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Inhabiting the Anthropocene : Designing for Accelerating Change in a New Epoch Moskal, Pauline 2019-04-26

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Pauline MoskalGraduate Project: Part IIInstructors: Susan Herrington,      Daniel RoehrAdvisor:      Kees LokmanApril 26, 2019Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,University of British Columbia.Inhabiting the Anthropocene:Designing for Accelerating Change in a New EpochiiAbstractLandscapes are always in motion and yet, the way contemporary landscapes are designed, represented, detailed, and maintained, reflect static notions serving limited lifespans. The An-thropocene presents a new era of unpredictable and accelerating change generated by human influence. Adapting to these accelerated changes is the most significant challenge facing land-scape architects today and requires engagement across multiple scales of design. This project proposes the Anthropocene as a framework for discussion and explores themes of time and space in relation to landscape architecture and their importance in the Anthropocene. The findings of this exploration will assist in the design of projected futures for landscapes expe-riencing accelerated change, in an effort to raise awareness about our influence on the Earth. vviTable of ContentsChapter 01: An Introduction 6Chapter 03: Space and the Anthropocene 29Chapter 05: Next StepsChapter 06: EXPO 2067Conclusion576394Chapter 02: Time and the Anthropocene 16Chapter 04: Precedents & Case Studies 37Bibliography 98Appendix A: Catalogue References 101Appendix B: Figure References 104Prelude: A Microcosm of the Anthropocene 1Interlude: A Layered Approach 25Postlude: Not So Sci-FiProcess- Part II -5272-7962PART II63EXPO 2067: [HU]MAN[S] AND [T]HIS WORLDChapter 06 64World’s Fairs or Exhibitions (EXPOs) have been historically used to display the in-ternational achievement of nations. These EXPOs were typically centralized events held in one city. This tradition dates back to the first World’s EXPO held at the Crys-tal Palace in London in 1851. Over the years, themes of EXPOs have been used to reflect the most current cultural, social, and environmental issues of the times.With this in mind, this graduate project proposes to create a speculative world’s EXPO. I do not intent for any of these interventions to be built, rather, for them to host discussion on landscape architecture in the Anthropocene. For the pur-pose of this discussion I would like to invite you all to join me in the year 2067.An Introduction into World’s Fairs & ExpositionsFigure 2.01 The Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition, 1851Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.65Figures 2.02 and 2.03 Images from Montreal’s Expo 1967, “Man and His World.”47 years ago, in 2020, the B.I.E (Bureau International des Expositions) decided centralized EX-POs no longer accurately represented the most prominent issues of the times. The planned Dubai EXPO 2020 was cancelled, making room for a new EXPO prototype. The B.I.E. decid-ed 2020 to be the first year of a new, 47 year ‘experimental and decentralized’ EXPO. EXPO 2067 would focus on the collaboration between humans, the environment, and technology.As many of you may remember the early 2000’s were officially designated the beginning of a new geologi-cal era: the Anthropocene. At the time, Environmental Scientist, Erle C. Ellis best described this new era as a:“A new ‘great force of nature’ [that] is shifting earth into a new interval of geological time, an “age of humans,” the Anthropocene. Global climate change, widespread pollution, mass extinction, and the loss and reshaping of natural habitats are a few of the many indicators that human societies have gained the capacity to transform the functioning of an entire planet.”1EXPO 2067 would therefore set the stage to showcase the challenges facing humans in the Anthropocene. Commemorating Montreal’s EXPO, which took place 100 years ago (in 1967), EXPO 2067 has redefined the original theme in order to more accurately reflect the shift in our re-lationship to our environment. The original theme “Man and His World,” set the tone for humans exerting their will on the planet. Quoting the official 1967 guidebook: “Man must have control