is a goal that Canadian provinces could work towards in the future to design more sustainable landscapes. If the New Landscape Declaration, outlined by the American Society of Landscape Architects, is to be taken seriously, contemporary practice has an obligation to do more by reframing landscape architectural practice as “something larger than a collection of projects and as something that’s part of, and at times leading, something larger; namely the movements for social justice and against climate change that, while long simmering, have recently burst back into the public’s consciousness. Most importantly, design must shed the idea that professional practice is an a  political exercise, and academic practitioners must discard the notion that activism is rooted in some indulgent, lone researcher-led engagement with the physical landscape in lieu of the people who occupy it” (Griffin, 2017).1 . 2  RELE VANCEFIGURE 5 Orpha n Well Notifica tion Sign (OWA, 2016)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  20 |1 . 3  RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. 4  OBJECTIVESAs landscape architects we are known for taking a  comprehensive approach in our designs in order to work towards more sustainable landscapes and systems. This graduate project wants to start bridging the methods of analysis and planning with design experimentation to create spaces where industry, nature, and people can mutually understand each other. I hope to search for this balance through three research questions that help focus my intentions and objectives. How might landscape architects contribute to the expansion of spatial interventions and environmental justice in the context of abandoned conventional oil and gas wells? Can post-industrial infrastructure be re-envisioned as positive interventions that contribute to mitigation and/or reuse in new forms?How can design at multi-scales and landscapes contribute to an actualization of perceptions and storytelling for the public?  In this research investigation and exploration is used to first get an understanding of the different systems, secondly to bridge the gap between research done and then to finally explore design strategies for the proposed design interventions for Graduate Project II.Explore how modes of visual representation  can be applied as activist design for landscape architectsIdentify multi-functional interventions that may benefit social, economic, and ecological processes and systems at different scalesCreate connections and awareness between the public and the conventional oil and gas well systems123|  21  |Spaces for WitnessMethods Three areas of investigation provide the structure of this project, through discipline, issue, and site. Each area will be explored on its own to give context in a progressive order to build the understanding of this project thesis. The discipline, issue and site approach is a  simple formula that can easily be applied to any design thesis, and provides a  clear argumentation for this system based project.Methods utilized for investigation consists of a literature review, precedents studies, and preliminary case studies on site typologies.The precedent studies of this project focus on methods and approaches by professional designers, photographers and artists that help formulate the design principles and strategies for Graduate Project II. Limitations This research project acknowledges the limitations in the design proposal due to time constraints and access to publicly accessible data. The calculations of the total surface area used by oil and gas activities is primarily based on interpretation of industry submitted spatial data, satellite imagery and government mapping. Locational data  is often limited or inaccessible for public review. Given the known data limitations, the graduate project methodology errs on the side of a  larger number of surface disturbances than may actually exist. Preliminary mapping encompasses available online sources primarily provided by the British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission and the Alberta  Energy Regulator. The Graduate Project II will delve deeper into mapping and analysis through GIS and other spatial metrics. Another major challenge to this project thesis is acknowledging the limitations a  design intervention will actually have on such a  large scale current issue such as the abandonment of conventional oil and gas wells. This project is not seeking to find new innovative ways to address the reclamation and contamination issues, or solve the lack of funding available to properly restore and contain the infrastructure. 1 .5  ME THODS & LIMITATIONSDisciplineIssueSiteFIGURE 6 Venn diagra m for project methodology. By Author - Adapted from Pa trick Beech, Mending Malcolm Island. (2018).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  22  ||  23 |Spaces for WitnessCONTEXT SE T TINGUnderstanding the IssuesFIGURE 7  Orpha ns come in all shapes a nd sizes  05-20-48-2-W5 (Wa rburg, AB) (OWAA, n.d.)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  24 |Canada is the fifth-largest producer of natural gas and the sixth-largest producer of crude oil in the world with extensive oil and natural gas reserves across the country (CAPP, n.d.). Oil and natural gas resource development, which includes oil sands, natural gas, and conventional and unconventional oil, has been active across Canada for decades and uses goods and services from many regions across the country. Canada’s oil reserves total 170 billion barrels, of which 164 billion barrels can be recovered from the oil sands (CAPP, n.d.).Methods of extraction have changed over the years with the development and innovation of new methods and technology. The advancements have led to new practices for oil and gas extraction to meet the ever growing consumption demand for energy within North America. As Canada being one of the largest producers of oil and gas in the world, the visible (and invisible) scale of impact on the landscape from the extraction is extensive. In many cases the “detritus of drilling operations rusts in place: oil tanks, separators, dehydrators and the like” (Ganley, 2018) are left as post-industrial artefacts scattered across the land.Western Canada, predominantly Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, have experienced the most negative ramifications from the petrochemical industry. As the industry begins to move away from conventional extraction towards unconventional sources, the volume of abandoned conventional well infrastructure will continue to grow and plague the environment. 2.1  SCALES IN LANDSCAPES50100150200250millionBCWells Drilled in 2016 Western CanadaAB SK MB30035040045050055060065070037670587500Conventional OilCanada has the third-largest reserves of crude oil and is the firth-largest producer of natural gas in the world.Oil SandsNatural Gas|  25 |Spaces for WitnessThe infrastructure left behind from the drilling of wellsites is not isolated to the northern forests and landscapes of the prairies or mountains with little human inhabitants. They can be found in people’s backyards, agricultural fields, boreal forests, and in city centres; manifesting in different conditions and scales.The industrial artefacts are forgotten monuments that represent the present condition of today’s oil landscape and the critical issues of engagement, awareness, and dialogue on the long-term consequences of the current fossil fuel regime. According to the Globe and Mail there are 610,000 oil and gas wells in BC, AB, and Saskatchewan with 120,000 inactive wells, that is 1 in 5 wells that are sitting idle (Korol, 2018). In Alberta  alone it is estimated that there is 22 million metres of inactive well infrastructure buried in Alberta  (Hartshorn et al., 2015) with over 400,000 wells that have been drilled (Sheldon et al., 2015). Landscapes of extraction are portals to a  different space; “an oil or mine shaft represents a  discrete, molecular point of access rather than a  contiguous territorial claim” (Rees, 1991). The hole becomes essentially a  feature of the extractive landscape, but the hole is just the start.  We need to begin to understand the scales in landscape to effectively argue why this conversation needs to be at the forefront and addressed at not just the local or regional level, but at a  federal level.FIGURE 8 (Far  Left) Ca nada’s Reserve Map. By Author - Adapted from Ca nada’s Energy Resources (CAPP, n.d.).FIGURE 9 (Left) Wells Drilled in Western Ca nada. Adapted from ( JWN Energy, 2016).FIGURE 10  Inactive Wells in BC, AB, SK. Image source Globe a nd Ma il (D’Aliesio, 2018).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  26 |“While one well or one pipeline may not seem significant and may not result in dramatic change to an area, the first project is often the sign of many more to come. Over time, the effects of multiple projects on the land can result in serious long-term changes for people, wildlife and the land. These changes are called “cumulative effects” because the sum of their impacts is greater than the impacts of a  single project” (Pembina Institute, 2006).One company builds roads and facilities for the new drill pads, shortly after other companies follow suit to tap into the buried resource. More pipelines, roads and railways are developed to transport the extracted resources. But, as the reserves decline, new exploratory seismic lines need to be cut through sensitive habitats to locate new or other fuel resources. This cycle becomes a  cyclical loop as new resources are located, new infrastructure erected, then later abandoned. This leaves behind a  “spider web of development on the land with thousands of kilometres of roads and seismic lines and many cleared areas” that will take decades, if not more, to recover (Pembina Institute, 2006).  It becomes a  problem of scale. Starting on a  single surface site then rippling outward, affecting systems below and above ground, from local to regional scales and so on; at an exponential rate. The landscape of extraction constructed by the process of conventional drilling can become daunting. Near impossible to fathom the actual scale of impact and reach from years of extraction, production and 2. 2 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS|  27  |Spaces for Witnessexploitation of the landscape. Nowhere else in the Canada do we see such a  predominant impact from the practice, “sharing territory with multiple parallel landscape systems, from watersheds and water flows, to habitats and species migrations, households and drinking water, extensive farms and working forests” than we do in Alberta  and Northeastern British Columbia. Drilling draws large flows of resources and “human inputs from a regional geography freely across borders and legislative lines” (Vanucchi, 2015). Its outflows and risks associated can be visible (road networks, seismic lines, extraction infrastructure) or invisible (methane emissions, groundwater pollution) causing a  rippling effect on natural and human systems (Vanucchi, 2015). Once you begin to multiply the impacts by each drill pad, the scale expands exponentially, becoming incomprehensible.  Our everyday perceptions are attuned to visible surface systems, such as canola  fields, rows of pump jacks, fenced property lines, but so much of conventional extraction is hidden and undisclosed: “lease lines, health complaints, ta inted wells, chemical lists... have been concealed due to legalities” (Vanucchi, 2015). The physical and mental connection between people and the extraction process occurring in their backyards and homes s is obscured because most of it occurs behind closed doors, underground, in the subsurface world of rock and soil, groundwater flows and methane migration. “While producers can’t legally extend wells under unleased lands, would anyone know if they did? How does a  landowner really know what is happening 1000 metres underground? While the surface drill pad site is highly visible, public knowledge of subsurface drill pathways only exists on engineering drawings as a plan, proposal, or promise” (Vanucchi, 2015).methane emissionsStorage, refinement, treatment plantsproduction crude oilproduction natural gasproduction waterrivers + streamsexisting wellsmines + quarriesdeep well injectionschemicals used in wellboresdrill paddrill paddrill paddispoal wateroil and produced waterleak out fromwellborefast/visiblefast/invisibleslow/invisiblefast/visiblefast/invisibleslow/visiblefast/semi-visiblefores and farmland cleared for pad construction + roadsfresh ground waterfresh surface watersands / aggregatesextraction arearegional territoryFIGURE 12 Risks associa ted with conventional drilling, “cumula tive effect”. By Author -   Adapted from Crossing the Line  (Va nucchi, 2015).   FIGURE 11 Exa mple of the “spider web” of drill pad sites to be a ba ndoned. Outskirts of Vermilion, Alberta (53.35°N, 110.86°W). Google Ea rth Images.Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  28 |Over the past century and half Canadians have become skilled in extracting, processing, and transporting the buried resource found in the geology that are under parts of every province and territory. Understanding the historical patterns of oil and gas development of the petroleum industry helps understand where we have come from and where we are going. This historical investigation provides a brief glance into the rich history of the petrochemical industry in conventional oil extraction and how the practice is deeply rooted in Western Canada culture and economy today.2. 3 HISTORICAL OVERVIEWFIGURE 13 Informa tion a nd Image Sources: Alberta  Timeline History (Alberta Culture Tourism, 2018) a nd British Columbia  Timeline History (Government of British Columbia, n.d.).  |  29 |Spaces for Witness1858 e first oil well in North American is drilled in Lambton County, Ontario, in 1857/58. 1889 A railway company looking for coal drilled a hole at Haney on the Fraser River near Pitt Meadows and reported a violent gas blow at a depth of 60 feet.1890s Port Haney No. 1 well was drilled adjacent to the railway well, above, and encounters “marsh gas” at a depth of 193 feet.1891 e Geological Survey of Canada examines oil seepage in the Sage Creek-Flathead area of southeastern B.C.1901 e B.C. Mines Department examines oil seepage on the Queen Charlotte Islands.1906 e first officially recorded well was drilled; the Steveston No. 1, in the Fraser River delta. is was abandoned at a depth of 1,200 feet.1908 Beaver Valley No. 1, Cariboo area.1909 Akamina No. 1, Flathead area, southeastern B.C., drilled to a depth of 1,256 feet.1910 Muir Creek No. 1, Sooke area. e well was abandoned at a depth of 1,560 feet. A second Sooke well was drilled before 1920 on Whiffin Spit, total depth was 2,000 feet.1913 Tian Bay No. 1, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands. is well was drilled to a depth of 1,606 feet and recorded a five-foot flare during drilling.1920 Tian Bay No. 1, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands. is well was drilled to a depth of 1,606 feet and recorded a five-foot flare during drilling.1920 Kamloops No. 1, with a total depth of 662 feet.1920s e British Columbia government drills five or six test holes in the Peace River area, just west of the Townships. ese were not intended for completion or production.1941 e British Columbia government drills a test hole near Pine Pass.1947 First oil and gas tenure was issued; a Permit granting the right to conduct geological work.1953 Administration of oil and gas tenure and activities transferred to the Department of Mines.1998 e British Columbia Oil and Gas Commis-sion established. It took over all regulatory aspects of oil and gas activities in British Columbia, including exploration and development.2010 Oil and Gas Activity Act implemented. is act consolidated and modernized regulations previously found within the Oil and Gas Commission Act, the Pipeline Act together with some aspects of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.1874 Oil seeps in southern Alberta are documented.1902 e first producing oil well in Western Canada is drilled in Waterton Lakes National Park.1914 Petroleum is found in Alberta’s Turner Valley.1923 A new discovery rekindles hope that large reservoirs of oil will be found beneath Alberta.1930 Control of natural resources is transferred to the provincial government.1936 e Oil Column phase of Turner Valley development begins.1947 Leduc No. 1 sets off the modern oil sector in Alberta.1948 Additional oil discoveries confirm Alberta as a major oil producer.1950 e Interprovincial Pipeline expands the market for Alberta’s oil.1953 Alberta’s oil production is connected to Pacific markets.1953 “Fracking” opens up previously inaccessible oil reservoirs.1965 Oil is discovered in Alberta’s remote northwest.1973 e OPEC oil embargo rocks energy markets.1977 West Pembina injects new life into Alberta’s oil sector.1980 e National Energy Program alienates Alberta’s oil patch.1985 e Western Accord brings NEP regulation to an end.1987 Environmental concerns challenge the practices of the petroleum industry.2000 e World Petroleum Congress meets in Calgary.2002 e oil sands dominate oil production in Alberta.BRIEF HISTORY OF ALBERTA BRIEF HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAGlenbow Archives, NA-302-7Provincial Archives of Alberta, A10793Glenbow Archives, NA-2335-2Provincial Archives of Alberta, P1342Julian Biggs/National Film Board of Canada/Library and Archives Canada/PA-122742WikiCommons/QydGlenbow Archives, NA-2864-20312CP Photo/Adrian WyldCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  30 |2. 4 PROVINCIAL CONTEXT (ALBERTA)Alberta, one of the western provinces in Canada, boasts a  diverse landscape ranging from the central prairies, the western mountain range, the northern boreal forests, to the southern Canadian badlands. The unique geography is home to one of the largest oil and gas reserves in the world, leading Alberta, known as the Oil Capital, to be one of the most economically wealthy provinces in Canada. However in the last few decades, the oil industry has seen a  downturn in profits and resource availability, leading to a  growing legacy of “orphaned” assets in need of abandonment and reclamation due to company bankruptcies. “Orphan properties are wells, pipelines, facilities and associated sites which have been left behind by defunct or insolvent companies and are designated as orphans by the Alberta  Energy Regulator” (OWA, n.d.). While no single source reports the same number of wells requiring abandonment and reclamation, the numbers all read the same; in the hundreds of thousands. The Alberta  Energy Regulator (AER), the main body that regulates and manages the oil and gas industry in Alberta, reported “approximately 190,000 wells, for all intents and purposes [are to be] abandoned” as a  by-product of Alberta’s “boom-and-bust economic cycles combined with the reality that most of the province’s traditional oil and gas assets are near the end of their productive life” (Kenyon, 2017). Reclaim Alberta, an engaged advocacy group, reported as of October 2015, “Alberta  had 276,397 wells to eventually safely plug, 341,897 wells to eventually remediate and reclaim, ~77,650 facilities to eventually remediate and reclaim, and 384,471 kms of pipeline to eventually safely abandon” (Reclaim Alberta, 2018). According to the AER’s data, “the number of inactive wells in Alberta  is about 85,000, about 3,500 of those are “orphaned”, and it’s estimated that more than 155,000 Alberta  energy wells have no economic potential and will eventually require reclamation” (Nikiforuk, 2017). And about “10 per cent of Alberta’s 1,500 abandoned oil and gas wells in urban areas are leaking methane” according to an unreleased 2016 report, and “335 identified urban wells are believed to be in close proximity to surface developments (houses, a irports, business, etc.)” (Nikiforuk, 2017).  While typically the permit holding companies performs reclamation and abandonment work on wells; orphaned infrastructure “without parent companies” fall under the responsibility of the Orphan Well Association. The Orphan Well Association (OWA) is an independent non‐profit organization that operates under the delegated legal authority of the Alberta Energy Regulator. Primarily funded from levies from the oil and gas industries, currently there are not enough funds in the current reclamation liability programs to keep up with the growing number of orphaned wells. Using OWA estimates, well liabilities are at more than “$107 billion, not including very significant facility remediation/reclamation and pipeline abandonment/remediation liabilities. The regulator’s LLR program currently holds slightly more than $196 million in reclamation deposits, or 0.18% of well liabilities (not including pipelines and facilities)” (Reclaim, 2018). If there are not enough funds to cover the costs of cleanup, who foots the bill? While the answer should be simple, the companies that owns them, unfortunately that is not the case. It is imperative to understand the magnitude and scale of the costs and quantities associated with this ongoing issue, as Alberta  is the hot bed for the largest abandoned infrastructure in Canada. “$2 billion in Reclamation Liability costs are currently accruing against abandoned wells awaiting in Alberta, and another $1 billion in LLR liabilities for abandoned wells awaiting reclamation across British Columbia and Saskatchewan, while long-term suspended wells… account for another $1.6 billion in reclamation liabilities across the three provinces combined” (Hartshorn et al., 2015).FIGURES (T-B,L-R)  14A ,  14B,  15,  16 14A - Inactive Oil a nd Gas Wells in AB. Adapted from (Fuzeium, 2018)  14B - Oprha n Oil a nd Gas Wells in AB. Adapted from (Fuzeium, 2018) 15 - Tip of the Iceberg Costs in Clea n Up. Adapted from (C.D.Howe, 2017). 16 - How deep a re the Alberta  wells? Adapted from (Ha rtshorn et al., 2015).|  31  |Spaces for WitnessThere are approximately 22 million meters of inactive well infrastructure buried in Alberta. That includes a mix of piping, casings and cement. 