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Evolution of Public Library Zhao, Sheng 2019-04-26

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EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARYBYSheng ZhaoB.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 2013B.End., The University of British Columbia, 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Applied ScienceTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAVancouverApril 2019Committee MembersChair: Mari Fujita, Sara Stevens, Helcio Costa Veloso, Luanne Freund© Sheng Zhao, April 2019ABSTRACTWhat arguably defines and makes the library distinct from other public institutions is that it ‘stores’ recyclable entities of value and freely lends it to the general public for their benefit to reduce social barriers. This is a uniquely defining feature of the public library and it’s critical as it’s part of the public-civic sphere; its existence, condition, and relevance arguably defines the identity of public society. Today, the main item of the public library’s storage and loaning is arguably book. However, with the usefulness of the printed format to be a source and storage of information declining with the rise of ubiquitous online digital information, the existing public library institution arguably needs to be re-articulated. The public library has existing social-functional value for society and how it can develop from its current challenges and value is explored.This study explores how the public library institution, in context to it as a public civic space, can architecturally-programmatically transform into the future to develop its social value and to further evolve public space & society. By defining the true value of the public library institution, this research explores a reimagined future function and form of the public library in a new prototype institution-space that better benefits the society and community it serves.  This research draws from public library history, case studies, and analysis of its social value-context to understand the definition and significance of the public library institution, to propose a preliminary redefined public library program-form, and to conceive a design guide for a new public library ideal benefiting public civic space and the community. This research will explore this by looking at the public library in a North American context through a simulated case study in Vancouver, considering its impacts in a larger urban context, and abstract simulation studies. It is proposed the public library can develop as an agent orientated heterotopia, fragment spatially-architecturally at finer scales urbanistically, expand its traditional definition, architecturally develop as a ‘binder’, and develop its sharing culture in context to redefining public civic society.iiTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract            iiTable Of Contents           iiiList Of Figures And Illustrations          vAcknowledgment           vii Dedication           viiiThesis            1Theoretical Framework 1.0          2 Social Theory 1.2      Public and Civic Spaces 1.3         6 Neoliberal Value: Measured Social Capital 1.4       9 Social Role and Identity 1.5         10 Final Notes: Architectural Agency 1.6        11Identity: Public Library Past 2.0          13 Identity 2.1 Historic 2.2Issues Facing the Public Library 3.0         16 Perceptions Today: What of Future?  Context Today 3.2          17 Loss in Value Context 3.3       Neoliberal Marketing 3.4          18 Usefulness: Need 3.5       Public and Civic Space 3.6         19 Identity: Juxtaposed and Unique   Why Public Library Needs to Exist + Change 4.0         20 Why It Should Change: Current Debates - Need for Change 4.1 Why Should it Exist: Future Consensus 4.2Future Change: What We Need to Change To 5.0        22Summary Notes 6.0           22 Case Studies 7.0           25 Overview 7.0          Case Study: Withington Public Library 7.1          26 Case Study: Sharing Economy 7.2        27 Case Study: Replacing the Past: Shunted to Periphery 7.3 (NYPL 53rd Branch)    28 Case Study: Shaping Civic Space 7.4 (Vancouver Public Library)     30iii Case Study: Thingery 7.5         31 Case Study: Tool Library 7.6         32 Case Study: Public Space: Downsview Park 7.7     Case Study: Artist in Residence 7.8        33Overview 8.0           34 Rough Preliminary Guideline 8.0     Program and Spatial Analysis 9.0         36 Library Core Identity: Program  Library Core Identity: Form-Time 9.2        38 Architectural Proposal: Synthesis 9.3        40Space-Use Sequence Identity 10.0         40Overview of General Proposal Steps Followed For Subsequent Parts 11.0      44 Summary 11.1 Notes on Intentions 11.2Existing Program Overview 12.0         44  Theorized Program Details 12.1 Notes on Program Conditions 12.2        45Proposal Site/Context 13.0          46 Vancouver Public Library Introduction 13.1          48Design Resolution: Public Library Design Guideline 14.0       51 Sharing Culture 14.1  System 14.2 Notes on Inventory 14.3          53 Expanded Public Library Network: Finer Grain Net 14.4  Binder: Public Library Knot 14.5        54 Built Form Guidelines and Scale 14.6        55 Implementation and Notes 14.7         58Example Simulation Studies 15.0         59 Story Simulation          81 Expanded Inventory          82 Bibliography           83ivLIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONSFigure 1   Concept Diagram Of Architectural Transformation And Association     3Figure 2   Simplified Timeline Of Public Library History Public Library As Root Of Civic Society    12Figure 3  Sample Carnegie Library Building Plan Guidelines                            25Figure 4  Plan Of Withington Public Library In Manchester, United Kingdom     26Figure 5 Images Of Donnell Branch Library And 53Rd Branch Nypl      28Figure 6  Plan Diagrams Of Program Use For 53Rd Branch Library      28Figure 7  Images Of Vancouver Public Library Central Branch       29Figure 8  Thingery Website Snapshot         31Figure 9    Google Street-View Snapshot Of Vancouver Tool Library Building     32Figure 10  Page Snapshot Of OMA “Tree City” Winning Design Plan For Downsview     33Figure 11 Branscombe House Artist Residency Poster From Richmond Bc City     33Figure 12 Library As Disseminator Of Reusable Value       36Figure 13 Library In New Time Scales         36Figure 14 Prototype Of Public Library: Core Identity And Role       36Figure 15 Economic Catalyst: Metabolic Access        37Figure 15.1 Exploratory Diagram Of Possible Larger Scales Of Public Library.     37Figure 15.2 Exploratory Diagram Of Possible Library Basic Spatial Organization.     37Figure 16 Public Library Provides For Unmet User Needs Fluctuating Over Time.     38Figure 17 Public Library Temporarily Provides For Rising Public Demand-Needs     38Figure 18  Cycling Reusable Goods: Sharing Ecosystem       39Figure 19 Public Library As Catalytic Facilitator        39Figure 20 Basic Concept Of Item Use In Public Library       39Figure 21 Architectural Space Diagram Analysis Of Prototypical Public Library     40Figure 22 Diagram Of Analyzed Public Library Use          40Figure 23 New Library Architecture: Redefining The Public Sphere      41Figure 24 Deconstructed Library Reframed Into New Social Context.      41Figure 25 New Library Architecture: Redefined Scale And Space      41Figure 26 Conceptual Diagram Of Needs Over Time.        41Figure 27 New Public Library: Frame + Utility: Sharing Ecosystem      42Figure 28 Basic Architecture Guidelines: Displayed Storage And Use.      42Figure 29 Basic Architecture Guidelines: Displayed Storage And Use.      42Figure 30 Architectural Guideline Diagram: Framework       43Figure 31 User Defined Frames Inherent In Spatial Landmarks.        43Figure 32 Vpl Public Library Graph Of Per Capital Circulation By Age From Vancouver Public Library    47Annual Operating Report 2017          Figure 32.1 Vpl Branch Library Foot Traffic By Branch Location From Vancouver Public Library Annual    47Operating Report 2017          Figure 33 Statistics For Vpl’s Total Library System Graph From Vancouver Public Library Annual    47Operating Report 2017          Figure 34 Vpl “Inspiration Lab” Use From 2014-2017        48Figure 35 Abstract Spatial Diagram Of Library Spatial Territory On Site.      48Figure 36 Site Plan Diagram Analysis         49Figure 37 Concept Diagram Of Spatial Concept: Library As The City Public     49Figure 38 Conceptual Diagram Of Transformation Into New Language      49Figure 39 Vancouver Public Network: Sharing Infrastructure       50Figure 40 Concept Graph Of Increasing Participation In Sharing Economy      51Figure 41 Concept Diagram Of Development        51Figure 42 Item Use According To Their Source        52Figure 43 System Story Diagram         52Figure 44 Public Library Network: Can Be Developed Further (Map)      53vFigure 45 Public Library Application System        53Figure 46 Evolution Of Public Library Diagram        54Figure 47 Binder Axonometric           55Figure 48 Fragmentation          55Figure 49 ‘Binder’ / Knot           55Figure 50 Binder Diagram: Inside Out         56Figure 51 Form Logic: Multistability Rational        56Figure 52 Integrated Public Library Elements        56Figure 53 Flexible To Context And Configuration        56Figure 54 Aggregation And Fragmentation Into Urban Public Space      57Figure 55 Expanded Possibilities Of ‘Binder’ Configuration       57Figure 56 Form Logic: Multistability And Corner-Frame       57Figure 57 Typical ‘Binder’ 1:50 Section Diagram        59Figure 58  Intersection Variations In Elevation View        59Figure 59 ‘Lone’ Elevation Scale 1:200         60Figure 60 ‘Lone’ Plan Scale 1:200         60Figure 61 ‘Lone’ Public Library In Park Axonometric Diagram       60Figure 62 Jericho Beach Group Plan         61Figure 63 Jericho Beach Group Elevation         61Figure 64 Jericho Beach Group Axonometric Diagram       62Figure 65 Jericho Beach Group Perspective        63Figure 66 Bus Station Elevation 1:100         64Figure 67 Bus Station Plan 1:200         64Figure 68 Bus Station Axo. Study Night         65Figure 69 Bus Station Axo. Study Day         65Figure 70 Commercial Store Public Library Node Version 2 Plan Scale 1:200     66Figure 71 Commercial Store Version 2 Elevation Scale 1:100       66Figure 72 Commercial Store Public Library Node Version 1 Plan Scale 1:200     66Figure 73 Commercial Store Version 1 Elevation Scale 1:100       66Figure 74 Commercial Store Public Library Node Version 2 Axonometric Study     67Figure 75 Commercial Store Public Library Node Version 1 Axonometric Study     68Figure 76 Commercial Store Public Library Node Version 1 Perspective      69Figure 77 Public Library Intersection Plan Scale 1:400       70Figure 78 Public Library Intersection Section A-A Scale 1:200       70Figure 79 Public Library Intersection Axonometric Study       71Figure 80 Public Library Intersection Perspective Study       72Figure 81 Existing Kitslano Public Branch Library Plan 1:300       73Figure 82 Existing Kitslano Branch Library North Elevation Scale 1:200      74Figure 83 Existing Kitslano Branch Library South Elevation Scale 1:200      74Figure 84 Existing Kitslano Branch Library Axonometric Of Interior Layout      74Figure 85 Existing Kitslano Branch Library Axonometric       74Figure 86 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Plan Scale 1:300      75Figure 87 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation  North Face Elevation 1:100    76Figure 88 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation East Face Elevation 1:100     76Figure 89 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Section B-B 1:100     76Figure 90 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Axonometric Study Day     77Figure 91 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Axonometric Study Night     78Figure 92 Proposed Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Axonometric Study     79Figure 93 Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Perspective Looking North West Interior From Entrance   80Figure 94 Kitslano Branch Library Renovation Perspective Looking Southwest     80Figure 95 Story Diagram Simulation         81Figure 96 Diagram Showing Example Entities Of Value That Could Be To Be Loaned And Stored In Expanded    82    Definition Of Public Library.          viACKNOWLEDGMENTThank you to Professor Mari Fujita, my supervisory committee chair and professor, who provided me invaluable guidance and support in school and through all of my thesis project. Thank you to Professor Sara Stevens, Helcio Costa Veloso, and Professor Luanne Freund for all your advice, critique, and support as my supervisory committee. Thank you to Jared Skoreyko and Professor Bill Pechet for early advice.viiDEDICATIONThank you.viiiSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          1 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACETHESIS AND ABSTRACTABSTRACTWhat arguably defines and makes the library distinct from other public institutions is that it ‘stores’ recyclable entities of value and freely lends it to the general public for their benefit to reduce social barriers. This is a uniquely defining feature of the public library and it’s critical as it’s part of the public-civic sphere; its existence, condition, and relevance arguably defines the identity of public society. Today, the main item of the public library’s storage and loaning is arguably book. However, with the usefulness of the printed format to be a source and storage of information declining with the rise of ubiquitous online digital information, the existing public library institution arguably needs to be re-articulated. The public library has existing social-functional value for society and how it can develop from its current challenges and value is explored.This study explores how the public library institution, in context to it as a public civic space, can architecturally-programmatically transform into the future to develop its social value and to further evolve public space & society. By defining the true value of the public library institution, this research explores a reimagined future function and form of the public library in a new prototype institution-space that better benefits the society and community it serves.  This research draws from public library history, case studies, and analysis of its social value-context to understand the definition and significance of the public library institution, to propose a preliminary redefined public library program-form, and to conceive a design guide for a new public library ideal benefiting public civic space and the community. This research will explore this by looking at the public library in a North American context through a simulated case study in Vancouver, considering its impacts in a larger urban context, and abstract simulation studies. It is proposed the public library can develop as an agent orientated heterotopia, fragment spatially-architecturally at finer scales urbanistically, expand its traditional definition, architecturally develop as a ‘binder’, and develop its sharing culture in context to redefining public civic society.THESIS STATEMENTThe public library's community cultural-use value is challenged programmatically and architectually and must evolve to remain valuable as a public space and to the community. To do this, library architecture must focus on developing it's prototpypical role in reducing social barriers by facilitating free lending of spatially-bound reusable rare resources to all in a sharing economy to provide community agency. Through this, the public library could hybridize with entertainment experiences, leverage economic interests for greater value provided, and provide user agency to shape public social milieu via heterotopic spaces.COMMENTSThe public library can act as a ‘terminal’ to realize the human social ritual of cycling produced value between people through space-time. It is with this understanding that the transformation of public library architecture can subsequently articulate new social rituals of circulating entities of value in the public sphere at new scales of time-space that’s user defined, develop public space, and is more valuable to the community.Through increased economic leverage facilitated through architectural design, greater values of exchange that is rooted to space, such as what is loaned and given in value to the public, can be increased to better facilitate this social exchange and the library’s ideology. Through a new design guideline on the future library architecture-program considered at the larger social-political-economic scales, the mission, ideology, and social public welfare of the traditional public library institution can be inherited and be better expressed to develop an expanded social identity through the public realm.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          2 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISREDEFINING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORK1.0 FIELD OF INQUIRY AND THEORETICAL CONTEXT1.1 INTRODUCTIONThis research hinges on the challenges facing the public library institution, questions the institution’s state, and explores what it could become as a public civic space in response. While being complacent and satisfied with the status-quo and existing condition may be sufficient, there exists the risk of becoming obsolescent in a changed context or the potential for another way of life that could solve existing social issues or better society.This research also approaches the exploration of the public library’s future speculatively. As Crawford briefly describes in the Meaning of the Library, the library has meant and done “many things over time” and to different people.1 It is described as a “brain”, a “universal memory”, a place of “scholarship”, “emblem of wisdom and learning” , a “time machine”, “utopia”, gathering space, a place to pursue the truth.2 What the library functioned for over history and to different people were arguably for many different purposes. This project aims to re-imagine the existence and conception of the public library of today in it’s role as a public-civic space. This exploration and reframing of the existing public library and it’s identity is critical in establishing a stance on the future of civic public life, it’s value to the community, and its effect on society. The contextual theory and issues facing the public library institution is explored in the following section. 1.2 SOCIAL THEORYARCHITECTURAL THEORY: FRAMEWORKThis research frames architecture in its potential to influence the “social milieu”3, Architecture is, conceptually, a medium or platform where humans enact their intention, thought, and action in reality through society, Through manifesting anthropological intent in the environment, architecture arguably becomes a process where indi-viduals or groups realize or facilitate their social culture, beliefs, and understandings in reality. In this perspective, architecture is part of and can impact a society’s social milieu.In the most holistic sense, this research further explores this “archi-tectural totality”4 framed by an argued perspective of architectures larger role in regards to expressing human social systems. Through a case study on public space and civic institutions through the pub-lic library, architecture’s role in defining public society is considered holistically. ARCHITECTURE AS VECTOR OF CULTURAL EVOLUTIONThe nature of architecture as a totality and it’s ability to impact society in it’s most holistic sense can be partially supported by its imagined role in cultural evolutionary theory. Cultural evolutionary theory is a theory of human social change over time where culture, defined as “information capable of affecting individual behavior” acquired from other members of society through enculturation, imitation, and other social exchange transmissions, is competitively transmitted, perpetuated, and spread in human society.5 Cultural 1 Crawford, Alice. “The Meaning of the Library” Princeton Universi-ty Press. 2015 (xvii)2. Crawford, Alice. “The Meaning of the Library” Princeton Universi-ty Press. 2015 (xvii)3Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 (105)4Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 (105)5Creanza N, Kolodny O, Feldman M. “Cultural Evolutionary Theory: How culture evolves and why it matters” Proceeding of the Na-tional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Issue 114. Volume 20. Pages 7782-7789. July 2017. Web. Accessed Oct 27th. 2018. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/evolutionary theory, still being developed, debated, explored today6, is closely tied with concepts of evolutionary biology in-cluding lifestyle strategies, fitness, and other elements affecting human behavior. In particular, it has been tied to dual inheritance theory, where human behavior is a described to be a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes; that both genetic evolution and cultural evolution occur and impact each other over time and in essence change the behavior of humans and their realized cultural world.7  Social change in a society, in this theory, results from this information of culture being passed on to the next generation or new members through various me-dia, in which presumably architecture is arguably a critical one. More conventional means include through enculturation through schools, dissemination of information through television, or though simply looking and copying an individuals behavior. Ar-chitecture, in this view, can be understood as a vector of cultural evolution, where it plays an integral role in sustaining or trans-forming a society’s culture. This argument is not without basis as other studies have explored the links between architecture and it’s links to biological and cul-tural evolutionary theory 8. Architecture, for example, is described by Jan and Yannick as to have both “signaling” and utilitarian purpose, where architecture is discussed in having an impact on human behavior and their presumed biological fitness via their influenced and imparted cultural traits. This study can be criti-cized in a number of ways, however, in it’s arguably  superficial portrayal of architecture as being reduced to a utilitarian building and aesthetic taste. Indeed, their study analyses architecture’s role and capacity in cultural evolution at a superficial level in terms of “domes”, “towers”, and aesthetic ornamental features which only arguably are part of the architectural totality. 9 While they mentioned “monumental architecture” as a symbolic use of waste to indicate power and resource potential of entities in hu-man culture or their assumption that height indicated power “over commoners”, this lack of analysis and understanding of architec-tures pervasiveness and “totality” as described by Christopher in “Intentions in Architecture” show a limited understanding of architecture’s role, or potential pervasiveness, in human society, culture, and it’s lifestyle choice.10  Though, while their study is limited by their use of a dictionary definition of architecture and an arguably superficial analysis, the relationship of architecture to cultural transmission and it’s larger contextual social-cultural impacts is arguably linked. In this context, architecture can be perceived as a cultural product which disseminates its imbued PMC5544263/6Ramsey G, Block A “Is Cultural Fitness Hopelessly Confused?” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Volume 68. Issue 2. June 2017. Pg. 306-328. Web. <https://academic.oup.com/bjps/article/68/2/305/3044197>7Creanza N, Kolodny O, Feldman M. “Cultural Evolutionary The-ory: How culture evolves and why it matters” Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Issue 114. Volume 20. Pages 7782-7789. July 2017. Web. Ac-cessed Oct 27th. 2018. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544263/>8Verpooten Jan, Joye Yannick “Evolutionary interaction between human biology and architecture: insights from signaling theory and a cross-species comparative approach” University of Leuven. 2015. Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018.  <https://feb.kuleuven.be/BEE/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/verpooten_joye_final.pdf>9Verpooten Jan, Joye Yannick “Evolutionary interaction between human biology and architecture: insights from signaling theory and a cross-species comparative approach” University of Leuven. 2015. Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018.  <https://feb.kuleuven.be/BEE/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/verpooten_joye_final.pdf>10Verpooten Jan, Joye Yannick “Evolutionary interaction between human biology and architecture: insights from signaling theory and a cross-species comparative approach” University of Leuven. 2015. Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018.  <https://feb.kuleuven.be/BEE/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/verpooten_joye_final.pdf>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          3 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISSOCIAL RELEVANCE AND IMPORTANCETHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKculture through its program, form, and associated traits in society. If this is the case, then it ca be argued that architecture provides a means of control in how larger social culture is encultrated, trans-mitted, and changed in time. With these perspectives, the public library and it’s architecture can also conceivably transform to imbue a new cultural norm, disseminate it into society, and presum-ably transform social culture in some manner. The importance of architecture’s role as an agent in cultural evolu-tion is also rooted to its role in creating a chosen social identity of a community as in cultural evolutionary theory, cultural traits are not inherited in the same manner as biological traits in evolution-ary theory. An explanatory example using the concept of lifestyle strategy in evolutionary biology explains this significance. Lifestyle strategies, such as the type II strategies of birds or the divergence of species into particular niches, consumptive patterns, and strat-egies, can also be analogized to the type of culture, such as how a society of individuals culturally decides to engage with each other in public society, that a society chooses. As any lifestyle strategy can be successful for the survival of an animal species, any type of cultural or strategy chosen by a society can lead to hard success and survival. However, what type of lifestyle strategy an animal had evolved towards or what culture a society chooses reflects their ‘identity’, what they are or become, and in the case of human so-ciety what they choose to be. Architecture, in this holistic context, then has the role in influencing what a society’s identity is, what it decides to be, and its chosen lifestyle strategy through it’s potential role in passing on culture in society. Theoretically, the designer of an architectural piece then always actively conforms or presents a new ideology based on his built work in real society.Cultural evolutionary theory also describes varying transmission mechanisms strategies in where “cultural role models” like a life-style strategy or “mates” based on the frequency of the “cultural variant”, the “novel”, and the traits of a high social status or a suc-cessful individual are used to promote a culture.11  In particular to the public library and public institutions, this analogy to increasing frequency of pervasiveness, prestige of use, and the use or value it brings arguably will then determine how successfully the new or existing institution is adopted, used, and in turn it’s ideas and ideologies of behavior. Architecture’s increased presence, number or pervasiveness, and juxtaposition to the existing urban culture affects the dissemination of its imbued cultural information. In this early theoretical foundation then, it can be argued that architectural elements or entities such as public libraries, in greater frequency or scale of dissemination in the urban spatial environment, will then have a wider range and impact of influence in their realized ideolo-gies, culture, and architectural experiences embedded in them. Architecture, in this research, is thus framed in it’s agency and it’s cultural view of intent and its manifestation in space. In the larg-est framework through the theory and understandings of cultural evolution, it is stipulated that architecture is an active human agent of cultural transmission and propagation in larger human cultural society. More specifically, in this lens, architecture can then be perceived as a vector or medium in which human intention, action, and more unconscious assumptions which can be summarized as one’s cultural schema, is realized in space-time among many other competitive vectors; where architecture can be framed as active syntax to promote desired or pervasive normative cultural ideologies, actions, perceptions. Public institutions and public libraries, which later will be discussed in greater detail in mind of this research’s intention, are argued to be sanctioned vectors of cultural values, social norms, and ideals representative of authority, the general public, and the sanctioned society. As such, the publics 11Creanza N, Kolodny O, Feldman M. “Cultural Evolutionary Theory: How culture evolves and why it matters” Proceeding of the Na-tional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Issue 114. Volume 20. Pages 7782-7789. July 2017. Web. Accessed Oct 27th. 2018. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544263/>agency in these spaces in their creation and utility, how they are architecturally designed, and their program arguably defines the ‘lifestyle strategy’ a society chooses to be. This, in this frame-work and theory, stresses the importance and critical political na-ture of architecture in defining our larger social relations. Through the study on how the public library can be rearticulated better as a public civic space in mind of it’s current issues and imagined potential, the agency of architecture to help define social institu-tions, social rituals, and in extension cultural milieu/ larger social culture is considered.ARCH. PRODUCTION AND REPRO-DUCTION OF PUBLIC CULTURE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   This research also posits that architectural transformations also alters social norms or culture through its semantic associations inherent to it’s architecture. As suggested previously in the study by Jan and Yannick, architectural traits can be associated with human cultural notions such as power, status, or behaviors that imply they have some semantic relationship12; from this, it can be inferred that if these architectural traits change, then perhaps their potential associated cultural meanings or symbolism may do as well and conceivably alter larger society. It is argued here that architecturally imbued semantic language and intentions help produce and reproduce cultural schematic norms that people use to live in their total environment through time. More simply put, architecture helps enculturate pr-estab-lished or new ways of perception and social rituals in society in part through the transformation of these societally associated meanings in it’s architecture. In relation to public libraries as architectural products with specific public functions and cultural associations, there is the argued understanding that it’s holistic architecture, whether historic and associative or new, will help propagate through it’s spatial-architectural language a means of desired functions and socio-spatial perceived realities.  To clarify in context, this research is framed in the understanding of the 12Verpooten Jan, Joye Yannick “Evolutionary interaction between human biology and architecture: insights from signaling theory and a cross-species comparative approach” University of Leuven. 2015. Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018.  <https://feb.kuleuven.be/BEE/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/verpooten_joye_final.pdf>FIGURE 1. CONCEPT DIAGRAM OF ARCHITECTURAL TRANS-FORMATION AND ASSOCIATIONThis diagram reflects this research’s framework of utilizing ar-chitectural semantics to transform an existing architectural entity with it’s associated social milieus, context, meanings associated with it’s spatial form-identity. This diagram shows how one ar-chitectural entity imbued with associated meanings, context, and perceptions by society can be combined, hybridized, or another to transform into a new architectural entity that, arguably, combines these associated perceptions of both to become a new architec-tural entity. This diagram is conceptual and abstract. This concept works with subtraction in a same way as well. This concept with will be utilized in this frame of study. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENT 1 +ASSOCIATED WITH X CERTAIN PERCEPTIONS BY INDIVIDUALARCHITECTURAL ELEMENT 2 +ASSOCIATED WITH Y CERTAIN PERCEPTIONS BY INDIVIDUALNEW MEANINGS AND NEW SPACE +ASSOCIATED WITH X & YPERCEPTIONS BY INDIVIDUAL+ =SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          4 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL TRANSFORMATIONTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKsemantics of architecture in the most holistic sense. Architecture, constructed from an individual-society’s associations, perspec-tives, and schema constructing their imagined world given their world, can be understood to create an environment in which their holistic understandings and intentions (as well as unassumed per-ceived qualities of the building itself) are expressed in reality. Today, it can be understood that architectural entities such as the public library building has societally associated social behaviors/rituals, meanings, emotions, functions that are represented in it’s architectural languages. Understandings this, then it can be under-stood that the manipulation of this communicating link between ‘meaning’ and architectural form can be altered to transform the public library or another architectural entity into a new building, concept, or social behavior without break, precedence, alienation to the larger society. Figures 36 and 1 show this simple logic in greater illustration. For example, using figure 1 as a frame of refer-ence, it can be understood that if element 1 was the public library and element 2 were the architectural features to be added on, the new combined product will still have the qualities associated with the traditional public library institution for society. Rather than a completely new building or condition that may be initially alien or unfamiliar to the public, this arguably allows the traditional values, uses, and existing social functions associated with element 1 to be altered with element 2. This is critical in context to how one can redefine and transform the public library architecture’s, people’s use and perception of a constructed space, and the social milieu in larger public-civic society rather than without any continuation of the associated meanings or functions of the traditional public library building. This as well, places why this research explores how the public library building-institution can transform. ARCHITECTURE AS TOTALITY It is also argued that this research frames the study of the public library and it’s architecture in it’s larger context. Christian Norberg Schultz, in Intentions in Architecture, succinctly summarizes peo-ple’s the lack of contextual awareness that architecture has beyond it proximal affects. In his frame, architecture “suffers particularly from this lack of balance” and that architects “take refuge in using obsolete methods” to link the technological progress/that brings new life situations and the “symbol-systems” that architecture con-veys in society.Again, architecture can be perceived as part of a larger system where it’s imbued semantic language and intentions help produce and reproduce cultural-schematic norms that people use to live in their total environment through time. That, again, architecture holistically helps enculturate pre-established or new ways of per-ception and social rituals in society. In relation to public libraries as architectural products with specific public functions and cultural associations, its architecture, whether historic and associative or new, will help propagate through it’s spatial-architectural facilitation, new means of desired functions.Christian Norberg, in his earlier works, also outlines similar per-spectives of architecture’s contextual totalites, where in particular he outlines how humans makes sense and develop their schemata in context to the total environment they grew up in.13 Architecture’s purpose to him in this context is to “give order to certain aspects of our environment” that determines ” the relations between man and his environment” that in turn determines the cultural “milieu”, ”frame”, or social system and how the individual acts in society14.In specific, Chris frames how architecture, in context to its per-ceived semantic, controls the environment in “order to make inter-action and collaboration possible” between people and summarizes the key importance of architecture’s role as a medium in which 13Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 14Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965human intention and cultural individual values manifest in reality.15 Architecture is the manifestation, arguably, of how we as society decided to engage and live with each other in the world and time; hinting that our existing total urban constructed environments today are designed, imbued with ideology, and are entities of con-testation. Again, this comprehension that architecture manifests more than it’s “mere physical functions” is not new, and can be summarized as a “synthetic” activity  that mediates human forces into their environments. Economics, for example, and other facets of human social behaviors and communities that can be sum-marized by the cultural norms and schemas are all simultaneous factors in architecture. Designing single family house, for exam-ple, encompasses intentional considerations of financial return, contextual aesthetic impact, sustainability, comfort, among many other synthesized parameters of human culture, intention, and purpose. Christian also decries how architecture is rarely conceived as “ ‘more’ than a purely practical tool” and that this “more” is essen-tial to human life and forms a important part of human environ-ments.16 Indeed, this ‘more’ can be extrapolated to how archi-tecture can be perceived as a designed cultural human product, serving human activities, “communicating values (intentionally or not) to make then become common” in society17. This view sup-ports the concept of architecture as an agent in cultural evolution and a medium-disseminator of human intention. Public library architecture, in this frame of view, can be under-stood to be a possible agent of propagating particular cultural milieus and paradigms through its program and spatial environ-ments; that through it’s presence in the urban social environment, it can be understood to actively promote a lifestyle, culture, and lifestyle strategy in society. It is a public space, and thus it relates to and affects the public social reality. Again, it needs to stressed that seen as product of human cultural values and needs, de-signed architecture has “a particular ability to show how our values, how our cultural conditions” determine our social life, that it can transcend to a larger cultural continuity and social values than it’s immediate use. This is in contrast to other arts which don’t directly “participate in our daily existence”, where architec-ture arguably has the importance and ability to actively influence the social cultural milieu through it’s pressure18. Exploring the architectural design and program of a future public library, in this context, then may mean exploring how the larger social milieu may change through new semantics,, culture, and contextual considerations.LEGIBILITY AND IDENTITYIt is also stressed that this work frames the understanding of architectural semantics in that the “sign”, in whatever parameters of it’s inception and use by the designer, will have it’s meaning interpreted independently by the public user; in that there is the potential that an architectural expression with intention will be read differently, heterotopically among many or one individual, and may convey only particular elements of which it’s whole may construe many others. Architecture as Christian writes, “not only frames the functions, but actually participates in our activities” not only physically but with “meaning” in the larger totality-con-text (such as our social systems or beliefs).19 In this mind, it is also stressed on the importance of juxtaposition and relativeness 15Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 196516Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 196517Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 18Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 19Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          5 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL TRANSFORMATIONTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKin architectural semantics, as arguably with all language denota-tions, meanings are purposefully compartmentalized and divided in relation to differentials in reality. The Vancouver Public Library central branch’s Colosseum-like architecture, for example, is appar-ently perceived differently by varying members of the public due to different individual interpretations of its architectural semantics.20This, in application to concepts and schemas, then also applies to ‘identities’. An identity, what one individual may perceive an object to be can be understood as contextual in it’s juxtaposition and cumulative in that it builds upon it’s identifiers/signifier over time. More specifically, this context is relative to the scale or time of context one is comparing to, and thus can transform depending on it’s context and give new clarities. This, for example, applies to human identity as well as architecture. A male student individual of Vancouver, for example, may among his classmates be identified first as a sophomore, among other Canadians as more foremost a British Colombian student, and among the globe a Canadian given the scale and parameters of the ability to juxtapose. Identity, in this lens, is a result of psychological differentiation to classify which in this lens also applies with words and meanings in language and presumably architectural syntax.Identity is also cumulative. An individual, over time, achieves goals, dresses differently, gains skills, consumes experiences; in totality, his identity and his cumulative weight of his memories arguably adds on to his identity and temporal juxtaposition. This, in analogy to architecture, can be analogized to the historic association of traditional architectural motifs, symbols, and elements such as the iconic column or the iconic shape of the house. As Christian describes architecture and presumably it’s intended syntax is in a totality of a cumulative “social milieu” where architecture can be understood as a synthesizer of these elements.21 Architecture then, it can be posited, can potentially and consciously control, articulate, and design new identities, cultural milieus, and social norms in any parameter of it’s meaning given this framework.  For if architecture is manifestation of cultural objects and the totality of human psychology realized in reality, then any stance or degree of consciousness in architecture’s articulation then proposes a stance, whether it’s one of unaware conformity or intentional ex-pression. Indeed, in this context of architecture as a “totality”, then any architecture affects the cultural milieu. This understanding of identity will frame the exploration and anal-ysis of the public library building-institution. Understanding that public library architecture arguably was historically designed with social control in mind and that public libraries today facilitate a level of social rituals that encompass acting quite, studious, and considerate of others, it is argued that public library architecture can transform to better impose particular values in context to ar-ticulating a better public civic realm, reaching the public library’s full potential, and returning the true prototypical value of the public library for society. This research will also be done understanding that architecture is political whether its identity or proposed culture is conforming or juxtaposing to its context. With either stance, architecture frames and expresses an unique identity; there is not rational ‘right’ with any identity, strategy, and culture that it expresses (aside from perhaps the hard factors of shelter or optimization) but there are many types of strategies or identities that can be chosen that leads to a solution or desire. Architecture can be arguably perceived to argue and fight for a norm in it ‘s relatively permanent presence in human society in space-time. A stance on the public library’s future in terms of it’s architecture is a stance on how people engage with each other, live, and exist as a community. 20Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sage-pub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>21Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 1965 HETEROTOPIASAgain, architecture is read differently by different people due to their unique schemas and perspective gained in their life. In con-text to this, for clarity, and use of the definition in this article, the meaning and some theory of heterotopias will be outlined. Fou-cault, in “Des Espace Autres”, described heterotopias as these other third spaces where simulated other realities are realized in reality.22 Arguably, there are many interpretations of his work, but can be argued in context to this research that architectural space, forms, and languages can be interpreted and experienced in totality differently for different people due to varying interests, different life schematic understandings, and divergent views of the world. Heterotopias have no “real place”, are in opposition to “real (sanctioned) space of society”, and relies on perception and individual interpretation of the “real”, the seen reflection in the mirror, to be realized 23. In his original article, heterotopias are “powerful” due to their lack of name, invisibility, and presumed hidden role that it’s superficial language presented, perhaps, through architectural diction, does not normatively imply to the general public. 24A theoretical exam-ple, a government city hall, normally understood by the general public as a space for providing civic services and utility, may have another less perceived purpose through an imposing archi-tecture that may be designed in mind of inciting civic respect, hi-erarchy, and power over the visitor in mind of reinforcing a social system; that arguably, it is this lack of comprehending the spaces heterotopic functions, the user associates the space with it’s hidden (architectural) influences and curates a uniquely perceived social space. Foucault himself, uses the example of the cemetery, where it’s perceived purpose, from a “sacred space” to a place to store the “dead”, changed with their transforming perspectives, schemas, and norms of the world.25 Here, for example, what normally may not be associated with the public library today, can redefined to be integral with architectural design and program. The public library building can be currently seen as a heterotopia for users with many different interpretations of it as an institution to differnt people over time. 26 It for example can be seen as a civic space, a social space, a place to eat lunch, a children’s story-time space, or even a place to walk through for sightsee-ing. With a different point of view, the public library can serve functions for a variety of different people at different times. This reflects the potential of having user agency to read the library architecture space to be used freely in many ways as a public space. While this can be argued to be present in any building, there can be an expanded functionality of the public library fa-cilitating and storing this heterotopic vision more concretely in library architecture. This approach can enhance it’s existing life, incorporate more user defined control, and reflects new ways of developing the public library’s future. 