of his world for the benefit of mankind…Technology is creating the means for more efficient observation, analysis, action, and information processing, thereby freeing man to concentrate on that element of control only he can handle, decision.”2 Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.66Figure 2.04 A “centralized” World’s EXPO.It is this role of “control” and “decision” that EXPO 2067 focuses on, in order to develop a way of thinking about the future of a site that can be applied to multi-ple areas. This scale was redefined to instead use the terms “confidence” and “un-certainty,” which are terms used by the International Panel on Climate Change. 67Figure 2.05 A “de-centralized” World’s EXPO.Rather than one host city, EXPO 2067 is a global initiative with host sites or pavilions from around the world. The priority for chosen sites were giv-en to those which were experiencing the accelerated and unpredictable ef-fects of the Anthropocene firsthand.  As writer Darran Anderson first proclaimed:“Perhaps it is time to host World’s Fairs, not with noble platitudes in sparkling metrop-olises, but in the places facing impending catastrophes.”368Pelly Island, located in the Beaufort Sea, was one such place. 47 years ago, this is-land was chosen as Canada’s Arctic pavilion for EXPO 2067: Humans and This World. At the time, Pelly Island was experiencing the devastating effects of global warm-ing in the arctic at an accelerated rate. Compared to other coastlines in the arc-tic which were eroding at an average rate of 1.5 m/ year, Pelly Island’s coasts were erod-ing at an estimated 30-40m/ year, with its predicted disappearance by this year, 2067.Pelly Island: Canada’s Arctic PavilionN 0 km 20 kmKendall IslandBird SanctuaryMackenzie RiverBEAUFORT SEATuktoyaktukFigure 2.06 Key map of Pelly Island and nearby places of interest.69Figure 2.07 Axo showing the problems facing the Arctic. Diagram adapted by author from Alfred Wegener Institute.Three main factors were causing this accelerated erosion:1. Warming climate2. Coastal waves3. Sea level riseIncreasing temperatures were thawing coastal permafrost while a decrease in sea ice left the coastline susceptible to waves and storm surges for longer periods of time. Eroding sediments would deposit pollutants into the sea, which began to change surrounding water chemistry. So much so that, scientists at the time began to notice a visible decline in the herring population which local fishers depended on. In addition, permafrost melt began releasing carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, adding to the vicious cycle of global warming (Figure 2.07).These effects were also being felt in the closest community, the Inuvialuit hamlet of Tuk-toyaktuk 100 km away.70Figure 2.08 Pelly Island Coast.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.71Figure 2.09 Permafrost block on the Arctic coast of Alaska (similar conditions to Pelly Island).Figure 2.10 Tuktoyaktuk Point, 1982. Figure 2.11 Tuktoyaktuk Point, 2019.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright. Visit UBC LARC Reading Room for full printed copy.72Sketching became a very important tool during the design process. It allowed for quick itera-tion and easy communication of ‘big ideas.’ The following are a selection of initial sketches con-ducted during this phase, exploring big themes regarding the possible ‘future(s)’ of Pelly Island.Process: Sketching73Figure 2.12 Sketch - Placing a dome over the entire island, total control.Figure 2.13 Sketch - Using eroded sediments to defend Tuktoyaktuk.74Figure 2.14 Sketch - Displacing eroded sediments onto floating barges.Figure 2.15 Sketch - Capping certain areas of the island to control methane and carbon dioxide release.75Figure 2.16 Sketch - Using structures to filter contaminated sediments that erode into the sea.Figure 2.17 Sketch - Using barriers to protect certain areas of the island.76Process: Model-makingIn addition to sketching, model-making also became a critical tool. In order to gain a better grasp on the ephemerality of this disappearing landscape, a physical model was constructed out of wax to be melted. This process was quite labour intensive and re-quired trial and error. The following images display this process and the final outcome. Figure A:The initial topography was