22,089,000mEquiv. to 2500 Mt. Everest!Costs to clean up sites currently designatedorphansCosts to clean up sitesheld by currentlyinsolvent existing firmsCosts to clean up sites heldby existing firms currentlynear insolvency$338 - 903 million$4,200 - 8,600million$129 - $257 millionHow deep are the wells?Iceberg Costs of Alberta’s Clean UpAccording to AER, there are 89000 inactive wells with a forecast of 6700+ more to become inactive. 89250 Inactive Wells* 6730 Inactive Wells* Inactive Wells in AlbertaPreliminary Mapping & Analysis*Data Report Date: 15/12/2018According to OWA, there are 4349 orphan wells in Alberta. 1188 Wells to Reclaim* 1100 Wells to Suspend* 2061 Wells to Abandon* Inactive Wells in Alberta*Data Report Date: 13/09/2018Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  32  |2. 4 PROVINCIAL CONTEXT (BRITISH COLUMBIA)Out of the western provinces, British Columbia has the lowest amount of abandoned oil and gas wells documented at around 10,000 (MacDougal, 2007). Though, despite the lower numbers compared to Alberta  and Saskatchewan, BC’s “orphan sites… leaped over one year from 45 to 307 due to operator insolvencies… resulting in costs to abandon and restore these orphaned sites estimated [around] $40 to $60 million, however, as of March 31, 2017, the [Orphan Site Reclamation Fund] held only $5.3 million in funds” ( Jaremko, 2018). The BC Oil and Gas Commission is developing a comprehensive liability management plan to address the province’s growing number of orphan oil and gas sites. “The amendments will allow the BC OGC to refuse to issue a  permit or to suspend, cancel or amend a  permit if the permit holder’s directors, officers, shareholders or agents have previously contravened the legislation, been convicted of an offence or are felt to be unfit to hold a  permit” (McLaughlin, 2014). Despite the potential risks to human health and the environment that orphan and abandon wells have, it took BC Oil and Gas Commission four years to publicly release information about dozens of leaky gas wells in Northeastern BC, with estimates of hundreds more going undetected. “The report in question was the result of inspecting 308 wells in the Fort Nelson area for “gas migration” — instances of methane migrating outside of its well. The audit found 47 instances of these leaks and extrapolated that there could be as many as 900 in the far northeast alone” (Kurjata, 2017). In a  study conducted by the David Suzuki Foundation there were a  total of 6,978 abandoned wells and 2,945 suspended wells in B.C. as of November 2014 (DSF, 2018). According to research conducted by John Werring, senior science and policy advisor with the David Suzuki Foundation, he estimated the cleanup costs to B.C. taxpayers at $700 million. “The research documented wells abandoned as long as 40 years ago and it noted that an entire gas facility at Red Creek is still standing, despite being deemed abandoned by the OGC several years ago” (Trumpener, 2016). “Wellheads had been removed, but all the casings were there. The ponds to collect and process water were still on site. There was pump jacks - entire pump jacks - left in the field and had been there for 30 or 40 years” ( Jamerko, 2018).  As BC continues to expand into the LNG Industry, the demand on hydraulic fracking will increase in BC, leading to an “estimated 50,000 new wells needing to be drilled by 2040 – twice the total number in the 60 year history of the province’s natural gas industry” (McLaughlin, 2014). This means the number of traditional wells left behind will sharply increase, and with a  15-20 year lifespan the numbers will be staggering. The BC Oil and Gas Commission will be unable to keep up with the demand for new sites as industry continues drilling, unable to account for the vast number of well pads reaching orphan stage, leaving more orphan well sites than they are able to responsibly reclaim.FIGURES (T-B,L-R)  17,  18,  19 17 - Orpha n Wells in BC. Adapted from Orpha n Site Ma nagement  (BCOGC, 2017)  18 - BC Resource Activity Map. Adapted from (BCOGC, 2017). 19 - Ta ble: Surface Area  Used for Oil a nd Gas Activity (BCOGC, 2013). |  33 |Spaces for WitnessSurface Area Used for Oil and Gas ActivitiesLand Resource Management Plan AreaActivity Fort Nelson LRMP area (ha)Per cent of Fort Nelson LRMP Fort St John LRMP area (ha)Per cent of Fort St John LRMP  Dawson Creek LRMP area (ha)Per cent of Dawson Creek LRMP Wells** 6,415 0.07 18,603 0.40 5,208 0.17Roads** 30,836 0.31 39,855 0.85 12,802 0.43Facilities** 514 0.01 574 0.01 455 0.02Pipelines** 13,150 0.13 21,179 0.45 9,564 0.32Other Oil & Gas Activities** 6,120 0.06 2,990 0.06 3,574 0.12Geophysical Exploration (seismic lines)** 100,899 1.02 88,539 1.89 38,377 1.28Total Area Used for Oil and Gas Activities** 157,934 1.60 171,739 3.67 69,980 2.34LRMP area 9,868,063 4,676,637 2,989,837Net Area Used for Oil and Gas Activities * 148,833 1.51 160,271 3.43 66,496 2.22* The net area occurs when the area shared by overlapping permit types is removed.** The total area occurs when the area shared by overlapping permit types is not removed.According to BCOGC, there are 326 orphan wells that are either cancelled, completed, suspended, decommissioned or restored in BC. 326 Oprhan Wells* Orphan Wells in British ColumbiaNortheastern BC Oil and Gas Resource AreasPreliminary Mapping & Analysis*Data Report Date: 28/11/2018BCOGC O™cesCordova EmbaymentMontney  BasinLiard BasinHorn River BasinFort NelsonDawson CreekKelownaVictoriaFort St. JohnCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  34 ||  35 |Spaces for WitnessRESEARCHATLASUnderstanding What Is InvolvedFIGURE 20 Orpha n Well, Alberta, 2017 (OWAA, n.d.)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  36 |The interest of this graduate project is to understand the complexities of the petrochemical industry in relevance to conventional extraction of oil and gas within British Columbia and Alberta. In order to understand the practices and implications relevant to this project and the opportunities and challenges available for a  design thesis, an investigation of the systems was conducted.    The following chapter synthesizes relevant information to create a  catalogue or atlas of infrastructure, practices, and implications of conventional oil and gas wells. With the knowledge gathered it provides a foundation of understanding for further exploration, provocation and discussion. 3.0 RESEARCH ATLAS|  37  |Spaces for WitnessAlberta  Energy Regulator (AER): The single regulator of energy development in Alberta—from application and exploration, to construction and development, to abandonment, reclamation, and remediation (AER, 2018).British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission (BCOGC): A “single-window regulatory agency with responsibilities for overseeing oil, gas and renewable geothermal operations in British Columbia. The Commission oversees activities from exploration and development, to pipeline transportation and reclamation” (BCOGC, n.d.).Orphan Well Association (OWA): A non-profit organization in the province of Alberta  that manage “the abandonment of upstream oil and gas orphan wells, pipelines, facilities and the remediation and reclamation of their associated sites” (OWA, 2003).Active Well: A well that is currently producing oil or natural gas.Inactive Well: A former producing well no longer in production. A well can only remain inactive for 12 months before it has to be formally suspended.Three types of inactive wells: Suspended: Activity has ceased but may restart. Wells must be suspended for 12 months of inactivity to ensure public safety.Abandoned: A well that is permanently dismantled, (plugged, cut and capped). Company responsible for the well declares operations are finished and it intends to plug the well (reclamation) and restore the area around the well (remediation).Orphan: Company that held the title (permit) to the well has gone insolvent or bankrupt. Leaving the well “orphaned” with no one responsible for reclamation and remediation.Disposal Wells: Old wells which use the drilling hole to dispose the leftover fluid from hydraulic fracking. These disposal wells are then sealed with concrete to prevent open exposure.Remediation: Refers to the removal or treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater.Reclamation: Refers to returning a  site “equivalent land capability,” to condition prior to being utilized by industry. The process of replacing soil and re-establishing vegetation on a  well site so it can support activities similar to those it could have supported before it was disturbed (AGRIC, n.d.).Hydrocarbons: Are compounds of hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane (CH4), composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.Natural Gas: Is mainly methane, although it can occur in nature as a  mixture with other hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane and pentane and with other substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulphur compounds and/or helium.Crude oil: A naturally occurring liquid mixture of hydrocarbons. It typically includes complex hydrocarbon molecules.Bitumen: A semi-solid hydrocarbon mixture. The bitumen in Alberta’s oil sands is the world’s largest known hydrocarbon resource.Petroleum is a  general term for all the naturally occurring hydro-carbons – natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil and bitumen.Liquefied natural gas (LNG): Is supercooled natural gas that is maintained as a  liquid at or below -160° C.Additional Terms: http://www.history.alberta.caergyheritage/oil/glossary.aspx https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/taxes/natural-resource-taxes/oil-natural-gas/glossary?keyword=oil&keyword=wells3.1  GLOSSARYCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  38 |The primary interest in this graduate report is to understand the scale and implication of conventional extraction of oil and gas, however the following section clarifies other practices and sectors to provide a  more holistic understanding of the petrochemical industry.  3.2.1  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RIGS & SANDS Oil Rigs is a  term describing a  form of work within the petrochemical industry that extracts crude oil and natural gas (fossil fuels) found underground, formed from the successional layers of dead plants and animals. Oil Rig work can encompass work from drilling a  rig, servicing a  rig, well service company (ie. frack crew, wireline, or well testers, etc.), industrial plant sites that pump or process oil products, or any systems in between (Lee, 2015).     Oil sands are a  specific facet of the petrochemical industry. Within Canada, the oil sands are located in Northern Alberta  (Fort McMuarry) where large industrial plants use processes to draw thick, tar like, crude oil known as bitumen from the sand located in the area. The oil sands are a  thick, viscous mixture of bitumen hydrocarbons combined with water, sand, heavy metals and clay (Alberta, 2016). The bitumen is separated from the oil sands through heating processes and is then upgraded into higher valued products for end-use markets.   3.2.2 CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS Crude oil, or petroleum, is a  flammable liquid that consists of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds found beneath the earth through oil drilling. Crude oil is processed to make refined products that we can use such as gasoline, home heating oil, diesel fuel, aviation gasoline, jet fuels and kerosene (Alberta, 2016). Crude oil can also be processed into chemicals to make a  wide variety of consumer products, ranging from clothing to cosmetics to pharmaceuticals. Unlike bitumen, conventional oil flows through a  well without stimulation and through a  pipeline without processing or dilution.    Natural gas consists mostly of methane and hydrocarbons or ethane. LPG or Liquefied Petroleum Gas is from crude oil and mainly used for cooking and heating.3. 2 INFRASTRUCTURE|  39 |Spaces for Witness3.2.3 PRODUCTION TO CONSUMPTION From initial production to end user, conventional oil and gas goes through many processes prior to reaching market. Understanding the whole system provides a comprehensive level of infrastructure, stakeholders, and practices involved.3.2.4 TRANSPORTATION Product is transported three ways: pipeline, marine transport and rail.Pipelines Canada has limited pipeline infrastructure to move oil and natural gas across the country and into the United States. Due to the increasing growth in production, the current pipeline capacity is becoming constrained, potentially acquiring expanded or new pipelines to relieve the increasing demand. Pipeline infrastructure is a  highly controversial topic amongst environmental and political groups due to major environmental and social implications from the expansion and development of pipelines in sensitive communities and ecosystems.Recommended further research on Kinder Morgan Pipeline.Marine Each year, almost 550 million barrels of oil are safely transported along Canada’s East and West Coasts via tanker. Oil tankers currently represent about two per cent of total ship traffic visiting Port Metro Vancouver (CAPP, n.d.)Rail Without new pipelines, every new barrel of oil will move by rail. In 2017, about 140,000 b/d of oil – or about three per cent of Western Canada’s supply – were moved by rail. As of July 2018, more than 200,000 b/d are being moved on Canada’s railways, accordingNatural GasCrude OilProduced WaterGathering, Stabilization+ CompressionGathering, Treating+ StabilizationGathering DisposalCrude Oil Storage+ RefinementTransportationCrude OilEnd UserTransportationNGLsNatural GasNatural GasEnd UserNGLEnd UserNatural Gas Storage,TransportationGas Processing, Treating+ Dehydration Production GatheringTransportationStorage + Refinement{Rail, Marine Ports, Pipelines}Market + UserFIGURE 21 Production to Consumption Diagra m. By Author - Adapted from Ca nadia n Associa tion of Petroleum Producers  (CAPP, n.d.). Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  40 |3.2.5 CONVENTIONAL VS. UNCONVENTIONAL Conventional Sources Conventional oil and gas extraction is known as the traditional method of drilling into a  geologic formation to extract raw natural gas, crude oil and petroleum. After a  well is drilled, the natural pressure from wells permits the flow of oil and gas into the wellbore. Overtime, the well may decrease in production, so a conventional well may begin to use an artificial lift, or water, and gas injections to help increase production. If methods beyond the classic means or artificial lifts, such as an oil derrick or pump jack, are used then it is classified as unconventional. After production is no longer viable or profitable for a  company holding the lease for a  well, it can become suspended, inactive, or abandoned. Underground oil and gas deposits are difficult to find, and conventional oil production is slowly diminishing, but the demand for liquid fuels only increases. Industry has been seeking ways to combat the supply and demand by new sources of extraction called unconventional extraction.   Unconventional Sources As the conventional sources of oil and gas become depleted, industry is turning towards unconventional practices of extraction. An underground pocket of oil and gas is not always accessible by vertical drilling, which allows natural pressure for oil and gas to flow. In cases, where conventional is not possible, unconventional methods are employed. Practices and methods of unconventional extraction consist of hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling (Lee, 2015). While this graduate project does delve into unconventional extraction, it should be noted that like conventional practices, unconventional practices are on the rise, which in turn is drastically increasing detrimental environmental consequences. Conventional extraction versus unconventional sources  greatly differ in footprint. Horizontal drilling (unconventional) and multi-well pads allow for recovery of more oil from a single well pad than traditional vertical drilling (conventional), leaving a  small footprint and more surface area for agricultural, grazing, habitat or development uses. Each extraction processes comes with their own risks and impacts to the landscape and environment. Traditional Vertical Drilling Horizontal DrillingFIGURE 22 Extraction Footprints Diagra m. Source https://energyofnorthdakota.com/home-menu/how-oil-is-produced/horizontal-drilling/|  41  |Spaces for WitnessCoventional WellDrinking water acquifersDepth less than 150mHighly impermeable rockDepth 1000m - 4000mRock is fractured open,releasing the oil/gas insideNatural GasCrude OilResevoir RockShaleCap RockFlow back wateris ecoveredOill and gas is collectedand transportedFracturing fluid containingwater, sand and chemicalsis injected at high pressureFracturing FluidOil or GasOil DerrickOil DerrickOil and gas are accessible using vertical drillingUncoventional WellOil and gas are accessible using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturingDrilling RigUsed to drill wellboreto target formationArtificial Lifts (PumpJacks)Engines used to lift oil out of the wellif there is not enough bottom hole pressure for teh oil to flow to the surfaceWellheadComponent at the surface of an oil and gas well that provides structural andpressure containing interface.Drinking water acquifersPermeable RockResevoir RockShaleCap RockFIGURE 24 Author. Conventional extraction associated infrastructure.FIGURE 23 Author. Conventional vs. unconventional extraction diagram.Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  42  |3.2.6 WELL INFRASTRUCTURE Today, the average lifespan of a  oil and gas well is about 20 to 30 years. The longest life phase of a  well is during production or active phase. Initially, activity is high with frequent visits by staff and trucks with the construction of the well head and drill pad then with the hauling of equipment and produced oil and gas. After this initial period of construction, the activity is reduced significantly with crews periodically returning for monitoring, maintenance and product extraction. A well may undergo several stages of classification prior to becoming inert, and effectively abandoned and reclaimed per provincial legal regulations.   Inactive Well An inactive well is one that hasn’t produced oil or gas for 6 to 12 months. Inactive wells can either become an asset, if they eventually are reactivated and contribute to energy supply again, or they could become a  liability if they are never reactivated, causing environmental degradation. In its inactive state, the well also isn’t producing oil or gas, injecting fluids, or disposing of waste.   Suspension (Deactivated) Well Companies regularly stop using certain wells, pipelines, facilities, or mines for a  short period of time to perform routine maintenance. The company must do additional work to suspend the well or facility, or discontinue the pipeline to ensure that the public and environment are protected while it’s inactive. To suspend a  well, for example, a  company must plug the wellbore far below the surface and must lock up the well so that it can’t be turned on without the company’s permission. At the end of this period, the well is considered inactive (AER, n.d.).    InactiveBase of groundwaterprotection (BGWP)~300mAverage welldepth ~1000mPackerWellboreWellhead|  43 |Spaces for WitnessAbandonment When energy infrastructure has been suspended and is no longer needed, the company that owns it must permanently dismantle and seal it. This process of closure is known as abandonment. Once a  company has successfully abandoned the associated infrastructure it becomes the company’s permanent responsibility for maintaining and monitoring the well, according to provincial regulation and laws.   How a Well Is Abandoned Before a  well can be abandoned, the company that owns the well must:• Inform all affected landowners about the proposed abandonment. • Evaluate infrastructure, identify potential well leaks, identify all oil and gas formations and all groundwater zones the well passes through.  • Subsurface: Clean inside of wellbore, all perforations to be plugged, fill well with fresh water, and assess for leaks. • Surface: “Cut and cap stage” Cut well casing to a  min. 1m below surface, place vented cap atop well casing. Surface infrastructure must be removed within 12 months of this stage (AER, n.d.)CementPerforations     Vented CapBridge PlugSuspended AbandonedPacker withtubing plugFIGURE 25 Well Stages. By Author - Adapted from Well Infrastructure (AER, n.d.).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  44 |Orphan If a  company goes insolvent (bankrupt) before properly decommissioning wells, facilities, or pipelines, and reclaiming the associated sites, the site is considered orphaned. Orphan wells can be in any state: inactive, suspended, abandoned, or even producing. A well is considered orphaned when a  licensee becomes defunct without having properly abandoned the well and reclaimed the well site. In Alberta, if this happens, the Alberta  Energy Regulator (AER) orders anyone who benefits from or has a  legal interest in the well to abandon and reclaim it. If there is no responsible party, the AER deems the well and associated sites to be orphaned. The Orphan Well Association (OWA) then takes over the care and custody of the infrastructure and sites (AER, n.d.). AER works closely with the OWA to prevent Albertans incurring the burden of costs for the closing of infrastructures; through the use of levies and the Limited Liability Fund. However, in recent years the increased number of orphaned sites is exceeding the budget allocated for closure, and costs may begin to fall on the landowner and taxpayer. Similar to Alberta, the British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission manages orphan well sites through the Orphan Site Reclamation Fund, a  levy on production used to pay the cost of abandonment and reclamation of sites on behalf of unviable operators (BCOGC, n.d.).   Orphaned Reclaimed|  45 |Spaces for Witness3.2.7 AGING INFRASTRUCTURE FIGURE 31 Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) (OWAA, n.d.). FIGURE 30  Structures a t orpha n well 06-20-48-02 W5 (OWAA, n.d.).FIGURE 29  Orpha n 16-17-48-02W5 (Wa rburg, AB) (OWAA, n.d.).FIGURE 28  Orpha n 06-20-48-02 W5 (Wa rburg, AB) (OWAA, n.d.).FIGURE 27 Orpha n 02-26-031-25W4 (Three Hills, AB) (OWAA, n.d.).FIGURE 26 10-23-29-20-W4 (Drumheller, AB)  One of the orpha n wells up for adoption (OWAA, n.d.).