22Foucault, Michel ”Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotoopias” http://web.mit.edu Architecture/Mouvement/Continuite, October 1984. Web. April  28th. <http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/fou-cault1.pdf>23Foucault, Michel ”Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotoopias” http://web.mit.edu Architecture/Mouvement/Continuite, October 1984. Web. April  28th. <http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/fou-cault1.pdf>24Foucault, Michel ”Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotoopias” http://web.mit.edu Architecture/Mouvement/Continuite, October 1984. Web. April  28th. <http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/fou-cault1.pdf>25Foucault, Michel ”Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotoopias” http://web.mit.edu Architecture/Mouvement/Continuite, October 1984. Web. April  28th. <http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/fou-cault1.pdf>26. Crawford, Alice. “The Meaning of the Library” Princeton Uni-versity Press. 2015 (xvii)SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          6 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC SPACESTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORK1.3 PUBLIC AND CIVIC SPACESLIBRARIES AS PUBLIC CIVIC SPACELibraries today arguably serve information. But does that service all the foundational ‘basic needs’27 of the public, let alone play or wants? If a good effective public space (that works for civic acces-sibility, equitable voice, and congregation and equity) ensures pub-lic wants and desires, then the library needs to arguably improve in context to issues facing it today. Libraries are special among gov-ernment public institutions in that they are arguably truly public in their accessibility, inclusion, and effort of improve all users. Unlike the community center which implicitly denotes it’s use and spatial territory to the community users they provide services to, the public library arguably includes all public visitors in terms of both scale and social denominators. In particular, the public library is a rare example of a fully public interior space that provides the basic foun-dational needs of shelter and security that is arguably unmet in the diaspora of public spaces.DEFINITION AND ROLE Public and private space, particularly in the western thought, is the result of how society collectively determined how their lives with each other shall be lived28. In particular, it is the result of the mani-festation of our “base”, social systems, environment, and relations of production that reinforces the superstructure 29. In this context, private space is a place where given individuals or entity are “rec-ognized” by other to have right to establish criteria for anyone else to enter it and arguably use it; this is distinguished by the system of ownership and ideological “standard(s) that have to be met” for one to enter the space. Public space, on the other hand, is described by Marcel Henaff and Tracey in their introduction to “Public Space and Democracy”, as a human created contestable space where criteria for admission into it is “always in question” and is presumably the context in which private space resides.30 In their “western” frame of view, for space to be truly public, it should be open in context to a user’s location, a human artifact, theatrical in being a place where one shows oneself and watched others, articulated and self-constructed by sight, and transitive that an action always elicits a response.31 Their descrip-tion summarizes the evocative and sensory qualities necessary in an arguably ‘western’ successful public space (with elements of civic society*); However, what arguably could be better addressed is the functional essence of public space in society. In this context, I would further add that with the current state of space in our urban context, public space, rather, is simply what is not encompassed by private space. That it holistically is a byproduct of the manifestation and necessary logistical organization of private space in construct-ed* urban space and defines the relations of communal social exchange. More specifically in particular cases, public space has been used by the “local state” to articulate certain “civilizing” val-ues, social norms, and “culture” desired by a society and identifies the state of civic culture32. 27 Kenrick T. Dougals, Griskevivis V, Neuberg S L, Schaller M. “ Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations” Perspect Psychology Science. 2010. May. Issue 5. Pg. 292-314. Web. Accessed Nov 3 2018.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3161123/28Strong T., Henaff M. “Public Space and Democracy” University of Minnesota Press 2001.29Althussier, Louis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards and Investigation)” La Pensee. 1970. 30Strong T., Henaff M. “Public Space and Democracy” University of Minnesota Press 2001. (5)31Strong T., Henaff M. “Public Space and Democracy” University of Minnesota Press 2001. (8)32Pratt, Andy. “The rise of the quasi-public space and its conse-quences for cities and culture” Palgrave Communications 3. Article 36. Both author’s analysis on the necessarily qualities of public space also neglect the larger socio-economic position that public and private space encompass in our society, and through the articles present in the book don’t seem to emphasize the true value and utility that public space entails in the larger economic system. That when private spaces do not meet social-cultural demands through architecture and environment, these needs are arguably enacted with varying intensities in the public; that public space is the platform where needs unmet by private space are enacted in society, either sanctioned and capitalized or unsanctioned and informal. Here it is further argued in addition that public space provides third party needs and what’s unmet by existing societal and private institutions to the public; where its success depends on the degree where public needs or wants are met. More spe-cifically, these ‘needs’ could be informal, such as a community group’s need for a free meeting space, or sanctioned, such as the collective agreement of reserving roads for collective transporta-tion through and between private properties. This articulated definition of public space further posits the question of what qualifies as ‘good’ public space and how it can best serve the public interest in context to this expanded defini-tion. Here it can be argued that good public space, in context to public welfare, acts with the provision of privately unmet public needs first, comfort second, and then self-realized desired last. This would parallel the provision of fundamental human needs in rough approximation of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs33. While this theory is criticized, it’s hierarchical nature of needs reflects how, in private spaces and for different individuals, people’s needs are only met at lower psychological tiers if their upper tiers are not in the private realm. Public space, in this context, can then theoret-ically help provide the user to realize their dreams, desires, and human potential in society through its provisions. Referencing the theory’s presumption that there are more fundamental human desires, such as the need for security or shelter or food, need to be met before ‘higher’ desires, such as self actualization are pursued, it is argued that valued public spaces  to an individual would provide for their immediate need at any level in the logic of Maslow’s hierarchy. Parks and typical public space in Vancouver, for example, arguably lack the provision of these needs through lack of elemental shelter and perhaps security through sufficient canopies, lighting, and covered shelter. Stanley park, for example, arguably lacks sufficient covered shelter for providing protection from rain, snow, or sky radiation in the winter. Theoretically, if needs are not met in certain circumstances or for all user groups at all times, then the public space is lacking. The second aspect is that good public space facilitates greater amounts of public user control, sensitivity, and provision in society in context to it’s architectural space to fulfill the parameters of it’s argued defini-tion. Public space as the provider of public needs can be hinted at through the current trends of tactical urbanism and temporary urbanism in cities as well.  The Louisiana Superdome, during and after the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans for example, was temporarily used as a needed shelter space for residents when its typical used was for sport or entertainment.34 Plazas, more generally, historically have been popular as the are “flexible 2017. Web. Accessed Online Sep 29th 2018.<https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-017-0048-6>33 Kenrick T. Dougals, Griskevivis V, Neuberg S L, Schaller M. “ Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations” Perspect Psychology Science. 2010. May. Issue 5. Pg. 292-314. Web. Accessed Nov 3 2018.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3161123/34Nigg, Joanne M. “Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing” The American Academcy of Political and Social Science. Sage Publications, March 2006, Vol 604, pg 113-128. Web. May 13, 2018. <http://ann.sagepub.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/con-tent/604/1/113.full.pdf+html>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          7 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC SPACE CONDITIONTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKspaces that can accommodate different activities” over time and for people.35 This view of public space is not without precedence as its value to communities are expressed in its provision of needs to everyone at all time as hinted in these examples. In general ,the pur-pose of public space is to provide third party needs and what’s un-met by existing societal and private institutions to the public, where it success depends on the degree where public needs or wants are met . While this definition can be criticized for its reductive nature and that public space arguably has an active definition in a western context that it is synonymous with the citizen and civic space of the “common good” which stands in opposition to special interests and private spaces or a space where “all become alike and equal no matter the private situation”, it can be argued that in our social economic system today, the arguable reality is that public spaces are reductive and accessory to private capitalistic interests 36.In context to how the public library can develop further as a civic space, the parameters of it’s success and definition are further defined as follows: A central concern of this research is the ability of the redefined public library to effectively benefit the welfare of the general public community. In this context, the public library’s role as a civic space is questioned and analyzed in context to it’s relationship to the individual. Civic space, according to Civicus, are spaces which allow citizens to be able to shape the socio-political frameworks around them through the accessibility to expression in space37 . In specific, civic spaces embody spatial characteristics that ensure citizens have agency to define the public milieu pre-sumably in a way that is theatrical and can be transitive38 . While specific and relational to specific governmental systems, a more expanded definition can be argued that civic public space can be defined as working primarily for the general public first and acts to benefit them in our urban social environments. This is perhaps con-trasted with other types of quasi-public spaces such as commercial spaces or government spaces which have, for example, third party commercial interests or concepts of control embedded in them.  Further in context to it’s traditional definition and role in benefiting the general public community first over private and individual inter-ests, an ideal civic space arguably guides users to act ideologically for the betterment of all and self, maximizes accessibility of hap-piness, needs, and comforts, and acts with the provision of user agency and freedom of social interaction in context to it’s architec-tural space. WHY PUBLIC SPACE? Public spaces have a long history in it’s inclusion in cities and it’s links to symbolizing the ideals of the society it serves; in particular there has been debate on the “right to the city” via access for mar-ginalized groups and the ability to freely assemble and act in public spaces 39. Today public spaces are arguably lacking in their ability to accommodate the marginalized, fulfill social equity of opportu-nity, and provide agency to the general public in their built environ-ment. As well public spaces are arguably under encroachment from capitalistic interests with the proliferation, for example, of “qua-si-public” spaces that are commercially constructed and controlled 40. Public space’s nature, culture, and embodiment of it’s civic and 35Efroymoson Debra, Thi Kieu Thanh Ha Tran, Ha Thu Pham “Pub-lic Spaces: How they Humanize Cities” HealthBridge Web Accessed Nov 21st <https://healthbridge.ca/images/uploads/library/Pub-lic_Spaces_How_they_Humanize_Cities.pdf>36Strong T., Henaff M. “Public Space and Democracy” University of Minnesota Press 2001. (5)37 Monitor. “Civic Space” monitor.civicus.org Web. Accessed Sep 29th 2018. https://monitor.civicus.org/whatiscivicspace/38 Monitor. “Civic Space” monitor.civicus.org Web. Accessed Sep 29th 2018. https://monitor.civicus.org/whatiscivicspace/39Pratt, Andy. “The rise of the quasi-public space and its conse-quences for cities and culture” Palgrave Communications 3. Article 36. 2017. Web. Accessed Online Sep 29th 2018.<https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-017-0048-6>40Pratt, Andy. “The rise of the quasi-public space and its con-cultural “virtues” are threatened by it’s assetized value in promot-ing “retail consumption”, increasing real estate value, and global private interest’ in our urban environments 41. Negative examples of this privatized development of public space development encompass “The Cultural Mile” in London, where Pratt, in his article on the rise of quasi-public space and urban consequenc-es, describes that residents “do not want to go there” unless for work and that it has limited usable value for visitors; it is also a larger rejection of true public space by the city of London in favor of “productive” capital generating real estate where these public spaces presumably enhances adjacent real estate value. Even existing conventional public spaces overseen by cities, for example, don’t necessarily act to serve public needs, wants, and desires unmet by the private realm; a typical example could be that the lack of affordable shelter and security for venerable members of society is arguably not met by existing public spaces and private services in the city of Vancouver42. In general, people centered public spaces with no third party interests are in decline or under threat today and a need to further territoriality and define public space for the public layman is arguably an urgent need. Public space is critical as it contributes and benefits everyone and defines a community identity. Thus, how we define public spaces and in extension the public library is critical for defining our identity as a society. 1.3.1 PUBLIC AND CIVIC SPACE-PROGRAM: CONTEXTUAL CONCERNS OF PUBLIC CIVIC SPACESURBAN REALITIES TODAY: MARKET ORIENTATEDToday, the public library exists and needs to adapt in an increas-ingly market orientated, commercialized, and neoliberalised spatial public environment. David Harvey, in his article “The Right to the City”, succinctly outlines the economic political superstruc-ture that spurs the existing state and development of our public spaces and  arguable consumer lifestyles. In efforts to consume the capital surplus critical for maintaining a capitalistic economy, our society has developed new means of capital surplus con-sumption through globalized suburbanization/urbanization of built environments and resulting in commodified spaces and experi-ences that which was arguably once public, non-commodified, or uncategorized in the public consciousness43. Today, as outlined by Harvey, the current expansion of urbanization, commodifica-tion of real estate rooted entities as market capital in the neolib-eral world order has largely shaped our urban environment and in extension the state of our urban spaces, public society, and the socio-economic system most live in.Indeed, Harvey even frames that “this is a world in which the neoliberal ethic of intense possessive individualism, and its cognate of political withdrawal from collective forms of action, becomes the template for human socialization” that arguably encompasses public civic spaces. Henri Lefebvre, as well, posits that the forces of capitalism makes the “urban world” become reduced to economic elements of value where property rights dominate all other spaces/identities sequences for cities and culture” Palgrave Communications 3. Article 36. 2017. Web. Accessed Online Sep 29th 2018.<https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-017-0048-6>41Pratt, Andy. “The rise of the quasi-public space and its con-sequences for cities and culture” Palgrave Communications 3. Article 36. 2017. Web. Accessed Online Sep 29th 2018.<https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-017-0048-6>42Vancouver Sun “BC’s working poor: Affordability crises hits low-income earners hardest” vancouversun.com. Web. Accessed 2018 Nov 3. <https://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/working-poor-series-affordability-crisis-hits-low-income-earn-ers-hardest>43 Harvey David “The Right to the City” New Left Review. Issue 53. Sep-Oct 2008. Web. Accessed Oct 21 2018. <https://new-leftreview.org/II/53/david-harvey-the-right-to-the-city>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          8 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC SPACES TODAYTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKin a city, arguably making the public space in our cities a reduc-tive feature of our communal society; that the encroachment and commodification of the city through private ownership has reduced the identity of the city as a place of human community and public interface. People in the city then are now classified more as”con-sumers” that are guided to act to fit this consumer environment, which if they act otherwise they will feel “tension”,  alienation, and being unwelcome in the environment.44 This larger socio-economic spatial reality matches the some challenges the public library fac-es. Indeed, the traditional intangible value of the public library in relatively recent time is required to be measured in economic terms such as through ‘ consumer surplus valuation’ or WTO (willingness to pay) of patrons for library services45. Perhaps with a focus on capital generation above other factors, there is the risk of the public library, being a public space itself, being overlooked in its commu-nity benefit, intangible value, and role in defining culture and identity of a community.SPACE AS CONSTRUCTS: EXISTING PROPOSITIONSIn this socio-environmental context then, how can the public library be facilitated to better develop the state of public space? Henri Lefebvre provides one particular stance in how public spaces and community should be developed; indeed, his stance on the state of public space in the city reflects his ideological underpinnings to a struggle by the layman to explore alternative ways of life to the existing consumerist one today 46. Rather than a view centered only on human capital and “economic value”, Lefebvre aspired to recen-ter the discussion on normatively uncategorized qualities of human life such as the choice to define the public realm and realization of those spaces 47 Here, he describes his stance as the “right to the city” which is described as this “struggle to de-alienate” the urban conceived space, make it accessible and meeting needs of inhab-itants, and reintegrating it to the community’s social connection through active participatory community appropriation of privatized urban spaces 48. Purcell also describes a similar call to collective action through his analysis on Lefebvre and of the “right to the city”, but with greater concern over the issues on re-contextualizing the scale of political agency of the community from one of globalized interests back to a more localized urban-community based scale of political ac-tion49 ; where at the smaller scale, it is can be argued that one can better contest the emergence of displaced marginalized peoples and optimize the benefit of all . Here, this hint of a more localized scale of engagement and definition of public space seems to be a lacking force in the state of public space today; where the needs of the minority, marginalized, or temporally invested are not met by 44Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quar-terly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>45Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 2014. 46Purcell Mark “Possible Worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the Right to the City” University of Washington. Journal of Urban Affairs. Vol-ume 36. Number 1. Pg 141-154. Web. Accessed Oct 27th 2018.  <http://faculty.washington.edu/mpurcell/jua_rtc.pdf>47Purcell Mark “Possible Worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the Right to the City” University of Washington. Journal of Urban Affairs. Vol-ume 36. Number 1. Pg 141-154. Web. Accessed Oct 27th 2018.  <http://faculty.washington.edu/mpurcell/jua_rtc.pdf>48Purcell Mark “Possible Worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the Right to the City” University of Washington. Journal of Urban Affairs. Vol-ume 36. Number 1. Pg 141-154. Web. Accessed Oct 27th 2018.  <http://faculty.washington.edu/mpurcell/jua_rtc.pdf>49Purcell Mark “Excavating Lefebvre: The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant” GeoJournal. Volume 58. P9 99-108. 2002. Web. Accessed Oct 27th <https://faculty.washington.edu/mpurcell/geojournal.pdf>existing public spaces and are arguably not recognized by existing civic realms. Indeed, this concept can be expanded to all space if this marginality is conceived architecturally and spatially in the urban and social environment. Wasted time and single-use spaces in train stations, for example, which otherwise are underutilized in value and potential, can in this lens can find renewed use and value to benefit the public community at large.Ruth Lister, in his article “A Politics of Recognition and Retro-spect: Involving People with Experience of Poverty In Decision Making that Affects their Lives” succinctly summarizes another hinted position through his analogy of “poverty” towards social-ization and not only material resources.50 Here, social exclusion to the facility to socially gather, engage with strangers in a com-munity in space, or act in space as a community without barriers, can be seen as a sign of a unperceived lack in our consumer-in-dividualistic social environment.  In this light, the public library as an public government funded space with capacity to overcome barriers of accessibility to economic access, an space of equal elevation, and civic inclusion, can be seen as a critical element in ensuring that it does it’s function to fulfill needs not met or understood in the private realm. Here, the lack of wealth in public space can be argued to encompass the lack of facility to engage with others, create one’s own ‘realized space’ in the city, and the where community civic public society can start to develop.This perspective, juxtaposing to the current state of public space and it’s concerns, is further supplemented by existing discourse on holistic needs present for civic concerns in public space today. Jorgen, in the The Politics of Marginal Space for example, describes how a sense of place is created through the social-ization of space beyond it’s physical condition and reflects the role of public space in providing support for the marginalized in society. Here, the “natural” and normalized norms are actually a result of a manifestation of both space and “negotiations” around the rights to space;51 where institutions, values, and perceptions create socially constructed communities manifested as dynamic transforming places in space. Public space, as it is today in this context, can then be understood as being contestable and designed to better provide for the community, its users, and the public in general.  Here, Jorgen implies how an user’s sense of belonging and associations with a place extends to not only it’s spatial qualities, architecture, but also the social interactions, relationships, and elicited emotions they are associated with. Places, in other words, can help define the identity of individuals, communities, and the society they inhabit (and not only the in-verse) in his view and can be redefined for their benefit. Indeed, under this frame of perspective, public libraries can be under-stood to have the capacity with it’s architectural, programmatic, and perceptual associations to rearticulate social norms and, abstractly, better benefit all. SPACE AS CONSTRUCTED IDENTITY: GIVING AGENCYWith these frameworks, it is argued here that the public library should develop in mind of it being a socially generated civic public space and through facilitation of greater user agency in shaping the spaces in their urban environment; that in mind of state of public space today, it should provide the capacity and spatial wealth to reduce “poverty” of social-exchange (as well material or other forms in society), consider the marginalized in all aspects (for example financial, social, psychological, emo-tional, spatial, and condition based marginality) in all space-time, consider provision of user needs unmet in the private realm, develop the city community, develop in context to the commercial world, provide for greater user freedom of choice or agency in public space, and develop civic life. That this will be done through 50Anderson J., Siim Birte “The Politics of Inclusion and Empow-erment” Palgrave Macmillan. 2004. (117)51Anderson J., Siim Birte “The Politics of Inclusion and Empow-erment” Palgrave Macmillan. 2004. (211)SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          9 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC SPACES TODAYTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKcreating a heterotopic space where existing social realities can overlap with imagined and third-party ones by the user through space and time. Again, this potential realization through the public library architec-ture is described by Holland in how people exercise their agency in space via “figured worlds”; which is arguably similar to constructed spaces, and social milieus  in that the existing physical space and less tangible culture imposes on it’s users. 52 Figures worlds, like represented space or social milieus are constructed total envi-ronments, is structured by architecture, institutions and practices that “we follow ‘as if’ they were real” in a realistic narrative. These figured worlds, milieus, and constructed spaces are arguably all chosen strategies in how society chooses to be identified and exist in relation to each other. 53 I again argue that architectural semantics and its conception is an agent in this system that can provide cultural pressure and an alternative space which to provide a new juxtaposed identity or cultural reality. This, in context to architectural buildings such as the public library institution as being an ideological apparatus in Louis Althussier’s terms, then becomes an agent of propagating this new spatial agency, language of the public sphere, and later propose public library function in competition among other elements of rep-resented space. 54FUTURE OF PUBLIC SPACE AND PUBLIC LIBRARYJust to overview, for Lefebvre, public spaces have transformed from  absolute space to abstract space: where places of “absolute meanings” transform into generic “abstract” spaces like generic commercial stores with only economic meaning. Here this space is the space of “capitalism” and exchange where public spaces have lost their social community value,  meaning, and imagined programs that arguably worked towards community public har-mony, social capital, and value not encompassed in the consumer commercial conceived space today. 55 Arguably, as public spaces outside today such as sidewalks and parks lack the benches for basic rest, shelter from all elements like cold or rain, safety in terms of lighting and traffic protection, and way-finding elements in many cases for legibility, public spaces are byproducts, not at the forefront of community concern, and arguably are neglected in their potential development in our capitalistic-economic social system. According the Maslow hierarchy of needs, if our basal needs are not met either in the public or private spheres, then public spaces are not up to par, not servicing all, and needs to be improved in the future for the public good. Thus, public spaces should then provide for these needs, elements, and neglected aspects that at minimum should be developed but was lacking in the public world we live in. This the future public library, as part of the public space infra-structure society, that should have a means to provide these basic necessities and needs to the public to further develop the condition of public.1.4 NEOLIBERAL VALUE: MEASURED SOCIAL CAPITAL52Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quar-terly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>53Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quar-terly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>54Althussier, Louis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards and Investigation)” La Pensee. 1970. 55Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quar-terly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>One means to facilitate this new environment of the library re-quires one to looks at the public library economic social value in it’s environmental context or in a neoliberal lens; that of it’s exist-ing role in generating social capital 56 This argument can be furthered with a more capitalized perspec-tive of the public library space as a generator of social capital and provider of community resilience, where social capital is “features of social organization” such as trust, norms, and networks, that can improve efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated ac-tion” and is the “glue” that makes individuals into communities57. Here, social capital can be seen as a resource of individuals that can be aggregated. Social capital is arguably divided into two types: bonding social capital and bridging or linking social capital that refers to relationships between strangers of divergent sta-tuses that may translate to future economic potential58. Bridging social capital and linking differ in that bridging social capital refers to relationships between equal participants , linking social capital refers to relations between those across sanctioned, “explicit, formal, or institutionalized” political or authority differentials in society such as the “patron-librarian relationship”. For further context, social capital’s generation is contested, and has been described mainly in two different ways of how it’s generated. There is the societal and institutional perspective. The societal, in general, describes how voluntary associations among informal and strangers increase capital. That facilitating contact between social groups and differences increase the level of trust59. This is the opposite case if one feels “threatened” by the other party or contact is “involuntary”60. The institutional per-spective, encompassing the public library, finds that in ‘treating all citizens the same” via the institutions, it generates trust in and between all social groups. In this frame of mind, the public library can be seen to have high existing value in context to this arguably neglected capital in its marketed lends. That by offering universal-ized services in a non-discriminatory way increases generalized increase trust to between the public and society at large, and presumably not only for the institution.61Public libraries as institutions are trusted and presumably pro-vided an environment of trust. Andreas, for example in fact, describes public libraries in general as among the “most highly trusted public institutions” and generators of social capital in 56Varheim Andreas “Public Libraries: Places creating social cap-ital?” Library Hi Tech. Issue 27. Pg 372-381. 2009. Web. <cor.ac.uk>57Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>58Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>59Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>60Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>61Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          10 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHEORETICAL REFERENCESTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKsocieties globally. In Norway and Sweden, for example, public library institutions are the most trusted 62 and also provides a “local community meeting place” that facilitates contact and presumable generation of general social trust among local social groups. Public libraries are described are one the rare most friendly for social con-tact and exchange as its “neutral” without explicit agenda and hav-ing the most properties for facilitating social exchange/contact 63. Again, here in the library, this social environment and type of social capital created is one of “equal groups status” in the library build-ing, provision of a common goal or presumably purpose of borrow-ing and consuming the library’s contents, “intergroup cooperation, and having the “support of authorities” and the representation of the larger society in general 64. However, further studies found no correlation between trust in pub-lic libraries and their ability to generate generalized trust; that only directed programs that benefited the user increased generalized so-cial trust 65. Indeed, here I would argue that public libraries arguably currently only have the potential to generate social capital through the value provided in it’s services.  For example, useful programs that were directed towards immigrants had a noticeable increase in generalized trust, presumably due to it’s free value, provided need, and active inclusion of the marginalized group in the form of the public library as a representation of the civic municipal government and in extension the larger social public community. This reaffirms that to generate social capital and ensure it’s community value, the public library must also provide a critical need towards it’s users indiscriminately and in engagement with each group. This again, supports the notion of a heterotopic space where users are able to impose their ideals needs, and potentials in one architectural-pro-gram space. Public libraries as well, is also seen as an advertisement for the city or civic symbol66 that, at larger scales, indirectly translated to com-munity strength and economic capital investments. The Vancouver Public Library’s central branch, for example, arguably reflects this perspective with it’s symbolic and iconic architectural language and unique identity globally that distinguishes Vancouver. 67In general, the public library, while using government funds and do-nations to support its operation, provides value and return indirectly through means such as providing public needs, education, and in this particular discussion social capital. As a social capital genera-tor, the library is known to be high in generating trust which is argu-ably valued in the neoliberal context; this social capital is generated 62Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Confer-ence on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>63Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Confer-ence on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>64Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Confer-ence on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>65Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Confer-ence on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>66Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.67 Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sage-pub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>only when public library  services, however, provides the need of a user as hinted at in the Andreas’s study. This supports the development of the future public library as a public space to pro-vide for public user needs unmet in the private realm in this social value generating context. This, presumably, has potential develop-ment and facilitation through architectural design and space. I also further argue here that the public library is a representation of the public community in sanctioned municipal government form, and that it’s approach to the public society and how it generates social capital and the condition of trust in society determines the perception of the city-community in general, then thus the trust we have in strangers, and how the resources of the library are utilized (and that architecture has the capacity to facilitate and hybridize associations towards this goal). This sim-ply, reaffirms the importance of how public libraries remain true to existing values of universal accessibility, as a space of equal participants, and preserve theses cultural  values as it transforms programmatically and architecturally tp regain it’s value (and thus protect) to the community.1.5 SOCIAL ROLE & IDENTITY STATE ROLE: IDEOLOGICAL APPARATUSES AND LIBRARIESThe public library can also be conceptually understood as an ideological apparatus where it supports a larger system of culture and social practice. For example, its curated inventory and culture can be perceived to promote a society’s larger profit generation through educating users, providing resources to better their capabilities, and providing rest through entertainment. It is also symbolic and affects a community at the larger scale as an his-torical established institution, providing a essential service, and existing for the community which could hypothetically improve feelings of public security or global competitiveness as a place of investment. There are many criticisms to Althussier’s perspectives on the role of institutions in the state. However, it is useful in clarifying and consolidating other views and arguments on the productive actions of our social-economic system, what purpose it and it’s institutions serve, and how it is maintained. In our case, it’s the neoliberal socio-economic order where profit generation, invest-ment, and generating capital potential arguably trumps all other factors in hierarchical importance. Althussier, in particular discusses the idea of idealogical state apparatuses, and that the educational state apparatus such as schools or perhaps libraries to a degree, are critical in repro-ducing the relations and conditions of production for our current ‘base’.68 It provides the superstructure that maintains the base and that these institutions are used to help interpellate users into subjects through their implied environment, architecture, and con-text to act in a expectant way, presumably to further and enjoy the neoliberal social systems and support it in totality. 69 Significantly, Althussier argues that these ideological apparatuses are subject to influence, battle, and contention in what they disseminate: with not only the sanctioned parties, such as the state or organizers, but also the public, marginalized groups, or special interests able to influence their context.70 However, this influence remains in the frame of these apparatuses and the holistic superstructure. It can be argued in the library’s history that the public library had these roots to social control and economic interests. Britain, in 68Althussier, Louis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards and Investigation)” La Pensee. 1970. . 69Althussier, Louis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards and Investigation)” La Pensee. 1970. . . 70Althussier, Louis “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards and Investigation)” La Pensee. 1970. . SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          11 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISSOME CONCLUSIONSOVERVIEWparticular to the public library, worker’s rights, and class unrest in the mid 1800s, produced the public library in context to appeas-ing the unrest and qualms of the “working class” by providing a resources, a place to engineer a more “moral” worker that pre-sumably better fit with their working social system71. The origins of public libraries in Canada as well, particularly in BC, roots to the mechanics institutes, the immediate precursor the public libraries in Vancouver, that functioned to provide resources, tools, and environ-ments of self betterment in the working class’s ability to better their own skills for societal-industry productivity and (presumably) also individual self-gain. To understand the urgency and importance in articulating the state of civic spaces and the public library’s evolution today is to under-stand the social-political role that the public library institution plays in context to public space in society. Further, it is critical that the public library institutions is an ideological and political apparatus that, in essence, creates a space that generates social capital and provides equal opportunities to rare resource use to reduce social barriers in general trends towards neoliberal growth and develop-ment. Indeed, the library is a space of contention and ideological battle. How much the public and design facilitates the library into the fu-ture is critical in defining what we want to be in the existing library social-economic-political structure. The library, arguably, is an ideological institution; furthermore it is an educational and media driven one that is facing a critical challenge with digital media and marketed perception. However, unlike schools, community centers and other educational institutions, it arguably has the potential to be increasingly user driven in it’s essence. 1.6 FINAL NOTES : ARCHITECTURAL AGENCYThe library building, among many other public institutions and spaces that are not private such as community centers, city hall, malls, public streets, all cumulatively help define who we are. In particular, the library is a pubic civic space, and how the library is defined, or designed architecturally and acting in society, shapes and contributes to our cumulative identity as persons in society. In particular our civic identity, and the power individuals posses to shape and influence the political and social structure around them is critical in defining a better public space that meets the needs of users by giving voice through action and ability to act. While speech and vocalization is important, even more is the ability to have ca-pacity to influence, create, and do with the hardware engendered. Here, the public library, as a public civic space, can help meet the desires/needs of the public, particularly those that are otherwise unable to in the private realm or existing public realm due to any social barriers. INSTITUTIONAL AGENCY: ECONOMIC LEVERAGEIf who controls the library dictates it’s content, then the library can satisfy it’s concerns of financing, government funding interest, and true public relevance through more direct integration with the economy. Here, the power of capital to influence what is stored and the use of economic leverage to obtain greater value transferred between users is speculated. An example of this economic leverage: is where library space can be loaned to a commercial company, but items that it uses for production and knowledge must be loaned to interested public parties in designed established space-relationships. This exchange is facilitated through the architecture and sanctioned. It is formalized so it would potentially occur naturally in the library 71Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (38)space. Speculatively, the type of company and system must be accessible to the public and useful lest the tools and system would not be required or loaned. What is given and taken, for example, is leveraged to increase in value on both sides to improve the library economic utility to the publics civic needs (rather than only desires or only information in the form of knowledge/information). This is exemplified by the expansion of the library’s definition horizontally and vertically. An example of this is discussed later in case studies through the Richmond Public Art Branscombe house artist-in-residence72, where the presumed trade between a free experience of living in a heritage building in Richmond requires an public artist to provide artistic experiences, performances, and creations to the city community.Here, the question of storing and loaning economic situations, conditions, and leverage is asked. How and what economic leverage for greater value transferred between users through space and architecture? How the library architecturally houses the social system for this furthered speculation is considered? This will be considered in the future public library.THEORETICAL CONCLUSIONSArguably, architecture is a vector for social cultural transmission and thus also change in society with a new or changed architectural expression. It is argued that it impacts the totality of human society and is semantic in that they can be read, shape, or frame human social-economic realities; architecture then helps create social milieus which contrivute to how individuals to communities see, be, and interact with each other. Here, architecture can be understood to have the ability to facilitate the construction and transformation of social milieus, actions, and norms with synthesis of other elements. Today, public and civic spaces are in contestable condition where it's argued to be underdeveloped, not focused on people in terms of the community, and can arbued to be developed better in providing use, value, and unconcieved wealth in the existing capitalitistic-commerical urban reality. Indeed, it can be argued that our architectural and public environments are now capitalist consumer spaces that tend to frame social activites in these capitalist interests first over other values; and that due to this the community, the public user, and public space is not serving the interest of individuals through it's architectural space well enough.It is posited with different perspectives that there are a number of ways in which public space can change or be developed to better serve the community, civic space, and the individual. There should be more user agency for providing public needs and to shape their constructed socio-economic spaces. There is, again, the understanding that constructed capitalistic space is impoverished and lacking social exchange and community relationships that could be developed / facilitated through architecture. There is also the understanding that social welfare for marginal groups and accessibility to value-potential of public spaces should be developed. There is also the argued udnerstanding that with the underdevelopment of public space, general society lacks the 'tools' to develop further and handicaps the potential value of our civic-community social spheres. It is then posited that public spaces need to evolve with greater user agency, provision of needs to public, and actively facilitate social exchanges in context to public community development.The public library is also existing in an economic and neoliberal urban environment and can develop it's value and capacity to the larger economic-social structure in this context. The public library space can be more customer driven, better marketing 72 City of Richmond “Branscombe House Artist Residency” richmond.ca Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018. <https://www.rich-mond.ca/culture/sites/branscombehouse/branscomberesidency.htmSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          12 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISSOME CONCLUSIONSOVERVIEW: EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARYit's services as described later in the article, and can be facilitate to generate more social capital. In a larger context, the public library architecture facilitates greater potential productivity of society and maximizes the value of produced entities in our larger society by lending and cycling reusable resources that would otherwise be wasted. In terms of civic identity, symbolism, and the global market, the public library architecture provides a unique city identity, critical city service, and civic repitoir that increases a hosting city's competitiveness for presumed capital-investment (briefy mentioned later) globally. In terms of its context to the state, the public library can be understood as an agent of ideology and defines the government, larger society, and the state of public. Being understood as an ideological apparatus, it can be the understood as a place of contestation, where its projected and argued values defines the identity of society, how society develops in context to it's public civic spaces, and thus arguably must have greater agency for the public to freely choose. In general, all these larger theoretical foundations reflects the larger contextual needs in which the public library and it's architecture should arguably do in its evolution into the future. This is in context to the programmatic and architectural goals in the public library's context and purpose hoslitically. The following sections will outline a more detailed exploration and analysis and argument of how the public library can or should develop to face it's more particular challenges. DIGITIZATIONERA OF BOOKS TO TRANSMIT INFORMATION1100- UNIVERSITY LIBRARYEMERGENCE OF UNIVERSITIES FOR EDUCATING MASSESINEXPENSIVE MASS PRODUCED BOOKS FOR DISSEMINATING AND EDUCATING ACQUIRED STUDENTS. NEW ORGANIZATION FORMATS FOR BOOKS AND STORAGE.FOR ACADEMIC USERS.1000- MONASTERY LIBRARYPROLIFERATION OF MONASTERIESSTORAGE & PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTSEXPENSIVE, RARE, COPIED FOR POSTERITY.1806-  Portico LibrarySubscription Library.Combined club, newsroom, and library programs.Focused on 19th century literature fiction and non-fiction.500- BENEDICTINE LIBRARYBENEDICTINE ORDER FOCUSED ON READING AND SAFEKEEPING OF BOOKS.OFFICIAL PLACED IN CHARGE OF LIBRARY CALLED PRECENTOR. 