inverted and CNC routed out of foam. Liquid wax was poured into this form, and removed once hardened. There was major difficulty in removing the mold from the foam.Figures B-D:It was decided that a silicone mold would be more efficient and effective. The first wax topo model was used as a base to pour liquid silicone around.Figures E-F:Once hardened, the wax model was easy to take out, and allowed for multiple iterations. From melting the wax to full hardening took about four hours per model. In total, about 15 models were produced.As seen in the next page of images, these models were used for melting. Using satel-lite photos, I was able to approximate the Northwest direction of eroding forces in or-der to generate a conceptual model/ timelapse of Pelly Island (see Figure 2.18 film strip). 77Figure A.Figure C.Figure E.Figure B.Figure D.Figure F.7879Figures 2.18 Model photos.80DesignThe goal of EXPO 2067 is to address the accelerating issues facing the is-land, treating Pelly as an experimental site. With interventions implement-ed in 2020, the EXPOs intention was to run for 47 years, Pelly’s predicted life-span. 81Figure 2.19 Overlay of individual sketches.Figure 2.20 Initial programmatic layout.82Figure 2.21 Overlay ‘scale.’Figure 2.22 Overlay ‘grid.’Figure 2.23 Overlay ‘circulation.’83Challenging Montreal’s EXPO call for control, the island was organised spatial-ly along a “spine” of ranging from “confidence” on and “uncertainty” at the oth-er (Figure 2.21). A grid was applied to the site for spatial organization (Fig-ure 2.22). As you approach the uncertainty end, the grid begins to dissolve. Four ‘attractions’ are placed along this scale, connected by a linear circulation route (Figure 2.23). Figure 2.24 Montreal EXPO themes.Figure 2.25 Redefined scale for EXPO 2067.84Attraction #1: “Preservation Station”Figure 2.26 Key map showing program of “Preservation.”In the opening year of 2020, Pelly Island would be accessed through the small community of Tuktoyaktuk. Departing by crane barge used for dredging, you would leave Tuktoyaktuk.Arriving at the South West point of Pelly Island, you are dropped off by barge, which is actively excavating sediments to be used for defense against wave ac-tion in Tuktoyaktuk. Just from the southern tip of the island, 1 cubic kilome-tre of sediment is extracted, which is redistributed along the coast of Tuktoyaktuk.Slowly you make your way through into the Great Dome. This dome is an ‘arc’ of the last epoch and preserves a piece of what was once the arctic tundra and the Richards Is-land Coastal Plain Ecoregion. This Dome pays tribute to Buckminster Fuller’s speculative Dome over Manhattan, where he intended to be able to control temperature and climac-tic conditions within the dome. With advancements in technology, we were able to make this happen, keeping the inside of the dome at the perfect temperature to stop meth-ane and carbon release, while simultaneously protecting from external climactic forces.While inside you can see the tension and similarity between extreme land preservation and land exploitation on the outside. Both methods are effec-tively killing the landscape by removing them from their natural processes. 85Figures 2.27 & 2.28 Render and section.1 KM3 OF SEDIMENT EXCAVATED SEDIMENT RELOCATED tuktoyaktuk EXPO ENTRANCESTAFF  experience the hol0-scene!!86Attraction #2: “Venice of the North”Figure 2.29 Key map showing program of “Venice of the North.”Next we move into the “Venice of the North.” Using the patented “Terra-Spade,” pieces of the island are preserved in floating capsules. As the Arctic warms, what was once an area above the tree line may be able to host new forests. The remnants of Pelly Island are free to roam the Arctic Ocean serving as a cautionary tale to other landscapes which are currently under threat of dis-appearance. This intervention, like the dome, uses technology to preserve slices of land from destruction. Yet, rather than freezing the land in a single state, these “open-air time capsules” or “messages in a bottle” are allowed to evolve with warming temperatures and rising seas. 87Figures 2.30 & 2.31 Render and section.“TERRA-SPADE” CREATES FLOATING ISLAND PODSBIRDS SEED ISLAND PODS OVER TIME, AS ARCTIC WARMSISLAND PODS DISPERSE121 2visit the “Venice of the North!”   