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  46 |3.2.8 OWNERSHIP  Oil and gas ownership is determined by surface boundaries projected downward. Oil and gas are found in rock structures, called reservoir rock, that have the physical characteristics of porosity and permeability. Drilling a  well into the rock structure creates a  low-pressure area allowing the fluid and gaseous contents of the reservoir to move towards the low-pressure area created by the well bore. Ownership of oil is allocated to the property owner that the reservoir rock inhabits; however this ownership is lost once the oil and gas migrates into adjacent lands. The rule of capture grants ownership to the property owner who captures it through a  well located on his or her property – even though it can be proven it migrated from under adjacent lands owned by others (Pierce, 2014). 3.2.9 IMPLICATIONS While conventional methods typically include above ground infrastructure such as pump jacks and oil derricks, the environmental consequences of extraction do not impact geological formations as extensively as unconventional practices such as hydraulic fracturing. The “unsightly pump jacks” maybe becoming a  thing of the past with new technology practices, but these new processes of extraction only increase the hidden impacts that much of the public are not aware (Energy and Gold Publishing, 2015).    Unconventional practices consist of drilling down, then drilling horizontally to allow fracking to occur. This allows oil and gas to flow from tight sands that cannot be normally achieved by conventional methods. The process of hydraulic fracturing literally involves the smashing of rock with millions of gallons of water mixed with sand and chemicals in order to bring oil and gas to the surfaces through wellbores. Like conventional methods risks and concerns are explicit with fracking as well, including contamination of groundwater, infrastructure degradation and methane pollution, however with fracking exposure to toxic chemicals, waste disposal, water usage, and fracking-induced earthquakes become major risks and concerns (Hoffman, 2012).   The long history of energy development has created a legacy for industry and businesses, however one of the unfortunate legacies is the thousands of inactive energy structures, in varying states of upkeep and scattered across Alberta  and British Columbia. Pump jacks that aren’t pumping, pipelines that aren’t transporting oil or gas, mines that are no longer operating, and gas wells that are closed off or orphaned are all examples of aging infrastructure. They’re no longer in use, and there’s a  strong probability these structures will negatively impact the environment.    A well leak is an example of aging infrastructure and it can be caused by many things, such as corrosion, improper abandonment, and damage during digging for other purposes. Contamination of groundwater aquifers or methane gas emissions are possible implications that could occur from the aging infrastructure. |  47  |Spaces for WitnessABCDELess potential for leakageWellbore IntergrityWell Leakage PotentialSourceHydrocarbon ResevoirPermeable formationsCoal SeamsBiogenic/thermogenic gasesPathwaysA   Through fractures in the cementB   Between cement and casingC   Through the cementD   Between cement and formationE   Through gaps in the cementReceptorFreshwater Aquifer (Groundwater)Casing Cement FormationDeepShallow GasAccumulationWell HeadMethaneGas MigrationProductionZonePerforationsHigher potential for leakageShallowFIGURE 32 Well Leakage. By Author - Adapted from Well Infrastructure (AER, n.d.).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  48 |Today, the landscape represents a  paradoxical setting in North America, currently trending towards a  questioned future of expanding oil production (fracking), massive contamination, and ongoing ecological catastrophes. Abandoned/orphaned oil and gas wells can serve as pathways for methane, brine and other hydrocarbons that can migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers, people’s homes or into the atmosphere. The depth of the effects are not yet fully understood or quantified, but numerous research studies and investigations are underway to better understand the impact and risks of the aging and discarded infrastructure. The problem does not just lie in the infrastructure degradation, but the actual proximity of the wells and quantities of the wells to cultivated and inhabited lands. As stated previously, with hundreds of wells scattered across forests, agriculture lands, hidden within urban cities, etc. much of the public and landowners are not aware of the toxic network that is infecting the landscape across North America.Understanding the current practices with reclamation and remediation of the oil and gas well help to inform on the potential risks of oil and gas wells. However there is little known about the specific hazards to public health; a  small amount of wastewater could be released into the environment through our drinking water or crop irrigation, or emission leaks into the atmosphere. “The Environmental Protection Agency says the vast majority of land and water contamination from oil and gas development is caused by surface spills and poorly constructed and maintained wells” (Peltz & Saunders, 2018). While many challenges and hazards for the oil and gas industry is familiar, others are just now emerging. Attention and concern around these issues will only increase as drought and other environmental concerns plague many of the regions where oil and gas development is intensifying. 3.3.1 DEPTH OF EFFECTS Landscape Construction activities associated with oil and gas drilling leave behind radical impacts to the landscape. Well pad and road construction require the use of heavy equipment such as bulldozers, road graders and gravel trucks. The impacts caused to public lands by construction of oil and gas sites are often irreversible. Development of oil and gas facilities (Wilderness Society, 2018):• Strip the environment of vegetation • Increase erosion (which could lead to landslides and flooding) and the opportunity for weed infestation • Disturb the land’s ground surface • Seriously fragment once unspoiled wildlife habitats, disrupting wildlife migrationGroundwater  Groundwater is found in porous permeable (aquifers) that often lie close to the Earth’s surface. The deepest aquifer are found “more than 6000 feet underground but most are much shallower, from near the land surface to a  few hundred feet below the surface” (Alley et al., 1999). In contrast, many of the largest oil and gas deposits are deeply buried many thousands of 3. 3 ECOLOGICALWell Infrastructure(Orphan, inactive, abandoned) Methane (CH4)Emissions(GHG)Deteroriating InfrastructureEthylene OxideBenzeneVinyl ChlorideSulfuric AcidWaste BrinePCBs HexachlorobenzeToxic leachinginto groundwaterand soils|  49 |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 33 Ecological Risks of oil a nd gas infrastructure.Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  50 |meters below the Earth’s surface. As a  result, oil and gas production involves drilling through aquifers to access the oil and gas farther below.There is extensive research being led into the risks associated with creating and connecting non-native pathways underground through drilling, but there are still a  lot of unanswered questions about the dangers of well sites (McLaughlin, 2014). Potential containments from conventional drilling include:Drilling Fluid – used to lubricate drills, remove rock chips and maintain pressure in the well during drilling. While most of the substances used for drilling are not harmful to humans, in rare occasions have been found in groundwater from drilling through freshwater aquifers (Phillps, 2015).Methane – while naturally occurring is a  flammable gas that is non-toxic, but explosive at high concentrations. It is also a  potent greenhouse gas. It can leak from failing infrastructure and can also enter groundwater from leakage from the reservoir rocks. “Because all energy wells puncture the earth and caprocks, they often serve as effective pathways for the migration of methane, and other gases such as cancer-causing radon over time” (Nikiforuk, 2017). “In an aquifer, bacteria  can metabolize methane and generate undesirable byproducts such as hydrogen sulphide. Bacterial reactions can also bring about the release of trace elements, changing water quality and potentially rendering it undrinkable” (Nikiforuk, 2017). Oil and produced water – any fluid that can enter a well also has the potential to leak out of it if the well is compromised. “This may include natural gas (see above), oil, or the often-salty water that coexists with oil and gas in many rocks, called “produced water” when it is extracted along with oil and gas” (Kell, 2011).“Much of the industrial leaders argue that the wells are too deep to affect groundwater; most methane leaks come not from the production source or bottom of the well but from shallower geological formations closer to the surface of the well. Gas flows up then enters groundwater or the atmosphere via  corroded, old or faulty seals” (McLaughlin, 2014). Proper monitoring and assessments need to take place to better understand the extent and distance of potential leakages and contamination. Current regulations and monitoring are not adequate to report on or provide accuracy. “Alberta, for example, only classifies a  leaking well as “serious” when it leaks 300 cubic metres of methane a  day, but the research showed extensive impacts on groundwater with a  leak of just one cubic metre per day” (Nikiforuk, 2017).Methane Methane is a  powerful greenhouse gas with a  global warming potential that is 86 times greater than carbon dioxide over a  20-year time frame. Methane is responsible for 25 per cent of already observed changes to Earth’s climate. Cutting methane emissions from oil and gas is one of the cheapest, most effective ways to address climate change (DSF, 2018). “The oil and gas sector is the largest contributor to methane emissions in Canada” (GOC, 2018). |  51  |Spaces for WitnessLittle attention was paid to methane emissions in the past, but with the current energy boom, the amount that’s being pulled from the earth and put into the air is rapidly increasing, and the need to understand emissions are becoming critical. Methane can come from a variety of sources, from a leaking pipeline to a  landfill to a  feedlot. “So in order to find the source, researchers must analyse the emission’s chemical signature: If the methane is accompanied by ethane and butane, it comes from oil and gas fields. If not, then it probably comes from somewhere else” (Thompson, 2015).Information from the provincial government outlines that methane is potentially explosive at 50,000 to 150,000 ppm, and causes asphyxiation at 500,000 per million (Wood, 2017). A33-page study from the AER found that 36 abandoned Alberta  wells were leaking methane, nine of which are leaking at a  level that Alberta  Health says poses a  risk of neurological damage to nearby residents. Methane from Leaking Abandoned Wells: Health and Safety Concerns report, obtained by The Tyee, states “leaks of 1,000 ppm could result in neurological effects. Leaks above 10,000 ppm pose explosion risks and should prompt “emergency evacuation,” (Nikiforuk, 2017). Another study found that methane leakage into groundwater could affect water over a  large area and “is an equivalent, if not, more significant process relative to atmospheric emissions” (Wood, 2017). Unplugged and degrading wells can leak explosive gas into neighbourhoods and leach toxins into groundwater such as a  methane leak from abandoned wells caused explosions at a  Colorado construction site in 2007 and at a  Pennsylvania  home in 2011. In 2015 and 2016, researchers from St. Francis Xavier University and the David Suzuki Foundation completed the most thorough ground-based measurement of methane emissions ever conducted in Canada. Scientists travelled more than 8,000 kilometres using a sniffer truck, covering more than 1,600 well pads and facilities. This ground breaking research revealed that methane pollution from B.C.’s oil and gas industry is at least 2.5 times higher than reported by industry and government (DSF, 2018). In the absence of any credible groundwater monitoring, governments such as that of British Columbia can also claim, “There has never been a  confirmed case of groundwater contamination in B.C. as a  result of hydraulic fracturing.”“We are only now beginning to understand the scale of Canada’s methane pollution problem, which has been underreported for years. The sooner we can take action to eliminate these emissions, the better.” Ian Bruce, Director of Science and Policy, David Suzuki FoundationFIGURE 34 Concentra tion of active a nd a ba ndoned wells across North America. Anywhere between 1.9 a nd 75 per cent leak metha ne. Source: Richa rd Davies / Ma rine a nd Petroleum Geology Journal (Nikiforuk, 2014).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  52 |3.3.2 DEPTH OF EFFECTSFIGURE 40 Surface Well Leak. Source https://www.flickr.com/photos/94811399@N07/9237568110/in/album-72157646235809170/FIGURE 39 Aba ndoned well in Ta ber, AB. Source https://thena rwhal.ca /the-story-of-albertas-100-billion-well-lia bility-problem-how-did-we-get-here/FIGURE 38 Aba ndoned Alberta  Well. Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/94811399@N07/15784095349FIGURE 37 Conta mina ted wa ter from well. Source https://www.texastribune.org/2016/12/21/texas-a ba ndoned-oil-wells-seen-ticking-time-bombs-/FIGURE 36 Visible gas bubble leaks a t well. Source https://www.flickr.com/photos/94811399@N07/9234613677/in/album-72157646235809170/FIGURE 35 Rusting pipes in agricultural field. Source https://www.timesfreepress.com/news/local/story/2016/dec/27/north-georgimay-be-rich-na tural-gas-geologist/404662/|  53 |Spaces for Witness3.3.3 REMEDIATION AND RECLAMATION After 15-30 years of production, most oil or natural gas wells reach their economic limit and need to be shut down, and properly abandoned as per requirements set forth by the AER and BCOGC. Dry holes – wells that do not produce as expected – must also be addressed. Today, oil and natural gas companies consider site restoration a  critical operations activity. Reclamation Reclamation is defined as the process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. This involves the removal of structures, decontamination and land surface reconstruction such as contouring, soil replacement and revegetation. There are different reclamation requirements based on the end land use: cultivated lands, native grasslands, forested lands, and peatlands. In accordance with surface lease agreement with the tenured oil company, the oil company is responsible for returning land to original or better-than-original condition. “Operators have a  25-year liability for surface reclamation issues (topography, vegetation, soil texture, drainage, etc.) and a  lifetime liability for contamination” (AER, 2014). Reclamation is not a  quick fix solution, the process can take many years or even decades, depending on the how the land functioned before it was disturbed—for example, whether it was forested land, native grassland, peatland, or farm land—and the amount of soil disturbance. In Alberta, there is no time limit on how long a  company can take to reclaim a  site. Reclamation Process Summary (OWA, 2016)Investigate Phase 1 – Historical File Review, Landowner Interview Phase 2 – Intrusive site investigation Work Remediation – deal with contaminants, well centres, spills, flare pits, drilling sumps Reclamation – re-contour landscape, restore drainage, replace topsoil, re-vegetate  Monitor – re-establishment of vegetation Detailed Site Assessment of Soils, vegetation, and landscapeReclamation Certificate Apply for reclamation certificate Obtain reclamation certificate Remediation When energy companies use or produce substances at a site or facility, there’s always a  chance those substances will spill or leak. This can be a  problem if substances end up in soil, surface water, or groundwater. If a  contamination occurs, lease holding companies must manage and clean up any contamination, in a process known as remediation, as soon as possible. An immediate response reduces the likelihood that contaminants will migrate to other areas over time.To adequately manage site contamination, a  company must: (AER, n.d.)• Contain and control the source of contamination, • Indicate the width and depth of the release, • Ensure that the ecosystem is not adversely impacted during remediation, and • Clean up the contamination in a  timely manner.Future Challenges Site abandonment and reclamation work in Alberta’s aging oil and gas field has “resulted in more than 100,000 well sites that have received reclamation certificates – or that are exempt from reclamation based on their age – during the last 50 years” (Riley, 2018). “However, the pace of reclamation has not kept up with the level of development. At the end of 2010, there were 47,870 abandoned, uncertified wells in Alberta. Between 1963 and 2010, 350,101 wells were Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  54 |drilled in Alberta” (Simon, n.d.). “The cost of reclaiming a  single well starts around $10,000 but can become millions in some cases” (Power, 2016). The liability then falls onto the taxpayer for these well sites due to the lease no longer being held by a  company due to bankruptcy.In 2003, certificates were issued by inspectors that went to sites to review, collect data  and interview landowners, however, today all that is required is for “companies [to] submit the required paperwork using an online system” (Riley, 2018). Poor regulation and assessments are now passing well sites, that may not actually pass physical inspection, and the province warns “that if reclamation hasn’t truly restored the landscape, the province could potentially face an even larger bill in the future. ‘Certified site liabilities will begin to transition from industry to public’ [and] ‘public interest is not served as intended’” (Riley, 2018).A presentation held at the AIA Conference by the Alberta  Environment and Parks in April 2018 called “An Analysis of Alberta’s Conservation and Reclamation Program – Does the program work as intended?” answered, in short, no (Riley, 2018). In the pilot study conducted it was found that the ecological condition of former wellsites, with official certified reclamation were not properly reclaimed, and were found “they were nowhere near back to normal” (Riley, 2018). The study summarises “ecological and agricultural effects of industrial activity may linger – seemingly indefinitely.” The Alberta  Conservation and Reclamation program is not monitored by the Government of Alberta, regulator or industry leaving industrial impacts persistent at certified well pads for an indefinite amount of time. The failings of the program are not available for public reporting, and certified site liabilities will begin to transition to the public in due time. The presentation concluded, “by recommending that public trust become a  Conservation and Reclamation program priority” ( Janz, 2018). While British Columbia does not boast anywhere near the numbers of Alberta’s well infrastructure, the province is beginning to experience similar issues. “In B.C., according to the OGC, 33 of the 45 orphaned well sites have yet to be fully restored… with a  total of 6,978 abandoned wells and 2,945 suspended wells in B.C. as of November, 2014” (Trumpener, 2016).|  55 |Spaces for WitnessAn Alberta  legal battle over whether creditors take priority over the cleanup of old oil wells has landed in Supreme Court of Canada, which will set precedents for industry and the environment across Canada. Redwater Energy Corp. was a  small Alberta-based oil and gas company founded in 2009 that declared bankruptcy in 2015, “owning 127 wells, but only 20 of them were still valuable producers” (Ganley, 2018). According to provincial legislation, when it did so, the company’s “secured creditor ATB Financial and receiver Grant Thornton LLP became responsible for paying the cleanup costs at the company’s facilities and pipelines. However, the lenders argued that instead of paying for site reclamation, they should be permitted to pocket the profits from the sale of Redwater’s remaining assets and leave the mess behind for the industry-funded and government-backed Orphan Well Association to deal with. The Alberta  Court of Queen’s Bench ruled in the creditors’ favour in 2016. The AER contests the notion that repaying loans is a  higher priority than public safety and environmental reclamation, and appealed the decision to the Supreme Court of Canada” (McNeill, 2018).  For Alberta’s government, the question has immense implications for fiscal responsibility, environmental management, and public safety in a  context where environmental liabilities from tens of thousands of inactive conventional oil and gas sites left on the landscape have accumulated. This is not just an Alberta problem or a  oil and gas problem, but an issue that will have ramifications on any industrial sites abandoned by companies, “allowing receivers to take and sell for the benefit of creditors the good assets and walk away from the bad ones and the end-of-life obligations associated with them” (McNeill, 2018). Imagine the implications if this was to continually be permitted, the public and environment would be left with a  large bill economically and ecologically. Why have stories such as the Redwater Case, not become breaking news in the media  and become a common dialogue in the public sphere? The first is the evisceration of the oil and gas industry since 2014, which has caused a  lot of bankruptcies and foisted more wells on the OWA than it can manage. The second involves two matters of law that are central to determining whether or not the public will be on the hook for the cleanup. Over the last couple of decades, the federal government has made changes to the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (BIA) which, according to a  decision of the Alberta  Court of Queen’s Bench, allow creditors of bankrupt companies to jump in front of the provincial oil and gas regulator when it comes to divvying up bankrupt companies’ assets. Then there’s the doctrine of federal paramount, which boils down 3. 