1300- CHAINED LIBRARIESBOOKS WERE INCREASINGLY CHAINED AND LECTERNS PLACED TO PREVENT THEFT BY PUBLIC USE. COLLEGE AND RELIGIOUS LIBRARIES ALL USED THESE SYSTEM IN EUROPE.LIBRARIAN AS CUSTODIAN OF BOOKS.NEW RULES, CATALOUGING, AND REGULATIONS FOR USE OF BOOKS.1444- SAN MARCO LIBRARYFIRST ‘PUBLIC’ ORIENTATED RENAISSANCE LIBRARY IN EUROPE.TO BE PLACED IN OPEN FOR USE BY ANY CIVIC WORKERS.1454- MALATESTA NOVELLO LIB.FIRST CIVIC (PUBLIC) LIBRARY IN EUROPE. (BELONGING TO COMMUNITY OF CESENA RATHER THAN PRIVATE OR RELIGIOUS GROUP)OPEN TO GENERAL PUBLIC. 1500- RENAISSANCE LIBRARYSURGE IN DIPLOMACY, LITERARY CLASSICS, PHILOSOPHY, SCIENTIFIC THINKING, AND LEARNING/EDUCATION SPURRED THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARIES.LARGE SCALE PUBLISHING.PROLIFERATION OF PRIVATE COLLECTIONS.1600- “FREE” PUBLIC LIBRARYSPREAD AND PROLIFERATION OF CONCEPT.NON-CIRCULATING LIBRARIES FOR “APPROVED” CITIZENS.STARTED AND RELY ON PRIVATE DONATIONS.1700- SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARYRESTRICTED TO MEMBERS (USUALLY).MEMBERS REQUIRED TO INVEST IN SHARES (STOCKHOLDER)FINANACED WITH PRIVATE MEMEBERSHIP FUNDS1800- NATIONAL LIBRARYPROLIFERATION. NON CIRCULATORY. SECULAR.PRIMARY REPOSITORY OF NATIONAL INFORMATION AND RARE ITEMS. MAINTAINS “BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONTROL” OF PUBLISHED DOCUMENTS IN COUNTRY. SET STANDARDS OF CLASSIFICATION.1800- ATHENAEUMINSTITUTE THAT “PROMOTED LEARNING” HAS LIBRARY, READING ROOM, AND OTHER AREAS.1800- LEARNED SOCIETIES& PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS.1800- MECHANICS INSTITUTES1850 ADVENT OF SANCTIONED PUBLIC LIBRARY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. IT WAS MUCH MORE LOCALLY DECIDED IN US. 1700- CIRCULATION LIBRARYSPREAD OF FOR-PROFIT ENTERPRISE.MIDDLE CLASS (CHEAPER THAN SUBSCRIPTION)BOTH FICTION AND NON-FICTION.CONTINUED INTO 20TH CENTURY. 1817- TRAVELING LIBRARYSAMUEL BROWN STARTED IN EAST LOTHIAN SCOTLAND. STATIONED IN DIFFERENT LOCATIONS. PROLIFERATION OF PUBLIC CIRCULATING LIBRARY WITH CARNEGIE PHILANTHROPYOPEN ACCESS LIBRARIES 1920S EMERGES INTO MAJORITYNEW ELECTRONIC GATE (ELECTROMAGNETIC) AND CARD SECURITY: LIBRARY MARKETING PROLIFERATES (LIBERTARIAN VIEW).1990S-TODAY: PRINTED MEDIA DISPLACED BY DIGITAL MEDIA AS SOURCE, PROTECTOR, AND CREATION OF INFORMATION IN TIME-SPACE FOR SOCIETY.ORGANIZATION/DISSEMINATION/ADMIN-ISTRATIONVIRTUAL LIBRARY - ONLINEPHYSICAL - BOOKS   SCHOOL LIBRARYscholarshipsocial control & authorityFULL PUBLIC LIBRARY EMERGED AS SANCTIONED BY GOVERNMENTPUBLIC LENDING LIBRARYSUBSCRIPTION LIBRARYLENDING LIBRARYPROFESSIONAL LIBRARYTECH. ADVENT: movable type printingDIGITIZATION OF INFORMATIONINFORMATION REVOLUTIONMARKETING: NEOLIBERALISMENTERTAINMENTPRIVATE LIBRARYRELIGIOUS LIBRARYACADEMIC LIBRARYGOVERNMENTALSTORAGE/LENDING/LEARNSTORAGE/CURATOR/CUSTODIALFIGURE 2: (RIGHT) SIMPLIFIED TIMELINE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY HISTORY.1 PUBLIC LIBRARY AS ROOT OF CIVIC SOCIETYThe public library institution can be shown to have declining physical circulation. With the relative value of physical books as an information medium with digitization and the increasing ubiquity of information online, the physical library space is in question. The public library is still vital as an institution an to communities however; it is an integral public space today, critical to civic society, provides an important public service in context to its true identity, and arguably has the potential to evolve to further in context as a public civic space. 1 Lamb Annette “History of Libraries” eduscapes.com. 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 15th. <https://eduscapes.com/history/contempo-rary/1900.htm>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          13 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCHANGING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONIDENTITY: THE PUBLIC LIBRARY PAST2.0 CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY TODAYThe question is asked: how the public library and it’s architecture could be changed?To understand how the public library could change and evolve pro-grammatically and spatially in the future, the prototypical functional identity and cultural value, it’s crises in context to that identity, and the parameters of it’s changes needed to impose it’ argued rede-fined identity in our lives are explored. This part goes into greater detail on the particular issues facing the public library institution itself, analyses the library’s identity and issues, and understand what changes are to be needed to be incorporated into the public library’s evolution. 2.1 IDENTITYThe identity of an institution, arguably, is defined by its juxtaposition with its context and it’s cumulative history of actions, associations, and conditions over time. In this context, it is argued that the public library’s identity is contextual, relative, but can be assessed in con-text to it’s juxtaposed contexts. Today, the public library arguably has many different perspectives on what it means and does. In literature and public debate, the public library’s social purpose and it’s services are still negotiated today. 1 Publicly and in academia, the library is described to be a place of curation, engagement with research and learning, publishing, cre-ating and managing spaces devoted to users and collection.2 In the views of governments it has been seen as a social service in North America or a repository of cultural and national values in France. In the views of the public it can be argued that the library is seen as a place of service and community.3 Historically, it has changed from a civic center, a national service, a center of public welfare, to a place trying the change today.4 In personal and a functional view, the library mainly functions to store books, provide access of them to public for free, and provide a space where society can access, use, and circulate the temporal information value. This superficial definition of the public library includes it being a place of equity, full public accessibility, and with it’s own culture or code of conduct. In the public library, users are expected to be quiet and civil, show respect to others, contribute to a quiet atmosphere, respect the stored items, and be considerate of other users in the use of it’s re-sources.5 Some schools and academic libraries, for example, have established libraries as a place to study and for scholarly research to their traditional association. 6 Today, the traditional public library identity in terms of it’s function and form as well as public opinion is arguably under threat with the changing conditions of it’s value. In a neoliberal world order where government institutions compete and require marketing in context to its own value-use for funds, the public library institution requires a fine balance to satisfy economic realities, it’s true morals in public welfare, and its consequent functional value in society.What is the true identity of the public library, particularity in face of the issues it faces today? The subsequent section will extrapolate 1 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.2Crawford, Alice. “The Meaning of the Library” Princeton University Press. 2015 (237)3 McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 20014Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(31)5 Universite Concordia Library Administration Office” Library Code of Conduct” concordia.ca Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018 <https://library.concordia.ca/about/policies/Library_Code_of_Conduct.pdf6 SFU “SFU Library Code of Confuct” lib.sfu.ca Web. Accessed Nov 21st 2018 < https://www.lib.sfu.ca/about/overview/policies/code-conduct>and reveal, that the public library’s cultural identity and cultural function is always changing and adapting to different conditions over time. However, it can be argued that for most of the public library’s history, the public library mainly superficially functioned to store books, provide access of them to public for free, and provide a space where society can access, use, and circulate these for temporal value. However a deeper and more holistic understanding of the public library’s role can be extrapolated as being a vendor lending rare reusable value to the public for free to reduce social barriers; here, rare being a condition of scarcity due to any condition perceived and actual. It is also a public space by function, where space and stored items are for access and use by the public. In a even larger context in our social-economic milieu, the public library can be understood as a maximizer of the opportunity and choice of the general public, in particular to the marginal (whether politically, socially, or economically) through it’s free lending of value to allow higher potential of productivity in society. In essence, the public library is a sharing economy system where there are nodes of storage, place around to use stored items, and a place where this culture of free use is secured. In essence, what the public library does in a neoliberal lens is to maximize opportunities of the public community to reach their full produc-tive potential through reducing social barriers to value access. 2.2 HISTORICTo better understand what a public library is, it’s contextual histo-ry and changes it faced in response to it’s arguable core function is overviewed.In the English western world, public libraries arguably formally originated with the United Kingdom’s Public Library Act of 1850, with more scattered development in the United States of America with their first public library being the Peterborough founded in 1833.7 While the laws set the legal framework in which munici-palities were able to set up tax funded public libraries formally for the community, the public had already a series of pseudo-public libraries types to choose from, including popular subscription libraries, commercial libraries, and mechanics institutes that already provided knowledge, spaces, and social networks for support through for a fee. Indeed, despite formal laws establishing public library devel-opment, the inception to construct public libraries was slow to garner steam. Again, many libraries of varying publicity existed during the mid 19th century that provided the needs of the library to those who could afford or access it; where types such as subscription libraries, coffee houses, ecclesiastical libraries, or commercial libraries that either required pay or had social thresholds of entry existed as services provided to the public.8 When public libraries under the new municipal or state laws were built, these early public libraries conceived from this act were narrow, limited, and “parochial” in outlook presumably due to their context of other publicly accessible library types. For example, in the early years of British public library development after the 1850 Public Libraries Act, public libraries were seen as a “cultural powerhouse” of a town, the “right of the local citizens to tax themselves” for community services made real, symbols of “civic pride”, and important in a community’s competition with “other towns for supremacy” and “progress”.9 Arguably, they 7Larry Nix. “Library” libraryhistorybuff.org 2008. Web. < http://www.libraryhistorybuff.org/peterborough.htm>8Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(29)9Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(29)SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          14 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCHANGING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONTHE PUBLIC LIBRARY PASTwere seen more as symbols of community action and culture rather than primarily as a needed service. Here, the public library formally known for being community conceived, free in usage, and support-ed by a voluntary tax for all was now understood first in it’s civic defining role. The development of public libraries only really caught on when it’s then perceived social engineering potential, framed in “competi-tion” with other cities for investment, developing a city’s capital and population potential, and Carnegie’s or other philanthropist’s investments were more prevalent.10 Indeed, the public library’s propagation, particularly in Britain, was spurred by a new under-standing of poverty; where old understandings of a lower “class” individual’s poverty were due to their inherent character, later beliefs imagined poverty and moral degradation of the poor were due to a bad environment. Utilitarians in Britain, during the later 19th century for example, then hoped to promote ideologies of “good citizen-ship”, “supporters of meritocracy”, and “good citizens” through a good public library “environment” for it’s working class users.11 Here, public libraries were perceived to be means of social control to better, moralize and alter the behavior of the poorer classes through it’s environment, selection of moral materials, and imbued ideals. As well, in addition to this socio-cultural engineering role, the public library was understood to have a more material means of ‘social welfare’ through it’s provision of free services, books, and programs. Contrastingly, public libraries more intended for and built by the community were typically grassroots, housed in rented buildings or units, and were contrastingly initiated with cost in mind by the local community themselves.  The onset of public libraries historically indeed, can been portrayed with it’s public image and more subtle private intentions or forces that guided it’s development. Aside from philanthropic or pure mor-al-shaping intentions, the public library was increasingly seen as a way to provide “managed” ‘correct’ moral materials for the working classes to better their working potential, working character, and behave in a correct way in regards to capital potential.12Indeed public libraries, in their early development years, were seen to benefit the larger economy and competitive advantage  of cities, nations, and societies’ that provided them. Indeed, each spur of public library development leading up the early twentieth century in Britain was in response to “economic depression” and a crisis of economy. 13 Here, libraries were seen as places were artist and workers could educated themselves better to “boost trade”, “fight off international competition”, and upgrade the working class to better compete. The public library’s value, in essence was to maximize capital to increase the working classes, publics, and the country’s production and innovation potential for greater capital generation. Arguably, with it’s unique role in lending rare resourc-es, mostly in the form of books and information today, the public library still is and remains this economic catalyst and capital-value maximizer in an economic context. Arguably, no other institution or public service does this freely; only the recently emerged service economy in modern day mirrors the public library’s maximization of resource/item value with reduced shared price and value extraction over time- but with price, informality of commercial business, and lack of other public library cultural associations.10Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.11Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(31)12Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (38)13Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (37)Foucault describes this historical social control thesis of the early public library more systematically through the institution’s development of it itself and its services. Librarians and the public library, in how the repository and knowledge of the library is curated, categorized, and disseminated to the public in its early inception, act as “technicians of behavior” and “engineers of conduct” to “improve the efficiency and productivity” of society. 14 To summarize, the relationship between knowledge and power is that the construction of discourses of knowledge make “knowl-edge” true where “power delivers, or constructs, knowledge” through the curators of the public library. Librarians, for example, can be argued to construct imposed views of social realities or “regimes of truth(s)” in their curation of library materials, the users of libraries, the spaces inside the library. Librarians, in Fou-cault’s terms, had “bio-power” to facilitate a “docile” quite, be-haved library user in a social ritual defined by regulations, space, and socially proper means of acting in the public library space. 15 However the reality was much more mixed in interpretation, with public librarians finding that the “uplift theory” through con-vincing the public to read more scholarly works and material of more moral character did not happen.16 Most users, even as time passed on, continued to favor fiction and works for entertain-ment rather than “scholarly works”. Indeed, over time, the public library’s overt control and represented space of the librarian, where one must rigidly act with silence, care, and behaved studi-ousness in the library space, has comparatively waned. In context to the public using the public library for reading enter-tainment through it’s circulating books and space, the trend in patrons using the public library for entertainment has arguably been consistent since the public library’s conception till today.17 This, perhaps, remains an potential for public library’s more con-temporaneous future evolution.2.21 CARNEGIE: PROTOTYPE GENERATOR. FOR PEOPLE.The public library as an institution arguably only proliferated and consolidated it’s spatial designs in the early twentieth century-late 19th century with the efforts of Carnegie and his philanthropic donations to municipalities to start, construct, and manage a formal community orientated public library. Carnegie then, with his philanthropic donations to spur public library development in the western English speaking world, was arguably the main driver of revolutionizing the “American Public library experience”18 to it’s current identity with it’s area of open-access book shelves, seat-ing-reading areas, children’s zones, and a librarian counter near the entrance. In the context of public library development, he was argued to be the main person that developed these parameters with influential design guidelines for smaller community libraries. With Carnegie and his hired architectural designers, the public libraries he helped built facilitated users to browse open stacks, ask librarian questions, choose freely books for themselves. Children’s programs, reference services, and “reader’s advisory” were some programs that he facilitated to be included in the pub-lic library that are now staple elements of it’s function today.192.22 OPEN ACCESS: GREATER USER AGENCY14Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (38)15Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (38)16 https://eduscapes.com/history/contemporary/1900.htm17Snape, Robert “Leisure and The Rise of the Public Library” Library Association Publishing. 1995.18”How Andrew Carnegie Buitl the Architecrure of American Literacy” citylab.com Web. Dec 6th 2018 <https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-andrew-carnegie-built-the-architec-ture-of-american-literacy/381953/>19 https://eduscapes.com/history/contemporary/1900.htmSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          15 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCHANGING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONTHE PUBLIC LIBRARY PASTAnother development that conflicts with the social control theory was that in the time from the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries focusing around the 1920-30s, the public library shifted into providing more open access and provision of its programs and materials to the public. In the United Kingdom for example, it was conceived and started first by Librarian James Duff Brown through a new “safe guarded open access system” in 1894.20 This design conceived a central counter where the librarian was able to survey the whole library space, presumably to prevent theft of books prevalent at the time, and to ensure expected behavior. Indeed, from this, the public library shifted, from around the 1890s to the advent of the second world war, from a closed-access to open-access lending libraries where the public library user was able to freely browse books, use them in the public library, and be liberated from historical means of  control from the librarians. Originally in a closed-system, users were required to look through inventory lists, then request books from librarians, and finally in a nearby space reference the book before returning it 21. Indeed, this marked a his-torical shift in public library’s access and social engagement with it’s materials stored; where now the storage was moved to the pub-lic realm, a display of browsing and exploration, in where the user could freely access, explore, and use in greater freedom. With this shift, as well, the public libraries became less walled-in and more open-concept in plan to facilitate this visual link to the librarian. Today however, this open access still remains similar to the condi-tions present during the early twentieth century, the only significant architectural change after during the technological revolution in later twentieth century with electronic gates placed at entrances that reduced the need for a panopticon-like counter where the librarian could oversee the library and prevent theft of books and materials22. Counters in the decades between 1950 and 1990s, as a result, became smaller, off to the side between entrances and the main library spaces, and were reduced in architectural significance in the public library spaces. In this mind, it can also be posited that the public library of today, given it’s conditions, can further increase the access and scale of experience of it’ materials, find new scales of spaces, and proposed new circulating items. NEOLIBERALISM: CUSTOMER SERVICEHowever, these perspectives of the public library also ignores an-other aspect of its development which encompasses the increasing commercialization and neoliberalisation of the public library institu-tion in a increasingly capitalistic world. Libraries, beginning in the early 20th century, began to become more market orientated in it’s economic-social context in the western English speaking world. With the rise of capitalism, economy, and neoliberalism today, the public library has increasingly shifted it’s organizational-institutional portrayal and justification in intention, purpose, and value through it’s marketability and service to the public “customer”.23 This transi-tion was not exclusive the public library institution and has arguably applied to other governmental institutions that are perceived and understood first in terms of their civic goals; such as schools, mu-seums, or utilitarian services. Government services too, have been increasingly capitalized or profit orientated, with electricity in BC for example, being run by a privately owned company.  20 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. 21 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. 22Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009. (38)23Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.As public libraries became increasingly dependent, funded, and regulated by their local municipal constituents and government representatives, the needs, wants, and desires of the public argu-ably then became forefront. If public libraries continued existence and power depended on their public funding, then logically it can be extrapolated that the public library institution’s interests would be to market and convince their funders, the municipal government, of their own value to society and the support they have from the public. Indeed, this posits a few key issues that the library must address to different constituents in different pa-rameters, of which the first to be overviewed is it’s more recent historical concerns in it’s measurement of value.2.23 MEASUREMENT OF VALUE: IN CRISESThere are a number of means in which the public library’s value is perceived by the public and constituents. Publicly is it perceived positively and perhaps more culturally, as a place of education, a place of learning and self betterment, but other indicators and research has provided contrary or more conflicted results. The public library, in this lens, focuses first-most on justifying it’s government funding and self-preservation through it’s value in customer service and measurable economic return value24. In-deed, in recent decades, many economic metrics of library value has been incorporated with the public library’s perceived value, it’s ability to garner funds, and it’s survival now as a service institution. Buschmann, however, argued fighting to make sure that the tra-ditional values present in the public library institution and other civic institutions be preserved for their remaining value in society and that these neoliberal trends may threaten these existing valu-able aspects of the public library.25 Many other librarians and liter-ature also reflects similar sentiments of the public library, whether it’s the quality of it’s materials, that it should remain a curated “high standard” ideal in the vision of a few vs the public, or that it should be protected as a public place and a place of providing social welfare for the venerable.26272829In this frame of mind, Librarians that manage and run the public libraries today are facing the need to approach their services dif-ferently as well. It has been argued that librarians should, facing the popular discourse and issues facing the public library, pursue a more customer orientated approach to serving the community. 30 Some have described the public library as the new “Third Space praxis” where the librarian now serves to ‘guide’ custom-er “concerns and desires” in actively framing how the existing 24Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.25Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.(174)26Userwood, B. “Equity and Excellence in the Public Library: Why Ignorance is Not our Heritage” Ashgate. 2007.27Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. 28Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.29Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recogniz-ing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quarterly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. 30Elmborg James “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Rec-ognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Service Quarterly” Volume 50. Issue 4. Pages 338-50. 2011. Web.  <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/view-File/3297/3497>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          16 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCONDITION OF LIBRARY TODAYTHE PUBLIC LIBRARY PASTlibrary cataloger is used.31 Rather than being part of the library system, an agent to organize materials, or a facilitator of the library cataloging-organizational function, the librarian should be more education and curating experiences for the user. However, with this shift, also comes the arguably risk of losing the library’s associa-tion with cultural values such as an environment of scholarship.Today, this view can be taken into an even larger context, where public library institution buildings are now seen as civic assets of themselves and essential for the identity, development, and community service of any city. For example, Christchurch Central Library, newly built in November 2018 for the Christchurch City council for civic rebuilding efforts in response to the 2011 earth-quake devastated the city, was considered one of the few essential landmarks and civic icon necessary to rebuild to help revitalize the city. Indeed, implied through city documents and government ef-forts, the public library is used as an agent to garner much needed public investment and to attract back residents who left after the 2011 Christchurch earthquake.32 Here, in the most recent historical context, the public library has itself become a default symbol and repository for the city’s image and identity. It still retains it’s civic symbolism.  3.0 ISSUES FACING THE PUBLIC LIBRARYThis research aims to extrapolate a more true prototypical defini-tion of the library, proposes a new program based on it’s existing context and issues and case studies, and proposed a future ar-chitectural design template for the public library. Today, the public library is facing a loss in it’s social value as a storage and source of information, greater competition-uncertainty with it’s funding due to its loss in it’s perceived value, increasing marketization, and a larger question facing the state of public civic space today; that it’s not civic enough or useful enough for the public. 3.1 PERCEPTIONS TODAY: WHAT OF FUTURE?Overviewing changes in history, it can be argued that the public library building and institution has always been changing, devel-oping, and responding to its environments to remains useful. It’s historic identity is cumulative and arguably dynamic to a degree. However public library building has arguably been static in it’s core function of storing and lending printed or physical media holding value and information to the public. This is particularly an issue when public perception of the public library rests on it’s identity on provision and management of the book.33 The British Culture, Media and Sport Parliamentary Select Committee states, for example, that books are part of the “tradi-tional...bedrock upon which library services rest no matter how the institution” is changed or evolved. 34 In this frame of public percep-tion, public library book borrowing, while still highly used a enter-tainment activity, is declining; in the United Kingdom for example it has dropped from 550 776 000 being lent to 305 112 000 being lent from 1980-81 to 2002-03; arguably even before today’s digital media dissemination and ubiquity. 31Elmborg James “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recogniz-ing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Service Quar-terly” Volume 50. Issue 4. Pages 338-50. 2011. Web.  <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>32 Christchruch City Council “Central City Plan: Draf Central City Recovery Plan for Ministerial Approval December 2011 “ ccc.govt.nz. Web. Accessed Nov 18th 2018. https://www.ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/The-Council/Plans-Strategies-Policies-Bylaws/Plans/central-city/FinaldraftCentralCityPlan.pdf33 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.34 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.(299)Today, the public library institution faces the risk of needing huge identity changes, a focus away from printed media, and a necessity to adapt to the future conditions. The rise of digital me-dia as a means to store, disseminate, and find information with ubiquity, speed, and convince has arguably made the value of physical public library’s services in storing, lending, and curating a limited amount of information in printed media such as books less valuable to the community. The Vancouver Public Library, for example, is now housing media labs, computer terminals, experts in writing, musical instruments that people may still need or have demand for physically in space compared to the information in digital media or their digital library services. It can be imagined that the public library will eventually have no value anymore as it’s newly included and existing services are overlapped by other existing institutions such as community cen-ters, coffee shops for lounging, and the internet for information creation and gathering.  But this research, so far in it’s analysis, purports that public libraries buildings have existing value in it’s unique functions and roles in public space and society, and that it has existing value as an institution with it’s associated social mi-lieus, norms, and ideals present in the building (as a civic center, public for all, a part of one’s identity as the public space is part of the use, service, and arm of the individual that is sanctioned) that should be developed and preserved for the community and public space.WHAT ARE LIBRARIES & PUBLIC LIBRARIESA library today is typically known as a place where collections of items, usually books, periodicals, newspapers, maps, prints, Cds, videotapes, e-books, audio-books, databases, and other informa-tion media, are stored and lent for free to the public. More holistically, in retracing the origins and traditional function of the public library, libraries were conceived to “preserve” human knowledge (value) and make it accessible in the “widest possible way”.35 Libraries carry the mediums conveying this knowledge, preserving them and collecting them, to allow the “widest possi-ble audience to access” this value. This is particularly the case before the onset of digital storage and media. Today, it should be noted, the main medium of carrying human knowledge and infor-mation has changed format from printed mediums to digital and more ubiquitous formats other than books. Public libraries are libraries that are accessible by the general public, funded by public revenue sources such as taxes or dona-tions, and is operated by librarians and overseen by government sanctioned committees as a civic institution.  In a western con-text of America and Britain, the public library has it’s roots and origins close to the public welfare state and provision to the so-cioeconomically venerable members of society 36 37. In particular it has it roots in grassroots efforts to universalize access to the resources and value of books for self betterment and industrial capitalist “class” interests to mediate unrest of the working class by making them better workers and citizens through the curated catalogue of the public library free service 38Today, it had become a systemic part of the civic public service 35Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. 36Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. (100)37Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 200938Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          17 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC LIBRARY AS FACING CHANGECHALLENGES FACING PUBLIC LIBRARYamong it’s many institutions and is collectively agreed upon as a integral institution for community. Over it’s lifetime, it has been increasingly neoliberalised in it’s shift from a greater ideal of ‘up-lifting’ or bettering it’s users in knowledge, to one of public service, customer satisfaction, and free liberty of usage of it’s resources. Today, with the advent of digital technology and media as a main and more useful source of information, the public library institution both building and program is threatened and undergoing efforts to change. 3.2 CONTEXT TODAYIn studies done on public libraries globally today, the core services required in an “informational city”’s average library encompasses a digital library with “e-journals, e books, audio-books, music, e-magazines, videos, and newspaper and bibliographic databases” 39. The public library also digitizes their own collections and publi-cized them. All have a membership requiring one to hold a card to access databases free of change. All have a national-language web-site and use social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to promote their resources and are “forced to communicate” and market to their community and interests40. For the public library’s physical assets and as a “place”, the library should be an “architectural landmark”41, offers learning and meeting spaces, spaces for children. In addition to this, the spaces should offer Wi-Fi internet access, allow patrons to return books anywhere in the city, and has RFID according to opinion in literature.42 As well, seminars on information literacy is a required typical feature in the public library of today.  Good public libraries, in general, are de-scribed in literature to support the community citizens, companies, and government in their city region through digital services, such as “reference services” and through communication through social media. In terms of physical spaces, public libraries should offer physical spaces for meeting, learning, working, and for children or other “groups” in a “landmark” city building. 43Today, the public library is strongly seen first as an agent in the emerging knowledge economy and the social-economic context that emerges from this. This rise of the knowledge economy, glo-balization with new scales of economy-competition-capital, and “development of new global markets have led to a “reconfiguration 39Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Librar-ies in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pag-es 295-319. 2013. Web. <https://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissenschaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdf40Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Librar-ies in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pag-es 295-319. 2013. Web. <https://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissenschaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdf41Christchruch City Council “Central City Plan: Draf Central City Recovery Plan for Ministerial Approval December 2011 “ ccc.govt.nz. Web. Accessed Nov 18th 2018. <https://www.ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/The-Council/Plans-Strategies-Policies-Bylaws/Plans/central-city/FinaldraftCentralCityPlan.pdf>42Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Librar-ies in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pag-es 295-319. 2013. Web. <https://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissenschaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdf43Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Librar-ies in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pag-es 295-319. 2013. Web. <https://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissenschaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdfof society” is resulting in a time today where the “middle class is gradually vanishing” and a “polarization of society” had been described to be occurring 44. Today, there is a transition to an different labor market that values new characteristics of mobility, flexibility, fluidity and that requires one to be able of rapid reinven-tion, updated learning, and conception of new ideas for staying “relevant” 45. In this view, the socio-economic “polarization” of society results in a new working class that is only able to access the previous generation’s “wide variety of services” through the current “low-cost economy”, rather than through state social policies or economic surpluses 46. In this environment, there is general pressure for the “privatization’ of government and public services including the public library. 3.3 LOSS IN VALUE-CONTEXTIn this modern context, knowledge in it’s holistic economic value, is even more valuable to the private sector. With it’s “non-scarce” and “non-excludable” nature as a public good, knowledge can strategically maximize value generation in the global context 47. However, while public libraries are widely claimed by librarians and themselves as institutions to be central to this knowledge economy and be “competitive”, the fact remains that new digital platforms and forms of information creation, transmission, and storage has displaced the core original historic value of the public library; that as a vector of human information. Indeed, while contentious, there are many views that question the value and legitimacy of public libraries with digital world-media replacing it. The rapid development of technology and the rise of digital media such as ipads, social media, e-books that emerged in the last decade threatens the public library’s original function and hints at it’s risk of obsolescence.48  The internet has dis-placed the public library as a valuable source of information and thus it’s main social purpose and value with digital and online media being more freely available, more accessible, more widely available in information, and having a lower threshold of user cre-ation49. In terms of storing information and its use, there is more updated commercial options for digital books through Amazon, easier searching capabilities for the layman with Google Books Library project online, and Youtube for videos.50 Indeed, the inter-44Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. (99)45Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. (99)46Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. (99)47Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. (100)48 Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and oppor-tunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bit-stream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>49Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and oppor-tunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bit-stream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>50Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and oppor-tunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bit-stream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          18 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC LIBRARY AS FACING CHANGECHALLENGES FACING PUBLIC LIBRARYnet is today a “participatory platform for collectively creating new knowledge” and a “content repository” that arguably exceed the public library’s original value in it’s storage and dissemination of information/knowledge only 51. Today, public libraries today position themselves centrally the “production and circulation” of knowledge, specializing in curating, “evaluating”, selecting information to develop the “critical sensibili-ty” or information intelligence of users.52 However, even this aspect of libraries in curating knowledge and facilitating it’s creation is threatened as well with the “amateurisation” of knowledge manage-ment and production in online and digital means. Indeed, through a quick online search one can arguably find free softwares, tools, and video sites where media of all types can be created, uploaded for free, and consumed for free. In terms of creating information as well, the online digital environment provides better options with Youtube, free software alternative to download such as Open Of-fice, and tutorials to miscellaneous topics freely via websites for users. The physical medium of the public library to help interface historical means to create, with providing needed information and digital based tools in this process, is very challenged with the increasing ubiquity of digital media. Libraries also require the purchasing of books or media creating tools, for example such as recording studio software, to store in a physical space for people to consume; digital medias arguably don’t have this high of a cost. People require movement and transportation to reach the library. Books require investment to produce or publish, has political barri-ers in their production and dissemination of their imbued informa-tion, and are costly to the consumer. Given this, the public library building-institution in this economic-social context is threatened to be “unfordable” by many “public authorities”, governments, and municipalities that are increasingly budget tight in the neoliberalis-ing and privatizing public sphere. 53 Indeed, general public opinion and commentators of public libraries consider “libraries obsolete in the current knowledge environment” and are not worth the money required to fund them. Libraries touted value for informal education to the  general public is barely perceived. Only services that directly address equality, accessibility for marginalized peoples, and ser-vices that “directly respond” to symptoms of “economic crises” are acknowledge in general western public opinion. 