88Attraction #3: “Phyto-Plank”Figure 2.32 Key map showing program of “Phyto-Plank.”Next we reach the “Phyto-Plank.” This attraction turns an ecological process into a spectacle. The iron posts and structures under the floating boardwalk stimulate phy-toplankton growth. Phytoplankton absorbs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and when they die, they sequester the carbon at the bottom of the sea. As Pelly continues to erode, and more carbon is released, this attraction will attempt to remediate and adapt. For the low price of an admissions ticket, you can peer into one of the periscopes and look at the phytoplankton in action, which give us life-saving oxygen free of charge!This intervention does not deny climate change, nor does it attempt to allow evolution to take its course, but instead accepts the current conditions and attempts to provide a local remedy.89Figures 2.33 & 2.34 Render and section.PERMAFROST MELT RELEASES CARBON DIOXIDE INTO THE ATMOSPHEREIRON USED TO STIMULATE PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTHPHYTOPLANKTON SEQUESTER CARBON ON SEA FLOOR113223take a walk on the   PHYTO-PLANK!90Attraction #4: “Augmented Reality Experience”Figure 2.35 Key map showing program of “Augmented Reality Experience.”Lastly, we reach the interactive Augmented Reality experience, where your jour-ney on Pelly Island is measured in Kilobytes and not Kilometers. Here you can expe-rience 50 years of change all at once.  A flattening of time and space, this experience is the most hands-off or ‘business as usual.’ It allows the forces acting on the island to run their course and uses technology to give us a first row seat on the geological time scale.91Figures 2.36 & 2.37 Render and conceptual diagram.DATALANDMASS  step into realityEXPO 20679293Figure 2.38 Conceptual plan of EXPO 2067.94ConclusionsThis year, 2067 marks the 100th anniversary of Montreal’s EXPO, “Man and His World,” and the conclusion of this 47 year-long experiment. I don’t think that the tactics to engage with the problems we are facing today can be found on either end of the scale. I think the way to move forward can be found somewhere in the middle ground, where we collaborate with the system rather than thinking we can control it. I believe the role of the landscape designer in the Anthropocene will be one of stew-ardship, education, awareness, and we should not believe that the world is as sim-ple as any one-single solution. Perhaps through the device of a World’s Expo we can shift practices’ focus to global awareness, through local implementation. Figure 2.39 Each attraction placed along the scale of intervention.STAFF  experience the hol0-scene!!  step into realityEXPO 2067CONFIDENCE UNCERTAINTY95Figure 2.40 Possibility of EXPOs Pavilions around the world.96971  Erle C. Ellis, “Time in Our Hands: Co-designing a Better An-thropocene,” in LA+ Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Ar-chitecture:Time, no. 8, ed. Tatum L. Hands (Pennsylvania: ORO Editions, 2018), 107.2  Official Expo 67 Guidebook, “Theme Pavilions.” Maclean-Hunt-er Publishing Co. Ltd., 1967. Pg 62.3 Darran Anderson, “World’s Fairs and the Death of Optimism,” CityLab Website (October 2018). Accessed February 02, 2019. https://www.citylab.com/design/2018/10/worlds-fairs-and-the-death-of-optimism/571969/.Endnotes98BibliographyBowring, J., & Swaffield, S. “Shifting Landscapes In-Between Times,” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 36. (2013). Accessed November 20, 2018. http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/36/shifting-landscapes-in-between-timesCampanella, Richard. “How Humans Sank New Orleans.” The Atlantic. February 6, 2018, accessed No-vember 25, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/02/how-humans-sank-new-orleans/552323/Clowes, R., and Wilson, J. Ghost Mountains and Vanished Oceans. Toronto, Ontario: Key Porter Books Limited, 2009. Cook, Philip S,. and Ted T. Cable. “The Scenic Beauty of Shelterbelts on the Great Plains.” Landscape and Urban Planning, no. 32 (April 1995): 63-69. https://doi.org./10.1016/0169-2046(94)00171-XCorner, J. ed. Recovering landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.Dykema JA, Keith DW, Anderson JG,Weisenstein D. “Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment: A Small-scale Experiment to Improve