4 LEGISLATION“Few people are paying attention. Lawyers are aware of the change, but the AER and industry have continued to play by the old rules.”Michael Ganley, Alberta ViewsCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  56 |to the question whether a  court may strike down a provincial law that frustrates the purpose of a  federal law. In this case, should federal bankruptcy law trump Alberta’s rules around abandoned wells, or vice versa? (Ganley, 2018)In light of the Alberta  Court of Appeal’s decision in Redwater, both the AER and the provincial government have taken steps to close some loopholes and tighten some requirements. However, public interest still appears not to be a  priority and the dissemination of the current conditions are not well known among the public.The government of British Columbia recently introduced legislation aimed at strengthening the province’s orphan well and liability management regime. The amendments aim to create a  stricter liability management regime to combat the ballooning number of oil and gas sites in B.C., with insolvent operators. Since the beginning of the 2016/17 fiscal year, the B.C. Oil and Gas Commission reported that the province has gone from 45 to 307 designated orphan sites due to such insolvencies.B.C.’s Response to Redwater  In response to the Redwater case decision, the B.C. government’s have introduced Bill 15. Bill 15 “attempts to address the province’s concerns by introducing a regime to insulate its taxpayers from the implications of the Redwater decision through shifting costs back on producers, while simultaneously giving the Commission additional tools to curtail the number of orphan sites”.|  57  |Spaces for WitnessReflecting on the demands of our modern society it is important for landscapes to become a  significant element of our experiences. Currently these landscapes are reclaimed through the efforts of engineers, biologists and ecologists through the process of reclamation (restoration) and remediation. While laws and requirements are controlled and regulated, recent studies have shown that reclamation assessments are not properly conducted and “reclaimed sites” are passing with failing grades. The recent Redwater court decision, and the increasing number of abandoned, inactive, and orphaned wells will only lead to further devastation to the environment and the public. There are opportunities to engage the publics on the processes, increasing issues, and reuse of these former industrial sites beyond the financial and legal implications through design and exchange.  3.5 SUMMARYFIGURE 42 Oil a nd Gas Development: a  Producer’s Perspective by Bria n Weedon, Weedon Ra nch. Source http://www.pcap-sk.org/rsu_docs/documents/weedon-presenta tion-nov.17--20106990.pdfCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  58 ||  59 |Spaces for WitnessTHEORE TICAL FRAMEWORKPrinciples & Strategies for DesignFIGURE 43 A pump jack (nodding donkey) on display a t New Mexico Institute of Mining a nd Technology, Socorro, New Mexico. Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pumpjack_NewMexico.jpgCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  60 |Often post-industrial sites are engineered and planned as reclamation work, or brownfield converted into urban parks. The once productive infrastructure are removed, hidden, or dismissed, and much of the time, the public is not aware of the buried dangers, contaminations and issues that are linked to these post-industrial sites. My research seeks to explore the possibilities of how the inventoried wells in Alberta  and British Columbia might in turn prompt the landscape architect to design interventions that could forge a  new sense of engagement between people and the landscape. Interventions that look to reframe, reclaim, or reuse the post-industrial sites at different scales and conditions. In provoking the viewer or experiencer for responses, designs might become a  “narrative backdrop, acting merely as prompts”. This is where each viewer or experience, being in a  liminal position, discovers the connections between landscape and the designed; “between elements and artefacts and in the process, scripts his or her own encounters” (Suhirman, 2014). This form of design narrative begins to propel the user (in the context of this project, the public) to become exposed to the current condition and scale of the oil and gas well infrastructure. By merely exposing a  narrative through interventional forms, the viewer can begin to gain perception of the landscapes of consumption. When spaces lose the function they once had, they can become liminal spaces. “Without a  light, a  lighthouse provides no function” or abandoned infrastructure without a  productive purpose are just spaces and things without function. “The unsettling aspect comes in because they once performed a  role and had people in them. Once abandoned, the lights are always out and they stand as husks of civilization” (Feinglatt, 2018). “[Landscape] denotes the external world mediated through subjective human experience… landscape is not merely the world we see; it is a  construction, a composition of that world. Landscape is a  way of seeing the world” (Cosgrove, 1984). It can be argued that in the context of my research, that landscape architecture can design liminal spaces that can augment spatial 4.1  L IMINAL NARRATIVES“Through interventions of a designer, new configurations and calibrations of landscape forms and processes come into being. Thus new conceptions of landscape beauty can be compulsive, disturbing, and challenging; through them we confront the entanglement of personal consumption, waste, and the post-industrial site” Elizabeth Meyer, 2015|  61  |Spaces for Witnessexperiences and lead to awareness in relation to self, space, and the environment. “The liminal space is the space that lies between the known and the unknown… a transitional space of heightened intensity that we experience when we traverse the threshold of the creative unknown” (Feinglatt, 2018).“The curatorial intention is to reflect a  dialogue - one that prioritises process as a  discussion” (Suhirman, 2014). The project venture offers an opportunity to encourage both social engagement and future dialogue regarding creative interventions in post-industrial practices. It a ims to trigger a  shift in consciousness towards spaces of witness, connection and restoration with the landscapes of production, consumption, and abandonment. Not Knowing KnowingReaility (Current Condition)Liminal Space(Not Knowing)Interactions(Interventions)Not Knowing KnowingReaility (Current Condition)Liminal Space(Not Knowing)Interactions(Interventions)FIGURE 44 Tra nsitional process of liminality.  By Author -  Adapted from NGX Interactive (Beringer, 2017). FIGURE 45 Process of interventions. By Author -  Adapted from https://www.pinterest.ca /pin/502925483367982727/. Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  62 |“Eight one percent of the world’s primary energy is derived from oil, coal or natural gas; with four-fifths of the energy we use – for the industry, heating and transport – comes from holes in the ground” (IEA, 2008). The extraction of raw materials from the earth to be converted into a  product or wealth is a  capitalistic business. “From pits, wells, and mines, raw geology is liquidated into energy and money, a  double-alchemy at the heart of the modern capitalist economy” (Bridge, 2015).   Landscapes of extraction are portals to a  different space; “an oil or mine shaft represents a  discrete, molecular point of access rather than a  contiguous territorial claim” (Rees, 1991). The hole becomes essentially a  feature of the extractive landscape, but the hole is just the start. “The vast left-over industrial landscape of brown fields and lost lands led to a new way of thinking in regards to reconsideration on industrial logistic lands. The re-shaping of brown fields actually began a  novelty in architecture, a  style that includes landscape and the effecting of landscape perspectives” (Thomassen, 2010). Revealing these landscapes of extraction for viewing contextualizes the primal pursuit of extraction for wealth. It grounds truth in the destructive nature in our pursuit for energy. Large extractive landscapes such as quarry mines are such immense scale they effectively illustrate to viewers the true destructive nature of extraction, but oil and gas wells dug deep into the ground are harder to conceptualize visually as they are buried hundred of metres deep within the earth, impossible to see the extent and depth. Architect Ignasi Sola-Morales credits the role of contemporary photography in altering his appreciation of the urban landscape through depictions of “forgotten” highway interchanges and abandoned post-industrial sites – “depictions of spaces beyond conventional streets, parks, plazas and gardens – for revealing the latent possibilities in terrain vague, the strange interstitial spaces formed by the processes of modernization that lay outside the bounds of accepted urban design theory” (Sola-Morales, 1995).We can consider the role of photography as an effective tool to disseminate information to the public to understand the scale of effects on the ground surface, but is it an effective tool for sub-surface visualizations? “We can begin to make ‘hidden’ injustices visible” through visual representational means of mass and form and “use their spatial geometries as agents of change” (Fraker, 2005). What this teaches us is that spatial forms can be persuasive in understanding volume of production and use. 4. 2 EXTRACTIVE LANDSCAPES|  63 |Spaces for WitnessEdward Burtynksy, Photographer  Medium: Photography Project: Extraction Edward Burtynksy is one of the world’s most accomplished photographers, who captures provocative landscapes of extraction, exploitation, and production. The size of the landscapes he captures are striking and shows how photographic terms “can express monumental scale” (Burtynsky, 2017). He describes his work as a  “meditative lament for the ongoing and dramatic loss of our natural environment and our flawed relationship with [the] world.”While his work may appear shocking, it represents a  truthful nature not often seen by the public. It reveals the affects we leave behind from our greed and industry. Photography becomes a  representational means to disseminate visuals on issues with the energy industry. “The trick—now, as on that initial exploration—is to provide photographic images that leave meaning open, an ambiguity necessary to gain access to sites, engender discussion, and steer clear of polemics and clichés” (Burtynsky, 2017). We can begin to explore the extractive landscape through photography to visually represent scale. Images can begin to start a  dialogue or exchange between fascination, repulsion, and possibly fear.“It is becoming unprecedentedly difficult for anyone, anyone at all, to keep a secret. In the age of the leak and the blog, of evidence extraction and link discovery, truths will either out or be outed, later if not sooner. This is something I would bring to the attention of every diplomat, politician and corporate leader: the future, eventually, will find you out. Picture the age of evidence extraction.”PRECEDENTFIGURES (L-R)  46,  47,  48 SOCAR Oil Fields #1a b Baku, Azerba ija n, 2006 (Burtynsky, 2018) Oil Fields #22, Cold Lake Alberta, 2001 (Burtynsky, 2018) Oil Fields #2, Belridge, California, USA, 2003 (Burtynsky, 2018)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  64 |PRECEDENTFionn Byrne and Kyle Xuekun Yang, Landscape Architects  Medium: Exhibition, 2015 Project: Primed: Oil Sands In 2013, the Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation funding “assisted in helping move dialogue on the Canadian oil sands beyond bigness, towards smaller scale interventions dealing with quantifiable flows of energy, mass and stakeholder demands” (LACF, 2013). The resulting design composed of an exhibition on display at the Harbourfront Centre in Toronto, 2015. The intent was to provide “comprehensive information on the specifics of the spatial and ecological transformations currently in progress in the territory of the Canadian oil sands” (LACF, 2013). The project looked at site of intervention with sand as the main driver for the “foundation of future ecologies” (Byrne, n.d.). “How will this new reclaimed landscape be designed?”“What habitats, ecologies and species will be prioritized?”The resulting installation created a  physical exhibition for viewers to immerse themselves into an experience unknowing to knowing. The “reclamation in progress” exhibition provides a  provocation to discuss the state of the oil sands, a  space typically out of the reach of the everyday person. By understanding liminal space, we can create curated experiences that resonate with audiences and help them learn. How people move through a  literal or figurative liminal space, that point of transition, has the potential to reframe norms, touch emotions and open new perspectives for learning. “Through this process, museum experiences have the potential to elicit an emotional response that leads to behavioural change” (Beringer, 2017). FIGURES (L-R)  49,  50,  51 Oil Perspective Rendering (Byrne, n.d.) Sa nd Perspective Rendering (Byrne, n.d.) Architecture Exhibition (Pedonic Opera tions, 2015)|  65 |Spaces for WitnessWe can begin to define abandoned, suspended, inactive or orphaned well sites as “disturbed sites” that are spaces of “risk materialized, spatialized, and temporalized” (Meyer, 2007). Elizabeth Meyer describes disturbed sites as toxic sites resulting from industrial processes that are an accumulation “of the way we wanted to live our lives.” Often these disturbed sites are products of policies that viewed the environment solely as a  resource and that environmental degradation is an “inevitable consequence” from the industrial practices of extraction. This common perception of disturbed sites renders industry, process, and landscape as separate entities, not a  collection of systems in a cyclical feedback loop. In urban areas, designs often convert disturbed sites into large parks for public use, but hide and remove infrastructure concealing past processes and history. Lawrence Buell, in Writing for An Endangered World, characterizes American’s reactions to their environmental challenges by applying a  “camouflage approach” to regenerating brownfields. This approach is “disingenuous in the way it hides the processes at work” (Buell, 2001). The current practices for dealing with abandoned well sites through reclamation does exactly what Lawrence Buell describes; a  camouflage approach that disconnects people from the process of production and consumption. “Large parks on disturbed sites should be recognized as landscapes of consumption, as well as production” (Meyer, 2007). Meyer argues, when designers use strategies that put buildings and machines on a  pedestal, they are privileging “the histories of production over the histories of consumption that are also embedded in such sites. This allows visitors to distance themselves from the histories of human, material, and chemical flows on and off the site, and to limit their own culpability in and responsibility for such histories” (Meyer, 2007). If we begin to employ strategies and interventions that recognize the production and consumption we can begin to connect visitors to the landscapes of extraction. So often, visitors are disconnected from their own material processes and can live in an idealistic fog, not realizing the ramifications that modern society has on the environment. The disturbed sites of well infrastructure should be designed as spaces of witness, as Barbara Adams and Elizabeth Meyer describe. Through space, form and intervention visitors might begin to “understand the connections between the products they consume, the lifestyle they lead, and the polluted environment” (Meyer, 2007). Such moments can affect the visitor by suspending them “between here (event, place) and there (watershed, territory, logistics landscape), between the place and the network” (Meyer, 2015). These spaces of witness, become a  liminal landscape narrative, that transform visitors from the unknowing to the knowing, in hopes of generating dialogue about the larger issues surrounding oil industry and the landscapes of extraction. 4. 3 SPACES FOR WITNESSCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  66 |PRECEDENTRichard Haag, Landscape Architect  Medium: Brownfield Public Park, 1965 Project: Gas Works Park, Seattle, WA  Gas Works Park is a  19.1 acre public park located on the a  brownfield site of the former Seattle Gas Light Company Ramification plant (Wikipedia, 2018). “This ground-breaking project has been celebrated for its ability to garner local support and shift public perceptions of post-industrial landscapes. It is considered revolutionary for its reclamation of polluted soils using the natural processes of bioremediation” (Hartford, 2017).The park has kept remnants of the old plant with “a central feature, the boiler house, which was converted into a  picnic shelter complete with tables and fire grills, while a  former exhauster-compressor building was turned into an open-air play barn that houses a  maze of brightly painted machinery for children” (Hartford, 2017). What makes this park a  celebrated space by the landscape architecture profession and much loved by visitors is that despite immense soil and groundwater containment from the operational years of the gasification plant, through the process of bio-phytoremedation and removal and capping of wastes, the park today has “no known surface contamination remaining” (Wikipedia, 2018). The post-industrial park exemplifies how design can create connections for visitors to the production of the site by maintaining infrastructure for viewing. However, we can critique that this strategy removes any connection to the history of consumption, and fails to reveal to the public the extent of contamination the years of production had caused to the landscape. This type of information is often undisclosed to the public, and left to the professions and policy makers to only acknowledge. FIGURES (L-R)  52,  53 Pa nora mic View from the pa rk (Wikipedia, 2018) Event ga thering a t the pa rk (Ha rtford, 2017)|  67  |Spaces for WitnessPRECEDENTAlana Bartol, Artist Medium: Exhibition & Online Website Projects:  Online: Orphan Well Adoption Agency, 2017 -  Exhibition: In Blood and Bone, 2017   Calgary based artist, Alana Bartol, with funding from the Canada Council for the Arts, is “helping Canadians make an emotional connection to the energy industry - and some of its consequences” (Sandals, 2017). Bartol founded the Orphan Well Adoption Agency (not to be confused with the Orphan Well Association) where interested parties can apply to adopt one of the hundreds of orphaned wells in Alberta. While the agency is only “facilitates symbolic adoptions” it allows people to become emotionally invested in the abandoned infrastructure, much like eager parents with adopting a  child (Sandals, 2017). The website has an application form, resources, information, and a  catalogue of the available orphans.  Through the process of applying you are asked questions around being a  caretaker “asking people what care means in their own lives and examining notions of care that might extend to these orphan wells.” These questions can be extended to the current state of the oil industry and how many companies designated as the caretakers, are not fulfilling their own responsibilities. Bartol hopes “that the adoption process allows people to think about the issue in another way. Some people aren’t even aware of orphan wells, so I hope this at least builds awareness.”In accompaniment of the website, a  physical office was erected at the TRUNK Contemporary Art gallery in Calgary, as an exhibition, In Blood and Bone. The exhibition looked at unconventional approaches “to site reading and assessment” (OWAA, n.d.). The Orphan Well Adoption Agency office, research, photographs, uniforms, tools, and other ephemera were presented in the exhibition (Bartol, 2018). By injecting a  bit of humour and creativity into design, we can negotiate different ways of approaching large scale issues. FIGURES 57 Orpha n Well Adoption Correspondence Letters (OWAA, n.d.)FIGURE 56 Orpha n Well Adoption Agency Website (OWAA, n.d.)FIGURES 54,  55 In Blood and Bone Exhibition, TRUNK Galley (Ba rtol, 2018)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  68 |Designers like Kate Orff and Ann Thorpe’s work exemplifies why it is necessary to employ design in the future of societies, as their work aims at gaining a  better understanding of how design activism can effectively work and interact with socio-ecological and political problems. Kate Orff states “the concept of activism is a  broader notion of radical sharing and participation and a  stance of joint and mutual learning. It is really that broad, open, educative and frankly fun process that inspires people to be involved and to create a  more direct connection with the immediate environment, which for me is a  form of activism in landscape” (Griffin, 2017). Landscape architects can contribute to conversations surrounding abandoned conventional oil and gas wells through methods of provocation. “Landscape architects are collaborators, stewards of the world, and one of the essential creative intelligences vital in the (re)making of our cities and regions. If ecology in all its dimensions (environmental, social, cultural, digital and economic) has become the new platform for activism, then landscape architects must be at the forefront of being the carrier of this for future generations (Bennett, 2016).”What is needed are designed landscapes that provoke those who experience them to be more aware of how their actions affect the environment, and to care enough to make changes in their actions. “This involves recognition of the role of aesthetic environmental experiences, such as beauty, wonder, awe, ugliness, and repulsion, in re-centering human consciousness from an egocentric to a  more biocentric perspective” (Meyer, 2015).While the role of design can come through different representation, modes and methods the intention is to reuse, reframe, or reclaim the landscapes and infrastructure of the post-industrial sites. Interventions are one means to do so by “uniting daily life and art to provoke the public” (Herrington, 2017). “Interventions are located in between, on top, or within existing sites or objects in the site. They are highly relevant to forming in design because their forms respond to existing forms at the site of interception” (Herrington, 2017). Interventions can temporal, it can be singular or many, it can add or subtract to landscapes, but “most importantly interventions enable design to operate critically” (Herrington, 2017). Designs can take shape in interventions, exhibitions, or visual critiques through drawing or mapping, but each one of these methods ultimately provokes the viewer to experience an intention, an emotion or conceive new knowledge. “We need strategies that make visible the past connections between individual human behavior, collective identity, and these larger industrial and ecological processes. How might such approaches help us reimagine a  society of consumers who are aware of their impact on our habits, not simply out of self-interestedness but arising from a sense of extended interconnected communities?” (Meyer, 2007).   