54Demographic trends moving to the future, as well, show that the public library must compete for users that prefer online or digital use and social-based interaction. Here, it can be speculated that going to the physical public library would decrease among young-er users when competition is more convenient. 55 In general, the physical public library is arguably becoming less useful to the com-munity as a building with its equivalent stored inventory migrating to digital media where. Foot-traffic to Vancouver Public Library’s central branch, for example, has consistently decreased from 2013-17, indicating a trend in declining use. 5651Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 2014. 52Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 2014. (100)53Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 201454Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 2014. 55Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and opportunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>56Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 3.4 NEOLIBERAL MARKETINGToday the public library institution has moved towards a highly neoliberal mindset in its efforts to remain valuable to the commu-nity with it’s given services. 57 There are views that it prioritizes it’s continuation as an institution first and markets for customer wants.58 However, with it’s existing services, the public library’s efforts to portray it own value is holistically challenged and argu-ably in competition with other similar civic institutions or private services today. Community centers, for example, also arguably provide the social services, community programs, and spaces that the public library’s argue to provide to the community. Public library’s relatively new incorporated production spaces, exhibi-tion spaces, and study-group meeting areas such as in the new Vancouver Public Central Library roof deck expansion in 2018, arguably has limited public demographic range of value, overlaps with the government funded museums or art galleries, and faces competition with the consumer experiences and  socializations in contemporaneous coffee shops. Indeed, cities and sources of funding highly look to the public library institution’s portrayed and perceived marked value in assessing public library value, funding, and support. While public library’s internationally are expanding their services horizontally and hybridizing with new functions, they arguably overlap with existing public or private established competition. Funds globally, in light of this, are decreasing for public libraries today in general with time.59 There is relatively recent trend of governments doubting the public library’s value and this has caused the public library’s funding to be at risk with recent trends in budget cuts and financial issues; when facing cuts between more essential services such as health to public libraries, many times the public library loses the funds.60 In this context, the public library needs to better market it’s existing and imagined services and this can be done (and explored) through architecture. 3.5 USEFULNESS: NEEDIn general, the public library is used less by the general public today. Vancouver Public Library,  despite being ranked the highest in the world foe example, is declining in overall physical usership and circulation of materials by year and younger adults. 61  The public library institution in general, and in particular it’s physical spaces and circulating books, is not valuable as before histori-cally as source of information and storage of information. Due to internet and digital media as being more ubiquitous, easier to donate-contribute to, having greater dissemination, having cost of input is lower, and access can be minimal, the public library building space faces a growing challenge in it’s community cul-tural and functional value. Indeed, compared with the library, the 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>57Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.58Bushman John “Libraries, Classrooms, and the Interests of Democracy: Marking the Limits of Neoliberalism” The Scarecrow Press Inc. 2012.59Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Profession-al Series. 2014. 60Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and oppor-tunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bit-stream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>61Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          19 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFACING CHANGESCHALLENGES FACING PUBLIC LIBRARYproduction, cost, and political barriers comparatively of publishing and purchasing info is less from digital internet. 62 In this context, then it is argued that the circulating elements of the public library in the future should focus first more on entities of publicly needed/desired value that has to be rooted to space. This will keep the physical library spaces arguably relevant in being a place to store, distribute, and collect these more physically rooted entities when its traditional media of information is increasingly digital.There are also many claims that the public library’s creates reduced social divisions and concerns of “class”, which the public library has been claimed to cater for immigrants and refugees to help with integration and reduction of social barriers in the community.63 In context to helping create a better civic environment, the public library has been described by the National Library Board of Singa-pore to “maintain social cohesion” and that in a multi-racial society no “segments of society become marginalized” in context to their library services. 64 New Zealand and India, for example, also claim public libraries help “widening of perspective”, “development of a community” to be inclusive, and considers the accessibility and “requirements” of all groups.65 Indeed3.6 PUBLIC AND CIVIC SPACEPublic libraries buildings, being part of the city’s public space net-work, are arguably also facing larger issues or challenges facing the state of public space today. Public space is arguably increasingly commercialized and constructed in “totality” with this paradigm66. Arguably, to ensure a stronger community, greater individual free-doms, and the value of public spaces to community society, public spaces require greater public-user agency in constructing the social milieus, true values-uses, and functions of the space (as discussed previously). As well, according to this study’s position and stance on public space, it’s existing condition today is argued to lack conscious con-cern towards general community public ‘needs’ that good public spaces should encompass; this can cover fundamental needs of shelter, security, and protection, utility needs such as comfort or rest, and higher needs such as entertainment experiences or social engagements not met in the private realm. To clarify here, it is ar-gued that for an individual to successfully gain the provided value and fulfill his intended need in a public space, the public space must fulfill the needs unmet by the user’s own private realm; this means that if an hypothetical public park only provides play experi-ences for it’s visitors and the imagined user is not able to fulfill his fundamental needs in his own private realm, then he is unable to access, enjoy, and fulfill his higher needs in the park. It is argued that the state of public civic spaces today, as implied earlier in the study, are underdeveloped and do not cover the all the hierarchies of needs provision to allow an accessible good public civic spaces. This hierarchical provision of needs by public spaces arguably mirrors what is already occurring in our consumerist private spaces and is analogous to the systems of Maslows hierarchy of needs.67 62Elmborg James “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recogniz-ing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Service Quar-terly” Volume 50. Issue 4. Pages 338-50. 2011. Web.  <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497> (339)63Userwood, B. “Equity and Excellence in the Public Library: Why Ignorance is Not our Heritage” Ashgate. 2007.64Userwood, B. “Equity and Excellence in the Public Library: Why Ignorance is Not our Heritage” Ashgate. 2007.65Userwood, B. “Equity and Excellence in the Public Library: Why Ignorance is Not our Heritage” Ashgate. 2007.(14)66 Schultz, Christian Norberg. “ Intentions in Architecture” MIT Press. 196567 Hyelighen, Francis “A cognitive-Systemic Reconstructiono f Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization” PESP. Behavioral Science. Volume 37. 1992. Web. Accessed Oct 7th 2018 <http://cleamc11.In the context of Maslow’s theories, the provision of basal needs is a critical condition needed to continue and perpetuate a larger social structure, social capital, or perhaps a true functioning community. 68 Public libraries, in this context, must evolve into the future as a public civic space to solve this argued lack. 3.7 IDENTITY: JUXTAPOSED AND UNIQUEIn this context and theoretical basis then, what is a true identity of the public library? Understanding identity as being contextual, cumulative, and juxtaposition as discussed earlier, it is argued that the core public library identity is what sets it apart, makes it unique, and what makes it valuable to the community. In this lens, it is argued that the true identity of the public library is first a social culture of reducing social barriers by facilitating free lending of reusable rare resources to all  ensured by a culture facilitating high social capital. This is expressed in the public library's univseral function of storing, lending, and allowing the use of its stored items to the public freely in all cases studies, examples explored, and literature decribed in this context; in every case, the public library acted to accumulate a stored collection of books and circulate it for the public benifit  and need in time. Architecturally, this librarys sharing economy can be reduced to nodes of storage, places around it for use, and an spatial means to secure the stored inventory and use.This, in context to functions and identities of other similar institutions, is what uniquely defines the public library in juxtaposition; indeed, arguably no other institution or place actively functions to freely share or lend rare value to the public freely in a static place in space. Though today however, this function shares similaries to the relatively new commercially based sharing economy that companies such as Uber or Airbnb are practicing. Colloquially, the sharing economy is a loose term that references activities of non-profits, community oganizations, or businesses with services that are founded on the concept of sharing an reusable entity of value.69 This idea is not without precedence, as the ALA or American Library Association is aware of the potential of libraries to demonstate the "value and potential" for shared resources and spaces; where electronic devices, moblity vehicles, tools are already are aguably jsut the potential start of what is possible.70 Demographically, the library's core identity in context to sharing economy may be good as younger generations, such as 35 percent of millennials compared to 7 percent of baby bommers in a Nielsen Global survey, have been shown to be willing to use or rent shared products such as tools, clothing, household items, cars, furniture, pets, and even homes;71 indicating potential future growth, viability, and provision of need that ensures public library survival and value to the public community. Paritcularily, the sharing economy also relies on trust, which the public library has been discussed to provide unqiuely as an public space in the previous section, indicating the potential and value of the public library to develop in this avenue in the future.72In terms of the core defined identity of the public library's vub.ac.be/Papers/Maslow.pdf>68 Hyelighen, Francis “A cognitive-Systemic Reconstructiono f Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization” PESP. Behavioral Sci-ence. Volume 37. 1992. Web. Accessed Oct 7th 2018 <http://cleamc11.vub.ac.be/Papers/Maslow.pdf>69 “Sharing Economy” ala.org. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018. < http://www.ala.org/tools/future/trends/sharingeconomy> 70 “Sharing Economy” ala.org. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018. < http://www.ala.org/tools/future/trends/sharingeconomy>71 Nielsen “Global Consumers Embrace The Sharing Economy” < https://www.nielsen.com/lb/en/press-room/2014/global-con-sumers-embrace-the-share-economy.html>72“Sharing Economy” ala.org. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018. < http://www.ala.org/tools/future/trends/sharingeconomy>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          20 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFACING CHANGESCHALLENGES FACING PUBLIC LIBRARYarchitectural space, this was inferred from analysing the first case study Withington Public Library as shown in figure 21 and 22. Arguably, all public libraries such as 53rd Branch of New York Public Library, the Vancouver Public Library branches, and all typical libraries can be reduced to these abstracted spatial elements; where through observation of local libraries and case study examples show that the public library architecture can be percieved in terms of it's exterior envelope, spaces of using it's stored items such as a desk, chair, or standing space, and points of storage and display such as shelves. This is further indicated in figure 35 (upper diagram). In context to other understood defining features of the public library, such as it's nature to store and lend books or information, being a place of equity and accesibilty, being a community service in general, these identifiers were not conceptually considered as part of the public library's core true idenitty as they arguably overlap with other existing places, instutions, and situations in society.While the public library also provides commercial spaces, spaces for presentation, lounge spaces,  children’s entertainment, and digital media labs for creation, many of these spaces are also present in other civic or commercial spaces such as community centers, parks, or malls. As a place to store or use information and lend books, the physical library shared this superseded function with digital media, virtual libraries, and other online mediums that overlap with the traditional library building’s historical function in society. While it still preserves and collects information for society’s use, this function is arguably done through digital and online media. As a public space, the community center, parks, and other public spaces also provide interior spaces for accessibility and shelter just like the public library. Programs and services, such as educational classes and language course provided by the library, arguably are also serviced by community centers and through means online. As a whole, these traits don’t define the public library’s identity in juxtaposition. Indeed, as an interior public space that is accessible to all the public and culturally acts in the interest of the user first through its services, it can be arguably overlapped in similar function to the community center. While it has been hinted that the public library can act as a civic symbol and garner urban investment as a civic icon as in the case of Christchurch Central Library in New Zealand, this neoliberal lens arguably applies to all other public spaces, institutions, and private archtiectural icons on the urban scale as well. 4 WHY PUBLIC LIBRARY NEEDS TO EXIST + CHANGE4.1 WHY IT SHOULD CHANGE: CURRENT DEBATES - NEED FOR CHANGEThere is much public discussion into the future of public libraries and literature confirms the need to redefine the public library to today’s context.73  These debates are framed by the ongoing dig-ital revolution, the economic financial situation of the late 2000s, the crises of traditional welfare, “decline of middle class” and socio-economic polarization. Here, the current social-economic “framework” or world questions and threatens the legitimacy of the traditional role of the library. The public library institution must change as they have arguably lost their value as a information hub to the community, can be developed further as a public civic space, and needs to arguably become an active force in shaping the urban milieu for community benefit again as it has done historically. It’s need to transform is also supported by current trends in ad-dressing public library change; many libraries and established experts are already addressing the public library’s transformation in 73Galluzzi, Anna “Libraries and Public Perception: A comparative analysis of the European press” Chandos Information Professional Series. 2014. light of these challenges it faces.74 In addition to the need to ad-dress the challenges addressed in the previous section, to remain relevant the public library needs to have the ability to be flexible and perhaps inherently respond to changing public demands into its future. Generally, it is stipulated that public libraries, in particu-lar to their physical buildings, need to transform to remain useful and continue to exist.4.2 WHY SHOULD IT EXIST: FUTURE CONSENSUSIn terms of why the public library should not just be left to decline or evolve regardless of the outcome, the public library institutions and buildings has existing historical and culturally associated value in and of itself; that it is argued this existing value can be preserved and improved. Most holistically in terms of the city and the global context, public library buildings and institutions are seen as critical symbols of civic and city identities, a critical necessary repertoire of the state civic buildings representing the city, and symbolically defines architecturally the state of civic space and community in a city. It is argued publicly as a neces-sary presence despite it’s utility today.75 Public libraries are also important public spaces with services and sheltered spaces that may provide the public with working spaces, safe space for the marginalized, and resources such as computers.76 In this context, it still provides for public needs today and has a collective impact on the community to it’s size. Indeed, it is also a physical public space that provides free shelter, free resources the benefit the public or marginalized/socially venerable of society. In certain cases, such as Mount Pleasant Branch in Vancouver for example, it provides welcoming seating spaces, community services, and arguably safe-secure public space that affects everyone and not just the individual. Also the public library has value in it’s existing culture, such as the spirit to study, learn, and better the self and society through these actions. An example of this cultural under-standing of library use, codes of conduct to be civil, quiet, and studious have been produced to affirm this library culture. The public library can also find new critical value based on it’s theorized identity as discussed previously. Again, this is not without precedence as there is existing discussion on the public library’s potential association with the sharing economy 77. As already functioning as a sharing system through books and infor-mation for the publics welfare, there is the potential that the public library can expand its inventory, breadth, and spatial role in what it can loan to the public in context to their defined needs. This sharing could have the benefit of lowering costs to the user and maximizes larger economic productivity-value the loaned item is presumably only needed during certain points in time for and in-dividual. This is described in more detail in figure 16 and 17. This sharing economy is also valuable and emerging in today’s con-text with physically bound items that is not competing with digital media. These items include objects other than the book such as bikes, tools, or even experiences. Indeed, books and some tools such as a power drill has high idling capacity in it’s lifetime of 74Morris Anne “ Public libraries – challenges and oppor-tunities for the futrue [Keynote address]” Loughborough University Proceeding of the International 5th Conference on Libraries, Information, and Society. Nov 2014. Web Accessed Nov 20st 2018<https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bit-stream/2134/19162/3/Morris%20-%20ICOLIS%202014.pdf>75 Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Libraries in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pages 295-319. 2013. Web. <https://www.phil-fak.uni-dues-seldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissen-schaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdf76 McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001.77“Sharing Economy” ala.org. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018. < http://www.ala.org/tools/future/trends/sharingeconomy>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          21 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISANALYZED PROPOSITIONSFUTURE OF PUBLIC LIBRARYuse by an individual; but in a sharing economy, it’s used more and provides greater value. This concept already exists with Uber, tools, housing rentals, or instruments and is discussed and talked about today in presentations, organizations, and even local libraries.78 The potential of the public library to focus on space-bound value in this sharing system also reaffirms the value of it’s physical spaces to the public and community. Indeed, public libraries arguably al-ready have starting doing this with existing items as seen in library examples in Vancouver. The seed library in Mount Pleasant Branch in Vancouver,79 the hosting of a First Nations Storyteller in VPL Cen-tral Branch, and Vancouver Public Library’s loaning of instruments reflects this potential trend. Books, cars, tools, or spatial social situations conventionally still require space for use, ‘storage’, and value to be generated. As well, the public library also has potential in the sharing economy due to it’s high levels of social trust and generation of social capital in it’s spaces, function, and program. The sharing economy has been described to heavily rely on trust for it to effectively function80 and it can be posited that the public library, with high social capital generation, associated culture of sharing, and existing system of loaning, can effectively develop in this avenue. In other contexts and more materialistically, public libraries are still marketed to have high returns of public effects despite it’s decline in absolute value to the community. There are many relatively recent means to measure libraries in more economic terms and these met-rics provide many positive results in the economic return in value of the public library. However, it must be argued that public libraries, regardless of any advertisement of their value and existing inven-tory, have lost their original true critical value as the main storage device and source of information to pass on in society over time. There are other remaining values to the public library with its exist-ing associations, value as a space, and ideals it’s embodies. It can find new niches in existing contexts such as elaborating and explor-ing it’s future in the entertainment and leisure it provides in it’s ex-isting services.81 This can market its physical services and spaces better to the public, perhaps ensure better government funding, and ensure it’s survival as an institution. Books themselves, also in this context has value and can continue to be provided as evidenced through the public library’s high usage, circulation, and attendance of it’s children’s spaces, services, and programs 82 Books, argu-ably, remain a popular form of entertainment and leisure that re-mains valuable to children, adults, and members of the community which may keep the library relevant in an experiential and cultural fashion .83 While niche in popularity, this can be marketed as a use for the future public library. The library speculatively can also take existing programs and hybridize uses with entertainment with suc-cess today; children’s spaces with toys, games, and socialization remains popular in most public libraries. New York Public Library’s 53rd Branch, for example, retains it’s children spaces despite it’s reduction in size in it’s redevelopment. Vancouver Public library’s 78 “Leeds and the Thousand Islands Public Library” accessola2.com Web. < http://accessola2.com/superconference2016/ses-sions/1600LIB.pdf>79VPL “Mount Pleasant Branch” vpl.ca Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018 < https://www.vpl.ca/location/mount-pleasant-branch>80 Hawlitschek Florian, Teubner Timm “Trust in the Sharing Econ-omy” Die Unternehmung Issue 70. Pg 26-44. April 2016. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018 < https://www.researchgate.net/publica-tion/299812647_Trust_in_the_Sharing_Economy>81Snape, Robert “Leisure and The Rise of the Public Library” Li-brary Association Publishing. 1995.82 82Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>83Snape, Robert “Leisure and The Rise of the Public Library” Li-brary Association Publishing. 1995.children’s spaces, in contrast to other physical services and foot-traffic it has, increases or remains popular over the past few years. 84 It is speculated here that the public library can, in general, also make existing and proposed library building more attractive, perhaps through architecture, to market it existing and proposed uses to ensure customer base, popularity, and funding.  With positive emotions or associations with entertain-ment, experiences, and positive value gained, public library use and in extension it’s imbued culture, ideals, and concepts can be continued in the public. Hjorring public library, designed by RosanBosch for example, re-frames a convention public library’s inventory, shelves, and books with a red social “ribbon” that transforms in uses, contexts, and frames new social situations in the space; the ribbon transforms into a table, seating, or play area that frames new uses and arguably spurs social interaction with existing traditional library inventory in a entertaining context.85 Here, architecture has the potential to reframe the public library, its potential fundamental identity-function, and it’s role in public space, in a new marketed context of entertainment, experiences, and public value. There are other situations and conditions in which the public library can adopt and architecturally convey to remain socially valuable. There is potential to make it better for new functions such as what is already done with hybridizing the social engage-ments of coffeehouses with the books in libraries. Seattle public library, for example, hybridizes the traditional library with com-munity lounging spaces, seating, and a coffee shop. The public library is also a rare interior public space that already provides the basic needs of environmental shelter, protection, safety and it has the ability to provide social agency to the public. The potential for new public freedoms in choice, reduced social barriers for market engagement, and re-articulating the public society  through the existing library means it has strong value in it’s pure architectural space itself.As well, the public library can find existing niches for current and existing library services in society, other than transforming or re-branding itself as just discussed previously with entertainment value. Space-time value gaps, for example, can be situations where the public library service is still valued or desired. This can be analogiized to the remaining function of the radio in automotive commutes or cars; with a drivers attention required on the road, the radio remains a means of entertainment and news consump-tion in which the smartphone, television, or book cannot. In this case, an example of a space-time gap could be the unused wait-ing time in a subway station, where cellular service or wifi is lim-ited or the situation could otherwise be used more productively. In a neoliberal lends as well, the public library can also find new critical value based on generating social capital with it’s known existing value in this context as discussed before. Taking all these points in mind, the public library today’s future existence and importance is affirmed in literature despite pres-ence of pessimistic outlooks.  For example general consensus on future growth, despite some establishment and study’s that ad-vocate for the value and sustained use of the traditional inventory of books and information, show increasingly that the future use of the library would focus more “spaces and the events” that are programmed in the physical spaces.86 84 Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>85 Rosan Bosch “Hjorring Central Library” rosanbosch.com  Web. Accessed Sep 19th. <http://www.rosanbosch.com/en/project/hjørring-central-library>86  Mainka A, Hartmann S, Orszullok, Peters I, Stallmann A, Stock W “Public Libraries in the Knowledge Society: Core Services of Libraries in Informational World Cities” Libri. Volume 2013. Issue 4. Pages 295-319. 2013. Web. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          22 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISANALYZED PROPOSITIONSFUTURE OF PUBLIC LIBRARYIn general, the fact that the public library already has value and in-stitutional roles in society despite it’s primary functions to informa-tion and the book, means there’s discourse and opinion on how it, as a building, should be a measured target of evolution. Rather than simply conceiving of a new service, effort, or building for social is-sues, the public library building can be a place for future evolutions for community needs/issues. 875.0 FUTURE CHANGE: WHAT WE NEED TO CHANGE TOThe evolution of the future public library is exploratory and is based off the context and challenges it faces today. To outline how the public library building/architecture and institution can evolve, the true value of the public library in it’s function and cultural roles will be analyzed and extrapolated. As well, this and the public library will be assessed in it’s programs to how well tie provides value to and developed the community, state of public space, and the welfare of the public individual for what parameters should be added and developed into the future. In general, the future development of the public library in terms of program and architecture should remain rooted to the community and thus the also the development of it’s value, public civic nature, and cultural associative values/norms based on the discussed condition of public spaces previously. To briefly summarize current discussions and later analysis in the article, the public library is currently valued as a cultural institution, civic center, public space that reduces social barriers, a place of social-exchange, learning, and of it’s social-spatial experience. It’s core identity is reduced to it’s role in reducing social barriers through lending rare cycled value to the public for free and as build-ing to catalyze this social ritual. It is proposed that the public library can further hybridize more with aspects of entertainment, it’s role as a sharing economy, and use greater economic leverage through space to gain greater entities of value cycled for community value. Here, the public library evolution can make a new social sharing economy facilitated in a high social-capital social milieu of enjoy-ment and interaction; that its architecture can facilitate this through the library’s prototypical spatial identity-order. ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATIONThe public library historically has been very conservative in it’s scale, breath, and form. It can be so much more given the analo-gies of mobile libraries, the catalytic architectural frameworks for human intention in Downsview park, the curation and storage of people-items other than books-experiences-situations, and new scales of library space with Thingery shown in the case studies dis-cussed later. The public library should be rethought in terms of it’s core system function of library items, it’s access, and it’s use at a new architectural scales and compartmentalizations of meaning. This research posits that the traditional public library branch/build-ing, typically only encompassing one space that stores, displays, provides space to use, and provides space of exchange an item, could be deconstructed and rebuilt for a better modem context in mind of previous paragraph’s goals to become more relevant and useful in the future. Here storage could be decoupled form display, use and exchange of the item into library branches, where the central building provides greater storage over the library’s other analyzed uses. Rather than all in one building, perhaps another conception would be for storage and display to occur in a central library with branches focusing on the use and exchange of these borrowed community desired items <https://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/fileadmin/Redaktion/Institute/Informationswissenschaft/siebenlist/Lehre/PS_I2/libri-2013-0024_63-4-295-319_Mainka_Stock.pdf87 Feinberg, R “ The Changing Culture of Libraries” Mcfarland and Company Inc. 2001 (59)temporarily and in greater frequency over time. PUBLIC SPECULATIONIn terms of public spaces, through Lefebvre’s understanding of today’s existing capitalistic consumer orientated representational spaces that is shaping our culture of action in public society and communities, the architectural of the public library in the future should rearticulate an alternative territory of public relations, of greater user experienced agency, and a consciously designed represented space of representational space that allows for a wide range of user schema, territories, and fulfillment of public needs-desires 88.To overview, for Lefebvre, public spaces have transformed from absolute spaces to what he terms abstract space: where public places of “absolute meanings” in the past have slowly transform into generic “abstract” commercial spaces that constructs only economic meanings and ignores meanings of community life. Lefebvre argues for three conceptual ways of conceiving space: through “spatial practices”, “ representations of space”, and “representational spaces” where it’s respectively through human senses and needs, conceived spaces where “planners” or “librar-ians” measure what they think is happening vs what they think should happen to facilitate or “channel human activity” to desired states, and heterotopically symbolic spaces where realization depends on the schema or “perceptual” understanding or imag-ination of the user individually89 In this context of encroaching commercial space in our consumer society, these paradigms of  “capitalism” and exchange have meant public spaces have ne-glected their architectural and programmatic language to ensure community values- values that were argued by Lefebvre to be not well expressed in the consumer commercial conceived space today. 90Arguably, as public spaces outside today such as sidewalks and parks lack the benches for basic rest, shelter from all elements like cold or rain, safety in terms of lighting and traffic protection, and way-finding elements in many cases for pedestrian legibility, public spaces are byproducts, not at the forefront of community concern, and arguably neglected in their potential development in our capitalistic-economic social system. As implied by Maslow’s theory reflected in his hierarchy of human needs, if our basal needs are not met either in the public or private spheres, then public spaces are not up to par, not servicing all, and needs to be improved in the future for the public good. Thus, public spaces should then provide for these needs, elements, and neglected aspects that at minimum should be developed but was lacking in the spaces we live in. The future public library, as part of the public space infrastructure in society, should have a means to provide these basic necessities and needs with user agency to the public to further develop the our community civic spaces.6.0 SUMMARY NOTESParadigms, like perceived social milieus or representative spaces, present a particular focus and structure to the world a person 88Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recogniz-ing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quarterly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>89Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Rec-ognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quarterly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350 2011. Web.  <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/view-File/3297/3497> (339)90Elmborg J.K. “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recogniz-ing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Services Quarterly. Volume 50. Issue 4. Pag 338-350. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          23 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFUTURE PROPOSITIONSFUTURE OF PUBLIC LIBRARYsees.91 It compartmentalizes the world around in a particular way and in consequence highlights certain conditions but “draws away from other aspects” that it doesn’t highlight. This can be analogous to the state of public spaces today, where it’s potential value, place as a community space of potential activities, and normative site of civic engagement is arguably displaced by what Lefebvre calls “abstract” commercial spaces totalized by their semantics of con-sumerism; Here, it is “no longer possible to see what the lens does not reveal”.92 Indeed, the normative state of the public, the com-munity, and the public library institutions arguably has the potential to develop as a community society where it can hybridize with the “Individualism” and commercial spaces of our cities.Today the public library is undergoing efforts to change and evolve to remain relevant to the community and in presentation to it’s funding constituents.  In the past, the public library has arguably constantly evolved and reinvented itself over time to be useful and valued by the public. 93 Today some are worried that public libraries focus too much on public need in detriment of the library’s true value, lack of integration with it’s context, or that public libraries need better marketing to survive into the future if it remains with it’s current stock. 94 Indeed, it can be argued that the need perceived by the public may not be what the public library can best provide. Even libertarian public library views remark library marketing, promoting, and directing the purpose of public libraries is bad, unclear, and lost. 95 Thus there exists the need for the public library to retouch it’s public civic roots, purpose, and value in a new social economic milieu. Why shouldn’t public civic space be developed and evolved further through the public library?Public libraries have always been argued to be political; they are public and civic in nature and thus by mere existence dictates social relationships and contributes to making the larger social milieu.96Today, public libraries as a whole are still arguably “libertar-ian” and service focused in their emphases on community needs, distribution of materials, and ensuring their traditional functions as a institution are met. 97 Due to increasing funding competition, neoliberal commercialized environments, and thus customer-gov-ernment constituent orientated (value to them) development, public libraries are increasingly perceived in terms of their functional ser-vice by librarians and funders. However, public libraries are actually historically “community development” and problem solving places with ideals of providing social welfare and civic good. 98 Ronald, in “Civic Libraianship” for example, describes how public libraries can shape communities simply by framing the collective value they provide;99 if users become invested and benefit from these values they then perhaps may become more caring and more invested in these public civic and community servicing spaces.The public library perception today is at risk of being seen as an isolated institution by  librarians, government, and the public where it needs to compete for market niches for funding. 100 While facili-91McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (45)92McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (45)93 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.94 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.95 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.96Strong T., Henaff M. “Public Space and Democracy” University of Minnesota Press 2001. (8)97McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (77)98McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (78)99McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (91)100McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social tating of the public library’s features with the sharing economy is proposed, it is argued that this is rather first in mind of enhancing the public library’s social cultural value, it’s fostering of collective help, and true welfare for the community. Indeed, as Ronald re-marks in Civic Libraianship, the public library is a network in civic space, 101 where it can bolster and define public and civic society through it’s own identity, it’s redefinition, and it’s own change. Here, it is argued that the value of the potentials of public space show not be lost and be emphasized. As Ronald posits, there is also value in community that can support the pursuit of individu-alism and individual responsibility. Here, it is argued ideologically that a more community-orientated strategy could be developed even more with the public library’s future. Public libraries provide a social milieu to the city. A new commu-nity identity can be defined with this agency with rich public life in context to the public library’s potential community orientated and encompassing programs. Public libraries,while needing to consider and address its consumer culture and users with value, must not only be customer market orientated as it would then be “redundant and unnecessary” with it’s reactionary nature102  Today, the public library today needs to complete for funds with other institutions so it needs to be “accountable” with it’s given government funds, valuable to the community, and responsive to needs. 103 But it arguably should not be only completely market orientated as, for general good at a community scale, it needs to consider public investment for public welfare as a whole in terms of ideal public spaces. Public libraries, put in context of it as an agent of public space and a potential shaper of how communities and individuals live, can then become active catalysts to develop stronger better public spaces, greater user agencies, and stronger communities. DIRECTIONSHere, understanding the public circulating library’s role in an expanded social perspective as a public civic space lets it be un-derstood to act to reduce social barriers by loaning rare reusable economic resources to the public for free. As well, it is an archi-tectural spatial platform in which to facilitate this cultural ritual of ‘social’ exchange. Here, economic resources being understood as entities including information that is hard or has barriers to ob-tain by the general public, social barriers being understood as any restrictions imbued by social class or social divisions or income or psychology of social structure, and rarity being understood as what has limited supply or availability for any social, economic, or conceptual reason. Taking this concept further, there arguably can be a new perspective of the library based on hybridizing these elements of capitalism, community, and larger systems of society. In specific context to the larger economic system and capitalism, the library’s role could more directly address the deepest social issues its ideology covers; to bridge the economic social divide (needs rather than wants or desires), to voice those who have no platform for expression, provide skills those who cannot integrate into the economy, and provide bridges to opportunities for those unable to obtain starting capital. This would be through empha-sizing the public library’s ability to popularize and develop it’s inherent sharing economy to new scales in vacant space-times in social contexts to develop greater community public agency and public space.Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. 101McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (116)102McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001. (157)103McCabe, Ronald B. “Civic Librarianship: Renewing the Social Mission of the Public Library” Scarecrow Press. 2001.