Understanding of the Risks of Solar Geoengineering,” Phil-osophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 372. (2014). http://dx.doi.org./10.1098/rsta.2014.0059Ellis, Erle C., “Time in Our Hands: Co-designing a Better Anthropocene.” In LA+ Interdisciplinary Jour-nal of Landscape Architecture: Time, no. 8, edited by. Tatum L. Hands, 106-109. Pennsylvania: ORO Editions, 2018.Farrier, David. “How the Concept of Deep Time is Changing.” The Atlantic. October 31, 2016, ac-cessed December 2, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/10/aeon-deep-time/505922/.Folkerts, Thilo. “Landscape as Memory,” Journal of Landscape Architecture 10, no. 1 (February 2015): 68-77, https://doi.org./10.1080/18626033.2015.1011445.Hands, Tatum L., ed. LA+ Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Architecture, (No. 8: Time.). Pennsylva-nia: ORO Editions, 2018.  Hamilton, Clive. Earthmasters: The Dawn of the Age of Climate Engineering. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.99BibliographyHamilton, C., Bonneuil, C., & Gemenne, F., eds. The Anthropocene and the Global Environmental Crisis: Rethinking Modernity in a New Epoch. London: Routledge, 2015.   Jennings, Ken. “Maphead: Ken Jennings Finds the World’s Lowest High Point.” Conde Nast Traveler. Accessed December 5, 2018. https://www.cntraveler.com/stories/2012-05-14/villingili-island-mal-dives-lowest-highest-point-maphead-ken-jennings.Kim, Janette and Erik Carver. “The High-Tech Dome that Could Save Us Energy and Make a Better City: Can Buckminster Fuller’s Dome over Manhattan be Reinvented for the Future?” Forefront, (No-vember 2015).http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search-proquest com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1748041732?accountid=14656. Li, M., Liu, A., Zou, C. et al. “An Overview of the “Three North” Shelterbelt Project in China,” Beijing Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2012), 14: 70-79. https://doi-org.ez-proxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1007/s11632-012-0108-3Milligan, B. “Migration of Landscapes,” Free Association Design (2013). Accessed 3 Nov 2018. https://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/2013/08/23/migration-of-landscapes/Milligan, B. “Landscape Migration: Environmental Design in the Anthropocene,” Places Journal, (2015). Accessed November 3, 2018. https://doi.org./10.22269/150629Morton, T. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.OMA. “OMA Projects: Parc de la Vilette.” Accessed December 12, 2018. http://oma.eu/projects/parc-de-la-villette. Oxford English Dictionary Online, s.v. “Geoengineering,” accessed December 8, 2018, https://en.oxford-dictionaries.com/definition/geoengineering.Oxford Engineering Programme, University of Oxford. “What is Geoengineering?” Accessed December 10, 2018. http://www.geoengineering.ox.ac.uk/what-is-geoengineering/what-is-geoengineering/.Parker, Laura. “Parched: A New Dust Bowl Forms in the Heartland.” National Geographic. May 17, 2014, accessed December 12, 2018. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/05/140516-dust-bowl-drought-oklahoma-panhandle-food/.100Petri, Alexandra E. “China’s ‘Great Green Wall’ Fights Expanding Desert.” National Geographic. April 21, 2017, accessed December 5, 2018. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/04/chi-na-great-green-wall-gobi-tengger-desertification/Rebuild by Design. “Hudson River Project: Resist Delay, Store Discharge.” Accessed December 16, 2018, http://www.rebuildbydesign.org/our-work/all-proposals/winning-projects/nj-hudson-river-proj-ect-resist-delay-store-dischargeRinder, Larry. “Lawrence Rinder on Lebbeus Woods’ San Francisco Project: Inhabiting the Quake, Quake City.” Filmed January 18, 2010 at 75 Reasons to Live Exhibition, SFMOMA. Video, 2:00. https://openspace.sfmoma.org/2010/07/75-reasons-larry-rinder/Schneider, Ann M., “Designing Dialectical Landscape.” In LA+ Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Architecture: Time, no. 8, edited by. Tatum L. Hands, 28-35. Pennsylvania: ORO Editions, 2018.Stewart, Brian. “Sinking into the Sea.” CBC News. October 13, 2017, accessed September 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/sh/Tnq3tJHEAz/disappearing-island-arctic-beaufort-sea-tuk-toyaktuk/.Torres-Campos, Tiago. “Sailing is Necessary, Living