4. 4 ROLE OF DESIGN“The real JOY of design is to deliver fresh perspectives, improved well-being and an intuitive sense of balance with the wider world. The real SPIRIT of design elicits some higher meaning. The real POWER of design is that professionals and laypeople can co-design in amazingly creative ways. The real BEAUTY of design is its potential for secular, pluralistic expression. The real STRENGTH of design is this healthy variance of expression. The real RELEVANCE of design is its ability to be proactive. The real PASSION of design is in its philosophical, ethical and practical debate.” Alastair Fuad-Luke, 2009|  69 |Spaces for WitnessPRECEDENTSCAPE Studio, Landscape Architects Project: Ecological Citizens, 2018 Medium: Venice Biennale, USA Pavilion Exhibition  The US Pavilion commissioned seven participants “to embody the theme of Dimensions of Citizenship, and consider how citizenship is constructed and contested in the built environment across seven different scales” (WLA, 2018). SCAPE, one of the seven participants, utilizes the Venetian Lagoon, at a  region scale, as the feature site of their exhibition to showcase “architectures such as sediment fences and biodegradable coir logs that fight erosion, as well as video content about their use by regional citizens.” These interventions serve as tools to teach about localized “eco-citizenry” (SCAPE, 2018). SCAPE demonstrates that landscape architecture can be a critical tool for re-envisioning the response of citizens to climate change.The exhibition showcases how design interventions can “give agency to citizens (human and non-human alike) of the region” (Scape, 2018). Through animations showcasing the interventions such as coir logs and fancines to fight bank erosion, to physical materiality displays, the exhibition brings to light how citizens can do simple interventions to engage in the “ecosystems, interspecies entanglements, infrastructural imperatives, and climatic forces” (Scape, 2018). .SCAPE continually delves into ‘design as activism’ through their professional and speculative work believing “that landscape architects and urban designers should contribute their skills to shared, positive, purposeful civic-scale interventions that interweave science, policy, and art” (WLA. 2018). This type of engagement embodies principles that this graduate project aims to explore, showcasing how landscape architects can assist in creating advocacy and opportunity at local scales, that engage and bring awareness to the public for ecological issues. FIGURES (B-T)  59,  59,  60 Anima tion Stills on proposed design interventions (SCAPE, 2018) Exhibition Installa tion (WLA, 2018)Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  70 |PRECEDENTDesign Earth Studio, Designers Project: “After Oil,” Between East & West: A Gulf, 2016 Medium: Venice Biennale, Kuwait Pavilion Exhibition  Kuwait has been centred around controversial oil extraction for decades, and so for the 2016 Venice Biennale, the Between East & West Kuwait Pavilion began as series of questions to engage the commission participants as “an exploration of points and territories that asks how the architect can imagine a scale beyond the national” looking at the gulf islands as the “smallest plannable political and ecological space” (National Council, 2016). Design Earth Studio designed “After Oil” as “three speculative tales that explore the geography of the Gulf and its islands in the decades after oil” (National Council, 2016). The three speculative projects are located on three gulf islands “that stage and extrapolate critical issues of today’s oil landscape to make the public aware of the energy systems on which modern life is dependent and the long-term consequences of current fossil fuel regime” (Design Earth, 2016). The speculative project was represented through evocative black and white simple line drawings, consisting of nine 60 x 60cm drawings and three 150 x 150 x 15cm models. The simple representations invite the viewer to engage the speculative narratives and understand the territorial shifts that have taken place within the gulf islands and to understand projected alternates to the future of these landscapes after the oil extraction and exploitation. These representational stories are not grounded in truth or realism, but pose interesting questions for further investigation. It provides a  basis of inspiration that not all landscape projects needed to be grounded in a  problem - solution scenario that must be implemented, but rather through speculation can bring about knowledge and awareness. An interesting direction that could be implemented into a  graduate project.FIGURES (B-T)  61  (3  IMAGES) 62 (3  IMAGES) Boubya n Isla nds: There Was Once An Isla nd (Na tional Council, 2016) Das Crude, Drill Ba by Drill Specula tive Project (Na tional Council, 2016)|  7 1  |Spaces for Witness4.5 DESIGN STRATEGIES Up to this point, the context setting, research atlas, and theoretical framework have formed the foundation for which to continue building this spatial investigation. While the issues of spatial justice, public engagement and awareness, environmental degradation and inadequate legislation and regulation are grievous, it is my hope that the design moves in the Graduate Project II can be playful and exploratory. It is my intention to become immersed with the site landscape through frequent sketch iterations, site analysis and design exploration. Moving forward with the design process, I believe it is important to strive for the following principles in guiding the design phase:• Reframe the exchange – design spaces that invite open dialogue amongst all stakeholders  • Reveal the extraction – expose the past consumption and production practices and processes• Reclaim and reuse the discarded – create interventions that find provocative uses for the abandoned and aging infrastructures• Activate the ordinary – transform commonplace elements into pragmatic, innovative landscape attributes; using new approaches and methods• Embedding values – using landscape architecture as a  means to instil equity in the environment and public sphereCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  72  ||  73  |Spaces for WitnessSITE T YPOLOGIESDifferent Manifestations in LandscapesFIGURE 63 Oil Derrick in Agricultural Field by Donald Gia nna tti. Source https://images.unsplash.com/photo-1534542171641-adf623924e3d?ixlib=rb-0.3.5&q=85&fm=jpg&crop=entropy&cs=srgb&dl=donald-gia nna tti-784241-unsplash.jpg&s=2d7c499e3b34554ac67e1362619e973fCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  74  |This graduate project will a im to design “spaces for witness” that are both ecologically and social conscious. Ecological decisions will be based on site analysis research on the selected sites. Overall the design of the spaces will a im to situate itself within the current dialogue, thus countering the current perception that conventional oil and gas wells are not just a  problem for government and industry.Three different site typologies located in Alberta and British Columbia were selected to be a  sample representation that the abandoned and aging infrastructure are not isolated to one type of landscape. The discussion manifests in different landscapes and scales.  The chosen sites were selected based on three different landscapes to explore: boreal forest, cultivated lands and urban.Design objectives are consistent for each site, but the strategies will adapt to the specific situation. Further site analysis of the chosen sites will be completed in phase one of Graduate Project Part II.5.1  DE TERMINING SITEFIGURE 64  Inactive Wells in BC, AB, SK. Image source Globe a nd Ma il (D’Aliesio, 2018).|  75 |Spaces for Witness5. 2 SITE A:  BOREAL FOREST   NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA (MONTNE Y BASIN)Fort St. John is ground zero for hoped-for liquefied natural gas boom in British Columbia. But an older era’s operations have struggled because of a  supply glut and low prices (D’Aliesio, 2018). The David Suzuki Foundation completed a  report in 2018, that monitored methane leaks from abandoned oil and gas wells, concluded that the emissions reported by the British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission was far above actual emissions recorded by the DSF. It is imperative to understand the conditions relevant to our local context which allows audiences to connect on a  more personal level. While British Columbia does not have the comparable amount of orphan wells to Alberta, it provides an interesting case to study as wells in this province appear more isolated to the rugged forest terrain of the north eastern region of the province and disconnected from the general populace. Supported by the DSF report, it provides an in depth review on the emissions and deterioration condition of wells, and allows for a  comparison in the legislation and policy from province to province.FIGURE 66  Google Ea rth image showing portion of route map with well sites a nd potential emitters indica ted in red. (DSF, 2018).FIGURE 67  Orpha n Wells in Fort St. John Region, BC (BCOGC, n.d.).FIGURE 68  Orpha n Wells Map in BC (BCOGC, n.d.).FIGURE 65  A well CNRL Owl 08-16-86-18. Note tha t the entire well head a nd ground a round the well head a re soaked with oil (DSF, 2018).Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  76 |Considered to be the oil capital of North America, Alberta has the longest industrial history tied to the petrochemical industry. With the highest number of orphaned wells in Canada, it is necessary to understand the impacts in the agricultural rural landscape ecology and people. With sparse and scattered human populations in the agricultural cultivated lands of central Alberta, the region contains some of the highest concentrated inactive wells in Canada. The Lloydminster region, which straddles Alberta  and Saskatchewan is known for its heavy oil deposits. A drop in prices, along with a  chronic price gap Western heavy crude and the North American benchmark, West Texas Intermediate, has curtailed development (D’Aliesio, 2018). Due to this downturn, the landscape is now pockmarked with abandoned oil and gas well infrastructure waiting for reclamation and clean up. Currently, farmers are the most reported active voice in the public sphere in protest against the current state of the oil and gas industry. Many farmers are beginning to field the ramifications of the abandoned infrastructure left deposited on their lands, but legally unable to clean up and dispose of the remnants. Finding strategies to address these issues provides an interesting design challenge in the framework of this graduate project. 5. 2 SITE B:  CULTIVATED LANDS   CENTRAL EAST ALBERTA (LLYODMINSTER REGION) FIGURE 70  Spider-web development in the Llyodminster Region, Alberta  (D’Aliesio, 2018).FIGURE 7 1  Orpha n Wells in Llyodminster Region, AB (BOE Report, 2017).FIGURE 72  Orpha n Wells Map in Alberta  (BOE Report, 2017).FIGURE 69  A fa rmer checks his whea t crop outside of La ncer, Sask.(Korol, 2018).|  7 7  |Spaces for Witness5. 2 SITE C:  URBAN    SOUTHERN ALBERTA (MEDICINE HAT)Many communities in Alberta  have active or abandon wells within municipal boundaries. Medicine Hat, known as “The Gas City”, is no exception. Energy exploration has been taking place in the City for more than a  century and there are “currently 113 abandoned gas wells in the urban limits of the City of Medicine Hat, Dunmore and Redcliff” (OWA, 2018). Many of the worst methane emitters in Alberta  are historical abandoned wells in Medicine Hat, where Alberta’s natural gas boom began nearly 100 years ago. “The city still owns and operates more than 4,000 gas wells” (Murray, 2018). It is documented that there are five historical abandoned wells of the 95 documented by the OWA, located within city limits, that have major health and safety concerns.“One Medicine Hat well site was leaking 70,000 ppm of methane while another leak under an abandoned motel had forced the construction of a  venting system. In another case methane readings inside a  church kitchen were 2,550 ppm, two-and-a-half times the level that could cause neurological effects. The five historical gas wells in the city exceed those limits, based on the data found in the draft report, and one may prove difficult to fix, due to it possibly being covered by a  local church” (Murray, 2018).Medicine Hat becomes an ideal exploration site for design interventions within an urban context as an comparison to the rural landscapes.FIGURE 76  Hitch’n Post Saloon, sits on a  well is thought to have been drilled in the 1890’s to supply gas to the original Hotel. Building will need to be demolished due to metha ne leaks (Murray, 2018).FIGURE 74  A second nota ble well, measured leaking a t a  ra te of 1,000,000 ppm, is close to the Veiner Centre, a nd is currently cordoned off (Wood, 2017). FIGURE 75  Fifth Avenue Memorial United Church’s exterior has been fenced off by the City of Medicine Ha t, due to eleva ted metha ne levels being detected leaking a round it (Wood, 2017).FIGURE 73  Orpha n Wells Map in Alberta (BOE Report, 2017).Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  78 ||  79 |Spaces for WitnessDESIGN INQUIRYFurther InvestigationGraduate Project IIFIGURE 78 Orpha n 7-29-031-23 W4 (OWAA, n.d.). Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  80 |6.1  PROJECT STATEMENTAfter careful consideration, a  decision was made to focus solely on the practice of reclamation and the reuse of wellpads after active production. Focusing on three prototypical sites enabled a  deeper exploration of the landscape in order to structure a  meaningful experiential connection to the site and practice. As such, it was critical to set up a  methodology and strategy that could be applied at multiple scales and contexts.I became interested in exploring people’s connections to oil and gas and thinking about our relationship to consumption and natural resources. The intention was to create a  sense of understanding and maybe a realization about something we didn’t know existed before. Becoming aware and informed.According to Donna Haraway, in Staying with the Trouble, “in urgent times, many of us are tempted to address trouble in terms of making an imagined future safe, of stopping something from happening that looms in the future, of clearing away the present and the past in order to make futures for coming generations”. By examining the relationship between extraction and reclamation, we can begin to give a  spatial vocabulary for taking collective responsibility for landscape transformation. This project attempts to spatialize the climatic uncertainty and perhaps redefine the practice of reclamation in the post-extraction landscape.• Reframe: Design to invite open discussion and dialogue• Recognize: Create curiosity and awareness of the industry and issues• Reclaim and reuse: Design interventions that reconfigures the sacrificed landscapesOn the following pages, more detailed data  mapping and analysis work unpacks the critical issues and conditions. Following this, the design proposal and associated drawings are outlined.Graduate Project II|  81  |Spaces for WitnessUnderstanding Displine & IssueCumulative EffectsMultiscale ProblemImpacts+ Sacrified Landscapes+ Methane Emissions+ Habitat Fragmentation+ Environment Contamination+ Climate Refugees+ Economic - Lost OpportunitiesHowApproachAnthropogenic IslandsOil/Gas WellpadsSite 1Boreal ForestSite 2Cultivated LandSite 3Urban+ Noise  + Light+Construction  + Infrastructure  + Etc.Actors / Stakeholders+ Humans (Industry to Residents)+ Wildlife (Microbial to Mammal)+ Legislation/Policy+ FinancialGP1GP2BeyondFIGURE 79 Project Process. By Author. 2019.Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  82 |6. 2 DATA MAPPINGCrude Oil And RailInfrastructureNatural Gas InfrastructureCanadian ShieldBoreal ForestCentral ParklandFoothillsRocky MountainFoothills ParklandFoothills FescueNorthern FescueMixed GrassDry Mixed GrassNatural Ecozones Surficial Geology Total Groundwater Use Beaverhill Lake/  Swan Hills/  Slave Point Carbonate Duvernay Cardium Montney/Doig Pekisko Viking Deep Basin Cretaceous  Multi-Zone Gas Play Nikanassin Deep  Basin Gas Play Montney HybridTight Gas/Shale Pla Natural Gas Fields National ParksNatural Gas Resources Oil ResourcesModern Glaciers  Organic Deposits  Colluvial Deposits  Fluvial Deposits  Lacustrine Deposits  Eolian Deposits  Glaciolacustrine Deposits  Glaciofluvial Deposits  Moraine Stagnant Ice Moraine  Ice-Thrust Moraine  Annual UseLeast MostBedrockFluted MorainePreglacial Fluvial Deposits  Figure 11. Total groundwater use and number of water wells, by yield polygon. Seismic line activitySeismic Line Activity|  83 |Spaces for WitnessCrude Oil And RailInfrastructureNatural Gas InfrastructureCanadian ShieldBoreal ForestCentral ParklandFoothillsRocky MountainFoothills ParklandFoothills FescueNorthern FescueMixed GrassDry Mixed GrassNatural Ecozones Surficial Geology Total Groundwater Use Beaverhill Lake/  Swan Hills/  Slave Point Carbonate Duvernay Cardium Montney/Doig Pekisko Viking Deep Basin Cretaceous  Multi-Zone Gas Play Nikanassin Deep  Basin Gas Play Montney HybridTight Gas/Shale Pla Natural Gas Fields National ParksNatural Gas Resources Oil ResourcesModern Glaciers  Organic Deposits  Colluvial Deposits  Fluvial Deposits  Lacustrine Deposits  Eolian Deposits  Glaciolacustrine Deposits  Glaciofluvial Deposits  Moraine Stagnant Ice Moraine  Ice-Thrust Moraine  Annual UseLeast MostBedrockFluted MorainePreglacial Fluvial Deposits  Figure 11. Total groundwater use and number of water wells, by yield polygon. Seismic line activitySeismic Line ActivityFIGURES 80-83 Da ta  Mapping. By Author. Da ta  Sources a nd maps adapted from (L-R): Government of Ca nada, Pa rks Ca nada, Terrestrial Ecozones of Ca nada  (GOC, n.d.). Alberta  Geological Survey. (AGS, n.d.). Energy Resources Conserva tion Boa rd. (ERCB, 2009). University of Alberta  (Ma rtin, 2018). Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  84 |Crude Oil And RailInfrastructureNatural Gas InfrastructureCanadian ShieldBoreal ForestCentral ParklandFoothillsRocky MountainFoothills ParklandFoothills FescueNorthern FescueMixed GrassDry Mixed GrassNatural Ecozones Surficial Geology Total Groundwater Use Beaverhill Lake/  Swan Hills/  Slave Point Carbonate Duvernay Cardium Montney/Doig Pekisko Viking Deep Basin Cretaceous  Multi-Zone Gas Play Nikanassin Deep  Basin Gas Play Montney HybridTight Gas/Shale Pla Natural Gas Fields National ParksNatural Gas Resources Oil ResourcesModern Glaciers  Organic Deposits  Colluvial Deposits  Fluvial Deposits  Lacustrine Deposits  Eolian Deposits  Glaciolacustrine Deposits  Glaciofluvial Deposits  Moraine Stagnant Ice Moraine  Ice-Thrust Moraine  Annual UseLeast MostBedrockFluted MorainePreglacial Fluvial Deposits  Figure 11. Total groundwater use and number of water wells, by yield polygon. Seismic line activitySeismic Line Activity|  85 |Spaces for WitnessCrude Oil And RailInfrastructureNatural Gas InfrastructureCanadian ShieldBoreal ForestCentral ParklandFoothillsRocky MountainFoothills ParklandFoothills FescueNorthern FescueMixed GrassDry Mixed GrassNatural Ecozones Surficial Geology Total Groundwater Use Beaverhill Lake/  Swan Hills/  Slave Point Carbonate Duvernay Cardium Montney/Doig Pekisko Viking Deep Basin Cretaceous  Multi-Zone Gas Play Nikanassin Deep  Basin Gas Play Montney HybridTight Gas/Shale Pla Natural Gas Fields National ParksNatural Gas Resources Oil ResourcesModern Glaciers  Organic Deposits  Colluvial Deposits  Fluvial Deposits  Lacustrine Deposits  Eolian Deposits  Glaciolacustrine Deposits  Glaciofluvial Deposits  Moraine Stagnant Ice Moraine  Ice-Thrust Moraine  Annual UseLeast MostBedrockFluted MorainePreglacial Fluvial Deposits  Figure 11. Total groundwater use and number of water wells, by yield polygon. Seismic line activitySeismic Line ActivityFIGURES 84-87 Da ta  Mapping. By Author. Da ta  Sources a nd maps adapted from (L-R): Na tional Energy Boa rd. (NEB, 2017). Na tional Energy Boa rd. (NEB, 2018).  Alberta  Oil a nd Gas Industry. (Alberta  Oil & Gas Industry, 2017). Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  86 |6. 3 ME THANE STUDIESMethane (CH4) is one of the trace gasses in the atmosphere that is considered to play a  major role in greenhouse gases and, as previously discussed, one of the major issues with inactive and abandoned oil and gas wells. As such, methane was selected as one of the key variables in the proposed design strategies in order to identify ways to address fugitive emissions through creative processes such as energy capture, ecological capacity, filtration and containment. It was crucial to understand methane's role in existing systems in order to identify opportunities and potentials with oil and gas wells. The following three areas of investigation illustrate the capacity of methane in natural vs. anthropogenic systems where methane predominantly occurs.  