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          24 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISANALYZED PROPOSITIONSFUTURE OF PUBLIC LIBRARYThis potential avenue to pursue the library’s historical and prototypical identity-role in the sharing economy is supported by recent trends and growth in the commercial sharing economy with companies such as Uber or Lyft. 104POSSIBLE DIRECTIONSRelative decline of public library funding globally means a loss of this civic capacity of the library and it’s heterotopic place of contestation. If not funded well by the government, then who can supplement the future public library’s function and value circulated? If who controls the library dictates it’s content, then the library can satisfy it’s concerns of financing, government funding interest, and true public relevance through more direct integration with the economy. Here, the power of capital to influence what is stored and the use of economic leverage to obtain greater value transferred be-tween users is speculated. It is tentatively imagined that by grafting the public library into larger economic forces and interests with the enticement of it’s existing spaces or programs, greater values can be obtained in trade.Again, an example of this economic leverage is where public library space can be loaned to a commercial company. In this trade, items that the company uses for production and knowledge must be loaned to interested public parties in designed established space-relationships. This exchange is facilitated through the archi-tecture and sanctioned in the programmatic ideals of the traditional public library. It is formalized so it would potentially occur naturally in the library space. Speculatively, the type of company and system must be accessible to the public and useful lest the tools and sys-tem would not be required or loaned. What is given and taken, for example, is leveraged to increase in value on both sides to improve the library economic utility to the publics civic needs (rather than only desires or only information in the form of knowledge/informa-tion). This is exemplified by the expansion of the library’s definition horizontally and vertically. In this example, the scale of what is loaned and who value is loaned to is expanded. This play of scale and breadth will be further developed during spatial simulations of more detailed architectural design guidelines as seen in the design proposal and architectural simulation shown later in the article.Here, the question of storing and loaning economic situations, conditions, and leverage is asked. How and what economic lever-age for greater value transferred between users through space and architecture is questioned. How the library architecturally houses the social system for this furthered speculation is considered. _________________________________________________CASE STUDIES (FOLLOWING PAGES)To better understand the context, forces, and potentials of the how the public library institution can evolve into the future with the dis-cussion so far, a number of case studies of new and old libraries, public space examples, and different sharing economies were stud-ied in relation to the approach to public space, civic identity, public space development, its value to the community, and it’s hybridiza-tion with other contextual elements not traditional associated with the library. Using these case studies to better understand the con-text, issues, and potential of the public library program and build-ings, the extrapolated, analyzed, or observed findings were used to further develop a stance on future public library development in terms it’s program and consequential architecture - in the form of spatial design stipulations that were produced with analytical itera-tions. The case studies start on the following pages.104 “Sharing Economy” ala.org. Web Accessed Nov 20th 2018. < http://www.ala.org/tools/future/trends/sharingeconomy>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          25 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPROTOTYPICAL OF PUBLIC LIBRARY ARCHITECTURE TODAYCASE STUDIES: CARNEGIE LIBRARY7.0 OVERVIEWThe Carnegie library’s design through the influence of Carnegie arguably shaped the standard of the typical public library and it’s template for the English speaking western world with his philan-thropic funding of public library construction, insistence for the offered municipality to adopt an official a maintenance policy through taxation, and the development of the public library as an institution.1 Over his life, Carnegie funded 1679 libraries at a cost of over 41 million dollars. These philanthropically funded public librar-ies imbued their own spaces of totality, with ridgidly imposed social rituals of item use, behavior, and conduct, that was “negotiated in specific social and cultural settings” of the places they were built 2 ANALYSIS: BASIC PROGRAMSThe architecture of Carnegie Libraries varied widely, but all shared a similar conceptual composition and similar material types used in construction. Most Carnegie libraries, for example, had common masonry construction, high foundations requiring steps to enter the main floor, were one to two stores high, had plaster walls and ceil-ings with wood furnishings, had a main staircase with light-posts representing knowledge at the front entrance, and had windows on first floor set high on facade for natural lighting.3 In terms of plan, these libraries were defined by large open spaces, accessible pe-rimeter bookshelves, and a central reference desk that was centrally located for good library surveillance by a librarian.4Carnegie had his secretary Bertam in “Notes on Erecting Library buildings”, also develop a pamphlet to guide applicants and design-ers to better and more correctly follow his donated library designs.5 In these pamphlets, the architectural composition and program of the interior were fully defined while the exterior style, aesthetic, and facade were not. Interior programs stipulated included reading rooms, open stack bookshelves that were usually open access, a basement community public lecture room, public bathrooms, and a librarian reference area.6 In general, the design stipulated and result-ed in two floors with the lower floor having the community lecture room, bathrooms, and other service areas. The main floor then typically had a grand staircase, a ship-head counter that facilitated public librarian surveillance and control of user behavior, reading rooms, and bookshelves. 7 What defined these designs where their focus on denoting a place to store the books via shelves, spaces to use or read the lent books, and a counter or building threshold where these activities were controlled, regulated, and secured in the interior space. This is better reflected in figure 21 and 22.1 Slyck, Abigail. “Free to All: Carnegie Libraries and american culturel 1890-1920” Chicago University Press. 1995. <https://jour-nals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497>2 Slyck, Abigail. “Free to All: Carnegie Libraries and american culturel 1890-1920” Chicago University Press. 1995. <https://journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/viewFile/3297/3497> 3Cierickx Mary B. “The Archtiecture of Literacy: Carnegie Libraries in the U.S.” National Trust for Histori Preservation. Nov 3. 2006. Web. Accessed Nov 26th 2018 < http://www.carnegielibraries.pghfree.net/nthp/natltrust-presentation1.pdf4 Cierickx Mary B. “The Archtiecture of Literacy: Carnegie Libraries in the U.S.” National Trust for Histori Preservation. Nov 3. 2006. Web. Accessed Nov 26th 2018 < http://www.carnegielibraries.pghfree.net/nthp/natltrust-presentation1.pdf5James Bertram, “Notes on the Erection of Library Buildings,” 1911 (Library of Congress)6 Capps Kriston “How Andrew Carnegie Built the Architecture of American Literacy” citylab.com. Oct 2014. Web. Accessed Nov 11th 2018. https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-an-drew-carnegie-built-the-architecture-of-american-literacy/381953/7 Capps Kriston “How Andrew Carnegie Built the Architecture of American Literacy” citylab.com. Oct 2014. Web. Accessed Nov 11th 2018. https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-an-drew-carnegie-built-the-architecture-of-american-literacy/381953/Carnegie and Bertam’s design work, number of libraries built, and stipulations on use arguably strongly influenced contempo-raneous library design and future library development. Carnegie encouraged separate individual buildings for public libraries and it’s argued clarity as a public center of community service. In his stipulation of library design and it’s proliferation, Carnegie intend-ed public libraries to be “community centers”.8 While this com-munity and civic role intended by Carnegie is arguably less em-phasized today in comparison, the Carnegie library’s architectural design arguably reflects and predates those of modern libraries in regards to spatial order and system. Today, many public Carnegie libraries are still running in America.8  Capps Kriston “How Andrew Carnegie Built the Architecture of American Literacy” citylab.com. Oct 2014. Web. Accessed Nov 11th 2018. https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-andrew-carnegie-built-the-architecture-of-american-litera-cy/381953/FIGURE 3. SAMPLE CARNEGIE LIBRARY BUILDING PLAN GUIDE-LINES11 Capps Kriston “How Andrew Carnegie Built the Architecture of American Literacy” citylab.com. Oct 2014. Web. Accessed Nov 11th 2018. https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-andrew-carnegie-built-the-architecture-of-american-litera-cy/381953/DELIVERYVESTIBULEFIRST FLOORBASEMENTLIBRARIANADULT READING ROOMLECTURE ROOMBOILER,  FUEL AND JANITORM. TOILETWOMEN TOILETSTAFF ROOMKIDS READING ROOMREFERENCE ROOMSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          26 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC LIBRARY CASE STUDY: WITHINGTON7.1 WITHINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARYNAME:  Withington Public LibraryLOCATION: City of Manchester, UKDATE DESIGNED:  Opened May 30th, 1927.ARCHITECT:  Mr. Henry Price (City Architect) 9CONSTRUCTION:  1925COST:  15,500 Pounds (1924)CLIENT:   City of ManchesterSITE AND CONTEXT ANALYSISThe site is the City of Manchester in what was once a “dwelling house” re-purposed as a temporary public library location for the community. 10DESCRIPTIONThe old branch of the Withington Public Library, re-purposing a dwelling house, was opened in Oct 13th, 1911. 11 The library 99 Manchester Archives. “Withington Library, council visitor’s book, 1911” flickr.com. Web. 1911 Oct.* Accessed Nov 18th 2018 < https://www.flickr.com/photos/manchesterarchive-plus/9895224576/in/photostream/>10 Capps Kriston “How Andrew Carnegie Built the Architecture of American Literacy” citylab.com. Oct 2014. Web. Accessed Nov 11th 2018. https://www.citylab.com/design/2014/10/how-an-drew-carnegie-built-the-architecture-of-american-literacy/381953/11Manchester Archives. “Withington Library, council visitor’s building in question, opened in 1927, provided public book lending, a reference library, reading rooms, and children’s reading room for the community.12 Borrowing books in the Withington Public library required one to be a taxpayer and resident, in which they can obtain a “ticket” to borrow a book and use it, differing from our electronic system today13. The building architecture itself is described, by the government committee at the time of it’s construction, to be “handsome” and is denoted by its glazed glass wall dividing the the principal rooms; providing visual sight through the walls to and by the librarian. SIGNIFICANCEThis public library is significant as it’s an early explicit example of a Carnegie funded public library shifting towards a customer orientated direction and marketing with its efforts to make its chil-dren’s spaces to be more “attractive” to its customer targets.14 “Well lighted... well furnished” and “beautiful” in comforts and aesthetics that combined and hybridized the feelings of a “home-like setting” with circular tables evoking “family meal-time... evoking “safety and warmth” reflected it’s efforts to hybridize and combine elements of other architecturally associative spaces or read representative spaces to market it spaces to children and further define the developing public library’s identity. 15 As well, there was also an agenda to socially influence and cultural disseminate a proper way of behavior through the library design where “children might ‘emulate their elders in the adjacent news-room’”16. It is also an early example of a more-open access public library spatial organization where the user has more agency in choosing and exploring the books, or stored entities of value, that the public library inventory stored. In terms defining the public institution’s space and public space in general, this arguably helped define greater user agency in public space and reflects the potential role in library architectural design in helping provide a new envi-ronment in where new ways of sharing, new modes of behavior, and new social norms can emerge. In a more holistic sense, this reflects the public libraries prototypical function in developing the public sharing economy through architectural design, marketing, and customer orientated thinking. Spatially and programmatically, the Withington Public Library has a central librarian counter, an area to search or browse book shelves, and place to read or use the book, a librarian service area, and a central lobby connecting to an entrance stairway. While Withington public library was open access, public librar-ies built after in the future became much more open plan, with less rooms, divisions, and enclosed spaces where all programs were integrated; this can be seen with Belsize Park Library built after the Withington, where bookshelves lined the walls of one book, 1911” flickr.com. Web. 1911 Oct.* Accessed Nov 18th 2018 < https://www.flickr.com/photos/manchesterarchive-plus/9895224576/in/photostream/>12Manchester Archives. “Withington Library, council visitor’s book, 1911” flickr.com. Web. 1911 Oct.* Accessed Nov 18th 2018 < https://www.flickr.com/photos/manchesterarchive-plus/9895224576/in/photostream/>1313Manchester Archives. “Withington Library, council visitor’s book, 1911” flickr.com. Web. 1911 Oct.* Accessed Nov 18th 2018 < https://www.flickr.com/photos/manchesterarchive-plus/9895224576/in/photostream/>14 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.15 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(259)16 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(261)FIGURE 4. PLAN OF WITHINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARY IN MAN-CHESTER, UNITED KINGDOM1The Manchester Withington Public Library plan shows a plan following, arguably, the “Notes on the Erection of Library Build-ings” and a typical interpretation of the Carnegie plan at least in concept. There is a main stairway entrance, a lobby, panopticon centered librarian counter that can see along the book aisles, open-access bookshelves, reading rooms for the use of the book (stored items of value) and service spaces. 1 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.  Another image can be found @<https://www.flickr.com/photos/manchesterarchiveplus/9895341603/sizes/l> All rights reserved by archivesplus.LENDING LIBRARYJUVIENILE ROOMGENERAL READING ROOMSTAFF ROOMSTAFF ENTRANCECOUNTERSTAFFHALLLIBRARIANSTUDYWORK ROOMGOODS ENTRANCESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          27 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISUBER: CURRENT ECONOMIC NEED AND EXAMPLESCASE STUDY: SHARING ECONOMYmulti-programmed room. 17The traditional architecture of the public library was developed and designed for book storage,  book display, and book use by the user. In early days, when security of books was an issue, librarians and their counter were placed centrally and library plan was designed to ensure panoptic surveillance was possible by the librarian to visi-tors. However, with changing technology today and over the public library’s history, its architecture had to change to adapt to new user preferences, norms, and uses; in particular, with the decline of the book today, the public library’s architecture comes under questions with its prototypical spaces inherently rooted to the use of books.  As well, through this case study, the public library’s role in custom-er service, marketing of its fundamental use and inventory through architecture as with its advertised children’s spaces, and potential to transform is shown. With this context, the public library today can also be imagined to architecturally develop to better market its existing or proposed uses through hybridizing with imagined uses, its spatial qualities, and curation of experiences. 7.2 SHARING ECONOMYNAME:  UBER (copyright)LOCATION  San Francisco CA, USADATE STARTED:  Founded March 2009CLIENT:   Customers with UBER appDESCRIPTIONUBER is a peer-to-peer ride-sharing service facilitate through a smartphone app to facilitate the ‘sharing’ of cars between drivers and riders in a city.18 It is arguably part of the sharing economy and  maximizes the potential value and use of automobiles in vacant space-time in the city for people with the temporary need of a drive or transportation. SIGNIFICANCEUBER is significant as its logic of its purpose and need reflects what the public library is already prototypically doing with books and freely to the general public in a physical building interface. It is tentatively argued that given the proliferation of the sharing economy and it’s inferred demand in society, the public library can effectively find new community value and future evolution in em-phasizing it prototypical logics of its sharing function. This is further elaborated in figure 37.0, 36.0, and design resolution proposal outlined later.The sharing economy concept is rooted to a few arguable basic concepts that require conditions of high social capital or trust for exchanges to occur, that unused value is wasted, that shared value for use is more affordable, accessible, and efficient in use, and that it requires cooperative systems.19 The concept is about maximizing the extracted potential value of an entity and maximizes its useful-ness to the general public through sharing. It, in general, reduces costs of obtaining a needed value, increases usage and experiences to those that otherwise wouldn’t use it, facilitates greater social cooperation and equity, and provides greater freedom of choice in 17 Black A, Pepper S., Bagshaw K. “Books, Buildings, and Social Engineering: Early Public Libraries in Britain from Past to Present” Ashgate. 2009.(234) 18 UBER “How Uber Works” uber.com. Web. Accessed Nove 25th 2018. <https://www.uber.com/en-CA/about/how-does-uber-work/>19Atcheson J, Green L. “Car Sharing and Pooling: Reducing Car Over-Population and Collaborative Consumption” web.archive.org. Stanford Precourt Institute for Technology. Web. 2012. April 9. Accessed Nov 18th 2018. < https://web.archive.org/web/20141123161330/http://energyseminar.stanford.edu/node/425>the public society. The public library, arguably precursor to the modern sharing economy, is already an institution with high levels of social capital and institutional trust to the public, already lends reusable goods, and has a system in place for this to occur free-ly; arguably with this implied potential, the public library should enhance it’s position in the sharing economy and horizontally diverge away from only storing or lending books as it’s primary resource to retain it’s community value and importance. Indeed, while many individuals may perceive the libraries identity as resting on it’s role with the book,20 it can be argued that the public library arguably first functions as a civic-public institution serving the community welfare over it’s associated history with printed media.Additionally, for the sharing economy to work well, it requires high barriers of access to the interested entity-value shared, proximity to a relative high number of people such as in urban environments for sharing to physically occur in space, and the utilization of social media technologies and services to manage or organize sharing among space-time. The public library, again, has this role in the sharing economy system. It makes the  items it stores more efficiently used and easier to use with it’s provided architectural spatial and social ecosystem in it’s spaces. As books are only needed by certain people for a limited amount of time before they are stored, the public library’s role in cycling this reusable value among many people who need it maximizes it’s value among others. This function is spurred and is arguably defined by the potential the public library spaces have in imbuing an environment of trustworthy social culture, emotion, and entertainment in the objects used that the current sharing economy as a service does not. Here, the public library of the future can integrate experience, entertainment, social capital, and ideals of public civic values into prototypical sharing economy functions. Here, it is posited that social exchange, play, or gathering for example as an active part of normal daily life can be integrated with the public library function that enhance its existing parameters (of sharing econo-my). The library already arguably does this21, but it can do it with objects, entities, or other reusable parameters of value other than the book in society. This case study is also important as it addresses a need in public civic space for greater meeting of public needs and public agency in creating their own representative spaces in today’s ‘abstract commercial’ public space. The sharing economy, while consumer driven and individual orientated, also considers community value, user agency of choice, and potential entertainment of the used item in new contexts. Today, with the decline in value of the book printed media as a primary source and generator of information, the public library has the potential to develop in this direction. 20 Goudling, Anne “Public Libraries in the 21st Century: Defining Services and Debating the Future” Ashgate. 2006.21 Snape, Robert “Leisure and The Rise of the Public Library” Library Association Publishing. 1995.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          28 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFINANCIAL CAPITULATION AND ENCROACHMENT: NEW SOCIAL HUBCASE STUDY: NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 53RD BRANCH7.3 REPLACING THE PAST: SHUNTED TO PERIPHERYThe design of the 53rd Street Branch of New York Public Library, replacing the Donnell Library Center, proposes a new vision of what the future public library could be. Rather than focusing on being a community space to reference, use, and borrow books, the public library is proposed to exist more as a social space for the residents of New York. In terms of program, the library provides more computer terminals, public seating areas, and lounging spaces in exchange of books and emphasizes this through a feature stair-bleacher seating feature in its main space.1 More holistically, 1 Davidson, Justin “ The New 53rd Street Library Is Nice, Unless You Like to Read Books” Intelligencer. nymag.com. Web. Accessed September15th 2018. http://nymag.com/intelli-gencer/2016/07/53rd-street-library-okay-if-you-hate-books.htmlhowever, the redevelopment of the 53rd public library branch reflected the threat of its assetized urban environment. The decrease in public space and sale of the library branch’s old loca-tion for real estate profit suggests that the urban interior public spaces and public libraries, the sole space for free user-controlled community resources and information in the city, is under threat from real estate development, private spaces or interests in the city, and perhaps a lack of public library appreciation in New York.PROJECT NAME53Rd Street Library Branch of New York Public Library. 2 Previ-ously called the Donnell Library Center.LOCATIONThe project is located at 18 West 53rd street, New York City, USA. The library is more specifically located in the south side of 53rd street, across from museum of modern art. It is adjacent to 666 Fifth avenue to the east. Before 2016, the old branch location (known as Donnell Library Center) was located at 20 West 53rd street. The old site was a target for real estate redevelopment due to the library’s low rise construction, the old site’s potential for increased capital generation return, and argued desire for profit. The old branch was closed in 2008 and the building was razed; a 46 story hotel/condo complex, the Baccarat Hotel Residences designed by Skidmore Owings and Merrill, is currently at the old site. DATE DESIGNEDThe current version was designed by Enrique Norten of TEN Arquitectos in 2013.3The demolished previous Donnell Library Center was designed by Edgar I Williams and Aymar Embury II in the early 1950s.CONSTRUCTION COMPLETEDThe current 53rd avenue branch was completed in June 27, 2016. COST23 million dollars4SIZEThe current size is 28000 square feet. The old demolished branch building size was at 97000 square feet. The building size, contro-versially, decreased.CLIENTThe New York Public Library and indirectly, the citizens and public of New York.SITE AND CONTEXT ANALYSISThe 53rd branch library of New York was built under a 40 story hotel tower and across the road from the museum of modern art. Notably, the public library branch is not its own building like its predecessor and is architecturally demure from the public street. DESCRIPTIONThe old Donnell Library Center housed a number of different ar-eas and programs; this included the largest circulating collection of material in non-English, video/film, and materials for children 2 New York Public Library. “About 53rd Street Library” nypl.org Web. Accessed Sept 15th 2018.  <https://www.nypl.org/about/locations/53rd-street>3 Ten Arquitectos “The New York Public Library” ten-arquitectos.com. Web. Accessed Sept 15th 2018. < http://www.ten-arqui-tectos.com/projects/177>4 Dunlap David W. “An amphitheater. A Laptop Bar. It is a New York Library Liek No Other.” nytimes.com. Web Accessed Oct 13th 2018. < https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/21/nyregion/an-amphitheater-a-laptop-bar-its-a-new-york-library-like-no-other.html>BEFORE: DONNELL BRANCH AFTER: TODAY 53RD BRANCHTOP ENTRY LEVELCENTRAL LEVELLOWEST LEVELSCALE 20 FEETFIGURE 6.0 PLAN DIAGRAMS OF PROGRAM USE FOR 53RD BRANCH LIBRARY1This diagram shows the higher ratio of exchange social spaces for use vs the traditional library’s higher percentage of storage, display of items, and services. The dark magenta denotes use-social ex-change areas, light magenta storage areas, yellow circulation, blue service areas. From left to right is the basement, middle floor, and the top entrance floor. 1 Arch Daily “New York Library / TEN Arquitectos” archdaily.com. Web. <https://www.archdaily.com/373624/new-york-li-brary-ten-arquitectos/5193ff2cb3fc4bd6750000bb-new-york-li-brary-ten-arquitectos-access-floor>FIGURE 5.0 IMAGES OF DONNELL BRANCH LIBRARY AND 53RD BRANCH NYPL12These are sample design guideline plans for public libraries published in “Notes on the Erection of Library Buildings” by the secretary of Andrew Carnegie that reflected Carnegie’s preferences in library design. Notably, all plans show the prototypical entrance stair, lobby, counter for librarians, the book-stacks (in this case reference close stacks), then use spaces such as reading rooms, 1https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/03/16/stalled-plan-for-donnell-library-site-may-be-moving-again/2Google earth (September 15th, 2018) New York. DigitalGlobe 2018.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          29 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFINANCIAL CAPITULATION AND ENCROACHMENT: NEW SOCIAL HUBCASE STUDY: NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 53RD BRANCHand teens. 5 These collections were housed in a central children’s room, media center, Nathan Straus young adult center, media center, adult material-area, world languages area, and reference area, and auditorium. Old programs encompass concerts, readings, films, plays, talks, lectures, musicals, operas, and other “hundreds” of free programs. For example, they have the “meet the makers” program which the public can freely come and listen to filmmakers talk of their craft. 6 Teen central, for example, provided school books for all 7-12 grades, quite study rooms, televisions, entertainment graphic novels, career and educational choice materials, internet access, exhibit space for student art, and after-school programs.7 Old exhibition space include showings of artwork, photography, crafts, and new books. The old library’s world languages collection moved to the mid-Manhattan library branch location. The new 53rd branch library is a three floor library with two basement levels and one architecturally integrated level (not defined as place or formally in street). 8The library is positioned under a 40 story hotel tower and is architecturally not defined in the urban street scale; this can be observed in figure 24.0. The main entrance and space is defined by a stair-step where people can sit, “congre-gate”, “hang out” and listen/watch movies or talk 9. There is a 141 seat smaller auditorium, technology hub, and children’s area. Unlike the previous branch version, it’s programs have been reduced or moved away and the total space of the library has shrunk in it’s redevelopment due to the sale and profit from the old building site.SIGNIFICANCEThe 53rd Street Library new design and described functions propose a newer vision of what a new York Public library branch is proposed to be. More terminals, seating/public areas, and less books speaks to a different kind of library space; a more social, transitory, and public space orientated library that is arguably also less orientated on education, study, and books that may reflect user needs and trends of New York residents in the area. 10 Completely moving building from it’s old 20 west 53rd street loca-tion ot it’s current one, it significantly decreased in size, programs, and inventory from the previous iteration. Decreasing it’s circulation and inventory of books, the library proposes programs of public social lounge space that don’t necessary function as such or are well used to intentions by public. As well, the old pre-development library was controversial in it’s sale for profit under larger profit and real estate development pressures; reflecting a different financial and spatial environment in which the traditional public library space now contends with in the increasingly financialized, speculative, and profit-driven urban city. Notably, criticism was laid on the net loss of public library space, that it was undersold in value, and 5 The New York Public Library “Donnell Library Center” nypl.org. Web. Acessed Sept 18th 2018. <https://web.Archive.Org/web/20070914112504/http://www.Nypl.Org:80/branch/central/dlc/index.Html> The New York Public Library “Donnell Library Center” nypl.org. Web. Acessed Sept 18th 2018. <https://web.Archive.Org/web/20070914112504/http://www.Nypl.Org:80/branch/central/dlc/index.Html> The New York Public Library “Donnell Library Center” nypl.org. Web. Acessed Sept 18th 2018. <https://web.Archive.Org/web/20070914112504/http://www.Nypl.Org:80/branch/central/dlc/index.Html>8Ten Arquitectos “The New York Public Library” ten-arquitectos.com. Web. Accessed Sept 15th 2018. < http://www.ten-arquitec-tos.com/projects/177>9Ten Arquitectos “The New York Public Library” ten-arquitectos.com. Web. Accessed Sept 15th 2018. < http://www.ten-arquitec-tos.com/projects/177>1010 Davidson, Justin “ The New 53rd Street Library Is Nice, Unless You Like to Read Books” Intelligencer. nymag.com. Web. Accessed September15th 2018. http://nymag.com/intelli-gencer/2016/07/53rd-street-library-okay-if-you-hate-books.htmlrenovation-maintenance excuses for selling that was over esti-mated in comparison to it’s historical trend. 11 While the building was sold for a net of 39 million dollars, an estimate according the square foot prices at the time of it’s sale may have it’s value actually reach 120 million.12More holistically, the NYPL’s sale of the old Donnell site gave up a public asset, a public civic space, for profit to a private profit-driv-en developer to build a private condo. This project reflects the pressure that public spaces are facing from private development interests, capitalism, and non-public forces. Spatially, the public library space is shunted to the basement and ground floor (shunt-ed from the street with opaque glass) in lieu of other private spaces, building hotel program, and programs. It is hybridized and positioned in a lower hierarchy in urban public space without any arguably symbolic civic public spatial value from the exterior. As public libraries also have symbolic presence and civic value in public space, this case study is arguably a cautionary tale in architectural design. White, Michael D. D. “Do Conflicts of Interest Steer the New York City Planning Commission? The Answer Is “Yes” When It Comes To Selling/Shrinking Public libraries (Unless You Don’t Want to Call Them “Conflicts of Interest”)- Implication For Protecting The Public” noticnignewyork.blogspot.com. Web. Nov 15 2015. <http://noticingnewyork.Blogspot.Com/2015/11/>1112 White, Michael D. D. “Do Conflicts of Interest Steer the New York City Planning Commission? The Answer Is “Yes” When It Comes To Selling/Shrinking Public libraries (Unless You Don’t Want to Call Them “Conflicts of Interest”)- Implication For Pro-tecting The Public” noticnignewyork.blogspot.com. Web. Nov 15 2015. <http://noticingnewyork.Blogspot.Com/2015/11/>FIGURE 7.0 IMAGES OF VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY CEN-TRAL BRANCH12The image on the left shows an interior photograph of the interior exterior arcade, lined with commercial shops rented out for profit, than wraps around the central interior library rectangular building. This space provides shelter from the elements and is actively rented out for exhibitions and events by the Vancouver Public Library (VPL). The right image shows and aerial photo-graph of the central library; it’s architecture is clearly seen here as evoking a civic central space, the Colosseum, a ruin, and an interior-exterior public territory which meanings and represented space depends on the user. Hence, the building is heterotopic in it’s legibility to the public.1”Vancouver Public Library: Always judge a library by it’s architecture” dawnoftheunread.wordpress.com <https://dawn-oftheunread.wordpress.com/2013/09/30/vancouver-public-li-brary-always-judge-a-library-by-its-architecture/>2Shepert Elana “Here’s a neak peek of Vancouver Public Liibrary’s rooftop garden” vancouvercourier.com <https://www.vancourier.com/news/here-s-a-sneak-peek-of-vancouver-public-library-s-rooftop-garden-1.23444568>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          30 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISHYBRIDIZE WITH COMMERCIALISM AND HETEROTOPIC SYMBOLVANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY: CENTRAL 7.4 SHAPING CIVIC SPACEThis case study arguably reflects the controversy on how archi-tecture should represent public libraries and civic space. In the Vancouver Public Library central branch’s design inception, there was debate on it’s civic symbolic visual identity and role in shaping the larger city identity. The Vancouver Public central library was more than a civic service or community provider, it represented and actively shaped the city’s overall global image and local identity through the architectural semantic language and spatial organiza-tion. It is argued that the future public library should continue to pursue this civic identity and architectural symbolism in mind of identifying the new role of the future public library and civic public space as well.PROJECT NAMEVancouver Public Library Central Branch.Old: New London Mechanics Institute 1869, Hastings Literary Institute 1869, Vancouver Reading Room 1886, Vancouver Free Reading Room and Library 1887, Carnegie Library (Vancouver Public Library) 1903.LOCATIONCurrent location: 350 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada.Previous location: 750 Burrard Street.Previous location:144 West Cordova Street.DATE DESIGNEDCurrent: 1995 the project was designed by Moshe Safdie And DA Architects.Previous: 1955 Semmens And SimpsonPrevious: George Grant, in Romanesque Renaissance style in 1902.Previous: Rented rooms were used before 1902 to house the public library institution.Roof landscape for 1995 development: Cornelia Oberlander CONSTRUCTION COMPLETEDCurrent: 1995 May 26th opened to public. Previous: 1957 completed.COST106.8 Million dollars Canadian to build. Two thirds of funds came from taxpayers (36 million approved in referendum), rest came from sale of old library building (30 million), corporate sponsor-ship (12 million), federal funding (7 million), and public donations, parking, renting retail space a 21 story office tower built included was rented to the government to help fund the cost.13SIZE9 Stories, 398 000 square feet. 1200 Seating capacity. 700 Parking stalls. 11 Bike racks. 349 100 Square feet is occupied by the library. 650000 Square feet total. 14CLIENTCity of Vancouver. The Vancouver Public Library. The public and citizens of Vancouver. SITE AND CONTEXT ANALYSISThe building is located on 350 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC in it’s own urban street block. It is bordered by Robson Street 13Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>14Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>to the south, Homer Street, Georgia Street to the north, and Hamilton Street. The site is surrounded by civic institutions: the CBC Regional Broadcast Centre, Canada Post, the Centre In Vancouver For The Performing Arts, Queen Elizabeth Theatre and The Playhouse, etc. The general process of development and construction of the Van-couver Public Library Central Branch was approached as a public vote and competition for needing a “new central library...”.15 In 1990, a referendum ballot asking Vancouver citizens the need for a library was passed; in 1991, 350 West Georgia was chosen as the new site, and in 1992 a publicly winning competition submission was chosen with public input. The design was done by Moshe Safdie and Associates and DA architecture and is described by the Vancouver Public Library Website as a “radical design departure” in context to other building in the city at the time. Financially, it was the city’s largest capital project at the cost of 107 million dollars and the final institution encompassed the library central branch, the federal office tower, retail and service space, a interior public arcade, plaza space, basement auditorium space, and a roof garden. The construction of the library was intended to the city’s “main civic landmark” when built.DESCRIPTIONFORM: The library building is described to reference the “imagery of a crumbling roman empire.” and Colosseum, with conflicting opinions on it’s publicness, impact to the city, and it’s position of it’s library. 16  The building contains a 21 story office government tower and arguably evocative exterior curved sheathing reminis-cent of a ruined roman Colosseum. Sheathed in it’s interior is a rectangular library building and between the two covered interior public space. Notably, it has an interior public arcade between it’s exterior sheathing and interior library box. A roof garden, once unaccessible, is now publicly accessible to the public in September 2018.  Program: the library building, excluding it’s primary program and functions, encompass commercial retail space, a daycare, public parking, office space, and public speaking spaces. Vancouver public library (VPL) in general, loans electronic devices such as tablets, scientific instruments, and musical instruments to the public for their use. 17 The library has an inspiration lab which encompasses sound/video recording studios, conversion tools to digitize analogue items, and stations with programs for digital creation.18 The digital library encompasses e books, news and magazines, audio-books, video, music, historical collections, and artist-writers in residence. 19 There are also public computers in the library for patrons to use. More spatially, there is public study, reading, and social public spaces for lounging in the library. This includes the new roof gar-den central library expansion (levels 8 and nine) with presumably more programmed lounging social spaces, exploration spaces, and exhibition-interaction spaces. Extensive expansion of public 15Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>16Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>17 Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>18 Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>19 Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          31 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISREDEFINING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONCASE STUDY: THINGERYsocial space was added: this includes reading rooms, eating loung-es, outdoor spaces, theaters, and exhibition-learning interactive spaces on the upper floors. Existing conference centers notably has spaces for rent in mind of speaking and conference uses. Meeting rooms are also for rent at 30 dollars/hour.20 Notably, the VPL  hybridizes commercial profit-generating functions with it’s core free traditional public library services of lending valued resources to public. While less discussed in this article, the future public library’s development arguably can also hybridize and integrate with financially supportive commercial endeavors that support the main free public library service. Programs generally encompass classes that educate the public on how to better use the library’s resources and it’s culture. The library program is described to be more “interactive”, “market orientated” in catering to public wants, and less functioning towards having users integrate to the “new world” (immigrant enculturation) and more preserving cultural distinctions ( such as multiculturalism). 21For teens, there are programs that encompass homework help, peer-peer networking to teach, social networking (peer-peer) ex-change organizations for teaching technology, reading for between various ages, a place to share opinions, a teen book club, manga club, writing awards to incentivize learning; resources are also present to help develop career choice and presumably generate knowledge of information literacy.22 For kids, providing and organiz-ing play dates (Lego block party), providing toys and space to play, book clubs. The library has creative artists in residence: indigenous storyteller, writer, and poets in residence (borrow people) are all present in the physical glass-sheathed spaces in the floors of the library.  Notably, since it’s inception, the library has integrated business interests and “market ideology” into it’s public space and library practice. Business people are “charged fees” for requesting information in the business and economics section for example.23 Library souvenirs and items are sold as well to ascertain funds. The library design itself integrates an interior covered retail space which is rented for profit and budget in mind. While the interior arcade is public, it is also interior and “the enclosed nature” implies a controlled, regulated, or role-generative “private realm”; notably, the library holds a annual book sale for profit and to cycle it’s less used collections to the public.24SIGNIFICANCEIt is argued that this notion of public civic space, it’s need to be heterotopic and have multiple identities yet be symbolic, purviews its necessary function in a holistic sense; that as a leftover space where third party agencies, goals, and interactions occur where the core interests and comprehensions of the economic-social domi-nant system does not become hegemonic or concentrate. That for a more purposeful public space than simply a place to meet, congre-gate, and protest and express, economic market integration must be leveraged to user needs and greater levels of value circulated in the public library. That with economic leverage, greater levels of investment and perhaps advertisement hybridized with pure library services can generate greater conditions of public space value to the public community.20 Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>21 Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>22Vancouver Public Library “Programs” vpl.ca. Web. Accessed Oct 12th 2018 <https://www.vpl.ca>23 Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>24 Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>Here, through the analysis on this project, it is understood that public space means different things for different agencies; where ideology and uptopic vision presents a heterotopic environment for society holistically in a good public space. The central library, as mentioned here, is seen controversially, differently, and meaning different things in different contexts for the Vancou-ver residents.25 It Is argued that being heterotopic in semantic reading through it’s architectural design, language, juxtaposition, and program-space outline, it becomes a site of ideological battle, multiple perspectives, and multiple views subverted that favors an idea of a more user-agency public that defines their own milieu’s in our abstract commercial urban environments as Foucault puts it. Indeed, if civic public space and the public library can define a better public society through it’s architectural heterotopic language, then it can be posited that hybridizing languages of agency, exploration, and entertainment-experienc-es (play) combined with economic profit-orientated capitalistic ideals is not mutually exclusive. Thus, the future public library is posited in this reference to have the potential to better decouple itself from funding sources through better self-integration into capital generation to then better itself as a valuable community public place. As well, greater user agency in public space can be provided through heterotopically read architectural semantics that can extend to more programmatic elements than what is shown in this case study. 25 Lees, Loretta “Ageographia, Heterotopia, and Vancouver’s New Public Library” Sage Journals. Volume 15. Isue 3. Page 321-347. June 1 1997. Web. Accessed Sep 13 2018 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/d150321>7.5 THINGERY NAME: Thingery: A lending library of thingsLOCATION : Greater VancouverDATE: Permanent Sites Established in 2017.CLIENT: Vancouver community paying membersFIGURE 8.0 THINGERY WEBSITE SNAPSHOT1This snapshot of the THINGERY company’s website shows an background image of their proposed shipping container based storage unit in which paying members of a community are able to request, buy, and share items needed and stipulated online amongst themselves. 1 Thingery “Thingery: A lending library of things” thethingery-com. Web. Accessed Nov 15th 2018 <http://thethingery.com/about/>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          32 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEXPANDED DEFINITION OF PUBLIC LIBRARYCASE STUDY: TOOL LIBRARYSIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION.The Thingery, founded and facilitate by Vancouver Tool Library co-founder Chris Diplock, is a “community owned lending library of things” housed and stored in a self-service shipping container.1 In these containers, users are able to check items in and out with their own agency and “convenience”. Items are community bought, do-nated, and what is collectively purchased; online with the website, a list and indicators of what is purchased and what will be  bought is collectively managed by members.2 Users after registration and payment of membership, receive codes which grants access to the containers from 7:00 am to 9:00 pm.3 As indicated by their website, they are non-profit and are located in Vancouver and New Westminster in BC as of 2018.Spatially, it can be said that the Thingery mostly acts as nodes of storage and facilitates the sharing economy model through provid-ing a place to store collectively bought items collectively needed. Notably, Thingery is community led and grassroots in spirit, its function based on the agency and active investment by participating community members. However, the architectural space potential is not developed and the area to use, browse, and explore the objects is arguably non-existent with it’s proposed storage container. There is no space for learning, social exchange, or other hybridized functions that are more present in the public library that makes the Thingery storage node valuable and working in mind for the public community and civic spaces in the city. Indeed, without a history of community association and social-capital generating spaces where people can meet and garner an milieu of trust, the project as of its early stages is arguably yet to be proven to be strongly viable. However, Thingery mirrors the public library’s prototypical function but with greater user agency and input into the inventory circulated. This ‘library’, again, is also user generated and catalytic which arguably is positive for developing the value and quality of public space in Vancouver (through it’s provision of user choice if it was not fee-based). The inventory, use, and stored items in the future public library, as with Thingery, can also be user chosen and con-trolled. The development of the future public library, in this context, can also benefit in its development as a public space, by providing greater user agency, choice in provision of their desired need, and spatial presence in the urban environment as Thingery has shown. If the public library should develop its sharing economy potential, then it’s architectural value in facilitating its potential, marketability, and function is critical. 