is not Necessary,” CNTXT Studio. Accessed Decem-ber 8, 2018. http://www.cntxtstudio.com/Sailing-is-necessary-living-is-not-necessaryTurpin, E., ed. Architecture in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Design, Deep Time, Science and Phi-losophy. Michigan: Open Humanities Press, 2013.Woods, Lebbeus. “The Experimental.” Lebbeus Woods. Blog. August 12, 2010, accessed December 12, 2018. https://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2009/10/24/another-rem/Woods, Lebbeus. “Another Rem.” Lebbeus Woods. Blog. October 24, 2009, accessed December 12, 2018. https://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2009/10/24/another-rem/Zolli, Andrew. “Toward a Transparent Planet.” In LA+ Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Architecture: Risk, no. 6, edited by. Tatum L. Hands, 28-35. Pennsylvania: ORO Editions, 2017.Bibliography101Appendix A: Catalogue ReferencesCaliforniaImage: Deadly Camp Fire Burns through Butte County, California. Eyewitness News. Accessed December 14, 2018. http://wccg1045fm.com/2018/11/16/photos-deadly-camp-fire-burns-through-butte-county-california/1. Hurteau, M., Westerling, A., Wiedinmyer, C., Bryant, Benjamin. “Projected Effects of Climate and Development on California Wildfire Emissions through 2100.” Environmental Science & Technology 48, no. 4 (2014): 2298-2304. DOI: 10.1021/es40501332. Government of California. “Camp Fire Incident Information.” Last modified December 11, 2018. http://www.fire.ca.gov/current_incidents/incidentdetails/Index/2277VeniceImage: Rellandini, Stefano. “Tourists Walk on Platforms in Flooded Venice.” Digital Image. Citylab. Ac-cessed December 14, 2018. https://www.citylab.com/environment/2018/04/will-a-huge-new-flood-barri-er-save-venice/556226/3. World Population Review. “Venice Population Information 2018.” Last modified December 12, 2018. http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/venice/4. Buckley, Jonathan. “When will Venice Sink?” The Guardian. Las modified November 2, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/02/when-will-venice-sink-googleDetroitImage: Vacant Residential Lots at the Edge of Downtown. Digital Image. Skyrise Cities via The New York Times. Accessed December 14, 2018. https://skyrisecities.com/news/2016/08/cityscape-journey-through-shrinking-city-detroit102Appendix A: Catalogue References5. Abbey-Lambertz, Kate. “Detroit Neighborhoods Fall into Ruin.” Huffington Post. Last modified March 26, 2016. Accessed November 15, 2018. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/google-street-view-detroit-abandoned-homes-foreclosure_us_56f41be3e4b0c3ef52183d4b6. Gamble, Adrian. “Cityscape: A Journey Through the Shrinking City of Detroit.” Skyrise Cities. Last modified August 10, 2018. https://skyrisecities.com/news/2016/08/cityscape-journey-through-shrinking-city-detroitGreat Barrier ReefImage: Peled, Dan. “Water Quality Degradation in the Great Barrier Reef.” The Conversation. Accessed December 14, 2018. https://theconversation.com/the-new-great-barrier-reef-pollution-plan-is-better-but-still-not-good-enough-832337. Bay, Dr. Line. “Reef Recovery, Adaptations and Restoration.” Australian Institute of Marine Sci-ence. Accessed November 20, 2018. https://www.aims.gov.au/reef-recovery8. World Wildlife Federation. “Great Barrier Reef.” Accessed December 5, 2018. https://www.wwf.org.au/what-we-do/oceans/great-barrier-reef#gs.rYjWRsULake ChadImage: The Ups and Downs of Lake Chad. NASA Earth Observatory. Accessed December 14, 2018. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/91291/the-ups-and-downs-of-lake-chad9. Stacke, Sarah. “An Uncertain Future on the Shores of Africa’s Vanishing Lake.” National Geo-graphic. Last modified May 12, 2018, accessed November 28, 2018. https://www.nationalgeo-graphic.com/photography/proof/2017/05/lake-chad-desertification/?user.testname=none10. United Nations Environment Programme. “The Tale of a Disappearing Lake.” Last modified Feb-ruary 28, 2018. https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/tale-disappearing-lake103Pelly IslandImage: E-postcards from the Arctic. Government of Canada. Accessed December 14, 2018. http://sci-ence.gc.ca/eic/site/063.nsf/eng/h_74C25260.html11. Stewart, Brian. “Sinking into the Sea.” CBC News. October 13, 2017, accessed September 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/sh/Tnq3tJHEAz/disappearing-island-arctic-beau-fort-sea-tuktoyaktuk/.12. McKendy, Joe. “Climate Change: Arctic Coastlines Eroding Up to 40m Yearly.” Natural Resources Canada. Last modified February 28, 2018. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/simply-science/20661Athabasca GlacierImage: Glacier Movement. Digital Image. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed December 14, 2018. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/glacier13. Carman, Tara. “Near Total Loss of Glacial Icec in B.C., Alberta expected by 2100, Researchers Say.” Vancouver Sun. Last modified April 7, 2015. http://www.vancouversun.com/technology/Near+total+loss+glacial+Alberta+expected+2100+researchers/10949165/story.html14. Baker, Nathan, and Rutter N. “Glaciers in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Last modified February 1, 2018. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/glacierAppendix A: Catalogue References104Appendix B: Figure ReferencesPreludeFigure 01 (edited by author): Google Earth aerial view of New Orleans.Figure 02: Campanella, Richard. “New Orleans and its Vicinity in 1863.” The Atlantic via Wells, Rigway, Virtue and Co./ Library of Congress. Digital Image. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/02/how-humans-sank-new-orleans/552323/Figure 03 (edited by author): Lynch, David. “New Orleans Elevation.” Map Resources via USGSVicinit. Accessed December 17, 2018. http://cdly.org/map_resources.htmChapter 01Figure 04: Dauphin, Lauren.V “Volcanic Plateaus in Argentina.” NASA Earth Observatory. Digital image. September 19, 2010. Accessed November 15, 2018. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/imag-es/144304/volcanic-plateaus-in-argentinaFigure 05: Delagrive. Jean. “Engraved Map of Versailles designed by Andre le Notre (1689-1757).” Wiki-media Commons. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plan_de_Versailles_-_Gesamtplan_von_Delagrife_1746.jpgFigure 06 (adapted by author): Harvard Solar Geoengineering Research Program. “Solar Geoengineer-ing Diagram.” Digital Image. Accessed December 5, 2018. https://geoengineering.environment.harvard.edu/geoengineeringFigure 07 (adapted by author): Oxford Geoengineering Programme. “Proposed Carbon Geoengineering Techniques.” Via New Scientist. Accessed December 5, 2018. http://www.geoengineering.ox.ac.uk/what-is-geoengineering/what-is-geoengineering/Figure 08: OMA (edited by autor). “HUD Rebuild by Design Site Plan.” Digital Image OMA Project Web-site. Accessed December 17, 2018. http://oma.eu/projects/hud-rebuild-by-designChapter 02Figure 10: “Australia’s Ephemeral Lake Mackay.” NASA Earth Observatory. Digital image. September 19, 2010. Accessed November 15, 2018. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/84984/austra-lias-ephemeral-lake-mackayFigure 11 (edited by author): Landscape Forms “Material Spec Sheet.” Digital Image. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://www.landscapeforms.com/en-us/LFI%20Material%20Tech%20Sheets/LF_Col-or-Chart.pdfFigure 12: Folkerts, Thilo & Tourelle, Rodney. “International Festival des Jardins de Metis.” Digital Image.https://www.arquitectes.cat/iframes/paisatge/cat/mostrar_projecte.php?id_projecte=8103&lan=enFigure 13: Fisk, Harold. “Geological Investigation of the Alluvial Valley of the Lower Mississippi River, 1944.” Via US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineering Geology and Geophysics Branch. Accessed 105Appendix B: Figure ReferencesDecember 17, 2018. http://lmvmapping.erdc.usace.army.mil/index.htmFigure 14: Graham, Joseph, Newman, William, and Stacy, John, 2008, The geologic time spiral—A path to the past (ver. 1.1): U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 58, poster, 1 sheet. (Also available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/2008/58/.)InterludeFigures 15 & 16: Woods, Lebbeus. “Quake City. From San Francisco: Inhabiting the Quake 1995.” SFMOMA Col-lection. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://www.sfmoma.org/artwork/96.88Chapter 03 Figure 17: Voiland, Adam.E “Dust Streams from Southwestern Africa.” NASA Earth Observatory. Digital image. October 21, 2018. Accessed November 15, 2018. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/84984/austra-lias-ephemeral-lake-mackayFigure 20 (adapted by author): OMA. “Parc de la Villette plans.” OMA Project website. Accessed December 15, 2018. http://oma.eu/projects/parc-de-la-villetteChapter 04Figure 21 & 22: Fuller, Buckminster & Sadao, Shoji. “Dome Over Manhattan, 1960.” Digital image via Design Sci-ence. https://medium.com/designscience/1960-750843cd705a Figure 23: Steinmetz, George. “Tarim Desert Shelterbelt.” Digital image via Landscape as Infrastructure. Accessed December 10, 2018. https://landscapeasinfrastructure.wordpress.com/projects/li-for-erosion-repair/ex2-tarim-desert-highway-shelterbelt/Figure 24 (edited by author): Google Earth image.Figure 25-27: Campos, Tiago-Torres. “Sailing is Necessary, Living is Not Necessary.” Digital image via Cityvision. Accessed December 5, 2018. http://www.cityvisionweb.com/competition/b30a1/Figures 28-30 (edited by author): Figure 12: Folkerts, Thilo & Tourelle, Rodney. “International Festival des Jardins de Metis.” Digital Image.https://www.arquitectes.cat/iframes/paisatge/cat/mostrar_projecte.php?id_project-e=8103&lan=enFigures 31-32: Jensen, Erik. & Sunter, Rebecca. “Memorials for the Future Competition 2016.” Digital image via National Capital Planning Commission. Accessed December 5, 2018. https://future.ncpc.gov/Figures 33-34 (edited by author): Talon, Kettj. “Burri’s Grande Cretto.” Digital image via NSS Magazine. Accessed December 5, 2018. Figure 35 (edited by author): Google Earth image. https://www.nssmag.com/en/pills/16428/burri-s-grande-cretto/image:156925106PostludeFigures 37 & 38 (screen caps): Nolan, Christopher. Interstellar. Film. (2014).Burns, Ken. The Dust Bowl. Film. (2012).Chapter 05Figure 39: Dauphin, Lauren.V “Volcanic Plateaus in Argentina.” NASA Earth Observatory. Digital image. Septem-ber 19, 2010. Accessed November 15, 2018. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144304/volcanic-pla-teaus-in-argentinaFigure 40: MacLeod, Roger. “Erosion on the Beaufort Coast.” Natural Resources Canada via CBC News. October 13, 2017, accessed September 2018, https://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/sh/Tnq3tJHEAz/disappear-ing-island-arctic-beaufort-sea-tuktoyaktuk/.Chapter 06Figure 2.01: London: Read & Co. Engravers & Printers, 1851, “View from the Knightsbridge Road of The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park for Grand International Exhibition of 1851. Dedicated to the Royal Commissioners.” Accessed April 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crystal_Palace#/media/File:The_Crystal_Palace_in_Hyde_Park_for_Grand_International_Exhibition_of_1851.jpg.Figure 2.02: “Promotional Expo 67 Poster.” Accessed February 2019. https://www.canadashistory.ca/explore/arts,-culture-society/mad-men-of-expo.Figure 2.03: Montreal Chronicle #41, “A Short History of the Biosphere.” Accessed April 2019. http://archives-demontreal.com/2015/07/16/chronique-montrealite-no-41-breve-histoire-de-la-biosphere/001_p110-y_15-001/Figure 2.07(adapted by author): Michael Fritz, Jorien E. Vonk, Hugues Lantuit. “Collapsing Arctic coastlines.” Na-ture Climate Change. January 2017,  accessed January 2019, https://www.awi.de/en/about-us/service/press/archive/when-the-arctic-coast-retreats-life-in-the-shallow-water-areas-drastically-changes.html. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3188 Figure 2.08: McKendy, Joe. “Erosion on Pelly Island.” Natural Resources Canada. February 28, 2018, accessed Janu-ary 2019, https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/simply-science/20661Figure 2.09: US Geological Survey, “Permafrost block on the Arctic coast of Alaska” via BioScience (2015), 65: 722. Accessed April 2019, https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article-abstract/65/7/718/258480Appendix B: Figure References107Figure 2.10: Murray, Weronika. “Last Remaining Homes on Beaufort Drive in Tuktoyaktuk, N.W.T.” Via National Post. February 28, 2019, accessed April 2019, https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/eroding-tuktoyaktuk-every-day-homes-in-this-northern-hamlet-are-getting-closer-to-the-sea.Figure 2.11: Palmer, Harry. “Police Point, Tuktoyaktuk, Aerial View, 1982.” Via A Portrait of Canada, accessed April 2019, http://www.aportraitofcanada.ca/?p=1596.Appendix B: Figure References

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