Methanongens (Soil Environment)Plant EmissionsMethane CH4Natural Methane EmittorNatural WetlandsStanding WaterOrganic SoilMethane Emission StudiesMethane (CH4) is one of the trace gases in the atmosphere that is considered to play a major role in greenhouse gasesFIGURE 88  Image wetla nd.  Source https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/da m/assets/150901174404-okava ngo-delta-botswa na-super-169.jpg Diagra m wetla nd. By Author.|  87  |Spaces for WitnessLandfill WasteClay LinerAnaerobic DecompositionLeachateVolatile Organic Compounds (CH4)LinersGround SurfaceNatural+Anthropogenic EmittorWaste LandfillsMethane Emission StudiesMethane (CH4) is one of the trace gases in the atmosphere that is considered to play a major role in greenhouse gasesAnthropogenic EmittorsFossil Fuel Production Resevoir RockCap RockShaleDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mResevoir Rock - Natural GasWell Bore LeakFugitive Emissions (CH4)Methane Emission StudiesMethane (CH4) is one of the trace gases in the atmosphere that is considered to play a major role in greenhouse gasesFIGURE 90  Image gas well, metha ne fla ring.  Source https://assets.rbl.ms/6642413/980x.jpg Diagra m well. By Author.FIGURE 89  Image la ndfill.  Source http://d.fastcompa ny.net/multisite_files/fastcompa ny/imagecache/inline-la rge/inline/2015/10/3051722-inline-i-1-to-stop-metha ne-emissions-from-la ndfills-we-need-to-stop-all-the-fires-a t-la ndfills.jpg Diagra m la ndfill. By Author.0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 56001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO400800120016002000240028003200360040004400480052005600Boreal Forest  |  Boone Lake, A.B.  |  1:250000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 56001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO400800120016002000240028003200360040004400480052005600Cultivated Lands  |  County of Vermillion River  |  1:250000 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 21001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO015030045060075090010501200135015001650180019502100Boreal Forest  |  Boone Lake, A.B.  |  1:10000Urban Landscape 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 21001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO015030045060075090010501200135015001650180019502100Cultivated Lands  |  County of Vermillion River  |  1:100000 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Boreal Forest  |  Boone Lake, A.B.  |  1:10000 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Cultivated Lands  |  County of Vermilion River |  1:1000Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  88 |6. 4 SITE STUDIESThe infrastructure left behind from the drilling of well sites is not isolated to one region of Alberta. They can be found in boreal forests, agricultural fields and in city centres; manifesting in different conditions and scales.Three different sites were selected for the design proposal to explore potentials in different conditions and scales. According to the Environmental Protection Agency residents that live within a  150 metres of a  well head have a  6 times higher chance of getting cancer or being exposed to long term health problems (Ingold, 2018).FIGURE 91 Boreal, Boone Lake, AB.  (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000).  Orthobase. ArcMap Online.FIGURE 92 Cultiva ted, Vermillon, AB. (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000).0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200 56001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO400800120016002000240028003200360040004400480052005600Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  1:25000C1C2C4C30 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  C1 Hound Hockey Recreation Centre  |  1:10000 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  C2 Hitch’n’Post Saloon  |  1:10000 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  C3 Viener Centre Parking Lot  |  1:10000 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 2101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO0153045607590105120135150165180195 210Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  C4 Fifth Avenue Church  |  1:1000C30 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 21001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15Urban  |  Medicine Hat, A.B.  |  1:10000NABCDEFGHIJKLMNO015030045060075090010501200135015001650180019502100C2C4C3|  89 |Spaces for WitnessDue to lack of access to comparable data between Alberta  and British Columbia, the final site selections are all situated in Alberta. FIGURE 93 Urba n, Medicine Ha t, AB.  (Map Scales, top down, 1:25000, 1:10000, 1:1000).  Orthobase. ArcMap OnlineCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  90 |Well pad site design is strictly enforced based on provincial guidelines in order to regulate practical and efficient well sites while minimizing lease and road footprints and maintaining regulatory space requirements. The following studies illustrate the different conditions  that impact well site design. Each condition can be affected by soil and moisture conditions, existing vegetation, proximity to landscape units such as sensitive habitat or water bodies. Well pads are designed as an autonomous island, sacrificed landscapes, that are a  completely different system and condition than the landscape that surrounds it. They can be considered as a  anthropogenic island, a  disturbed site, and despite reclamation standards that requires sites to be restored to a  "equivalent land capability" condition prior to being utilized by industry, they can never be restored. Once a  site has been disturbed for industrial processes, due to containments, topographic changes, ecological impacts, it is impossible to return a  "natural state". Landscapes are composed of spatial elements that make up the landscape. As per Richard Forman's definitions, patches are homogeneous areas that different from its surroundings, defined by the variants in its edges. Multiple patches form a matrix or mosaic across the landscape and so, well pads are a  mosaic of patchwork (or islands) across the landscape. Studying the edge conditions helps understand the boundaries, systems and limitations in design proposals. 6.5 WELL PAD STUDIESFIGURE 94 Wellpad Isla nd Illustra tion. By Author. |  91  |Spaces for WitnessCUT/FILLCULTIVATED LANDMUSKEG/BOREALLEASE BOUNDARYLEASE BOUNDARYLEASE BOUNDARYLEASE BOUNDARYLEASE BOUNDARYLEASE BOUNDARYWORKING AREAWELL CONTROLNATURALGROUNDNATURALGROUNDNATURALGROUNDTOPSOIL STORAGE SUBSOIL STORAGEBERM BERMSOILSTORAGEWORKING AREAWORKING AREAWORKING AREAWORKING AREAWORKING AREACUT SLOPE 3:1FILL SLOPE 3:1SLOPE %SLOPE % SLOPE %SLOPE %BERM3:13:1BERMSLOPE %3:13:13:13:1 3:13:1 NATURALGROUNDNATURALGROUNDNATURALGROUNDTOPSOIL STORAGESUBSOIL STORAGE3:13:1WELL CONTROLWELL CONTROLWELL SITE CONSTRUCTION SCENARIOSFIGURE 95 Well-site scena rio conditions. By Author Adapted from (DACC, 2015).   Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  92 |6.6 WELL PAD EDGESWell sites are excavated and graded to allow for a perfectly level pad where drilling, extraction and production equipment will be located. Sites are often made of a  gravel substrate that is trucked to site, with a perimeter containment bund, as illustrated below.One metre of topsoil is removed and often stored on the edge of the site, until the well is deemed no longer productive. After this stage, the site will be remediated, abandoned (as per AER regulations) and reclaimed. Soil will be remediated and landscape will be recontoured, with top soil replaced over the site. Current practices only requires removal of one metre of top soil for reclamation, but studies have shown contamination can exceed the one metre. Section Construction SiteSCALE 1:5000 0.5m 1.0m0 5m 10m1000m +Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Perimeter Trees (19-20m high)Level Central AreaPerimeter RoadParkingFIGURE 96 Well site construction section deta il. By Author. Adapted from (IGas Energy, n.d.). |  93 |Spaces for WitnessSection Construction SiteSCALE 1:5000 0.5m 1.0m0 5m 10m1000m +Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Perimeter Trees (19-20m high)Level Central AreaPerimeter RoadParkingDETAIL 1SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 2SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 3SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0mRamp up to wellpad levelContainment BundPerimeter french drainFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelImported site stone used tolevel central areaSite level fallstowards edge of siteSite level fallstowards edge of siteExisting compact hardcoreLevel area incentre of siteContainment BundPerimeter french drainStone depth reduces as it taperstowards the site edgeSite level fallstowards edge of siteDETAIL 1SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 2SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 3SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0mRamp up to wellpad levelContainment BundPerimeter french drainFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelImported site stone used tolevel central areaSite level fallstowards edge of siteSite level fallstowards edge of siteExisting compact hardcoreLevel area incentre of siteContainment BundPerimeter french drainStone depth reduces as it taperstowards the site edgeSite level fallstowards edge of siteDETAIL 1SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 2SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0m DETAIL 3SCALE 1:500 0.5m 1.0mRamp up to wellpad levelContainment BundPerimeter french drainFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelFibertex geotextile below bentomatlaid on sand blinding on retained existing site levelImported site stone used tolevel central areaSite level fallstowards edge of siteSite level fallstowards edge of siteExisting compact hardcoreLevel area incentre of siteContainment BundPerimeter french drainStone depth reduces as it taperstowards the site edgeSite level fallstowards edge of siteFIGURE 97 Well site construction deta ils. By Author. Adapted from (IGas Energy, n.d.).  Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  94 ||  95 |Spaces for WitnessDESIGN PROPOSALSpeculation & ProvocationFIGURE 98 Orpha n 13-18-048-02 W5 (OWAA, n.d.). Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  96 |7.1  DESIGN PROPOSALResource extraction collectively represents one of humanity’s most severe impacts upon the ecological patterns of the planet. Decades of extraction have left a  web of fragmented patches, resembling an archipelago of anthropogenic islands. In dire times, humans attempt to clear away these past troubles, in hopes of making a  more suitable future. However, the decay of the landscape, coupled with contamination issues, continually leads to a  loss of habitat, ecology and potential economic viability. By examining the relationship between extraction and reclamation, we can begin to give a  spatial vocabulary for taking collective responsibility for landscape transformation. This project attempts to spatialize the climatic uncertainty and challenge the practice of reclamation in the post-extraction landscape. A proposal for re-thinking reclamation through alternative conversations.|  97  |Spaces for Witness150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFosse Tumulus PalisadeWell [Island]Extraction to Reclamation ≠ RestorationExtraction to Reclamation = Recognition          Replacement            Rehabilitationabandoned, inactive, orphaned150m ØFIGURE 99 Design Proposal Concept Diagra m. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 14" x 16.5"   Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  98 |7. 2  SCALEIt starts as just one hole, one singular space. A well, no more than two feet wide, but below, extends nearly a 1000 metres deep into the earth. This hole becomes essentially a  feature of the extractive landscape.As we scale up one becomes many, and many becomes a network, an archipelago of wells across the landscape. But the hole is just the start, it’s a  portal. And this is where we begin our story or in this case, this project.This map gives you a  visual representation of the 500,000 wells that have been drilled in Alberta. These are hundreds upon thousands of holes drilled into the earth for extraction of resources. These holes include oil and gas wells, waste water and disposal wells, etc.FIGURE 100 Well mapping, circa  ~1963. By Author. Basemap from ArcGIS Online. Da ta  sources Lora n Hendry ESRI. Presenta tion Boa rd Size: 26.5" x 32"|  99 |Spaces for Witness-122° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110°-122°-123°-124°-125° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110° -109° -108°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°EdmontonCalgaryLethbridgeMedicine HatLlyodminsterFort McMurrayFort St.JohnGrand PrairieKelowna01:1,750,00025 50 75 100kmUrbanCultivatedBorealWells*Major CitiesSource Data: ArcGis Online. Author Loran H.Intervention SitesAlberta Provincial Border*Data represents circa ~1940-2018Oil/gas, waste, disposal, water, etc. at different well stages (Appx. +500k) According to Alberta Energy Regulatorand the Orphan Well Association as ofJanuary 2019 there are:160,000 +  Inactive Wells5000 + Orphan Wells3125 + Wells to Abandon3000 + Wells to Reclaim70 + Wells to SuspendNCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  100 |7. 3  CUMULATIVE EFFECTSInactive and abandoned wells can contaminate water and soil, leak methane, a  potent greenhouse gases, and put nearby homes at risk of explosions and harmful gases. According to Environmental Protection Agency residents that live within a  150 metres of a  well head have an 6 times higher chance of getting cancer or being exposed to long term health problems.One well may not seem significant and may not result in dramatic change to an area, but ones means there’s more to come. Over time, the effects of multiple projects on the land can result in serious long-term changes for people, wildlife and the land. These changes are called “cumulative effects” because the sum of their impacts is greater than the impacts of a  single project.|  101  |Spaces for Witnessproduction waterstorage + refineriesgroundwatermines + quarriesforests + grasslandsdeep well injectionleaking wellborenatural gasdisposal water drilling additivesregional territoryresource extractiondrill wellpadcontaminated drinking watercontaminated surface waterhabitat fragmentationcrude oilorphan wellssands + aggregatesriver + streamsmethane emissionsFIGURE 101 Cumula tive Effects Diagra m. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size: 14" x 14"Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  102 |7. 4 ISLAND STUDIESThe design approach was inspired by the works of Oswald Mathias Ungers and Luis Calleja’s. Ungers and Callejas make a  strong case for the potential of the island and the archipelago as generative models for design. By treating well pads as islands, we can frame and simplify the seemingly unbound and complex and begin to kindle a  series of provocations. This project offers rhetorical interventions that are not intended to be solutions, but hopes to lead to more inquiries and questions.NESW                   55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,ABNESW53.340444°, - 110.706683°CultivatedVermillion County, ABNESW50.041073°, - 110.674263°UrbanMedicine Hat, ABBoreal Tree Patch Boreal Pond / Wetland Well Pad / Well Cut BlockAgricultural Tree Patch Agricultural Irrigation Pond Well PadCity Park Tree Patch Private Family Home Well Under BuildingStrategiesIsland StudiesHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationHabitatForagingStructural walls to grass to infrastructureEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UsePlant bioremediation functions restore health to contaminated soilsInfrastructure can be used for habitat/nestingSoil can be repurposed for landscape interventionsMethane capture for energy conversionNew ecologies can createnew food sourcesPlant species contribute tohabitat & biodiversity(L-R)Indian paintbrush, Indian grass, Sunflower, Common rush, PickerelweedEarthworm extract brine from soilConstruction demolition can be repurposed for infrastructureMethanotrophsdigest bacteriaBacteria bioremediate hydrocarbon contamination|  103 |Spaces for Witness7.5 STRATEGIESThrough the process of understanding what defines an "island" and what systems and ecologies exist within them, new possibilities can be imagined in the context of a  bounded well site. Considering methane emissions, contaminated soil, and degraded ecology, a  collection of island-type strategies can be curated. Each one of the strategies proposed while are illustrated in one design intervention could possibly be used in combination with other strategies or conditions. NESW                   55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,ABNESW53.340444°, - 110.706683°CultivatedVermillion County, ABNESW50.041073°, - 110.674263°UrbanMedicine Hat, ABBoreal Tree Patch Boreal Pond / Wetland Well Pad / Well Cut BlockAgricultural Tree Patch Agricultural Irrigation Pond Well PadCity Park Tree Patch Private Family Home Well Under BuildingStrategiesIsland StudiesHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationHabitatForagingStructural walls to grass to infrastructureEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UsePlant bioremediation functions restore health to contaminated soilsInfrastructure can be used for habitat/nestingSoil can be repurposed for landscape interventionsMethane capture for energy conversionNew ecologies can createnew food sourcesPlant species contribute tohabitat & biodiversity(L-R)Indian paintbrush, Indian grass, Sunflower, Common rush, PickerelweedEarthworm extract brine from soilConstruction demolition can be repurposed for infrastructureMethanotrophsdigest bacteriaBacteria bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminationFIGURE 102 Isla nd studies a nd stra tegies diagra m. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 42" x 21.5"  Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  104 ||  105 |Spaces for WitnessINTERVENTIONSGrounded in Design, Imagination & ConceptsFIGURE 103 Cultiva ted La nds (Tumulus Isla nd) Render. By Author. Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  106 |LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK|  107 |Spaces for Witness8.1  INTERVENTIONS   Each island is a  potential site for a  specific intervention, forming a  symbolic place. Islands are scattered fragments that are antithesis of its context, meaning they are bound as a  whole by the way they react to  each other.The three interventions are prototype explorations, looking to seek how we can reconfigure the land, and mend the sacrificed. Working within the 150m perimeter buffer specified by Environmental Protection Agency, each intervention seeks to interact with the topography through the remediation of the soil, explore ways to address methane emissions, and create new typologies that re-imagine the unproductive well pad, as a  new autonomous island that encourages, biodiversity, habitat, remediation, production.Each intervention looks at using different strategies to push the idea of what reclamation means. No one intervention presented is meant to be a  silo design, but a  prototype of strategies that can be executed at different scales. In the subsurface level, microrganisms and earthworms can be used to remediate soil, in aquatic environments organisms and plant species can filter and digest methane and other containments. Methane can be captured and converted for energy use, or potential new food source for microrganisms, or perhaps capped to prevent any emissions from entering the atmosphere.Infrastructure can be re-imagined as structures for habitat, recreation and perhaps forestry uses. Introduction of bioremediation plants helps filter containments from the soil. While exploring native plants that become focal points through the use of bright colour palettes. The excavation and execution of the each scenario could be used at another site, creating a  system of strategies. Each one of the provocations help elicit a  sense of curiosity, abstraction in the landscape. Revealing a  space for witness. Perhaps becoming monuments or memorials, abstractions and curiosities in the landscape.While in current reality these types of interventions may not seem possible, it’s a  worthwhile venture to imagine the possibilities for a  legacy into the future. Could you only imagine a  Fosse, a  Tumulus, or a  Palisade across our landscape as a  normality? Can you imagine 200,000 of them? Or more?Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  108 |8. 2 FOSSE   [FOS,  FAWS]noun 1. a  moat or defensive ditch in a  fortification, usually filled with water. 2. any ditch, trench, or canal.Deep within the boreal rorest a  new typology emerges, a  Fosse, from a long ago, abandoned well. The first intervention seeks ways to explore how to address these sacrificed landscapes through an array of strategies that address the contaminated soil, unusable landscape, low ecological value, and rising methane emissions.By excavating down, removing contaiminated soil and creating a  moat, the new landscape incorporates an autonomous environment such as the natural wetland or irrigation pond. A central island emerges to house reused infrastructure for new systems. The following drawings illustrate strategies incorporated and the processes that emerge from the execution and practice. Brief Summary: Methane: Capture, convert to energy Infrastructure: Reuse Plants: Indian Paintbrush and Common Rush Colour Palette: Red Topography: Excavate, soil moved to Tumulus Well Stage: Suspended,  Inactive, or Orphaned (Productive Viability)  1:7000 Water   Well Pads  Vegetation  Well Cut BlockNESW                                55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,ABFIGURE 104 Boreal Forest Map 1:7000. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 16" x 16" |  109 |Spaces for WitnessExisting Well PadFosse [Island]Fosse excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsReuse of infrastructure[active well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFIGURE 105 Fosse Isla nd Stra tegy. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 11.5" x 16" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  1 10 |Section ASection ASection BSee Sections for DetailsSection B30.30 64.5045.008.0064.5020.0035.703.00Wellpad Cut BlockExisting Wellpad Cut Block Ha Ha Wall Ha Ha WallRetrofitted Oil DerrickActive WellExcavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention Pond Excavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention PondExisting Tree Line1:250Forest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermmesoporousMOF compositemembraneForest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeObservation Decks(Recreation + Fire Watch)Nesting intrussesRetrofittedInfrastructureCommon RushBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Captured for energyconversion455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneBioaugmentation:natural bacteria to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminationFIGURE 106 Fosse Isla nd Section. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 42" x 16" Section A|  1 1 1  |Spaces for WitnessSection B30.30 64.5045.008.0064.5020.0035.703.00Wellpad Cut BlockExisting Wellpad Cut Block Ha Ha Wall Ha Ha WallRetrofitted Oil DerrickActive WellExcavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention Pond Excavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention PondExisting Tree Line1:250Forest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermmesoporousMOF compositemembraneForest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeObservation Decks(Recreation + Fire Watch)Nesting intrussesRetrofittedInfrastructureCommon RushBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Captured for energyconversion455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneBioaugmentation:natural bacteria to bioremediate hydrocarbon contamination30.30 64.5045.008.0064.5020.0035.703.00Wellpad Cut BlockExisting Wellpad Cut Block Ha Ha Wall Ha Ha WallRetrofitted Oil DerrickActive WellExcavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention Pond Excavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention PondExisting Tree Line1:250Forest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermmesoporousMOF compositemembraneForest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeObservation Decks(Recreation + Fire Watch)Nesting intrussesRetrofittedInfrastructureCommon RushBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Captured for energyconversion455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneBioaugmentation:natural bacteria to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminationCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  1 12  |Excavated material is used to create the retaining wall, ha-ha landscape intervention. The ha-ha creates a  defined edge and the grading required for the moat wetland. The embankment creates a  border for species, and planted with bright red seasonal Indian Paintbrush.Primary plants selected for wetland/disturbed site condition, provides remediation functions and creates new habitat and biodiversity for the island.1:40Boreal EdgePast wellpad is excavated to produce a moat-like, ha-ha intervention, creating a 150m excavated trench and pond.  150m perimeteredgeHa-hawallForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallSelect Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for containments in the soil.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovDecIndian PaintbrushCommon RushSeedGrowBloom0.3-0.5m Mature 0.6-1.2m MatureCastilleja miniata (Indian paintbrush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb and store large quantities  of seleniumWildlife Attracts and provides nectar for butterflies and hummingbirdsCond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows close to grasses or native plants.Juncus effusus (Common rush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb petroleum degradation.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas, low spots or meadows.FIGURE 107 Fosse, Edge Condition Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 108 Fosse, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" |  1 13  |Spaces for WitnessInfrastructure, such as an oil derrick, can be reconfigured to adapt for nesting and habitat for avian species. The infrastructure can also be used as an observation tower, or recreational purposes.1:20Tower NestingAvian habitat in the trusses of the tower encourage nesting, roosting, hunting, feeding and establishing territorial boundaries.  Truss crossmembers create cup-shaped nestse.g. nesters:Northern GoshawkBald EagleWarblersSparrowsmin. 13m from grade to protect frompredationSelect Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for containments in the soil.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovDecIndian PaintbrushCommon RushSeedGrowBloom0.3-0.5m Mature 0.6-1.2m MatureCastilleja miniata (Indian paintbrush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb and store large quantities  of seleniumWildlife Attracts and provides nectar for butterflies and hummingbirdsCond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows close to grasses or native plants.Juncus effusus (Common rush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb petroleum degradation.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas, low spots or meadows.FIGURE 108 Fosse, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 109 Fosse, Structure Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  1 14  |Imagine a  forest landscape of bright red islands. Some are mounds of soil, reaching up to 23m into the sky and some maybe unusual moats seemingly protecting adapted infrastructure from the long ago oil and gas boom. The multiplicity of sites and interventions creates an archipelago of new typologies. New anomalies to venture into. New habitats for species to thrive in. FosseTumulusTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zonebioremediation zonerecreationalammenities& species habitat|  1 15  |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 110 Fosse, Aerial Render, va ria nts in deployed interventions illustra ting the interconnected process system. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FosseTumulusTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zonebioremediation zonerecreationalammenities& species habitatCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  1 16  |FIGURE 111 Fosse, Render, perspective view of the la ndscape demonstra ting the reuse of infrastructure.. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FosseTumulusTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zonebioremediation zonerecreationalammenities& species habitat|  1 17  |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 112 Fosse, Render, moa t edge with central isla nd. India n Pa intbrush pla nted along the emba nkments of the moa t. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  1 18  |8. 3 TUMULUS  [TOO-MYUH-LUH S]noun, plural tu·mu·li 1. Archaeology: an artificial mound, especially over a grave; barrow. 2. Geology: a  domelike mound Massive mounds of yellow, dotted along the horizons of the prairies begin to emerge. 150m wide and nearly 23m high, mounds covered in sunflowers, marking the burial of long forgotten oil and gas wells. The highest methane emitters maybe beyond salvage and in certain circumstances may need to be capped. Using fill from Palisade and Fosse, the Tumulus is excavated by disturbed soil that will require remediation to be a  healthy sustaining substrate once again. Using the potency and vibrancy of Sunflowers the mound island not only becomes a  unique functioning entity but a  bright abnormality with the Alberta  prairies. The following drawings illustrate strategies incorporated and the processes that emerge from the execution and practice. Brief Summary: Methane: Cap and seal Infrastructure: Remove Plants: Sunflower Colour Palette: Yellow Topography: Mound, excavation material from Tumulus and Palisade Water   Well Pads  Vegetation  Farm LandCultivated                   53.340444˚, - 110.706683˚NES                                 Vermillion River County, ABW1:7000FIGURE 113 Cultiva ted La nds Map 1:7000. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 16" x 16" |  1 19  |Spaces for WitnessTumulus constructs from Palisade and Fosse excavationExisting Well PadTumulus [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFIGURE 114 Tumulus Isla nd Stra tegy. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 11.5" x 16" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  120 |Section ASection ASection BSee Sections for DetailsSection B75.0075.0021.0020.1523.00Reservoir RockHarvestingSunflowerPhytoremediationEarthwormextract brinefrom soilComposting + IncinerationHarvest + Compost + IncinerationExcavation Mound + Wild Sunflower GrowthOrphan WellAgricultural1:250DitchDitchCap RockShaleFilterMembraneDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mExcavated Contaminated wellpad soilReservoir Rock Natural GasOrphan Well (Well Bore Leak)Toxic Emissions (CH4)FilterMembraneVolume Proposed: 180400m3Avg. Volume Excava ted per well: 150m2 x 3m 455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation Zone4.0031%4.00FIGURE 115 Tumulus Isla nd Section. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 42" x 16" |  121  |Spaces for WitnessSection BSection A75.0075.0021.0020.1523.00Reservoir RockHarvestingSunflowerPhytoremediationEarthwormextract brinefrom soilComposting + IncinerationHarvest + Compost + IncinerationExcavation Mound + Wild Sunflower GrowthOrphan WellAgricultural1:250DitchDitchCap RockShaleFilterMembraneDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mExcavated Contaminated wellpad soilReservoir Rock Natural GasOrphan Well (Well Bore Leak)Toxic Emissions (CH4)FilterMembraneVolume Proposed: 180400m3Avg. Volume Excava ted per well: 150m2 x 3m 455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation Zone4.0031%4.0075.0075.0021.0020.1523.00Reservoir RockHarvestingSunflowerPhytoremediationEarthwormextract brinefrom soilComposting + IncinerationHarvest + Compost + IncinerationExcavation Mound + Wild Sunflower GrowthOrphan WellAgricultural1:250DitchDitchCap RockShaleFilterMembraneDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mExcavated Contaminated wellpad soilReservoir Rock Natural GasOrphan Well (Well Bore Leak)Toxic Emissions (CH4)FilterMembraneVolume Proposed: 180400m3Avg. Volume Excava ted per well: 150m2 x 3m 455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation Zone4.0031%4.00Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  122 |Excavated material from Tumulus and Fosse are used to create remediated soil mounds, with a  perimeter lined drainage ditch, creating a  boundary edge between agricultural to island. The mound acts as a  marker or grave to indicate the presence of a  high emitting abandoned well. The embankment creates a  border for species, and planted with bright yellow seasonal Sunflowers.Primary plants selected for disturbed site condition, provides remediation functions and creates new habitat and biodiversity for the island.Cultivated Edge Sunflower mound is contained by a drained ditch that retains the boundary between the cultivated land. 1:75Maintenance:Sunflower Harvest+ DisposalSunflowerSoil BioremediationEdgeEdge150m perimeteredgeDitchGermination LeafDevelopmentFlowering Bud Stage Flowering Stage Seed DevelopmentDays after seedingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecSunflower75 85 105 12502.5m Mature15 20 35 655510 70 9545HarvestCompostBotanical Name Helianthus Annuus L.Light   Full SunHeight + Spread 250cm + 40cmAfter they’ve finished blooming, the dead sunflower heads, containing seeds, can be left in the winter to use as a bird feeder.SeedGrowBloomFIGURE 116 Tumulus, Edge Condition Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 117 Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" |  123 |Spaces for WitnessAny infrastructure is removed or buried below the remediation mound. The Sunflowers become a  new infrastructural system, creating biodiversity and habitat for avian species and ground nesters.Germination LeafDevelopmentFlowering Bud Stage Flowering Stage Seed DevelopmentDays after seedingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecSunflower75 85 105 12502.5m Mature15 20 35 655510 70 9545HarvestCompostBotanical Name Helianthus Annuus L.Light   Full SunHeight + Spread 250cm + 40cmAfter they’ve finished blooming, the dead sunflower heads, containing seeds, can be left in the winter to use as a bird feeder.SeedGrowBloomBiomass can be reduced(composting, compaction, thermal treatments)for disposal or useDrillingMudHeavyMetalsDissolvedSaltsPetroleumHydrocarbonsDrillingAdditivesSterilantHerbicidesResidue1:10Rhizosphaeric MetabolismAccumulationVolatilizationTranspirationPhytoremediationUse of plants from their associated microbes to accelerate remediation of organic and non-organic contaminants.FIGURE 117 Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 118 Tumulus, Structure Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  124 |Imagine a  prairie landscape of bright yellow islands. Some are mounds of soil, reaching up to 23m into the sky and some maybe unusual moats seemingly protecting adapted infrastructure from the long ago oil and gas boom. The multiplicity of sites and interventions creates an archipelago of new typologies. New anomalies to venture into. New habitats for species to thrive in. |  125 |Spaces for WitnessFosseTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone maintenace &operationsFIGURE 119 Tumulus, Aerial Render, va ria nts in deployed interventions illustra ting the interconnected process system. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FosseTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone maintenace &operationsCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  126 |FIGURE 120 Tumulus, Render, perspective view of the ha rvest a nd compost of the seasonal flowers. Environment is toxic due to heavy conta mina nts in soil. By Author.  Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FosseTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone maintenace &operations|  127  |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 121 Tumulus, Render, Tumulus mound situa ted within a  fa rm la ndscape.. By Author.  Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  128 |noun1. a  fence of pales or stakes set firmly in the ground used as a  defensive structure or enclosure.According to the EPA residents that reside within a 150 metres of a  well head have a  higher chance of adverse health affects. What options are there in heavily impacted urban centres?Imagine a  full excavation, bomb-like, of a  150m city block, around a  well-head. Removal of all residents, buildings, infrastructures; completely cut off from the urban fabric and quarantined by a  gabion fence made from the excavated material. The new island typology becomes a  meadow wetland oasis for non-human species, leaving humans the outside observers. The following drawings illustrate strategies incorporated and the processes that emerge from the execution and practice. Brief Summary: Methane: Expose, Methanotroph bacteria  digest emissions Infrastructure: Retain Plants: Indian Grass and Pickerelweed Colour Palette: Purple Topography: Excavate, soil moved to Tumulus Well Stage: Abandoned or Orphaned8. 4 PALISADE  [PAL-UH-SEYD]                                50.041073˚, - 110.674263˚Urban                                  Medicine Hat, AB1:7000 Water   Well Pads                 Tree Canopy  Vegetated150m BufferNESWFIGURE 122 Urba n Map 1:7000. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 16" x 16" |  129 |Spaces for WitnessPalisade excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsExisting Well HeadPalisade [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFIGURE 123 Palisade Isla nd Stra tegy. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 11.5" x 16" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  130 |Section ASection ASection BSee Sections for DetailsSection BRetained City BlockRetained City Block Excavated City BlockWellbore in PondExcavated City Block4540353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneMethanotrophs:Methane digesting bacteria.Abandoned Well1:250Indian GrassBioremediationGround nesterhabitatMaintenanceGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterPickerelweedBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Exposed Wellbore10.00 m17.00 m4.00 m4.00 m27.00 m75.00 m75.00 m10.00 m17.00 mFIGURE 124 Palisade Isla nd Section. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 42" x 16" |  131  |Spaces for WitnessSection BSection ARetained City BlockRetained City Block Excavated City BlockWellbore in PondExcavated City Block4540353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneMethanotrophs:Methane digesting bacteria.Abandoned Well1:250Indian GrassBioremediationGround nesterhabitatMaintenanceGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterPickerelweedBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Exposed Wellbore10.00 m17.00 m4.00 m4.00 m27.00 m75.00 m75.00 m10.00 m17.00 mRetained City BlockRetained City Block Excavated City BlockWellbore in PondExcavated City Block4540353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneMethanotrophs:Methane digesting bacteria.Abandoned Well1:250Indian GrassBioremediationGround nesterhabitatMaintenanceGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterPickerelweedBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Exposed Wellbore10.00 m17.00 m4.00 m4.00 m27.00 m75.00 m75.00 m10.00 m17.00 mCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  132 |Select Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for any possible containments in the soil.Sorghastrum nutans (indian grass)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 2-9Light Full to partial sun, Full to part shade Soil Dry to moist, rich soilsQuality Bioremediation capability to remediate petroleum. Power to  detoxify common agro-chemical residues, pesticides and herbicides.Wildlife Attracts butterflies, provides nesting materials for native bees Cond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows with grasses or native plants in wildflower meadows.Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 5aLight Full Sun to part shadeSoil Wet to moist, rich soils Quality Removes excess nitrogen and phosphorus from standing water.    Often used to treat polluted urban river water.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovDecIndian GrassPickerelweedSeedGrowBloom0.9-2.4m Mature 0.6-1.2m MatureUrban Edge Encompassing the 150m diameter excavated pit is a gabion fence reinforcing the perimeter for the cordoned space.1:10Indian GrassBioremediationGabionwire withdemolition rockmaterialExisting BuildingStructure150mperimeteredgeGabionanchored toexisting structuresExcavated material from Tumulus and Fosse are used to create remediated soil mounds, with a  perimeter lined drainage ditch, creating a  boundary edge between agricultural to island. The mound acts as a  marker or grave to indicate the presence of a  high emitting abandoned well. The embankment creates a  border for species, and planted with bright yellow seasonal Sunflowers.Primary plants selected for disturbed site condition, provides remediation functions and creates new habitat and biodiversity for the island.FIGURE 125 Tumulus, Edge Condition Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 126 Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" |  133 |Spaces for WitnessSelect Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for any possible containments in the soil.Sorghastrum nutans (indian grass)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 2-9Light Full to partial sun, Full to part shade Soil Dry to moist, rich soilsQuality Bioremediation capability to remediate petroleum. Power to  detoxify common agro-chemical residues, pesticides and herbicides.Wildlife Attracts butterflies, provides nesting materials for native bees Cond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows with grasses or native plants in wildflower meadows.Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 5aLight Full Sun to part shadeSoil Wet to moist, rich soils Quality Removes excess nitrogen and phosphorus from standing water.    Often used to treat polluted urban river water.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovDecIndian GrassPickerelweedSeedGrowBloom0.9-2.4m Mature 0.6-1.2m Mature1:25Gabion EnclosureA 150m perimeter enclosure around the existing wellhead at Hitch’N’Post Saloon, restricts access to the site and creates a preserve for non-human species. Capped galv.support postGabion rockdemolition materialGabion rockfrom buildingdemolitionGabion Fence WallGabion Fence WallGlass Partition View WindowGlass Partition View WindowConcrete pileGabion Fencesurrounding150m Perimeter Zone0.81 m4.00 mAny infrastructure is removed or buried below the remediation mound. The Sunflowers become a  new infrastructural system, creating biodiversity and habitat for avian species and ground nesters.FIGURE 126 Tumulus, Select Pla nt Palette Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FIGURE 127 Tumulus, Structure Deta ils. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  134 |Imagine an urban landscape of rich purple islands. Some are mounds of soil, reaching up to 23m into the sky and some maybe unusual moats seemingly protecting adapted infrastructure from the long ago oil and gas boom. The multiplicity of sites and interventions creates an archipelago of new typologies. New anomalies to venture into. New habitats for species to thrive in. |  135 |Spaces for WitnessFossePalisadeTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zoneFIGURE 128 Palisade, Aerial Render, va ria nts in deployed interventions illustra ting the interconnected process system. By Author. Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FossePalisadeTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zoneCourse GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  136 |FIGURE 129 Palisade, Render. Perspective from office window eleva ted by Palisade perimeter looking into on the former city block. By Author.  Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" FossePalisadeTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone|  137  |Spaces for WitnessFIGURE 130 Palisade, Render, Palisade perimeter ga bion wall a  former city urba n block. Vehicula r point of view. By Author.  Presenta tion Boa rd Size 13" x 13" Course GP Part 02 Apr 2019 |  138 |9.0 PRESENTATION FORMATFossePalisadeTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zoneUrban Edge Encompassing the 150m diameter excavated pit is a gabion fence reinforcing the perimeter for the cordoned space.1:10Indian GrassBioremediationGabionwire withdemolition rockmaterialExisting BuildingStructure150mperimeteredgeGabionanchored toexisting structures75.0075.0021.0020.1523.00Reservoir RockHarvestingSunflowerPhytoremediationEarthwormextract brinefrom soilComposting + IncinerationHarvest + Compost + IncinerationExcavation Mound + Wild Sunflower GrowthOrphan WellAgricultural1:250DitchDitchCap RockShaleFilterMembraneDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mExcavated Contaminated wellpad soilReservoir Rock Natural GasOrphan Well (Well Bore Leak)Toxic Emissions (CH4)FilterMembraneVolume Proposed: 180400mAvg. Volume Excava ted per well: 150m 3m 455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation Zone4.0031%4.001:7000 Water   Well Pads  Vegetation  Farm LandNESW                                55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,AB                                50.041073˚, - 110.674263˚Urban                                  Medicine Hat, AB1:7000 Water   Well Pads                 Tree Canopy  Vegetated150m BufferNESW30.30 64.5045.008.0064.5020.0035.703.00Wellpad Cut BlockExisting Wellpad Cut Block Ha Ha Wall Ha Ha WallRetrofitted Oil DerrickActive WellExcavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention Pond Excavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention PondExisting Tree Line1:250Forest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermmesoporousMOF compositemembraneForest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeObservation Decks(Recreation + Fire Watch)Nesting intrussesRetrofittedInfrastructureCommon RushBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Captured for energyconversion455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneBioaugmentation:natural bacteria to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminationRetained City BlockRetained City Block Excavated City BlockWellbore in PondExcavated City Block4540353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneMethanotrophs:Methane digesting bacteria.Abandoned Well1:250Indian GrassBioremediationGround nesterhabitatMaintenanceGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterPickerelweedBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Exposed Wellbore10.00 m17.00 m4.00 m4.00 m27.00 m75.00 m75.00 m10.00 m17.00 mproduction waterstorage + refineriesgroundwatermines + quarriesforests + grasslandsdeep well injectionleaking wellborenatural gasdisposal water drilling additivesregional territoryresource extractiondrill wellpadcontaminated drinking watercontaminated surface waterhabitat fragmentationcrude oilorphan wellssands + aggregatesriver + streamssnoissime enahtem-122° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110°-122°-123°-124°-125° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110° -109° -108°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°EdmontonCalgaryLethbridgeMedicine HatLlyodminsterFort McMurrayFort St.JohnGrand PrairieKelowna01:1,750,00025 50 75 100kmUrbanCultivatedBorealWells*Major CitiesSource Data: ArcGis Online. Author Loran H.Intervention SitesAlberta Provincial Border*Data represents circa ~1940-2018Oil/gas, waste, disposal, water, etc. at different well stages (Appx. +500k) According to Alberta Energy Regulatorand the Orphan Well Association as ofJanuary 2019 there are:160,000 +  Inactive Wells5000 + Orphan Wells3125 + Wells to Abandon3000 + Wells to Reclaim70 + Wells to SuspendNFosse  [fos, faws]noun1. a moat or defensive ditch in a fortification, usually filled with water.2. any ditch, trench, or canal.Tumulus  [too-myuh-luh s]noun, plural tu·mu·li 1. Archaeology: an artificial mound, especially over a grave; barrow.2. Geology: a domelike mound Palisade  [pal-uh-seyd]noun1. a fence of pales or stakes set firmly in the ground used as a defensive structure or enclosure.Spaces for Witness:Designing for the Post-Extractive ArchipelagoNESW                   55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,ABNESW53.340444°, - 110.706683°CultivatedVermillion County, ABNESW50.041073°, - 110.674263°UrbanMedicine Hat, ABBoreal Tree Patch Boreal Pond / Wetland Well Pad / Well Cut BlockAgricultural Tree Patch Agricultural Irrigation Pond Well PadCity Park Tree Patch Private Family Home Well Under BuildingStrategiesIsland StudiesHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationHabitatForagingStructural walls to grass to infrastructureEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UsePlant bioremediation functions restore health to contaminated soilsInfrastructure can be used for habitat/nestingSoil can be repurposed for landscape interventionsMethane capture for energy conversionNew ecologies can createnew food sourcesPlant species contribute tohabitat & biodiversity(L-R)Indian paintbrush, Indian grass, Sunflower, Common rush, PickerelweedEarthworm extract brine from soilConstruction demolition can be repurposed for infrastructureMethanotrophsdigest bacteriaBacteria bioremediate hydrocarbon contamination1:20Tower NestingAvian habitat in the trusses of the tower encourage nesting, roosting, hunting, feeding and establishing territorial boundaries.  Truss crossmembers create cup-shaped nestse.g. nesters:Northern GoshawkBald EagleWarblersSparrowsmin. 13m from grade to protect frompredationSelect Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for containments in the soil.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovceDIndian PaintbrushCommon RushSeedGrowBloom0.3-0.5m Mature 0.6-1.2m MatureCastilleja miniata (Indian paintbrush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb and store large quantities  of seleniumWildlife Attracts and provides nectar for butterflies and hummingbirdsCond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows close to grasses or native plants.Juncus effusus (Common rush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb petroleum degradation.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas, low spots or meadows.Select Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for any possible containments in the soil.Sorghastrum nutans (indian grass)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 2-9Light Full to partial sun, Full to part shade Soil Dry to moist, rich soilsQuality Bioremediation capability to remediate petroleum. Power to  detoxify common agro-chemical residues, pesticides and herbicides.Wildlife Attracts butterflies, provides nesting materials for native bees Cond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows with grasses or native plants in wildflower meadows.Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 5aLight Full Sun to part shadeSoil Wet to moist, rich soils Quality Removes excess nitrogen and phosphorus from standing water.    Often used to treat polluted urban river water.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovceDIndian GrassPickerelweedSeedGrowBloom0.9-2.4m Mature 0.6-1.2m Mature150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFosse Tumulus PalisadeWell [Island]Extract to Reclamation ≠ RestorationExtract to Reclamation = Recognition    Replacement      Rehabilitationabandoned, inactive, orphaned150m Ø1:25Gabion EnclosureA 150m perimeter enclosure around the existing wellhead at Hitch’N’Post Saloon, restricts access to the site and creates a preserve for non-human species. Capped galv.support postGabion rockdemolition materialGabion rockfrom buildingdemolitionGabion Fence WallGabion Fence WallGlass Partition View WindowGlass Partition View WindowConcrete pileGabion Fencesurrounding150m Perimeter Zone0.81 m4.00 m1:40Boreal EdgePast wellpad is excavated to produce a moat-like, ha-ha intervention, creating a 150m excavated trench and pond.  150m perimeteredgeHa-hawallForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExisting Well PadFosse [Island]Fosse excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsReuse of infrastructure[active well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zonePalisade excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsExisting Well HeadPalisade [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneWater   Well Pads  Vegetation  Farm LandCultivated                   53.340444˚, - 110.706683˚NES                                 Vermillion River County, ABW1:7000Tumulus constructs from Palisade and Fosse excavationExisting Well PadTumulus [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFosseTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone maintenace &operationsCultivated Edge Sunflower mound is contained by a drained ditch that retains the boundary between the cultivated land. 1:75Maintenance:Sunflower Harvest+ DisposalSunflowerSoil BioremediationEdgeEdge150m perimeteredgeDitchBiomass can be reduced(composting, compaction, thermal treatments)for disposal or useDrillingMudHeavyMetalsDissolvedSaltsPetroleumHydrocarbonsDrillingAdditivesSterilantHerbicidesResidue1:10Rhizosphaeric MetabolismAccumulationVolatilizationTranspirationPhytoremediationUse of plants from their associated microbes to accelerate remediation of organic and non-organic contaminants.Germination LeafDevelopmentFlowering Bud Stage Flowering Stage Seed DevelopmentDays after seedingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovceDSunflower75 85 105 12502.5m Mature15 20 35 655510 70 9545HarvestCompostBotanical Name Helianthus Annuus L.Light   Full SunHeight + Spread 250cm + 40cmAfter they’ve finished blooming, the dead sunflower heads, containing seeds, can be left in the winter to use as a bird feeder.SeedGrowBloomFosseTumulusTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zonebioremediation zonerecreationalammenities& species habitatFIGURE 131 Presenta tion Boa rd Layouts for Gradua te Project Presenta tion on April 18, 2019. (Accompa nied by Projection Screen Monitor).  By Author. Boa rd Sizes 48" x 76" |  139 |Spaces for WitnessFossePalisadeTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zoneUrban Edge Encompassing the 150m diameter excavated pit is a gabion fence reinforcing the perimeter for the cordoned space.1:10Indian GrassBioremediationGabionwire withdemolition rockmaterialExisting BuildingStructure150mperimeteredgeGabionanchored toexisting structures75.0075.0021.0020.1523.00Reservoir RockHarvestingSunflowerPhytoremediationEarthwormextract brinefrom soilComposting + IncinerationHarvest + Compost + IncinerationExcavation Mound + Wild Sunflower GrowthOrphan WellAgricultural1:250DitchDitchCap RockShaleFilterMembraneDrinking Water AquifersDepth less than 150mExcavated Contaminated wellpad soilReservoir Rock Natural GasOrphan Well (Well Bore Leak)Toxic Emissions (CH4)FilterMembraneVolume Proposed: 180400mAvg. Volume Excava ted per well: 150m 3m 455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation Zone4.0031%4.001:7000 Water   Well Pads  Vegetation  Farm LandNESW                                55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,AB                                50.041073˚, - 110.674263˚Urban                                  Medicine Hat, AB1:7000 Water   Well Pads                 Tree Canopy  Vegetated150m BufferNESW30.30 64.5045.008.0064.5020.0035.703.00Wellpad Cut BlockExisting Wellpad Cut Block Ha Ha Wall Ha Ha WallRetrofitted Oil DerrickActive WellExcavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention Pond Excavated Wellpad - Trench / Retention PondExisting Tree Line1:250Forest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermmesoporousMOF compositemembraneForest SuccessionForest encroachesto landscape edgeObservation Decks(Recreation + Fire Watch)Nesting intrussesRetrofittedInfrastructureCommon RushBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Captured for energyconversion455040353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneBioaugmentation:natural bacteria to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminationRetained City BlockRetained City Block Excavated City BlockWellbore in PondExcavated City Block4540353025201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150Reclamation ZoneMethanotrophs:Methane digesting bacteria.Abandoned Well1:250Indian GrassBioremediationGround nesterhabitatMaintenanceGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialGabion fencingfrom demolitionmaterialExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterExisting city-blockdemolished within150m perimeterPickerelweedBioremediationReservoir Rock Natural GasMethaneEmissions (CH4)Exposed Wellbore10.00 m17.00 m4.00 m4.00 m27.00 m75.00 m75.00 m10.00 m17.00 mproduction waterstorage + refineriesgroundwatermines + quarriesforests + grasslandsdeep well injectionleaking wellborenatural gasdisposal water drilling additivesregional territoryresource extractiondrill wellpadcontaminated drinking watercontaminated surface waterhabitat fragmentationcrude oilorphan wellssands + aggregatesriver + streamssnoissime enahtem-122° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110°-122°-123°-124°-125° -121° -120° -119° -118° -117° -116° -115° -114° -113° -112° -111° -110° -109° -108°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°59°58°57°56°55°54°53°52°51°50°49°EdmontonCalgaryLethbridgeMedicine HatLlyodminsterFort McMurrayFort St.JohnGrand PrairieKelowna01:1,750,00025 50 75 100kmUrbanCultivatedBorealWells*Major CitiesSource Data: ArcGis Online. Author Loran H.Intervention SitesAlberta Provincial Border*Data represents circa ~1940-2018Oil/gas, waste, disposal, water, etc. at different well stages (Appx. +500k) According to Alberta Energy Regulatorand the Orphan Well Association as ofJanuary 2019 there are:160,000 +  Inactive Wells5000 + Orphan Wells3125 + Wells to Abandon3000 + Wells to Reclaim70 + Wells to SuspendNFosse  [fos, faws]noun1. a moat or defensive ditch in a fortification, usually filled with water.2. any ditch, trench, or canal.Tumulus  [too-myuh-luh s]noun, plural tu·mu·li 1. Archaeology: an artificial mound, especially over a grave; barrow.2. Geology: a domelike mound Palisade  [pal-uh-seyd]noun1. a fence of pales or stakes set firmly in the ground used as a defensive structure or enclosure.Spaces for Witness:Designing for the Post-Extractive ArchipelagoNESW                   55.584890˚, - 119.448621˚BorealSaddle Hill County,ABNESW53.340444°, - 110.706683°CultivatedVermillion County, ABNESW50.041073°, - 110.674263°UrbanMedicine Hat, ABBoreal Tree Patch Boreal Pond / Wetland Well Pad / Well Cut BlockAgricultural Tree Patch Agricultural Irrigation Pond Well PadCity Park Tree Patch Private Family Home Well Under BuildingStrategiesIsland StudiesHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationFoodSourceAquaticHabitatAquatic to rockto grass transitionMicroorganismFiltrationPhotosynthesisHabitat/NestingForagingGroundcover toGrass TransitionMicroorganismNutrient CyclingCarbon SequestrationHabitatForagingStructural walls to grass to infrastructureEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UseEmissionsFossil fuel extractionGravel to grasstransitionLeachingEnergy UsePlant bioremediation functions restore health to contaminated soilsInfrastructure can be used for habitat/nestingSoil can be repurposed for landscape interventionsMethane capture for energy conversionNew ecologies can createnew food sourcesPlant species contribute tohabitat & biodiversity(L-R)Indian paintbrush, Indian grass, Sunflower, Common rush, PickerelweedEarthworm extract brine from soilConstruction demolition can be repurposed for infrastructureMethanotrophsdigest bacteriaBacteria bioremediate hydrocarbon contamination1:20Tower NestingAvian habitat in the trusses of the tower encourage nesting, roosting, hunting, feeding and establishing territorial boundaries.  Truss crossmembers create cup-shaped nestse.g. nesters:Northern GoshawkBald EagleWarblersSparrowsmin. 13m from grade to protect frompredationSelect Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for containments in the soil.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovceDIndian PaintbrushCommon RushSeedGrowBloom0.3-0.5m Mature 0.6-1.2m MatureCastilleja miniata (Indian paintbrush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb and store large quantities  of seleniumWildlife Attracts and provides nectar for butterflies and hummingbirdsCond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows close to grasses or native plants.Juncus effusus (Common rush)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 4-9Light Full Sun Soil Wet to moist, well-drained soils Quality Bioremediation ability to absorb petroleum degradation.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas, low spots or meadows.Select Planting PalettePrimary plants selected, for trench-pond landscape, based on biomediator functions for any possible containments in the soil.Sorghastrum nutans (indian grass)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 2-9Light Full to partial sun, Full to part shade Soil Dry to moist, rich soilsQuality Bioremediation capability to remediate petroleum. Power to  detoxify common agro-chemical residues, pesticides and herbicides.Wildlife Attracts butterflies, provides nesting materials for native bees Cond. Often found growing in disturbed sites, or along road ditches.  Often grows with grasses or native plants in wildflower meadows.Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)Type Perennial Herbaceous, NativeZone USDA 5aLight Full Sun to part shadeSoil Wet to moist, rich soils Quality Removes excess nitrogen and phosphorus from standing water.    Often used to treat polluted urban river water.Wildlife Provides wildfowl, wader feeding, and nesting habitats, and also  habitats for small mammals.Cond. Performs well around ponds, in wet areas.JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAug  OctNovceDIndian GrassPickerelweedSeedGrowBloom0.9-2.4m Mature 0.6-1.2m Mature150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFosse Tumulus PalisadeWell [Island]Extract to Reclamation ≠ RestorationExtract to Reclamation = Recognition    Replacement      Rehabilitationabandoned, inactive, orphaned150m Ø1:25Gabion EnclosureA 150m perimeter enclosure around the existing wellhead at Hitch’N’Post Saloon, restricts access to the site and creates a preserve for non-human species. Capped galv.support postGabion rockdemolition materialGabion rockfrom buildingdemolitionGabion Fence WallGabion Fence WallGlass Partition View WindowGlass Partition View WindowConcrete pileGabion Fencesurrounding150m Perimeter Zone0.81 m4.00 m1:40Boreal EdgePast wellpad is excavated to produce a moat-like, ha-ha intervention, creating a 150m excavated trench and pond.  150m perimeteredgeHa-hawallForest encroachesto landscape edgeExcavated stonefrom existing well pad bermIndianPaintbrushBioremediationStacked stoneretaining wallExisting Well PadFosse [Island]Fosse excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsReuse of infrastructure[active well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zonePalisade excavation distributedto Tumulus moundsExisting Well HeadPalisade [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneWater   Well Pads  Vegetation  Farm LandCultivated                   53.340444˚, - 110.706683˚NES                                 Vermillion River County, ABW1:7000Tumulus constructs from Palisade and Fosse excavationExisting Well PadTumulus [Island][inactive well]150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zone150m perimeter zoneFosseTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zone maintenace &operationsCultivated Edge Sunflower mound is contained by a drained ditch that retains the boundary between the cultivated land. 1:75Maintenance:Sunflower Harvest+ DisposalSunflowerSoil BioremediationEdgeEdge150m perimeteredgeDitchBiomass can be reduced(composting, compaction, thermal treatments)for disposal or useDrillingMudHeavyMetalsDissolvedSaltsPetroleumHydrocarbonsDrillingAdditivesSterilantHerbicidesResidue1:10Rhizosphaeric MetabolismAccumulationVolatilizationTranspirationPhytoremediationUse of plants from their associated microbes to accelerate remediation of organic and non-organic contaminants.Germination LeafDevelopmentFlowering Bud Stage Flowering Stage Seed DevelopmentDays after seedingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovceDSunflower75 85 105 12502.5m Mature15 20 35 655510 70 9545HarvestCompostBotanical Name Helianthus Annuus L.Light   Full SunHeight + Spread 250cm + 40cmAfter they’ve finished blooming, the dead sunflower heads, containing seeds, can be left in the winter to use as a bird feeder.SeedGrowBloomFosseTumulusTumulusedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundariesedge controlssystemboundaries150m perimeterspecieshabitatexcavationfrom one to anotherbioremediation zonebioremediation zonerecreationalammenities& species habitatCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  140 ||  141  |Spaces for WitnessAPPENDIXFinal ConclusionsFIGURE 7 7 Pump jack a t sunset by Delfino Ba rboza. Source https://images.unsplash.com/photo-1540743527709-032f806b207c?ixlib=rb-0.3.5&q=85&fm=jpg&crop=entropy&cs=srgb&dl=delfino-ba rboza-1123170-unsplash.jpg&s=36bcf1984f1e986e7d5336d8942b18dc  Course GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  142 |LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK|  143 |Spaces for WitnessPROJECT SCHEDULEGP1GP2Literature ReviewProgram Strategies Design Strategies December January February March - April ResearchWeek 1: Introduction Presentations Week 2: Week 3: In-process review Week 4:Week 5: Week 7: Week 8:Week 10: Week 11: Week 6: Mid-Term ReviewWeek 9: In-process ReviewWeek 12: Substantial ReviewSite/ Spatial Analysis MappingEcology LegislationDesign Details PlansSectionPerspectivesProduction Presentation DrawingsPresentation Models Layout PrintingPresentation Prep Schematic Design Program Strategies 19th: GP1 ReportWeek 13:Week 14:Week 15: Final GP ReviewsCourse GP Part 01 Dec 2018 |  144 |REFERENCESAlberta  Agricultural and Forestry (AGRIC). (n.d.). 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