7.6 TOOL LIBRARYNAME: Vancouver Tool LibraryLOCATION: 3448 Commercial Street, Vancouver BC DATE: 2011 EstablishedGOVERNANCE: Community Service Co-operative.SIGNIFICANCE AND DESCRIPTION.The Vancouver Tool Library frames itself as a “cooperative tool lending library” which lends hardware or small-scale handheld tools to yearly fee paying members.4  While not totally free, it still func-tions in mind of the sharing economy model where through sharing and using a few amounts of tools it maximizes the use-value and cost saved by members through it’s tool circulation over space-1 Thingery “Thingery: A lending library of things” thethingerycom. Web. Accessed Nove 15th 2018 <http://thethingery.com/about/>2 Thingery “Thingery: A lending library of things” thethingerycom. Web. Accessed Nove 15th 2018 <http://thethingery.com/about/>33 Thingery “Thingery: A lending library of things” thethingerycom. Web. Accessed Nove 15th 2018 <http://thethingery.com/about/>4Vancouver Tool Library “Member fees and benifits” vancouvertool-library.com Web. Accessed Oct 16th < http://vancouvertoollibrary.com/?page_id=1006>time. This precedent is significant as it emphasizes and provides an example where ‘public’ libraries can be identified and exist as carrying other materials, items, and entities such as “tools”. The public library of the future, thus, then can be postulated to have inventory of not only books but also other elements of value that can be reused, lent, and stored without harming it’s defined iden-tity as a public library. This means the public library is very likely to function and work in mind of developing it towards a sharing economy model. The Vancouver tool library, however, arguably is not visually symbolic, integrated into the public space, defined architecturally in terms of it’s use spaces which can be elaborated in the future public library. As well, users are also required to pay a regular fee for access to it’s inventory.7.7 PUBLIC SPACE: DOWNSVIEW PARKNAME: Downsview Park. Previously a Department of National Defense Site.LOCATION: North York District, Toronto, CanadaDATE: Design Competition won by Rem Koolhas and Bruce Mau in 2000.5CONSTRUCTION: Started in 2005 and still in progress as of 2018.SIZE: 2.4 square kilometers.CLIENT: Federal Government of Canada.DESCRIPTION AND SIGNIFICANCEThe Downsview Park International Competition was held to find a design to revamp the Department of National Defense air force site into a urban park. This case study is significant in that all it’s proposals, and even the winning design itself, reflected a more public community considerate approach to architecture design as a framework. In general, the proposed designs were people orientated and more user controlled arguably in that the spaces provided were conceptually framed as a designed framework that catalyzed user control, agency, and development of the future park to fulfill public needs and uses into the future. The winner, OMA, proposed a “Tree City” in where nodes of park areas could 5 Czerniak Julia “Downsview Park Toronto” Harvard Design School. Prestel. 2001.FIGURE 9.0 GOOGLE STREET-VIEW SNAPSHOT OF VANCOUVER TOOL LIBRARY BUILDING1This image shows the front entrance and street-view of the Van-couver Tool Library. The Vancouver Tool library is a membership 1Google earth (September 15th, 2018) Vancouver. DigitalGlobe 2018.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          33 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCATALYTIC USER GENERATED SPACES: PUBLIC SPACE AS AGENCYCASE STUDY: DOWNSVIEW PARK AND ARTIST IN RESIDENCEbe developed incrementally into the future according to the fluctuat-ing desires and wants of the public; here this project is important as it shows precedence of more contextual urbanistic project in which public agency as a critical component of true public space is hinted at and literally suggested in the design proposals and related text 6 Here, the space is also heterotopic, though perhaps more literally, in that it can be physically altered or changed to user desires over time. Growth, contextual inputs, and economy are all considered in the winning OMA design. Here, this project suggests the potential of public space to provide greater user agency to contest the norms and milieus of the commercial city. Rather than stipulating a design with totality of represented spaces and imposed views, a design that intention-ally facilitates greater consideration of human interpretation and freedom may be better for the development of the public library as a public space. Here, the public library space can be imagined to also function in a similar manner where it’s inventory, programmed spaces, and user over time can be more user defined. Here archi-tecture can be more facilitatory and act more as a medium in which human intention or need is enacted out over time6 Czerniak Julia “Downsview Park Toronto” Harvard Design School. Prestel. 2001. In general, this is an example of public space that better prior-itizes user agency, transformation over time, and letting people decide how spaces are used, developed, and perceived. The pub-lic library, as a public space, can also be designed and framed to provide greater user control and desired through a provision of a architectural framework. 7.8 ARTIST IN RESIDENCENAME LOCATION: Richmond BC Canada, Branscombe House7DATE: YEARLY: Annual Open Call ApplicationCOST: non to applicant in regards to financial cost. The artist has to perform or act their artist practice in the residence in context to engaging the community.7 City of Richmond “Branscombe House Artist Residency” richmond.ca Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018. <https://www.richmond.ca/culture/sites/branscombehouse/branscomberesi-dency.htmFIGURE 10.0 PAGE SNAPSHOT OF OMA “TREE CITY” WINNING DESIGN PLAN FOR DOWNSVIEW1This diagram shows the higher ratio of exchange social spaces for use vs the traditional library’s higher percentage of storage, display of items, and services. The dark magenta denotes use-social exchange areas, light magenta storage areas, yellow circulation, blue service areas. From left to right is the basement, middle floor, and the top entrance floor. 1 Czerniak Julia “Downsview Park Toronto” Harvard Design School. Prestel. 2001.FIGURE 11.0 BRANSCOMBE HOUSE ARTIST RESIDENCY POST-ER FROM RICHMOND BC CITY1This image shows a poster advertising the city’s public art pro-gram’s artist in residence program in their loaned heritage house. This is a program where artist apply to stay in the city’s heritage buildings designated for this purpose. The artist, in residence, will then perform or do their public art work with and for the city community in a experiential, collaborative, and community cultur-ally additive means. This artist in residence is an open call and is open to all artist applicants seeking to stay in Richmond and live in the city while giving back with art. 1 City of Richmond “Branscombe House Artist Residency” richmond.ca Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018. <https://www.richmond.ca/culture/sites/branscombehouse/branscomberesi-dency.htmSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          34 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHE EVOLUTION OF THE FUTURE PUBLIC LIBRARYOVERVIEWRESIDENT: In 2018, the artist in residence is Keely Obrein.DESCRIPTION and SIGNIFICANCE.This project is called an artist in residence, where a heritage building in Richmond BC is loaned out to an applicant artist that, upon acceptance of their application to stay freely in the house, must perform or do their art practice in the community and engage the city.8 This is a unique relationship that, like the prototypical library, borrows an item from ‘storage’ and is used or resided in the heritage house for the community to use. This example shows that the future-public library needs to expand horizontally in what can be stored, borrowed, and loaned to the community through it’s archi-tecture and building facilitation; rather than just mere objects, it can be people with skills, knowledge, situations, experiences, items, or environmental conditions or events. In this example, community interaction, engagement, and expression is prioritized as a public art feature. This example is also significant as it provides an example of eco-nomic leverage investment; the public artist in this wants to come and provide the city with experiences, a new value, and identity in exchange with the historical experience of a temporary home. This lending goes both ways and reflects the future public library’s need to leverage economic conditions to get greater value circulated or provided for the public community user. This, notably, can be done through architectural space and design as shown in this case study’s utility of providing architectural experiences. This example also shows how entertainment and experiences, not only the basal needs reflected in Maslows hierarchy of needs, can be provided to better the community as a public space. Here, this process reflects a greater level of community agency through it’s open process and facilitatory means of action; arguably all events are self chosen and final results are simply community originated.8.0 OVERVIEWThrough the analysis of the public library’s identity and issues it faces, it was analyzed that the public library needs to change in a number of ways to remain relevant, valuable, and improve in the future.Today, the public library lends valuable information in virtual and physical space to people for free quantized in time. It is recently trying to change and evolve as an institution in a marketing context, where it tries to add on hybridized programs like commerce in the form of cafes, social spaces in the form of lounges and garden patios, and media spaces in the form of recording studios. Histor-ically, the public library been market orientated, an agent of social control, a civic symbol and center, a place of learning, a place of lending resources to  all for social welfare and maximization of so-cial value, and a community public space.There are a number of issues which it faces and needs to change to remain valued. One is that the public library, in terms of it’s physical spaces and architecture, is less valuable to the community as place to store, gather, and distribute information as digital media becomes more ubiquitous and used. This is critical as the public library’s arguable main value and identity rests on it’s perceived identity of storing and lending information in the form of books. To remain valued by the community, the public library arguably needs to focus on it’s prototypical lending function and focus on other physically rooted value to store, lend, and cycle. This choice of inventory should be more user decided and facilitated.The public library also has functions and programs added that 8 City of Richmond “Branscombe House Artist Residency” rich-mond.ca Web. Accessed Oct 28th 2018. <https://www.richmond.ca/culture/sites/branscombehouse/branscomberesidency.htmoverlap with other institutions in its recent efforts to evolve. Coffeshops integrated into public libraries, media labs, or lounge spaces for example arguably overlap in function with commercial coffeshops, public parks, and the capacity of personal smart-phones. The public library will arguably have no future if it contin-ues this way and does not focus on its prototypical true identity or function. This is outlined more in the subsequent section. The public library also faces issues of funding in the global context; where it needs marketing of it’s value to the public, government, and funding constituents to compete for funds. The public library could find new ways of self funding, like through the addition of coffeshops or getting greater values traded through economic leverage in it’s architectural design and spaces; this can be facilitated through emphasizing the public library’s sharing economy. As well, the public library can increase, further develop, and per-petuate it’s existing value and important argued role as a public space, civic symbol, space of providing social welfare, of leisure and entertainment by further combining it with entertaining and enjoyable experiences which can be facilitated through architec-tural spatial design. Architecturally, the public library could change to fit new pro-grams and update it’s marketed image. Publicly, the institution is conventionally perceived to be based on it’s role in lending and storing the book. As indicated in figure 1 and it’s discussion, there is the possibility to transform the public library identity through hybridization and it’s architectural language; to facilitate a more user decided storage, inventory, and use of items in a het-erotopically imagined space to regain it’s community value.HOLISTIC SUMMARYIn a most holistic sense of this thesis, the research posts that the publicly library should evolve to remain relevant, become better in the future, while not losing it’s perceived identity, value, and in-fluence through it’s change. This research argued there is issues facing the public library long term that question it’s social value, and that the public library should exist, evolve, and develop it’s public-civic orientated values with it’s unique identity/functions into the future. The purpose of the design guidelines is to encourage the design-ers, librarians, and public that may use the public library of the existing or remaining value it has and the potential it can contrib-ute to the state of public civic space in our urban environments. These guidelines hope to better guide a more community-cen-tered, publicly valuable, and holistically more integrated institution and public place in mind of developing the state of civic space in our built environments. The guideline in the following pages is abstract with elaboration shown through simulations and case studies in the design pro-posal showed later in the article.8.1 ROUGHT PRELIMINARY GUIDELINE.The question was posited in this research of how the public library can evolve, in part to remain valuable to the community in the future. The suggestions based on the current analysis and overview is summarized first here and in the diagrams, stipulations, and suggestions in the following pages.•	 It is stipulated that the public library space should focus primarily on its potential function as a sharing economy. The public library already arguably has a system in place, particularily in the storing, lending, and display of books or information, which can be developed along this perspective. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          35 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISHOW CAN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY EVOLVE INTO THE FUTUREOVERVIEW AND GUIDELINES As well, the sharing economy aspects of the public library is already valued and proven in concept in the private realm through commerical companies such as UBER (c). •	 It is also imagined that the public library should expand upon what it lends beyond the categories of information or the book and should focus on lending value that is required  to be rooted in space. These categories that the public library could lend may encompass tools, objects, a person, social situations. To articulate further, the scale of trade or what is being lent could expanded in the future library more formally. The case study example of the artist-in-residence provides precedence for this notion. •	 The public library could also increase its value cycled in it's proposed sharing economy by use of economic leverage and it's increased proposed scaling of value to be cycled. For example, the artist-in-residence case study provides a strong example of how a more invested trade by the city, analogous to the library, to the borrowed artist increases valued exchanged on both sides. •	 The public space of the library chould be also redefined to ensure that it fulfills the heiarchy of needs required to become a good public space for all maringal groups, encompassing social, economic, temporal, or entertainment for example. To ensure that the space is accesible and fits the ideals of good public spaces, it should provide the basal needs of security or shelter, comforts of rest and use, and desires of experience and play in its spaces. •	 The future evolved public library could also focus on ensuring the maximum use of it's stored value. Referencing the analysis and extrapolation present in figure 22 on the circulation and use of items in the public library, many objects currently are not in use, in storage, and arguably wasted in space-value (which in our case today is the book). Indeed, library materials are argubaly not always used in time and space with the majority of books being simply on display as observed in site vists in all cases in Vancouver. It is proposed that the future public library should find new niches or voids in space-time in it's environmental context to leverage the public library's existing and future inventory's uses. Richmond's artist in residence, for example, maximizes the value and use of its noramlly unused heritage houses to provide a community an artist's experiences, performances, and enjoyment of their work. The sharing economy also maximizes time-space value, with UBER (c) arguably ensuing one car is used at all times during the day so it's not wasted in it' potential value. Most automobiles, arguably, sit static and unused in the parking lot, driveways, or parkades during the day. At larger scales as well, UBER's provides the service of a ride to people when they need to use a car the most, ensuring that public demand and supply are more optimally matched.•	 The public library could also provide users with more agency to choose what is stored in the public library, what space and conditions the stored entities are used in, and terms of the uses over time. This arguably already is being done and has precedent with the sharing economy through UBER or the design of  Downsview park; where their users decide how the spaces are shaped, when its used over time, and how it is developed as their needs emerges over time. Indeed the evolved public library's architecture and program could be a facilitating framework where the user's intentions and desires can be better realized by them. This is contrastied with the convention of a more top-down approach in public libraries today. For example, the Vancouver Public Library book inventory is largely chosen by it's ruling committee and arguably not by direct measure by the community it serves in recent history. •	 The	architecture	could	also	hybridize	in	its	transformation	as	decribed	more	clearly	in	the	disuccsion	around	figure	1.	Keeping	it's	base	identity	familiar	with	previous	public	associations	will	help	keep	the	identity	of	the	public	library	in	the	proposed	transformation	rather	than	constructe	a	new	one.	This	will	arguably	help	retain	the	traditional	public	library's	values,	associations,	and	meanings	for	the	public.	The	Hjorring	central	library,	for	example,	reframes	it's	existing	inventory	of	books	with	it's	social	"ribbon",	where	it	becomes	a	chair,	table,	or	seating,	that	facilitates	item	use	and	social	interaction	in	new	ways.	9•	 In	regards	to	its	future	evolution,	the	public	library	could	also	bybridize	identity,	function,	and	experience	to	make	it	more	attractive	as	a	enjoyable	event.	This	is	important	to	ensure	that	the	public	library,	in	the	modern	capitalistic	context,	is	marketed	as	popular	and	valuable	so	it's	use,	provision	of	funding,	and	support	by	consitutents	remains.	For	example,	it	could	be	combined	with	entertainment	in	it's	architectural	experience	that	frames	stored	value	and	its	use	in	different	ejoyable	ways;	this	could	ensure	that	the	argued	declining	value	of	it's	exisiting	materials	is	continued	and	that	the	public	library's	future	function	is	popularized	to	ensure	the	library	is	succesfully	marketed.	This	is	already	seen	with	the	public	library's	kids	spaces	that	remain	highly	used	10.	The	53rd	branch	of	New	York	Public	library	has	also	reframed	it's	existing	spaces	and	inventory	as	a	social	gathering	space	and	social	experience	rather	than	one	of	only	study	and	utility.		•	 Architecturally,	the	public	architecture	should	allow	a	heterotopic	reading	and	imposition	of	user	defined	spaces	for	furthering	the	state	of	it	as	a	public	space	and	ensuring	it's	value	in	a	neoliberal	world	view.	The	Vancouver	public	library	case	study	oultines	this	architiectural	semantic	juxtaposition	by	users.For	more	detailed	guidelines	and	analysis	on	the	public	library	evolution,	refer	to	the	follwing	pages	for	more	information.	Further	program,	system,	and	architectural	design	elboration	is	outlined	in	the	design	simulation.9	RosanBosch	“Hjorring	Central	Library”	rosanbosch.com.	Web.	Accessed	Oct	14th	2018	<	http://www.rosanbosch.com/en/project/hjørring-central-library>10Vancouver	Public	Library	“Vancouver	Public	Library	Annual	Operating	Report	2017.”	vpl.ca	May	9	2018.	Web.	Accessed	Sep	17th.	<	https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatingReport.pdf>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          36 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCORE IDENTITY AND CORE VALUES: GUIDELINEPROGRAM AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS9.0  LIBRARY CORE IDENTITY: PROGRAMThrough analysis, literary overview, and finding commonalities and differences through historical survey, literature review, and case studies, the public library's prototypical function and indentity was reduced to it's economic value and associated cultural-social elements inherent to it as an institution. The diagrams on this page describe the public library's unique features among public instutions and other building uses.The public library's unique core identity in terms of function, noting that here identity is defined as cumulative and juxtapositional in context, is that it (1) lends cyclable reusable value to the public for free, (2) reduces social barriers the process, and (3) facilitates these effects by condensing these forces into one architectural building. While physical public libraries do function in being a source and lender of information value largely in the form of books, this function has arguably been superceded by digital media and the internet.1 Thus, the public library is not unique and areguably identified in context through this function.Through lending rare reusable value to the public for free, the public library highlights it's existing role as a public free sharing economy 1 Elmborg James “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space” Reference and User Service Quarterly” Volume 50. IssueSCALED IN TIME: K CAPACITY INCREASED QUANTIZED TO COMMUNITY FLUCTUATIONS OF NEED (MERIT - VERITA-BLE GOODS IN CONTEXT TO NEED) VALUE IS MAXIMIZED.INPUT STARTAND END(EX. PHYSICAL BOOK)THE SCALE IN WHICH THE DURATION AND INTENSI-TY OCCURS AFFECTS ARCHITECTURAL DYNAMICS AND PROGRAM. LIBRARY MAXIMIZES VALUE OUT OF STORED ENTITY OR INFORMATION VIA TIME.LIFESPAN OR CYCLE.CHECK OUTDISTANCECHECK INNEED (IN USE)FIGURE 13 LIBRARY IN NEW TIME SCALESStudying the holistic use and circulating of items of the public library, it was analyzed that the public library is actually quantized in time. Here, it is proposed that any time-event in the public library (as the architectural guidelines will overview) will be under a system of registered quantized time scales in use by the public. The diagram above can be in all scales of time. It is argued with public library logics in it’s circulation of time-scales it synergies with the sharing economy concepts in it’s true economic value to the com-munity as a service. With this, less items are needed or are cheaper for public use. This diagram was made using analysis of the public library circulation of it’s items in time-space. Here, the public library has the potential to quantize it’s spaces, perhaps literally to the diagrams stipulation, in maximizing use in space over time. Here, it is posited that use space can be activated along with item retrieval/use an be expressed architecturally to further develop the utility of the public library’s value. BASIC SPATIAL DIAGRAM•	 STORAGE OF ‘RARE’ VALUE + INFO •	 CONNECTION FOR EXCHANGE•	 MEANS TO DISSEMINATE + LOAN•	 SOCIAL CONDENSER (NODAL)REDUCE BARRIER + FACILITATES SOCIAL EXCHANGEDONATIONNEEDS OF PUBLICRECYCLABLE VALUEAND INFOEXCHANGESPACELIBRARYSTORAGESPACETIMEFIGURE 14. PROTOTYPE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY: CORE IDENTITY AND ROLEBased of the analysis, history, and research, it can be extrapolat-ed that what uniquely defines the public library is it’s function in cycling rare valuable resources to the public for free, that by doing this reduces social barriers, and communicates these rituals of function over time through it’s architecture, space, and associated ideological social milieu. The public library mirrors modern shar-ing economy’s logics in maximizing needed item value and reduc-es cost by sharing over empty space-time. In general, the public library spatially condenses these social rituals into one building or node. This diagram was analyzed and extrapolated as following: based on the book as the primary element of circulated value, it is stored primarily in shelves that are located centrally in the public library. Between these locations and the counter/exit , tables, work stations, spaces and social areas for using the book alone or with others are programmed into the library buildings. This is nearly the same conceptually for all typical modern library buildings. Thus this action-spatial relationship is reduced to this core basic spatial diagram. Based off of figure 30.3, the use of it’s spaces by users over time in relation to the object is projected. Here, the library in it’s functional use is always experienced in a sequence between it’s threshold to storageDIRECTIONALThe public library socially facilitates passing of information + value to the public directionally. SINGLE INPUTRECYCLEDOUTPUTSLIBRARYFIGURE 12. LIBRARY AS DISSEMINATOR OF REUSABLE VALUEThe public library socially facilitates through its architecture, programs, and social rituals the passing of value and information from one to the  general public. It is important to understand that the value is either (1) reusable and can be cycled over time or (2) reproducible without (or marginal) cost as information easily is through digital media. For the physical library building to be needed, the entity of value in a context of ubiquitous digital media needs to be reusable only. This, then encompasses items, spaces, people, experiences rooted to space, and environments that require a building to facilitate. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          37 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISANALYSIS OF POTENTIALPROGRAM AND SPATIAL ANALYSISthrough books (and other media) and has the potential to further develop this role to be valuable to it's users. Through reducing social barriers, the public library provides the potential option of choice-user agency and has the potential to further develop public civic space's community value. Though facilitating these functions by the architecturally imposed social rituals, the public library has potential to expand the scale of it's architectural space and time to new spatial and temporal vacancies (like the space and time waiting for the skytrain to arrive, for example).Culturally, the physical public library building is arguably percieved as a civic symbol, a community service, a provider of social welfare, a place of learning, and a vector for garnering investment. With this protypical understanding of the public library institution, an new valuable program that requires physical space and it's corresponding architecture can then facilitate the development of a new valuable public library.THE TWO STRATEGIES IN TANDEMGiven these parameters, the public library instituion can be (1) redefined and evolved in context to retaining it's core identity which indicated its value while (2) retaining and emphasizing it's existing cultural value as a physical architectural space. The two strategies of consideration are indication as follows:(1) Keeping to the public library's core identity-value, develope it's identity to fill existing community niches of need and space to increase its arguable challenged community value.(2)The public library has existing value in it's space as an physical institution space. Though the public library's historical use as a COMMUNITY ECONOMY CIRCULATIONCOMMUNITY NEEDSLIBRARY LOANINGARCHITECTURE FACILITATORSOCIAL BARRIERSSTAGNANT: PUBLIC POTENTIALAND UNTAPPED WORKPERSONS NEEDSFIGURE 15. ECONOMIC CATALYST: METABOLIC ACCESSThe public library reduces social barriers to access meritable goods or rare value by providing costly value which otherwise may too expensive given the low demand or social barriers. The public library breaks through existing barriers of need-to-value access, barriers which include prohibitive cost or social stigmas for example, to circulate value to all of society. Here, the public library must focus on continuing to store reusable value rooted in physical space, lend it freely in quantized time to all public, and in consequence reduce social barriers. This function must be en-hanced and preserved. The expanded public library definition and inventory and network-architecture described later in the article overviews this.STATIC-DYNAMIC POTENTIALDYNAMIC OVER TIME VS STATIC MEDIUMRESPONSIVE TO COMMUNITY PUBLIC NEEDSSCALEMORE DIFFUSED VS TRADITIONAL CONSOLIDATIONMORE LOCALLY SPECIFIC VS HOLISTIC123STATICBUILDINGSHIFTING ELEMENTSTORAGE ELEMENTS CAN MOVESTORAGE ELEMENTS ARE STATICSOCIAL EXCHANGE SPACES CHANGE OVER TIMECURRENT PUBLIC NEED IN LOCALCURRENT PUBLIC CONDENSEDFUTUREMORE LOCAL123FIGURE 15.1 EXPLORATORY DIAGRAM OF POSSIBLE LARGER SCALES OF PUBLIC LIBRARY.This diagram shows the increased scale and frequency in which the public library can exist in the larger urban city framework. Dashed lined represent divisions between communities, cities, demographics, or other urban spatial entities. Current libraries are argued to overlap their services in concentrated buildings. It is proposed that the public library can be more locally specified, user dynamic, and deconstructed to better fulfill community value. FIGURE 15.2 EXPLORATORY DIAGRAM OF POSSIBLE LIBRARY BASIC SPATIAL ORGANIZATION.To better be a flexible spatial condition to fulfill the design propos-als for the future public library program, it is imagined the future public library could have the potential to have the storage entities of the public library or the social exchange condition space of the library change in time to allow transformation of program-use with static elements in space. It is argued that the public library can be deconstructed and be reframed in public urban space in a new integrated context. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          38 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCORE IDENTITYPROGRAM AND SPATIAL ANALYSISsource, lender, and developer of information-knowledge is lost, it's space has value even with the same inventory. The redefined future public library should focus on developing these remaining existing cultural community values.PROGRAM PROPOSAL: DESIGN OUTLINEThe development of the public library must follow the two non-mutually exclusive strategies indicated before and must develope it's analyzed core identity.  Undestanding the public library's core identity rests on it's function to cycle value to the public, its proposed that the public library should develop it's sharing economy to expand it's inventory of circulation, become more user generated with agency in new time-scales. As the purported 'sharing economy' is popular as a business model and it's service provided by companies following its strategy are popular today, the public library can further its lending function and theoretically provide value to the community. The sharing economy also requires trust between peers and the network to work,2 which the public library arguably already has with it's historic identity as a trusted community instution and it's social milieu.3 As well, in this framework, the public library building is limited in it's current value with its limited scale-location so it is argued that it can architecturally expand in space and time to better facilitate existing library social rituals into new useful contexts. In this context, for the public library to obtain greater entitys of value circulating in it's sharing economy and provide greater value to its users, it must use economic leverage to obtain greater values of value entities into it's sharing ecocystem in return for 2 Hawlitschek F, Teubner T, Weinhart C “Trust in the Sharing Economy” <https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0042-059X-2016-1-26/trust-in-the-sharing-economy-jahrgang-70-2016-heft-1>3Varheim Andreas “Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Uppsala, Sweden June 27-29, 2016: Public Libraries, community resilience, and social capital” Information Research. University of Boras. Vol 22. No 1. March 2017. Web. <informationr.net>it's advantages. This can be analogized to providing a company with space to freely work or advertise in reutn for product usage or experience that is shared and valued by the community. Secondarily the public library should find voids or opportunities in exisitng time-space conditions in it's context to leverage it's existing value in a new context. A proven classic example is the realtionship between the car and the radio. While televsion, computers, and phones have arguably displaced the value of the radio in any situation, it remains valuable in a certain void in space-time for car commuters where cellphone use is not permitted. Here, the radio remains used and valued socially. The public library in context to this fundamental function can pursue this too; for example leveraging the wait-time at a bus stop or a wifiless apartment in the city can provide new situations for the public library value to continue into the future. SECONDARY PROGRAM OBJECTIVES: OUTLINE OF INTENTIONThrough these objectives for developing the public library in terms of it's core identity-values, the sharing economy, and new scale of space-time, the public library building's existing and remaining value should be continued and developed further with this redefined core identity. As well, for the public library to transition into the future while keeping it's culturally associated valued, it must retain existing architectural and cultural elements that the public associates with public library's percieved identity. 9.2 LIBRARY CORE IDENTITY: FORM-TIMEThe core identity of the public library in terms of space and time is indicated by figures 14 and 13. The public library architecture, arugably, can be spatially reduced to spaces of storage and space of social exchange-use denoted in magenta in the diagram. These spaces of storage also displays the item of storage for user access-browsing. Surrounding the storage is the social exchange space where the item is used or exchanged with other library patrons. Items stored in the library are either displayed in storage, referenced by user, used in the social exchange space, or checked out. This movement of items is denoted with the blue arrows. Dividing this social-use space with the exterior is TIMENEED FOR VALUEK PRIVATE (PRIVATE ABILITY TO ACCESS)LIBRARY EXCHANGEperson 1person 2K ‘LIBRARY’ (COMMUNITY ACCESS)TIMENEED FOR VALUE.NEW BUILDING-OBJECT-PRODUCTADDEDK PRIVATE (PRIVATE ABILITY TO ACCESS)K ‘LIBRARY’ (COMMUNITY ACCESS)OVERCAPACITY OF GROWING DEMANDFIGURE 17.0 PUBLIC LIBRARY TEMPORARILY PROVIDES FOR RISING PUBLIC DEMAND-NEEDSThis diagram shows the public library’s value in the sharing econ-omy to provide, temporarily, for growing levels of public needs as use and adoption of a value entity rises overtime. When existing value entities, such as early computers, are too expensive or have too much social barriers to obtain, the public library provides for needs-demands that are unmet with the existing private K (capacity due to high costs) barrier. This allows for more equitable distribution and freer choice of the public to use value before newer buildings, products, value entities that reduces the existing K capacity barrier in the private realm upwards (due to cheaper costs and threshold to obtain needs) arrive.FIGURE 16. PUBLIC LIBRARY PROVIDES FOR UNMET USER NEEDS FLUCTUATING OVER TIME.This diagram shows how the public library conceptually allows us-ers needs to be met when otherwise social barriers such as high monetary costs, social stigma, or distance for example, would leave users needs unmet. The graph above shows in grey-hatch user needs for a entity of value over time, in grey line the limit to needs able to be met given it’s monetary private ability to obtain, and the pink dashed line the increased limit with the library free loaning services given a time. Both library and private capacities limits rise over time as the entity of value decreases in cost, ability to obtain, or reduced in rarity with increasing technology, develop-ment, or availability. The public library can fulfill regularly arising or irregularly arising needs when the private is not an option to obtain it due to K (capacity or barrier to obtain). The public library maximizes value obtained from an single value entity over time (vs a privately owned entity) by allowing multiple uses over time.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          39 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCORE IDENTITYPROGRAM AND SPATIAL ANALYSISRE-CYCLING VALUE AND INFORMATIONLIBRARYENGINEFACILITATOR OF CYCLINGSOCIETYVALUE ADDED ONVALUE AND INFOIS STORED AGAINPUBLIC USERSCONSUMES AND ADDS ONACCESSEDSOCIAL BARRIERSRE-DISSEMINATIONCONSUMEDVALUE AND INFOFLOW IN SOCIETYFIGURE 18. CYCLING REUSABLE GOODS: SHARING ECOSYSTEMThis conceptual diagram shows the proposed public library build-ing’s role in facilitating a new public civic sharing economy. The public library’s architecture facilitates a social environment. Here, added value increases potential total resources available to the whole community over time and space. *MEDIUM OF TRANSFER INPUTBARRIERSBARRIERSCURATIONPRODUCTIONTYPES OF INFODISSEMINATIONDURATIONSCALESTORAGE OUTPUTCREATION TRANSFER CONSUMPTIONFLOW LOGISTICS: SPATIALIZED SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATIONTIMECYCLING VALUE & INFORMATION THROUGH SPACE-TIMERESOURCE-TIMEOLD TODAY FUTUREADD ON TO RESOURCE1. USE 2. CONTRIBUTEa explicit threshold where the stored item must be checked out to exit. Referring to figure 13 in terms of time, the public library is quantized into equal increments of continous regularity in which its stored and lent items are formally checked out and returned. These quantized increments and scale of time can be further increased in scale and intensity or coupled with existing vacancies of space-time in real contexts to magnify the proposed future pubilc library program-function. OVERVIEWIn summary, the public library concentrates ‘rare’ reusable value, such as books, tools, social situations, or knowledgeable people, needed by public and circulates it for free. This integrates and spurs the economic metabolism of the larger social systems: in our case an increasingly capitalist-orientated neoliberal society. Here, the library acts in society to spread and maximize this value that the community wants. The traditional library is facing challenges and this spurred the need to find the unique identity of the library and its prototype. This research is proliferating the concept. The public library architecture facilitates this prototypical function, but is not updated to meet the new value needed to be circulated and it’s true potential in our modern context. While the traditional entity of value is information in the medium of books that has arguably lost it’s relative historic value to the community, this can expand horizontally to all entities, items, and parameters of value. This can include object tools like what the Vancouver tool library provides, bikes, people, or market events; what the future public library can do is architecturally reduce the threshold and increase the tendency for these social exchanges to occur. The value in the library’s archi-tecture to proactively contribute to society and serve it’s ideological goals must be reassessed first to these unique identifier functions indicated and accentuate them.To overview, public libraries are unique today through their role to reduce social barriers by circulating reusable rare value needed by public for free and should focus on this function in program as a base. The library is the medium that metabolizes this circulation of FIGURE 19. PUBLIC LIBRARY AS CATALYTIC FACILITATORThe public library historically (in the diagram below) reduced the threshold to transfer information to others through it’s spatial cen-tralization of storing, displaying, and disseminating entities of value or information with it architecture and imbued social rituals. This can be done for it’s more holistic sharing economy as well.FIGURE 20. BASIC CONCEPT OF ITEM USE IN PUBLIC LIBRARYArrows in the left diagram represent the movement and circulation of mobile item, such as a book. The book is either in storage,r bor-rowed through, taken from storage and used in the library space, or borrowed and taken out of the library. For the static item diagram to the right, the movement of the user is shown with the arrows, with them either entering the storage to use the valuable entity or browsing. This is the most primitive program-spatial diagram of the library with it’s items.  These diagrams are conceptual. The spaces can be in space more sequential, in a linear series to the storage, or as depicted in diagram. The parameters of space are conceptu-ally advised in the diagram. PROCESSION OF EXPERIENCE AND CIRCULATIONThese two diagrams also show the 4 stages of categorization of space in the proposed public library. The spaces are as follows: the exterior of the (1) public library, (2) the threshold, (3) the exchange space (defined as where one explores and uses stored items or entities of value), and (4) entry of storage. The sequence between these processional stages should be articulated and denoted as a space of itself and experience that defines the library. This archi-tectural aspect is argued to be hybridized with the experience and enjoyment of architectural-use for the public user. This will reframe the library into a new social milieu and should transition the visitor into a new social milieu. MOBILE ITEMITEMSTOREDITEMSTATICSTATIC ITEM1234SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          40 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISHOW PEOPLE USE THE PUBLIC LIBRARY - HOW VALUE IS USEDANALYSIS OF PUBLIC LIBRARY ELEMENTSvalue and is analogous to a publicly funded share economy. In addi-tion to this, the public library reduces social barriers and facilitates greater user agency in choice through it’s lending services. Additionally, the public library building/institution can also evolve actively to address challenges, issues, and concerns facing the community that does not necessarily directly address it. As an unique interior public space, the public library also should help further develop and integrate with the public civic urban network. Particularly, it can help increase the value of public space for the community and increase the agency of the user to define and shape the larger urban social milieu-paradigm. 9.3 ARCHITECTURE PROPOSAL: SYNTHESISSpatially, these programmatic proposals and spatial identifiers can be combined conceptually to address the issues facing the public library. In mind of pursing greater community user agency in public space, developing the public library’s sharing economy, and fa-cilitating it’s previously indicated cultural values through a defined space, it is argued that the public library’s basic spatial elements can be deconstructed and rearticulated into a larger civic sharing ecosystem with agency of the user to heterotopically define their use, space, and fulfillment of needs in the public sphere. Figure 23 and 24 conceptually show how the public library space can be reimagined in new scales of space, in combination with the context, and in context to existing norms of space. Understanding the diagram in figure 14 as the basic element of the public library, the basic library element is now multiplied, overlapped, and decoupled to create a more flexible, dynamic, and overlapping architectural language which can encompass many different uses, lendings, and imposed perceived spaces by the user. Figure 27 shows this architectural design proposal; here multiple storage nodes can be combined and activated in any user-defined preference to conceive many different environments in the public library environment.This architecture proposal will arguably move away from the basic concept of library architecture-use as indicated in figure 20. Moving away from the basic figure 20 concept of the library item use, the public library is posited to be defined by the architectural-spatial logic outline in figures 28 to 31.10.0 SPACE-USE SEQUENCE IDENTITYUsing the Withington Public Library as a case study example, the basic elements of public libraries, the spatial-program sequence of public libraries, and the action-sequence of public libraries were extrapolated and theorized. Figure 21 and 22 show respectively the sequence of spaces that the public library is represented by and the sequence of actions a typical user will undergo once entering a library. It is argued that the public library is designed to facilitate a more legible way-finding experience. (A) ANALYSIS OF USE: TRADITIONAL LIBRARY AS PROTOTYPE.Simulating how a library user would proceed through the public library and act in the space, the basic object elements, sequence of use, and timeline of actions were diagrammed. (1)The basic object elements that are minimum for proper public library function today was extrapolated as follows: OBJECT ELEMENTS: (1) chair, (2) table, (3) bookshelf, (4) book (architectural), (5) counter-gate.(B) ANALYSIS OF ACTIONFIGURE 21. ARCHITECTURAL SPACE DIAGRAM ANALYSIS OF PROTOTYPICAL PUBLIC LIBRARYWith each space, there is a corresponding action analyzed and generalized. The diagram is an conceptual spatial organization of the minimum required object elements spatialized of a public library. Taking the analysis of the public library’s elements and space, a diagram of it’s analyzed spatial organization and linkage is extrapolated. It is proposed that there is actually a potential exchange space that binds all the space-orders together in this the-orized system-structure of the public library in terms of space that should be articulated more in the future public library. This frame of view then delineated these object elements as spatial markers that allow user definition of constructed spaces.SHELFEXCHANGESPACEACTION: SEARCH AND BROWSINGACTION: CIRCULATION +PERSON TO PERSON INTERACTION. THIS IS UNDERDEVELOPED.ENTRY AND EXITACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: THRESH-OLD + ENTRYACTION:STORAGEACT: EXCHANGEWAYFINDINGSEARCHINGCHAIRTABLELOBBYCOUNTERSTORAGEFIGURE 22. DIAGRAM OF ANALYZED PUBLIC LIBRARY USE  This diagram shows how an individual acts in entering a library at minimum and in use of the public library’s main function. It is argued that this process of use action in the public library should remain and can be used for the new prototypical library, but not necessarily in the same architectural language and with new inventory. ENTRYSEARCHBROWSEDEPOSITUSECHECKOUTLEAVEASK-FINDSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          41 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEXPANDING DEFINITION: NEW MILIEUARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINECONCEPTS OF SPACES: (1) gateway, (2) circulation, (3) storage, (4) display space, (5) use space, (6) browsing space.  These objects elements in the traditional library are the minimum required for value-entity to be found and used by the visitor. These are also parallel the concept of use where the storage, display, use of the entity-value in the library is emphasized.  note: The book as an object is architectural. With it’s flat rectangular form, single ad-vertising binding on it’s side, and ritualistic actions required to open and use it, the book defines the larger conception and architectural form of the library itself. It requires a desk and chair for it’s full use and engagement and thus these elements are staples of the public library. However, these object elements can vary with different value-elements. A bike, for example, may rather require greater exchange spaces. Compiling these basic parameters of use and space in the public library, figures 21 and 22 in a spatial sequence was realized. It is argued that the sequence of public library action, as shown in figure 22, remains and should be present and facilitated in the future pub-lic library; however, the scales of the time-space of these actions, in particular use, can be increased or varied to maximize the value generated from the public library sharing economy and public value.ANALYSIS: ACTION GUIDELINENEW SOCIAL THRESHOLD OF RELA-TIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE.FIGURE 24. DECONSTRUCTED LIBRARY REFRAMED INTO NEW SOCIAL CONTEXT.This important diagram shows how the elements of the library is proposed to be deconstructed and reframed-repositioned spread in a larger urban scale. Rather than just restricted in one traditional building, the public library in mind of bettering it’s heterotopic quality and public civic space, now encompasses the larger ex-isting public networks in the city. The diagram above conceptually shows this new library that encompasses the public infrastructure and the new library territories.FIGURE 25. NEW LIBRARY ARCHITECTURE: REDEFINED SCALE AND SPACEArchitecturally, the evolved future public library should further define a new interface territory and public social milieu space in the public-private urban environment. This new scale will, purely theoretically, slowly over time when imposed shift norms of sharing and behavior.FIGURE 23. NEW LIBRARY ARCHITECTURE: REDEFINING THE PUBLIC SPHEREPublic library architecture should expand it’s scale and linguistical-ly compartmentalized definition as a traditional single building(s). By redefining it’s territories of program, it betters its effectiveness to allow a new sharing economic territory to occur, a new public social milieu of this new economy to be shaped with new experi-ence, and define a new public condition for better community use. LIBRARY NETWORKBOUGHT RARE VALUE (EX. TOOL)ROAD NETWORKPRIVATE SPACEHOUSE HOMECITY AS LIBRARYLIBRARYOLD PRIVATE THRESHOLDSOCIAL MILIEUNEW THRESHOLD TO PRIVATE PUSHED BACKPRIVATE PUBLICNODAL EXCHANGERANGE OF EXCHANGEFIGURE 26. CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF NEEDS OVER TIME.This diagram shows how needs of individuals vary over time for certain values, such as the need to use a book for a certain type of information or the need to use transportation to reach school during a brief moment of time. These needs could be fleeting or lengthy, though arguably all will eventually reduce to zero, and can be summarized in terms of their frequency. This diagram shows these needs of two persons that vary over an abstract amount of time. Here, it is posted that much of these values are only needed by one individual breify for a period of time and remains normally unused, wasted, and not to it’s potential in time space. Through the public library and its’ role in the sharing economy, this value entity can maximize its utility among larger groups of people with needs at different times and with less volume as it’s shared. Thus for the user, the theoretical cost to use the item is reduced as the value entity is shared: the public library does this, arguably already, with books but can expand to more diverse items, situations, and values of the public realized through it’s proposed architectural space. K in this graph stands for threshold and capacity to use given the need. Normally, to satisfy a need with an value, one must purchase it and that would require a high threshold to utilize as costs-demand interests are not aligned. The public library lowers that threshold with provision and lending of these value entities free, but can achieve this through attraction, hybridizing with other associations, feelings, and uses of other programs with architecture. This is through design. TIMENEED INTENSITY FORX VALUE ENTITY.K LIBRARY REDUCED THRESHOLDLIBRARY EXCHANGEPERSON ONE PERSON 2K NORMAL THRESHOLD OF OBTAIN VIA PURCHASESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          42 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCURRENT PROPOSITION: AGENT ORIENTATED HETEROTOPIAARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINEFigure 21 analysis shows the proposed public library space-se-quence diagram. Through this extrapolated and analyzed spatial sequence from the Withington Public Library plan, the public library can be experienced and is framed sequentially in space through it’s constituent elements of use such as the table, chair, shelf, counter. When a user uses these items in a sequence, a self defined space and defined territory is self generated and arguably as a unique experience to the user. As the elements are separate and are related spatially to one another, their spatial relations frames a territory of occupation.  Here, it is argued that these basic elements of the public library can become user perceived and chosen spatial land-marks. This derived architectural-programmatic concept is spatially diagrammed in figure 28 and 29.CULTURAL DESIGN GUIDEIn mind of developing the public library as a public civic space, the public library could:(1) facilitate user agnecy (2) hybridize library core function with entertainment, leisure, and experiences(3) facilitate heterotopic readings of the architectural langauge(4)Promote social capital generation through designSHARING ECONOMY GUIDEFor sharing economy development the public library could:(1)use economic leverage to obtain greater value of cycled FIGURE 27 NEW PUBLIC LIBRARY: FRAME + UTILITY: SHARING ECOSYSTEMArchitecturally, it is proposed that the evolved public library would be able to alter it’s program over time according the need and public desire. Through it’s inherent organization of storage with static elements of ambiguous self-referential space, the user can impose their own language in architectural space of new public library. Here, the storage elements can be activated or not to combine into a self-de-sired program. These elements in the diagram above allow heterotopic readings and manifestations of the space through a framework. This diagrammatic conceptual function can overlap with other concurrent activations at the same time. This architectural-spatial condi-tion should be imposed with the STORING:KIDS SPACESTORING:CRAFTSSTORING:BOOKSSTORING:MAKER LABKIDS CRAFTING EVENTCRAFTING AND SELLING EVENTSTUDY EVENT ETC...STORING:SELLING SPACESTORING:COMPUTERACTIVATEDFRAME OF USEThese would be static elements in the new public library that frames the spaces. FIGURE 28. BASIC ARCHITECTURE GUIDELINES: DISPLAYED STORAGE AND USE.Public space agency: it is tentatively proposed that through this diagrammed spatial articulation of the interior library spaces, there will be greater user freedom of choice in identifying their spaces (identity being a type of referential spaces that the user defines to work in their condition). There will be various spatial markers, as indicated above with their identifiers (what they hypothetically store as an example), that users can personally identify to curate their imposed image, use, and spatial - archi-tectural totality of the space. This is the basic architectural design logic that is proposed. Even literally in program and use, different combinations of these identifiers result in unique program-events and thus spatial conditions.THE SPATIAL IDENTIFIERS.SOFABOOKCONFERENCE TABLESMEDIA FIGURE 29. BASIC ARCHITECTURE GUIDELINES: DISPLAYED STORAGE AND USE.This diagram shows how stored items categories could have it’s own territories of storage-use. It does not have to return to it’s literal original storage site if it’s in it’s territory or similar storage category. This expands the scale and duration and value of the pub. library’s items for users in a sharing economy frame of view; here, the duration and distance and scale of use in space time is also considered in maximizing it’s value.(1) The basic public library architecture law is to ensure a clear language and system of displaying stored and providing a space for it’s use. This value will be of any entity in the future public library and not only include the book. This, for example in context to the sharing economy, should encompass all public desired items (through online or physical input). TERRITORIESSTATIC STORAGE WITHEXPANDABLE USE AREAS AROUND IT.LIB. ITEMCIRCULATIONSTORES XSTORES YSTORES ZSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          43 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCURRENT PROPOSITION: AGENT ORIENTATED HETEROTOPIAARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINEentities through lending.(2)take advantage of voids in space-time to provide value in library function.SUGGESTED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES(1) Storage nodes could define territories(2) Territories of use from storage nodes can be articulated and legible in space and architecture.(3) Storage and uses must be seen and theatrical in concept.(4) Space could porportionatly focus on use and exchange and entertainment in library.(5) Use Space must be flexible over time and allow for mutiple uses.(6) Threshold conditions may integrate with public and private realm. Hybridization with existing public network: geater integration with public spaces and accessorized with existing public conditions.LEGIBILITY DESIGN INTENTION GUIDELINES(i) SPATIAL ORGANIZATION: -Storage of items and elements could be (sharing economy): stored item can change over time to user pereference. The area of use can vary in duration depending on public desire. Territories can be personalized somehow over time and space. -Spatial identifiers, as indicated through coloured blocks in figure 28 and 29 for example, should juxtapose with other architectural elements and can be differentiated in their program, use, and service through architectural differentiation in language. This can be done with differing scale, colour, material quality, intensity of clustering with other spatial identifiers, or form for example. (ii) PUBLIC INTERFACE-Could integrate and connect fluidly with the public plane: define a new articulated threshold condition between interior and exterior spaces. Ground plane could be contious. Upper FIGURE 30. ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINE DIAGRAM: FRAMEWORK This diagram shows the proposed architectural design concept for the library spatial organizations of it’s stored physical spaces and activated use spaces in plan and section. Programs and activated elements can occur over the same time. Space can be read heterotopically for user defined program, identity, and public agency. This is a framework that allows for flexible change over time. This diagram is conceptual; the scales of space and time can vary in reality. BUILDING SHEATH - OR - THRESHOLDTERRITORY OFUSE : ACTIVATEDUSE 1USE 2USE 3PLAN DIAGRAMSECTION DIAGRAMFLOORSUSE 4STORAGEAREAS OF USE(USING STORED ITEM OR ENTITY OF VALUE.)USE 5PUBLIC LIBRARY ARCH. FIGURE 31. (RIGHT) USER DEFINED FRAMES INHERENT IN SPA-TIAL LANDMARKS. Spatial landmarks to create architectural spatial frames that are am-biguous, in terms of a juxtapositional reading, to frame territories of space. Here, there are Static elements and dynamic elements that define the new public library. These static elements are tentatively vertical spatial indicators (indicated as “column”’ in the diagram above) that define user-read territories in side. This can be contrast-ed with the traditional static library that is arguably not conclusive to user agency, alteration, and dynamic change to meet the rapidly varying needs and wants of a modern society. These spatial identifiers can also, in light of the analyzed spatial use-process and spatial organization of elements via the Carnegie and other case studies, as place-makers, way-finding elements that denote place location, and hierarchy of the building despite it’s dif-fused network. It is argued that hierarchy needs to be imposed on these markers to denote use, procession, and function.  Intensity of clustering organization and intensity, such as having clumps in varying numbers, can denotes user and space. As well, this spatial identifier has to be juxtaposed to all other architectural languages in the building as it needs to be read as a legible marker and syntax for t the way-finding to occur effectively; lest it’s not legible. DESKSTATIC ELEMENTSCHAIRSHELFCOUNTERCOLUMNBUILDING SHEATH -OR - THRESHOLDTRADITIONAL LIBRARYRIGID BOUNDARIESNEW PUB. LIBRARYFLUID BOUNDARIESTHE SPATIAL IDENTIFIERS: THESE ARE STATIC IN THE PROPOSED GUIDELINE.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          44 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISMETHODOLOGY FOR SUBSEQUENT EXPLORATIONSUBSEQUENT APPROACH AND METHODOLOGYfloors and programed spaces for use could be visially continous and connected. (Public space extension: experince in terms of entertainment must be articulated.)-Human scale focus: the public library could architecturally proritize the human scale in it's functional and programmatic areas in addition to other scales of activity to reinforce the pedestrian and user hierarchy first. -Civil Symbolism: The facade of the public library should define a unique symbolic civic identity. It must placemake the public spaces outside and juxtapose to the surrounding private context. The building should express a consistent library function and new identity legible to the public layman.-Refer to digrams on this and preivous page for more spatial recommendations for public library interior and spatial organization guidelines. For spatial order and heiarchy, refer to figure 21. 11.0 OVERVIEW OF GENERAL PROPOSAL STEPS FOLLOWED FOR SUBSEQUENT PARTS.Based on theory and conceptual analysis of the analysis described to this point, subsequent parts in the article will further synthesize the study and find architectural solutions to explore public library's future and address issues facing public libraries in greater elaboration. Through planning and conceptual design, a more specific synthesized architectural design solution will be proposed and shown in simulation (plan, diagram, perspective).Here, a new prototype and concept of the public library will be developed further in architectural terms. A new design planning guideline for the future prootypical library will be developed further in spatial simulation of the public library architecture in public space (of Vancouver). This simulation with be without context and in terms of spatial-programmatic study only. These will be explored in 3d model, section, plan, and spatial diagrams in series of simulations.With these spatial simulations and more spatially develped guidelines of architecture-program of a better future public library, a real case conceptual study simulation with the city of Vancouver will be pursued for the general community. This will be abstract and be an example of how the guideline can be applied. This will take the stance of how one can transform the existing public library and institution into the future and as a next step. This step will be explored in 3d modeling, plan drawings, section drawing, and diagrams to pursue this concept. Final simulation will include perspectives, computer models, and greater consideration of hypotehtical contexts to better provide a perspective and vision of how the public library can evolve into a useful community civic space in a Vancouver city context. In general, the methodology is mainly case study, logical argumentation, and simulation of the research findings in the previous first part. The project will work through plan and section drawing, models and drawings to express the explorations and findings. Mapping, analysis, and research into the context, systems, and concepts will be further done. How the re-imagined public library in the real life context would be realized is explored.11.1 SUMMARYTo overview: this research based on the study in previous parts with an abstract architectural preliminary concept will develop a spatial concept for architecture to facilitate proposed programs and topics addressed in the study. Again, mainly through simulation and case study of real life and site scenario, (1) model prototypical spatial forms and programmmatic architectural realization with theory to test viability and (2) using case studies to simulated a perspective and proposed future of the public library as a example of application of the more developed guideline. This simulation exploration is encompassed as the more comprehensive guideline .Proposed in the final simulations will also be complied a general and abstract concept of any considerations to the financial system, an app, and new system of program in context with the architectural-program design. Logical argumentation will be used with narration to compile the holistic findings or explorations for a conclusion and critical analysis of the research. In mind of this, further comparative analysis may be required. 11.2 NOTES ON INTENTIONSThis research is framed with a client in mind in context to its purpose. The client encompasses the people in the city of Vancouver, the constituents of Vancouver, the government of Vancouver, the Vancouver Public Library committee and staff, and the visitor to the library. This research will be assessed in its relation to the state of public civic space, the VPL, and it's renewed value to the community. 12.0 EXISTING PROGRAM OVERVIEWIn addition to the proposed space-program guidelines that will guide the core program in the subsequent section, this section will indicate a more detailed proposed program requirement for a larger branch library location or a main library site. In the most general sense, the main program for the designed project is to make a public library, a good public space, and community space. For definitive program refer to analysis. The proposed future public library exploration, while abstract in the previous design guideline, will address further the evolution of the institution to become a better community civic useful space in the subsequent parts. This will require more specific general programs requirements than addressed in the previous parts and analyzed guideline and will be outlined tentatively as follows: The proposed public library will roughly refer to existing public library norms to juxtapose from. Being a simulation in a realistic context, parameters will be proposed to roughly match existing public library conventions and standards as a critical foundation; this foundation will be used to criticize and analyze the simula-tion. This section outlines this basic framework of a traditional public library from branch to central scale.12.1 THEORIZED PROGRAM DETAILSThe tentative minimum program-spaces (in mind of this project being a transition of the existing public library to a new institution) for a branch library are as follows:(A.1)MINIMUM REQUIRED AREAS(a.10) SERVICE SPACES -washroom (male, female, and universal)-janitor closet -mechanical space-service spaces-entrance (main egress)-circulation space (egress)(a.11) EXCHANGE SPACES-exchange counter (spaces)-librarian room(a.12) STORAGE-DISPLAY SPACESSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          45 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACEPROGRAM-book shelf space (in any scale)-storage space(a.13)USE SPACES-seating space-reading space(A.2) OPTIONAL AREAS (BASED OFF CONVENTION)(a.20) SERVICE SPACES-parking (bike or/and car)-loading(a.21) KIDS/TEEN SPACE-social play space-book space(a.22) PROGRAM SPACES-other library service spaces-media lab (recording + audio + digital programs)-computer lab-meeting areas-gallery space-auditorium space(a.23) INCOME (CAFE)-space for cooking-space for eating-space for commercial retail12.2 NOTES ON PROGRAM CONDITIONSThe condition of the space and overall design should follow the guidelines indicated in the earlier analysis. Again, the analyzed pub-lic library program guideline will be first followed should be followed for scales and context of a branch library to a central scale in con-text to this study’s conceptual and academic study, in particular for the first part. These program areas stipulated in 12 should exist, in some form to reasonable degree of use, over time in the new public library. Again, section 12 is speculative. It is important to iterate that the finer scales of the public library may not encompass the totality of the basic fundamental programs outlined in this section; they may contain additional or further developed programs as outlined in the analysis, guideline, and subsequent sections in this article. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          46 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISVANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY (VPL) “SITE”PROPOSAL SITE/CONTEXT13.0 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARYThe proposed design simulations and research exploration in the subsequent sections considers the Vancouver Public Library Institution and the city it serves. Today, the Vancouver Public Library, also known as VPL, is one of the most “well-visited”, well received, and strongly rated public library institutions in North America and Canada.1 It was the most visited major urban library per capita in Canada and has high relative usage compared to other public library institutions and in an larger context of public library challenges. Indeed, the Vancouver Public Library institution is comparatively ranked and publicly perceived very positively among library institutions in the world. A study by Germany’s Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf has ranked the Vancouver Public library systems at top, tied with Montreal, among 31 cities in the world in a study based on services, physical spaces, online resources, and how they supported their respective cities. 2In terms of values and official stances as an public institution, it mirrors many other public library institutions in recent times. The Vancouver Public Library purports to officially aspire to become a “free place for everyone to discover, create, and share ideas and information” where it would lead to a more engaged, connected, and “informed” city community. Values, similar to what many other public library institutions express, such as ensuring diversity, accessibility, information freedom, fostering innovation and creativity, community orientated planning, and customer-centered services are among what it purports to value.3 Notably, the VPL is aiming to provide more customer-generated input into their collections. 13.01 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY CONTEXTThe VPL as a holistic institution is divided into one central library in downtown Vancouver and many other smaller branches scattered across the city of Vancouver. If seen as a network, all locations are encompassed in traditionally enclosed open-plan buildings either alone or attached to other programs/uses. The institution offers both digital and physical services which are respectively online and through it’s physical branches. In regards to it’s arguable main function in lending, the library offers mostly books and to a lesser degree cds, electronic devices, musical instruments, among other materials. The institution also has static items and services in it’s physical spaces that is provided publicly; the VPL hosts an “Inspiration Lab” which includes recording studios, digital converters, and computer-programs to create digital images/images/books4 as well as commercially rentable meeting rooms, speaking spaces, areas on it’s property, and other social exchange spaces. In particular, VPL hosts a number of adult, teen, and children focused programs and events in the theme of education, learning, and creation that arguably aligns with their indicated stipulated visions for the institution. Spatially, the Vancouver Public Library networks vary in their provision of these described services and are much smaller in size and availability at branch locations. The inspiration lab, for example, is only located in the downtown main branch of the VPL. Through personal observation as well, usage of the branch libraries across Vancouver differed in their demographics and intensity given consideration that this was observed over varying times and 1 11VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 20172Sherlock Tracy “ Vanocuver Public Library No 1. in world: study.” Vancouver Sun. Web. Accessed Oct 27th. 2018. <http://www.vancouversun.com/news/Vancouver+Public+Library+world+study/9307836/story.html>3 VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 20174 Vancouver Public Library “ Inspiration Lab” vpl.ca Web. <https://www.vpl.ca/inspirationlab>branches. 13.02 MARKETING VS ACTUAL RESULTSToday, the Vancouver Public Library arguably has increased it’s customer orientated approach to remain relevant and useful to the Vancouver community rather than focusing on a larger holistic goal for the public users. The Vancouver Public library 2020 Strategic Plan for example, published in 2017, outlines the institutions goals and public marketing for their intentions around feedback from the public users. However, the fact remains that the physical success of their library buildings are not highly considered in their assessments and priorities of institutional urgency. For example, through the measurement of success in their VPL 2020 plan, their focus on “key performance indicators” that denotes success around the holistic curation, dissemination, and use related to the information economy ignores the loss of relevance and value that the physical library building has in the digital information ecosystem today. 5Their KPIs or “key performance indicators” that they stipulate to measure their success, while indicators of their future popularity and reception and abstract usage, is not a good indicator of the public library building-institutions actual use value to the community; this is particularly the case with VPL’s presumed focus on provision of information in time when digitization and production of information continues digitally. Indeed, architecture and the space of the VPL seems to be neglected in it’s metrics and measurement of success in the Vancouver Public Library most recent 202 Strategic Plan assessment. Their KPI for measuring progress via counting the number of visits actually includes physical and “digital visits” which then does not measure the success of the physical library space.6 Other metrics include qualitative surveys of opinion that does not consider actual value generation, usage of resources, and comprehensive survey of the whole Vancouver population. One metric KPI, for example, that asks the surveyed if they “agree that VPL is a go-to venue for learning, creativity, and innovation”  arguably does not provide useful indicators if the VPL library is indeed a “learning, creativity, and innovation” for all of Vancouver’s demographics through it’s information services.7 Indeed, this does not seem to survey all Vancouver residents, only considers opinion and not actual use-value to the user, and does not consider the overlap of their existing digital and physical services in the city that also works towards these abstract visions the VPL purports. Arguably, other institutions like community centers, schools, or even coffee shops with wifi are also places of learning, creativity, and innovation. Work and collaboration is increasingly done online, through digital media, phone, and through other social spaces. As well in the strategic plan’s measurement and indicator of future success, it neglects the existing value of the VPL public library spaces and how the physical library locations are faring in their spatial sense. If VPL considers success and value to community to be critical in the future, it needs to consider it physical library spaces, it’s presence as a public space in Vancouver, and the value it provides. It must be said, however, that the VPL 2020 strategic plan also considers it’s future necessity to be more community orientated, providing more more community input, greater public agency in it’s content.In general, with metrics provided in their annual assessments, it can be argued that the physical VPL library spaces are losing their use and argued relevance to the community. Public library 5VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 20176VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 20177VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 2017SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          47 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCURRENT CHALLENGES AND CONTEXT OF “SITE”PROPOSAL SITE/CONTEXTcirculation of materials and visits are declining by young age groups (aside from children 0- 15) and by all demographics over time. The physical public library architecture space, in this lens, can be argued to be under threat even in the highly ranked Vancouver given these considerations. If the best public library institution, according to a German study, is reduced in it’s physical space’s value and active use by the community they serve, then the public library spaces must evolve, must retain what physical-programmatic value they have, and find new untapped updated value-cultural community public conditions that can better society in general. This evolution will make the VPL public library spaces valuable again through architectural design. The proposals and design guidelines outlined later in this article addresses this.VPL also suffers from lack of awareness of their new more innovative services in their efforts to horizontally diversify away from it’s traditional roles. Indeed, according to their VPL 2020 Strategic Plan, median awareness of all their services was at 15 percent with only book lending and free wifi being generally understood as service provided. 8Indeed, it’s other stipulated programs in the strategic plan which includes, programs and learning opportunities, room rentals, musical instrument lending, immigrant services, writer and aboriginal storyteller in residence, inspiration lab where there are computers with programs to create, and a museum-exhibit is largely less than 30% familiar by the 8 VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 2017FIGURE 33. STATISTICS FOR VPL’S TOTAL LIBRARY SYSTEM GRAPH FROM VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY ANNUAL OPERAT-ING REPORT 2017 1This VPL performance graph shows the yearly assessment of it’s holistic performance over the years between 2014-2017. 2  While digital use has been the only increase, all other metrics have either stagnated or declined. In particular print circulation and physical circulation (physical item use not including digital) is undergoing a slow decline that matches global trends. Program attendance for all ages are in decline, reference questions for librarians are in slow decline, and even website use dropped.1 Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Oper-ating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatingReport.pdf>2Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Oper-ating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatingReport.pdf>FIGURE 32. VPL PUBLIC LIBRARY GRAPH OF PER CAPITAL CIRCULATION BY AGE FROM VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY ANNUAL OPERATING REPORT 2017 1It is argued here that usage of the public library’s argued main resource of the book and other circulating materials is declining over time and with demographics. It is argued, with the limited data in this graph, that VPL is facing a slow decline in general item usage/circulation over time and a decline over age. It’s argued that this show public library value is declining to the public in general over time. Kids materials from ages 0-15 are high arguably due to the VPL’s existing defined-articulated children’s spaces that incorporate socialization, education, and play with other families, programs, and events. This is arguably relatively declining over time extrapolated from the data in the recent past. 1 Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>FIGURE 32.1 VPL BRANCH LIBRARY FOOT TRAFFIC BY BRANCH LOCATION FROM VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY ANNUAL OPER-ATING REPORT 2017 1Though mixed in some cases, this graph  arguably indicates possible foot traffic decline over time for most branch libraries with certain declines to any degree year-to-year for 8 and absolute declines over the measured periods for 15 of 19 branch libraries. It is argued that public library usage and visits to physical spaces are in a slow decline.1 Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>PER CAPITA CIRCULATION BY AGE AMONG ACTIVE BORROWERSFOOT TRAFFIC BY BRANCH10-14 AGE 15-19 AGE 30-34 AGE2013PER CAPITATIME2013 201320142014 201420152015 201520162016 201620172017 2017605040302010YEARFOOT TRAFFICTSN BRANCH250000300000350000400000200000201320132013201420142014201520152015201620162016201720172017TSN BRANCH KIT BRANCH BRI BRANCHSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          48 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPROPOSED PHYSICAL SITE OF STUDY AND TENTATIVE APPLICATION OF THEORYPROPOSAL SITE/CONTEXTVancouver public according to a 2016 public survey. 913.10 INTRODUCTIONThe proposed site is the City of Vancouver and it’s public space. While the study is abstract and the site is conceptual, more detailed sites and simulation will be explored to show how the proposed design may be implemented as part of design guideline. As shown in subsequent sections in this article, the application of the concept will be shown at different scales and breadths in the city of Vancou-ver’s public realm and urban landscape. To a degree, these public space sites were chosen in mind of finding a vacant space and time; vacant meaning there is open space where the project is able to be inputted and utilized for the project and that there is underutilized time by individuals in the space. The skytrain system, as a hypothetical example, requires individuals to wait in station space for trains to arrive, wait in the skytrain while it’s moving to reach their intended destination, and require a process of moving in and out (that requires tickets and payment as a threshold of use) that can arguably be better utilized. It can be imagined, perhaps, that there is nothing useful to do while waiting for the train given the stations architecture and condition of the process. These are places where it was understood to be an opportunity and place to fit the new evolved public library and it’s current guideline level in a vacant niche. This description was an hypothetical example of the potential accesorization the public library may have in public space with the context around it, redefine the public milieu, and develop as an institution for the community.13.11 EXTRAPOLATION & RATIONALGiven the proposition that the public library can be ‘scattered’ or fragmented while still retaining it’s architectural and programmatic concepts in larger scale of time and space (to better it’s theorized functions and space for the future), the public library elements and program can then be understood in more site specific detail to also scatter in the city public network for to claim a new public library territory and tentatively a public orientated new social milieu-norm. The public library elements of the chair, shelf, table, and counter can be diffused into the city, as mediums of scale and time in con-text to logistical flows of city forces (such as people), in finer grain to the existing public library network. As there are vacancies in time-space in and proximate to public space, this is posted to have the potential to redefine existing public space and urban environ-ments in a new positive civic way (via hybridization) in addition to the public library existing function and proposed evolution.It is tentatively suggested, following the theories and extrapola-tions presented in the research that the main public library will house all main elements and programs of the library, with branch libraries encompassing reduced elements and flexible conditions as architectural frameworks-platforms; where elements can be shifted, changed, cycled to and from the main central library as the core. Here, the library is reframed in scale and time for it’s new context. 9 VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 2017 FIGURE 34. VPL “Inspiration Lab” Use From 2014-2017 1The virtual Vancouver Public Library services and newer services such as the Inspiration Lab, which encompasses recording studios, computers with programs such as InDesign to produce media, and viewing spaces are increasingly used and popular despite overall decreasing physical library usage and visits 2 1 Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>2Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Operating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatin-gReport.pdf>REDEFINED FUTURE PUBLIC LIBRARYELEMENTS OF LIBRARY CAN BE ‘SCATTERED’ IN LARGER SCALE OF TERRITORY OF SPACEFIGURE 35.0 ABSTRACT SPATIAL DIAGRAM OF LIBRARY SPA-TIAL TERRITORY ON SITE.The public library space, according to previously described theories and guidelines, can be through in new scales of space and time. The public library can be a ‘scattered’ or fragmented network and expanded territory of stored entity use over the city space. Rather than just having it’s analyzed programs, spaces, and prototypical functions in one building as is typical today, an expanded new territory of continuous public space will better serve the public community in the future. Using existing high so-cial-capital public areas, the public library proposed program-ar-chitecture can be realized better.TRADITIONAL LIBRARYELEMENTS IN ONE BUILDINGNEW TERRITORY AND EXPANDED SCALE OF PUB-LIC LIBRARY SPACE: RECOMPARTMENTALIZED.MAIN BRANCH NODE DESKDIAGRAM LEGENDCHAIRSHELFCOUNTERBOOKHOURS OF STUDIO USEHOURS OF DIGITIZATION STATION USEHOURS OF CREATION STATION USESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          49 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISAPPLICATION OF THEORYPROPOSAL CONCEPT DIAGRAMFIGURE 36.0 SITE PLAN DIAGRAM ANALYSIS (ABOVE)This map shows the library locations, their walkable distance to neighboring residents at 5 minutes1 , and the existing public road and skytrain network with their stations. The skytrain lines west starting from VCC Clark are proposed to open in 2025 and is under current planning and construction by the BC government. 2 The public library is arguably part of this public infrastructure and network that juxtaposes with private spaces of the city.1 http://evstudio.com/the-five-minute-walk-calibrated-to-the-pe-destrian/2 https://engage.gov.bc.ca/broadwaysubway/“5 MINUTE WALK”11http://evstudio.com/the-five-minute-walk-calibrated-to-the-pedestrian/EXISTING PUBLICLIBRARY LOCATION SKYTRAIN STATION PRESENT AND FUTURE2 KM SCALESKYTRAIN LINEMAJOR ROADSVANCOUVERENGLISH BAYNORTH VANCOUVERPROPOSED MAIN BRANCH SITERICHMOND AIRPORTUBCDIAGRAM LEGEND NFIGURE 37.0 CONCEPT DIAGRAM OF SPATIAL CONCEPT: LIBRARY AS THE CITY PUBLIC (ABOVE)The Vancouver public infrastructure and space reflects a new public library territory that redefines the threshold of public to private through it’s expansion of scale. Regions of item use and social exchange are expanded in the new network of use and program described later in the report. This is proposed as a transitional ar-chitectural proposition in a step towards the extrapolated proposed future public library. This diagram shows how an item can be used in this territory in concept. DIAGRAM LEGENDITEM USEDLIBRARY NODES(BRANCH OR FINER SCALES)INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORKNEW PUB. LIBRARY TERRITO-RY. USE EXCHANGE SPACE.MAIN LIBRARY AND/ORMAIN STORAGE CENTERFIGURE 38. (UPPER RIGHT) CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF TRANSFORMATION INTO NEW LANGUAGEThis diagram, again, is to show how two different associative symbolic elements (such as and work of architecture), when combined, can result in a new associative condition, element, and environment. In our case, each circle represents and environmental or archi-tectural work that is perceived as one entity by an individual. Each is associated and perceived by that individual with certain schema, meanings, associated emotions and feelings, and social actions. When two are combined into one whole as indicated in the digram, a new combined meaning, implied social actions to be done in the space, and emotions or feelings may be articulated with the two com-bined semantics of (+) and (-). For example, in this case where (+) is the public library building identifiers with it’s associated civic culture, environment of study, and programs is hybridized architecturally with the (-) skytrain public space identifiers with its associated utility of transportation, associative feeling of public space, or (as an example) excitement for example would result in an combined architectural form that is both combined. Where a new form exuding both associative emotional and programmatic elements results in a anew syntax and resulting social milieu of action, norms,a and perceptions for the public user. This hybridization encompasses public space, the bookstore-coffeshop, entertain-ment elements in consumerism, and other features to elevate the primary public library functions.+-NEW TRANSFORMATION AND LANGUAGE.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          50 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISREDEFINING PUBLIC INSTUTIONSITE MAP AND PUBLIC LIBRARY NETWORKFIGURE 39. VANCOUVER PUBLIC NETWORK: SHARING INFRASTRUCTUREFuture library as nodes of value exchange cycling.This map digram shows the existing public library network in context to the rest of the public spaces in Vancouver. It is argued partly through this map that VancouverRed: Existing Vancouver Public Library LocationsRed Ring: 5 Minute Walking Distance From Library.White: Current Skytrain LinesGrey: Public Space Territory2 KM NSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          51 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISSIMULATION AND DESIGN RESOLUTION ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM-ARCHITECTUREDESIGN RESOLUTION: PUBLIC LIBRARY DESIGN GUIDELINE14.0 FOREWORD AND OVERVIEWThe subsequent section outlines a more detailed architectural and programmatic community public library design guideline building on the previous stipulations with more specific proposed program, system, and architectural resolution in context to Vancouver and its public spaces. Again, this research also proposes, through this exploration of the public library, how the public space, civic society, current social milieu in Vancouver should also develop and be. 14.1 SHARING CULTUREThe public library is a critical part of civic society in context its role in generating social capital and as “social infrastructure.1 Not only simply lending valuable entities for free to the public, the public library also is described to “shape the way people interact”2, impact how communities are, and provides an important public service.The public library today arguably has declining physical circula-tion.3 With the relative value of books as a medium of information declining with the digitization and ubiquity of information online, the physical library space can be questioned in its value. However, the public library is still arguably vital in other aspects; it is an integral public space, critical to civic society, and has existing social-cultur-al values that are arguably important for communities. Books them-selves also arguably have value other than a source of information. It is with this context that the question of how the public library can evolve is explored. Today, the sharing culture is rising. The sharing economy, as evi-denced in mobility service companies such as Uber (c) or Evo Car Share, is shown to be proliferating and increasing in popularity as private services.4 This growth arguably reflects a unspoken demand and potential value that the sharing economy and its related ser-vices presents for society. However the private companies that run these sharing services, being for-profit companies, may not have the public interests first. Users of sharing economy services, for example, may unwittingly provide their own data, metadata, social networking information, and “attention” to these private compa-nies.5 As private companies, profit and capital generation may take priority over other aspects.The public library, on the other hand, provides highly similar func-tions conceptually to the relatively newer private sharing economy services. While sharing economy companies conceptually shares entities of value to the public for a relatively lower fee than private ownership, the public library institution does this for free and in the interests of the public community. The public library lends and ‘shares’, for example, items such as books, cds, and some instru-ments for the public with an established lending system, with the support of professional librarians, with government support, and an established building public space. 1 Klinenberg E., “To Restore Civil Society, Start With the Library: This crucial instution is being neglected just when we need it the most” nytime.com The New York Times. September 2018. Online.  Accessed April 20th <https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/08/opin-ion/sunday/civil-society-library.html>2 Klinenberg E., “To Restore Civil Society, Start With the Library: This crucial instution is being neglected just when we need it the most” nytime.com The New York Times. September 2018. Online.  Accessed April 20th <https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/08/opin-ion/sunday/civil-society-library.html>3Vancouver Public Library “Vancouver Public Library Annual Oper-ating Report 2017.” vpl.ca May 9 2018. Web. Accessed Sep 17th. < https://www.vpl.ca/sites/vpl/public/2017AnnualOperatingReport.pdf>4 Basselier R., Langenus G., Walravens L.,“The Rise of the Sharing Economy” NBB Economic Review. September 2018. Online. Accessed March 2nd. < https://www.nbb.be/doc/ts/publications/economicreview/2018/ecoreviii2018_h3.pdf>5Pedroni Marco “Sharing Economy as an anti-concept” First Monday. Volume 24. Number 2. Feb 4 2019. Web. Accessed March 20th <https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/articl>e/view/9113/7732#p5Indeed, it can be posited in this context that this aspect of the sharing culture should be more integrated or developed in the future public library institution. The public library is arguably a prototype of the sharing culture, encompasses the sharing culture system in its existing institutional framework, and can better increase the value of the physical public library space for the community and institution through this aspect. The public library institution in general has a mandate to benefit the public and espouses values that work for the community’s good encom-passing equity and generating civic culture 614.2 SYSTEMThis section outlines how the new proposed public library system works, particularly in context to it’s expanded definition. The proposed system for the public library will expand its stored and lent inventory from its traditionally defined elements as defined in the BC Libraries Act: Library Materials Regulation current to April 2019 from books, art prints, audio cassettes, audio compact discs, and other related items7 to all entities of value. This encompasses reusable recyclable value entities such as hardware tools, household appliances such as vacuum cleaners, bikes, projectors, among other entities for example. Again, reuse of entities of value cycled in society, other than only books and related information media, increases the efficiency of item use and value obtained for civic public society.The system of funding and acquisition of items for the library and communities is maintained but should be expanded to include community input. The method of item or value entity acquisition 6 VPL 2020 Strategic Plan: Learning , Creativity, and Innovation. 20177 “Library Act: Library Materials Regulation”  B.C. Reg. 467/94. Queens Printer. Victoria.January 1, 1995. Web. Accessed Jan 5th 2019 < http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/docu-ment/ID/freeside/467_94>CAR SHAREUSER ADOPTIONTIMEBIKE SHARELITTLE FREE LI-BRARYTOOLS /ITEMS:VANCOUVER TOOL LIB.FIGURE 40.0 CONCEPT GRAPH OF INCREASING PARTICIPATION IN SHARING ECONOMY.This conceptual graph shows the general trend that the sharing economy is increasing in adoption and popularity in usage in recent history. This reflects the potential value the public library may have in context to its sharing culture and it’s identity as a free public institution.FIGURE 41.0 CONCEPT DIAGRAM OF DEVELOPMENTThis conceptual diagram illustrates how the public library’s core identity can be expanded to encompass to lend other entities of value and further develop public spaces.CURRENT SERVICES:BOOK - TRADITIONAL INFORMATION - CD - ARCHIVAL MATERIALPUBLIC LIBRARY CORE IDENTITY:LENDING RARE ENTITIES OF VALUE TO PUBLIC FOR FREE TO REDUCE SOCIAL BARRIERS.TRADITIONAL BUILDINGEXISTING LIBRARY NETWORKREDEFINED MILIEUA NEW PUBLIC LIBRARY INFASTRUCTURE.A FURTHER DEVELOPED PUBLIC LIBRARY ARCHI-TECTURE. OTHER PRIVATE NEEDSUNMET IN PUBLIC:LEISURE - STUDY COOKING LEARN - ITEMS - PEOPLE TEACHERSPUBLIC SPACES: VOIDS IN SPACE AND TIME + OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPAND/ACCESSORIZESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          52 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISA NEW ONLINE APPLICATION TO TRACK CHIPPED ITEMS, LOCATIONS STORED, AND MANAGE SHARING (REQUESTSPROPOSED SYSTEM: HOW IT WORKSfor the proposed public library can be roughly divided into two categories; one that is traditionally government funded and user donated. For the traditional government funded model, items can be traditionally curated and acquisitioned by the librarian designed to manage the library node/location. Another means of government funded item acquisition is one of crowd-funding, where the com-munity can self decide entities of value to be acquired for the public library location of interest and use self donated and government funds for acquisition. Figure 42 and 43 outlines this. User donation provision of library items is regulated to reusable entities of value, their quality, and their considered context for the community. These expanded entities of storage in the public library, as describe in abstract terms in figure 29, have designed areas of storage that have appropriate size, theme, and space for the respectively stored item. A lawn mower, for example, may be only stored in residential library nodes and in library node ‘shelves’ that are interfacing with the ground level and are of appropriate large size. This concept expands to all items in exception to the traditional items of stored in the public library where they have storage spaces in all proposed library nodes/locations for synegization and accesorization to other stored items, program desired, and public space context. This will reframe the existing public library inventory and traditional materials of lending in new ways, in new contexts, and assumed with new exploratory potential and value to the public.The way of using items, particular in their territory of use, is pro-posed to be more free and only limited to a general urban territory unrestricted by traditionally bound library spaces. This reflects how some sharing economy mobile services let customers use their transportation vehicles from start to finish anywhere in an urban territory. Modo, for example, seems to allow users to use and park anywhere in the City of Vancouver, seemingly unlimited by designated parking spots.8 Dropbike, a private bike sharing mobility service in the University of British Columbia, allows users to “end” their  “trip anywhere” in the campus territory.9 This proposed public library system is theoretically made possible with the use of ‘chipped’ items which are tracked with a new public library network; where the expanded entities of value lent and stored can now be used by users in the public library territory or anywhere the city of Vancouver unrestricted by restricted walls of the traditional library if designated. A designated power drill lent to a user from a public library node, as a hypothetical example, could be used at another distant location and stored at another drill-permissible li-brary node with storage. This proposal is based on existing tracking concepts with ‘shared’ objects in existing private sharing economy 8 Modo “Parking Privileges” modo.coop. Web. Accessed April 19th 2019. https://modo.coop/parking-privileges/9 Dropbike “Freedom to go. Smart bike sharing.” dropbike.co Web. Accessed April 23rd.<https://www.dropbike.co/>services. This proposal is conceptual.Items are limited in their use and storage according to their territory of use, frequency of use by a user, and duration of use in context to use by public users depending on the nature of each item loaned. Each category has a high and small aspect pre-scribed to clarify. For example, a lawn mower which may be only used by an individual for a single family residence once a month for half a day, may only be lent for such described half day dura-tion, per person only once per two weeks, and within a fifty kilo-meter radius encompassing a users single family neighborhood around the library node where the mower is stored. A umbrella, which may have high frequency of use depending on variable weather and short durations given use in transit commutes, may have unlimited territory of use but restricted to one day loans.This system is reinforced and ensured through the tracking system and hypothetical public library application interface with a reservation and booking and inventory system based on a Van-couver map. This could be through a public library application. See figure 45. This application interface can be accessed at all public library nodes/ locations through an integrated terminal and through the public library application by phone or computer. While less technological means could work, this application concept has precedence with existing sharing economy service and mo-bility services with companies such as Uber, Evo, and Dropbike10 who use a phone application to track their respective items in the 10 Dropbike “Freedom to go. Smart bike sharing.” dropbike.co Web. Accessed April 23rd.<https://www.dropbike.co/>STORY DIAGRAMUNUSED/GIVEN - REUSABLECONSOLIDATED IN FORMAL PUBLIC LIBRARY STORAGEPLACED IN ACCESORIZED PUBLIC LIBRARY LOCATIONPLACED IN ACCESORIZED PUBLIC LIBRARY LOCATIONCROWDFUNDED PROVIDED - LIBRARIAN CURATEDSELF DONATE (1) GOVERNMENT FUNDED (2)FIGURE 42. (BELOW) SYSTEM STORY DIAGRAMThis diagram illustrates the different means in which how the proposed public library system can obtain its expanded inventory of items. It can be crowdfunded, user donated, or traditionally curated and sourced by the librarian (main method proposed).FIGURE 43. (ABOVE) ITEM USE ACCORDING TO THEIR SOURCEThis diagram shows how self donated items and government funded items in the public library is proposed to be used and integrated. (2) (1)DESIGNATE TIME OF USEINCREMENTS IN DESIGNATED ZONESCASUAL - FREEOR INTEGRATED INTO SYSTEMWITH DESIGNATED TIME OF USEDESIGNATED STORAGE ZONESNODES: DESIGNATED PLACES IN CITY.TERRITORY: LIMITED DISTANCE FROM ORI-STORAGE TERRITORYIN PUBLIC LIBRARY TERRITORY IN NEW ARCHITECTURAL ADDITIONS TO CITYCHIPPED ALREADYTRACKING TAG/CHIPOR RESTRICTED TO ZONECASUAL - FREE SELF - CHIPPEDOR RESTRICTED TO ZONEAPPLICATION: EXPANDED DEFINITIONSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          53 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISREDEFINING THE PUBLIC CIVIC SPHERE: RECONTEXTUALIZATION. CITY AS PUBLIC LIBRARY.FRAGMENTATION: NETWORKcity. Users could access items in a number of ways through this application. Individuals may have an verified account through their smartphone or computer application or online account that allows them to reserve, loan, or check on availability of space, people, events, and value items over space and time in the Vancouver Public Library system in the city. This system provides a pass-word which could be used at designated public library locations to access stored / displayed items. Users could also access items through used of chipped library cards or fobs through a verification system; borrowers of an item, for example, may use their library card at a library terminal available at all library node locations to verify that they are loaning a particular item and can access or leave designated public library territory with the borrowed item. Mobi bike sharing in Vancouver follows a system in where users are able to access particular bikes with a “7 digits” pass-code via online application provided upon payment or “RDIF” card or “Mobi” fob, for example.11 Items or value entities can also be free use within a particular library territory under varied amounts of time de-pending on the nature of the object and proximity to a library node / location. A conceptual example could be the free use of a hardware tool or instrument within ten meters of a library node location. In the public library application, users are able to find items /value entities they want to borrow of interest, request loaning, reserve use at a later date, see information including loaning times, and territory of use. In general, with a digital application and tracking system, items can be found, tracked, and freely used in the urban space and scale beyond the traditional library norms. This would be a framework in which the public library’s sharing system can work and use the existing public library’s sharing system in cities such as Vancouver. See figure 45 for more detail and summarization.14.3 NOTES ON INVENTORYEach public library node location, as described in more detail in lat-er parts in the article, is proposed to provide wifi, a tracking system for the items to be borrowed, electricity, emergency items such as first aid or shelter/safety items, lighting at night, and a terminal with internet and library application interface access. This will further 11 Mobi “How it works: what is bike share?” mobibikes.ca Web. Accessed April 23rd 2019”. < https://www.mobibikes.ca/en/how-it-works>expand to provide necessary services that are ‘entangled’12 in society and arguably necessary to ensure greater success in society to those with difficulty to or without access. 14.4 EXPANDED PUBLIC LIBRARY NETWORK: FINER GRAIN NETIn this proposal, the public library institution in Vancouver is also perceived newly in context to public civic space as a expanded network that could encompass the urban public spaces such as roads, sidewalks, parks, plazas, and other spaces. As an public space, its inventory, space, and associated programs arguably works in tandem with the public spaces, infrastructure, and realm of the city. It is argued that with the existing public library branch locations and main library location as of the date this article was written, Vancouver’s public library network can be more ‘frag-mented’ and developed further at all scales. With the argument that the existing Vancouver Public Library location’s territory of influence is limited in scope and there are gaps in public need, territory of service, and proposed program-matic impacts critical for civic society, it is proposed that the public library institution can develop additional ‘nodes’ or spaces in mind of previously proposed functions in line with strategies reflected in figure 35. Here, the public library’s identity, storage, and cultural values can be fragmented at smaller and locally contextualized scales to better respond to the public library’s expanded definition, increase its network of service to more aspects of the community, and further integrate into the social milieu of community life to better civic society and public space. See figure 44.With the position of understanding the basic architectural identity of the public library through its reduced elements of the chair, table, counter-top, shelf, and envelope, it was intended to incor-porate these critical public library elements in symbolic, spatially influencing, and ambiguously read architectural elements that could be isolated, combined, and together reframe public civic space into a new social milieu incorporating the public library’s 12 Pedroni Marco “Sharing Economy as an anti-concept” First Monday. Volume 24. Number 2. Feb 4 2019. Web. Accessed March 20th <https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/articl>e/view/9113/7732#p5FIGURE 44. (BELOW) PUBLIC LIBRARY NETWORK: CAN BE DEVELOPED FURTHERThis map diagram shows the existing argued public library network in magenta and proposes how it can developed with finer scales and to fill the argued gaps present in the existing system.FIGURE 45. (BELOW) PUBLIC LIBRARY APPLICATION SYSTEMThis diagram shows how the proposed public library system can be used by future users. Either through an phone app, fob, or library card, the public library lent value is now expanded in territory of use.NETWORK: FRAGMENTED : CAN BE DEVELOPED FURTHER APPLICATION: EXPANDED SYSTEM1 2EXISTING PUBLIC LIBRARY INFASTRUCTURE/NETWORK CAN BE EXPANDED - FINER GRAIN NETWORK A NEW ONLINE APPLICATION TO TRACK CHIPPED ITEMS, LOCATION STORED, AND MANAGE SHARING (REQUESTS, LOANING TIMES, RESERVATIONS, TERRITORY OF USE).TRADITIONAL, BUILDING-INWARD ORIENTATED, LIMITEDDIGITAL APPLICATION AND TRACKING MEANS ITEMS CAN BE FOUND, TRACKED, AND BE FREELY USED IN THE URBAN SPACE AND SCALE. A FRAMEWORK IN WHICH THE PUBLIC LIBRARY’S SHARING SYSTEM CAN WORK AND USE EXISTING SYSTEM.THROUGH A SCREEN-PHONE OR ONLINE BROWSER, THE PUBLIC LIBRARY APPLICA-TION CAN SHOW WHERE ITEMS ARE AND THEIR LOANING TERMS. THE TERRITORY OF USE, DURATION OF USE, AND FREUENCY OF USE IS PROVIDED. A CODE IS GIVEN FOR USE.LIBRARY CARD AND FOB: GOING TO TERMINAL AT PROPOSED PUBLIC LIBRARY ‘BINDERS’ ITEMS CAN BE TAKEN OUT USING A PROVIDED FOB OR CHIPPED LIBRARY CARD. ITEMS ARE TRACKED REGARDLESS WITH THEIR CHIP OR A ON A TIME LIMIT.* SHOWN ON MAP: ZONES OF TERRI-TORY OF PUBLIC LIBRARY - VALUE/ITEM/SITUATION AVAILABILITYCAN REQUEST - DEMAND - AND ADD VALUE/ITEM/EVENT*TYPE: HAMMERPROVIDED BY ZACK HEINZCONDITION: GOOD (2016)NOT IN USELOCATION: 9878 SEXSMITH RD.PUB LIBRARY ACCESSORY RES.32 211STREETS IN CITYPARK IN CITYEXISTING PUBLIC LIBRARY RANGE/INFLUENCEPROPOSED EXPANDED PUBLIC LIBRARY LOCATIONSVANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY LOCATIONSVPL2046# SMITH LEUNGVPL LIBRARY CARD20339# SAMANTHA PLANTERSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          54 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACEFRAGMENTATION: NETWORKproposed services and existing values.In this context, the proposed fragmentation of public library ele-ments into the urban context intends to reframe the public spaces and urban conditions into new urban possibilities of use in context of the public library. By reframing contextual public spaces and adjacent uses (such as commercial) in new multiple programmatic ways through proposed public library spatial elements at different scales and conditions, the state of public space and the public library’s service can be redefined in a new social civic realm. This concept can be reflected in figure 24, 25, 23, and 31. This spatial-architectural fragmentation of the public library at larger scales into the city critically reterritorializes the definition of the pub-lic library with new spatial boundaries and norms of library-based activities in public spaces. This in turn, arguably also reframes and redefines the norms and spatial conditions of the public spaces affected. Here, the provision of unmet public user needs, an agent orientated heterotopia where user defined spaces-programs can be realized, and the expanded proposed public library definition can be met spatially in a transformation of public civic space. As well, this fragmentation of public library spatial elements which will be described in greater detail later, also supports and advertises the existing public library functions, locations, and programs by virtue of their expanded territory, presence, and visual reminder to the public users.In general, the transformation of public civic spaces through the public library also makes the public library service, physical spac-es, and proposed inventory more critical and arguably valuable in the public civic sphere and urban landscape.14.5 BINDER: PUBLIC LIBRARY KNOTThe architectural design solution in how the proposed public library system and design guideline can be expressed spatially is through a presumably new concept of the architectural ‘binder’. While the traditional architectural building is enclosed by walls and is designed with this in mind, the proposed basic public library element is now a binder, node, or knot between spac-es to attract and shape people, events, and spaces together. This concept is described to be a ‘space’ node, a binder, or knot. Again, this is arguably different to traditional concepts of architecture that encloses and shapes space where the sheathing or facade is given priority. Here, the void and how it’s actively shaped, contained, and created is emphasized; where the binder is the apparatus that frames the void which encompasses the use, function, and program of the space. Architecture in this new concept of the ‘binder’ not only holds or contains space, but  is furthered to engage space to redefine, connect, and shape spaces around it. The binder holds space, materials, time, events, items, and people together; this is also particularly relevant to the different inventory and programmatic combinations the proposed library system functions as. This architectural binder, in its act of consolidating and ability to join space together into new contexts, collects different condi-tions and things that can incite new unexpected activities. The binder is positioned conceptually between designed/use spaces and redefines the program and spaces around it. Its impacts can be analogized to naming of assisted readymades, where placed in the public context can reframe the same objects, program, conditions in new relations. In general, this architectural concept of binding is used as the basic conceptual element to develop the proposed public library institution; where space to gather items to be used by all, space to flexibly browse books for all, and space to bind books to teach and learn in tandem to proposed program-items in the expanded public library definition is proposed. Figures 47 to 56 decribe this in more detail.14.6 BUILT FORM GUIDELINES AND SCALEThe basic architectural concept of the binder and public library EARLY PUBLIC LIBRARY OPEN CONCEPT: TODAY LIBRARY AS BINDERSHELFEXCHANGESPACEACTION: SEARCH AND BROWSINGACTION: CIRCULATION +PERSON TO PERSON INTERACTION. THIS IS UNDERDEVELOPED.ENTRY AND EXITACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: THRESH-OLD + ENTRYACTION:STORAGEACT: EXCHANGEWAYFINDINGSEARCHINGCHAIRTABLELOBBYCOUNTERSTORAGEENTRY AND EXITACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: THRESH-OLD + ENTRYACTION:STORAGEACT: EXCHANGEWAYFINDINGSEARCHINGCHAIRTABLELOBBYCOUNTERSTORAGESHELFPUBLIC SPACE - EXCHANGEACTION: SEARCH AND BROWSINGREDEFINED PUBLIC SPHERE. THIS CAN BE ACCESORIZED WITH OTHER PUBLIC INTER-FACES. CONNECTED AND REDE-FINING EXSITING PUBLICSENTRY AND EXITACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: SIT AND USEACTION: THRESH-OLD + ENTRYACT: EXCHANGEWAYFINDINGSEARCHINGCHAIRTABLELOBBYCOUNTERFIGURE 46. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY DIAGRAMThis diagram shows the evolution of the public library in terms of its diagrammatic spaces and program-actions from recent historical, to recent, to the proposed format. While public libraries in the late 1800s required users to request a reference book from a counter via a librarian and was limited to use in a reading room, libraries today are open plan and books can be taken home. However, the spaces are arguably single use and enclosed architecturally. The proposed evolution expands on the public library to further interface with the public.READING ROOMREADING ROOMSTORAGE AND LI-BRARIAN COUNTER STORAGEOPEN TO BROWSEFLEXIBLE USESTORAGE INTEGRATED INTO ARCH. ELEMENTS.FLEXIBLE PROGRAM AND USE OVER TIME -SPACESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          55 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCOMBINES, SHAPES, AND REFRAMES DIFFERENT PROGRAM CONTEXTS TOGETHERBINDER: PUBLIC LIBRARY KNOTare encompassed and joined into the L framing elements shown in the images and figures accompanying this article section. To generalize, the ‘binders’ frame, connect, and shape space rather than enclose space. It is legibly and clearly ambiguous in interpre-tation to the user and program over time in mind of the proposed public library guidelines and is a flexible system that can occur at all scales as implied in figure 53 and 55. The design can be reduced to spatial storage elements that are or-thogonal and rectilinear in nature for functional storage and legibility of perception in space by the typical user. These elements can be reduced to the dot, line, plane, intersection, and the aggregation of these elements (as referenced in figures 52 and 54). The scales of the public library element openings, height of the dot/line, and other elements conforms to a human pedestrian, functional, or single story scale. Heights of the integrated ‘chair’, for example, can vary from 18 inches to two feet to maintain functionality as a seating space or work/use platform. Integrated ‘tables’ can be 36 inches in height and counter 42 inches in height from the surrounding finished grade. These elements, as described further in the figures, integrate the critical elements of the chair, table, counter, envelope, and shelf of the library and frames/shapes spaces as per the binder concept. The dot and line, for example, can be used as seating or even a makeshift table for an urban user. The planes or intersections, have subtracted openings that act as tables, counters, or seating elements of the public library that can be synergized or combined with similar multiple elements for particular programs. Again, they reframe public spaces and accesorize to existing urban contexts to incite new programmatic combinations, value for the public, and uses of the proposed/existing public library inventory. The shape of the binders, in particular to those that intersect, arguably create ‘corners’ that frame spaces around it to empha-size user-read interpretive zones of use, space, program. Figures 51 and 49 partially show this.The planar elements themselves, in intersection and isolation, are double sided ‘closets’ or accessible storage walls where items are able to be stored inside and are visible to the user to a degree. This double sided nature of the storage elements, where the FIGURE 47. BINDER AXONOMETRIC (LEFT)This image shows a conceptual basic archi-tectural element of a binder. Example of how items are stored, integrated library elements used by users, and program in its effects are shown in simulation / example. The binder is both a symbolic recognizable ‘node’ of the public library to society with its arguably unique language and a ‘binder’ and shaper of space around it through its architectural effects. The scale and proportions are care-fully scaled to ensure ambiguity and not one plane, perspective, or effect overpowers the other. A small step ladder is present at each. FIGURE 48. FRAGMENTATION (ABOVE)The public library is reduced to it’s basic key critical elements and fragmented into larger scales and the urban city, reframing the ur-ban public. This conceptual diagram shows this architectural spatial concept .FIGURE 49. ‘BINDER’ / KNOT (LEFT)This conceptual diagram shows the architec-tural concept of the binder in where it shapes space around it as well as connects them together. The ambiguity and perceptual mul-tistability is shown in the architectural con-cept diagram to the left. Here, same objects are in new relations compared to a traditional library. The binder redefines space around it rather than enclosing space traditionally. The black walls / lines / intersections are the binder elements. The elements/binders that  L angle and frame spaces can also be symbolic and uniquely identifiable nodes. TRADITIONAL LIBRARY BUILDINGFRAGMENTATION OF PARTSAFFECT AND FRAMING CONTEXT. NEW TERRITORY AND REALM OF SPACEIMPLIED SPACE / PROGRAM CIMPLIED SPACE / PROGRAM E IMPLIED SPACE / PROGRAM AIMPLIED SPACE / PROGRAM A + B = CIMPLIED SPACE / PROGRAM BLINE ELEMENT BENCHDOT ELEMENTBINDER: INTERSECTIONPLANE ELEMENTFRAMES + CONNECT SPACESSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          56 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEXISTING PUBLIC LIBRARY INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK CAN BE EXPANDEDFORM LOGIC: MULTISTABILITY AND CORNER-FRAMEitems stored can be accessed from both sides, and the integrated library elements, such as the table or counter or chair, is intended to facilitate public social interaction in these spaces in tandem with functional storage-browsing of inventory (figure 58). While the ac-tual performance and perception that these spaces can be nodes of social interaction, exchange between users, and as a place to meet in concept can be criticized, it can be argued that with appropriate configuration of elements, combination of integrated public library elements, and by nature of their stored material and program, these public library ‘binders’ can at minimum facilitate this. In particular when the public library elements, such as the table or counter, is subtracted into these storage planar elements, they do facilitate the possibility of these interactions and in particular with the spaces they are shaping / binding together.These binder elements, in particular as an aggregation and those that cross/intersect, are intended to be symbolic elements in the public sphere. Their unique spatial form and architectural language in juxtaposition to the rest of urban space spatial language and architecture is imagined to allow public individuals to perceived and understand these elements as territorial and spatial identifiers of the public library (and it’s connotated program, social impacts, and norms of use) in the city.These binder elements can be aggregated at all scales, breadths, and urban conditions; these binders can act as an aggregated grouping in an isolated intersection or be a lone linear bench element in a residential neighborhood as a local isolated library node. They can be a small cluster with increased programmatic potential or stored inventory as a pavilion in a local community plaza. At larger scales they can be aggregated in tandem or conceptually alone to form branch locations with the previously described programmatic requirements of larger traditional librar-ies and proposed programmatic additions. The binders, with their integration of public library elements and proposed expanded inventory, can be placed in the central library branch as a floor renovation for example. This varied implementation in context to developing the public library network, public space, and the pub-lic library can be seen in the figures showing the example simula-tions of the proposed architectural design resolution guideline. Architecturally, the elements encompassed should be linear as it is arguably easier to read and is clearer in spatial legibility by the public user. While other architectural forms, such as with a curvilinear shape, may also provide or work towards the archi-tectural proposal, other forms may be too unclear, ambiguous, BEFORE: TRADITIONAL LIBRARY ENCLOSED AND INWARDROAD-ROAD-NOW: A KNOT OR BINDER BETWEEN SPACE: TO ATTRACT & SHAPE SPACE PEOPLE AND EVENTS. THE ENCLOSURE IS INVERTED INSIDE OUT TO AFFECT THE CONTEXT.A ‘SPACE’ NODE BINDER/NODE/KNOT. DIFFER-ENT TO TRADITIONAL CONCEPT OF ARCHI-TECTURE THAT ENCLOSES SPACE: VOID VS SHEATHING. ARCHITECTURE NOT ONLY HOLDS OR CONTAINS SPACE BUT GENERALLY ENGAG-ES SPACE. THIS ‘HOLDS’ AND CONNECTS NEW UNSEEN EVENTS, PEOPLE, SPACES. FRAMING ‘SPACE’CHAIRDOTTABLE COUNTERFIGURE 50. BINDER DIAGRAM: INSIDE OUTThis conceptual diagram shows the new architectural approach of the binder in comparison to traditional architec-tural strategies of enclosure and the facade. Here, in mind of facilitating the proposed public library system and design guidelines, a new architectural approach that ‘binds’ spaces, programs, and it’s public context with the proposed and ex-isting public library program is shown. Here, the architecture reframes and reterritorializes the public spaces in a new con-text, with new potential combinations of program and space, and looks outwards to rearticulate the civic social milieu. FIGURE 51. FORM LOGIC: MULTISTABILITY RATIONALThis diagram shows the steps in how the intersecting binder for the public library was implimented and rationalized.FIGURE 52. INTEGRATED PUBLIC LIBRARY ELEMENTSThis diagram shows the integration of the reduced public library elements of the chair, counter, table, shelf in the proposed public library elements through subtraction and the proposed form. Architectural elements of the dot, line, and plane are used syntacti-cally to ‘bind’ and shape space with proposed configurations in city contexts.FIGURE 53. FLEXIBLE TO CONTEXT AND CONFIGURATIONThe architectural binder can adapt with many different flexible spatial conditions and contexts while retaining its identity. ALONE TWOINTERSECT INDIVIDUALPARTNEREDGROUPINGSWITH OTHER ELEMENTSMULTIPLEPREFERRED CONFIGURATION DUE TO MAXIMIZED PERCEPTUAL MULTISTABILITYCHAIRLINECHAIRPLANE --->SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          57 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISAGGREGATION AND FLEXIBILITY IN FORM AND APPLICATIONFORM LOGIC: MULTISTABILITY AND CORNER-FRAMEnot contextualized to the orthogonal urban context, not affordable in structure and construction, or not functional as storage for the proposed expanded inventory beyond traditional library loaning elements. FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF ARCHITECTURAL RESOLUTION GUIDELINEThe particular architectural logic of layout and intersection of the planar storage elements themselves of the proposed binders uses gestalt psychology’s concepts of reification and multistability for ambiguous perception and interpretation of spatial-programmat-ic condition by the user.13141516 The intersection of the planar elements themselves spatially delineates the framing of space as indicated in figures with the creation of corner conditions 13Wang M., Arteaga D., He J. B. “Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception” PNAS. Volume 110 Issue 35. August 27 2013. Web. Accessed April 20th <https://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/E3350>14Klienschmidt A., Sterzer P., Rees G. “Variability of perceptual multistability: from brain state to individual trait” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Volume 367. Issue 1591. April 5 2012. Pg. 988-1000. Web Accessed March 15th <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282312/>15Sterzer P., Kleinschmidt  A., Rees G. “ The neural bases of multistable perception” Trends in Cognitive Science. Volume 13. Issue 7. July 2009. Pg 310-318. Web Accessed March 15th 2019. <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364661309001193>16 Oleksandrm “Visual Perception: Principles of Gestalt Theory” designcontext.com. Web. Accessed April 23rd 2019 <https://www.designcontest.com/blog/visual-perception-principles-of-ge-stalt-theory/>ISOLATED COUPLE PAVILIONGROUPINGBUILDINGIN LARGER AGGREGATIONFIGURE 54. AGGREGATION AND FRAGMENTATION INTO URBAN PUBLIC SPACE (ABOVE)The proposed new crux of the expanded public library, the ‘binder’  as shown conceptually in the diagram above, can be positioned alone, aggregated, or in consolidation in space as an isolated kiosk. It can also be aggregated or accesorized into a larger building architectural context as into a branch or added into the main Vancouver Public Library.FIGURE 55. EXPANDED POSSIBILITIES OF ‘BINDER’ CONFIGURA-TION (LEFT)This proposed architectural intervention is flexible to the program and location and with it’s proposed kit of parts illustrated earlier. This diagram illustrates how a intersecting binder configuration can adapt as illustrated in figure 53 for different spatial conditions. This architectural design proposal system allows for a recogniz-able symbol yet with consistent architectural effect and function. FIGURE 56. FORM LOGIC: MULTISTABILITY AND COR-NER-FRAMEThe abstract exploratory form diagram to the left shows how many different forms can still be used to retain the unique identity of the binder and its multistable perception by users with the illustrated rules previously. This allows for flexible storage element configurations and library element configurations in different contexts. As well, the abstractness allows for flexibility of perception and use over time.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          58 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHEORY AND APPLICATION GUIDELINEFORM LOGIC: MULTISTABILITY AND CORNER-FRAME(L conditions). A cross configuration of a binder, for example, conceptually creates four quadrants connected by its presence, as well as two planar faces for each of the intersecting planar elements for a total of eight elementally. Figure 51 helps articulates this. This, conceptually, can be interpreted in any combination and heterotopi-cally by different users in the same space and time. This multistable perception by the user is further architecturally reinforced by offsetting the intersecting planes to denote their spatial individuality despite their holistic relationship. This is intended to ensure the user can better read the space in context the individual planar elements as well as the L shaped corners shaped by the intersection of the larger binder element. This is further reinforced through subtracted openings in one or both of the planes in the intersecting binders, where the user can greater visually perceive one of the intersecting plane’s continuity beyond the intersection. These subtracted open-ings also double as integrated library elements of the chair, table, and counter which incites further interpretive programmatic, spatial, and architectural conditions that may be perceived by different users at the same time and over time. Materially, this is reinforced with both of the intersecting planar elements by having different stored entities of value and different materiality perceived in each element and face, such as corrugated galvanized zinc metal and weathered wood with falsified metal wood sheathing in weather exposed areas, for greater perceived individuality of the planar elements. Again, this facilitates the per-ceptual multistability and the aspect of reification for public users wherever the binder elements are implemented in aggregation to frame implied programmatic and spatial areas. This also facilitates previously described concepts of the proposed public library sys-tem, program, and intended effects for public civic space.The binders and its constituent elements from the dot to aggregated intersected binder elements are also intentionally abstract. Through abstraction of form, a unique symbolic node is made while still being interpretable with many meanings to different individuals. This abstraction allows users to interpret the use, program, and spatial conditions differently and flexibly in mind of the previously outlined design guidelines intentions. This allows for flexible use and inter-pretation for changing program, space, and use by library users over time for a more agent orientated heterotopia in public space. With the additional potential of the proposed possibility of changing inventory of library items over time through librarian curation and community input, the agency and activation of public civic space is arguably magnified. In general, the binders flexibility with continu-ity spatially helps frame user defined spaces in the public library. Again, the binder element can be described as a ‘space’ node; a node between space to shape and attract space / events around it. Different than arguably typical architectural design approaches and processes that focus on the explicit enclosure of space, such as through walls or delineated thresholds, this concept of the architec-tural ‘binder’ focuses on the void that is implied. Not just holding and containing, the proposed public library architectural element of the binder now engages space, material, time, events, people in new potential combinations through user definition, curation, and other means. To summarize, the binder elements proposed for the architectural design guideline is proposed as an abstract fundamental building element in which the proposed evolved public library is to be developed from spatially and architecturally. In addition to function-ally storing the proposed expanded inventory of the public library for lending and integrating the basic elements of the public library to incite the key necessary activity spaces for public library use, the binders also is imagined to have the potential to be adjusted flexibly while still retaining their semantic architectural potential to be more contextual and specific to their intended location, context, and stored programs. Further details on this architectural design guideline proposal and specific implementation is shown in the figures of this section.14.7 IMPLEMENTATION, NOTES, AND POSSIBLE FUNDINGIn regards to the case study on the public library’s proposed and simulated commercial integration later in the article, the public library’s implementation is proposed to be through partnership with the commercial store the library is integrated with and through the city of Vancouver development bylaw. To be more specific, the public library can be partnered or sponsored with a commercial store by having it’s added presence synergize beneficially with the surrounding urban / public context and the store program. Examples of this could involve loan-ing spaces for the integrated store to also use with the added spaces, allowing complimentary goods to be stored to catalyze the store along with the library’s functional potential, and have complimentary spaces to be used by the public to also benefit the partnered commercial stores business.This use of economic leverage of the proposed public library’s social and functional potential with commercial stores can be imagined with a few hypothetical cases: a music store may com-pliment with a public library stage-element (as simulated in figure 74) and stored sample music sheets or music books, a bakery may synergize with display spaces analogous to amazon lockers for use as pickup exchange spaces by customers and the storage of complimentary baking molds/books, and a library study space, book, and table may synergize with a commercial cafe store.Through an additional requirement in Vancouver’s development bylaws, new commercial construction along commercial street fronts could also provide a fee percentage per square foot of proposed new construction to be dedicated for public library node development along the commercial street front facade. This public library frontage for a commercial street-front block would require aggregation to a minimum length for functional and programmatic purposes and can be arguably justified through the comprehension of the public library network as a necessary public infrastructure for the community. The City of Vancouver already implements a similar procedure for the creation and fund-ing of public art through new building developments17. Incentive zoning, as in the case of Vancouver’s Oppenheimer district and New York with their 1961 Zoning Resolution, could also be used in this context to fund and incite the development of the proposed public library nodes and network in the city.In general, it can be argued that supportive funding for the development of the proposed public library network and nodes can come from this concept of using city bylaws to acquire funds through city development. With the provision of 1% of construc-tion cost to the proposed public library development, for example, public library development will less likely fall behind the growth, potential demand, and development of the city. Public libraries and the proposed Vancouver library network can be argued to be critical public infrastructure in regards to their social-functional value. Analogous to the concept that utilities like electricity need to be universally provided, the public library’s need to consider the leveraging of the growth, private development, and existing precedence to fund development can be justified and benefit all involved. The public library nodes are also intended to be decorative through their stored items of value. In cumulation over time, the items displayed in the library binders are intended to reflect the community they are positioned in, the community’s contribution, and in these aspects the character of the neighborhood. This aesthetic value reflects the community’s identity over time and  can be analogized to public art that expresses or reflects the community that it is placed in.The simulation case studies at different contexts, breadths, and scales in the following section outlines, through more specific case study simulations, how the proposed public library design guideline and architectural design solution can be implemented in Vancouver in context to further developing the proposed public library network and public civic space.17City of Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines “Public Art Policy and Procedures for Rezoned Devel-opments” vancouver.ca. Web. Accessed Feb 3 rd 2019< https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/public-art-policy-and-procedures-for-re-zoned-developments.pdf>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          59 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISTHE BASIC ELEMENT (INTERSECTING BINDER)BASIC ELEMENT15.0 EXAMPLE SIMULATION STUDIESThe subsequent section encompasses simulated case studies in which the proposed public library design concept and guideline is explored in a Vancouver city context and abstract specific site. These studies explore the application of the proposed public library at different scales, breadths, and configurations through the city. In large part, these interventions are a response to contributing to the finer grain development of the public library network as seen in figure 44. In tandem, these simulated studies of how the architecture can express the design guideline are design examples + references themselves in how the proposed public library network and system can be architecturally implemented. FIGURE 58. TYPICAL ‘BINDER’ 1:50 SECTION DIAGRAMThis is a section diagram of the typical library unit showing its storage areas and conceptual logic. Intersecting areas can integrate structural columns and interfacing planes can hide integrated beams for structural purpos-es. This allows structural functional purposes to the library ‘binder’ in pavilion and building contexts. ITEMS CAN BE STORED AND ACCESSED FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE ELEMENT (SHELF - STORAGE). STEEL STRUCTURAL FRAME SUPPORTS THE UNIT AND HIDDEN BEAMS SUPPORT THE CANTILEVERS. HIDDEN COLUMNS IN THE INTERSECTING AREA ALLOWS THE BINDER / NODE TO BE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS.FIGURE 57. INTERSECTION VARIATIONS IN ELEVATION VIEWThe language of the planes are retained with shifting of the two planes, sight-lines for continuity, and juxtaposition. The option diagram shown above of the possible intersection configurations allow for reading of the planar elements as independent elements and not only in general as a corner condition. A juxtaposing difference in materiality also adds to this effect.  INTEGRATED LIBRARY TABLE ELEMENT IN PLANAR ELEMENT.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          60 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISKITSLANO BEACH: LONE ‘BINDER’SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 60 ‘LONE’ PLAN SCALE 1:200 (RIGHT)This plan is orientated eastward. In this particular case, it is integrated with stairways and second lookout area with library table, lifeguard seat-ing watch-tower area, and storage space for water-beach items. The solid planar element acts as a spatial node, a divider of space, and a binder of different programs, people, and items together as per curated conditions by the librarian or the visiting user. FIGURE 59. ‘LONE’ ELEVATION SCALE 1:200 (ABOVE)This simulation shows, at a smaller scale, an isolated library binder in a public park context. At Kitslano beach, this conceptual study encom-passes programs concerned with the beach, community, fishing, events, and traditional library in regards to the inventory.  This elevation looks towards the east. FIGURE 61 ‘LONE’ PUBLIC LIBRARY IN PARK AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAMThis simulation study explored how the proposed public library system and binder can work at smaller scale and as an isolated condi-tion. Here, the node integrates a lifeguard station, library table with work and reading space on the upper level, a second level lookout space for the park, beach storage and spaces, and work table as an integrated subtraction in the planar element. Beach entertainment, water, park-camping, and event items are stored here along with related reading or traditional library material. Items such as life vests, water noodles, camping chairs, surf boards, barbecue, toy buckets and shovels, binoculars, fishing rods, beach umbrellas are lent here. Displayed items and the form itself is intended as per guideline to be symbolic and decorative with the visible stored inventory. NSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          61 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISJERICHO BEACH: GROUP AGGREGATION : NEAR POINT GREY RD.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 63. JERICHO BEACH GROUP ELEVATION 1:25This is an elevation of the kitslano beach simulation for the public library facing north. Offset or displaced planar elements reinforce the spatial partitions created individually by the entities but is intended to still allow the corner framed by the intersection to shape and frame the space. The element’s abstract nature allow their uses to be flexible by users; the linear element above can be a seat, table, chair rest, or territorial wall depending on the situation. It is important to note these library binders both space the space around it and act as nodal spatial identifiers that attract events or anchor them. Different materiality and transparency of the library elements allow for greater individual legibility of the planar elements and their spatial effects. The abstract nature of the elements in general reinforce the flexibility of uses and interpretation by users with program.FIGURE 62. JERICHO BEACH GROUP PLAN 1:100This simulation is a study of how the public library nodes/ binders can be positioned in groupings a beach or park. Given the open nature of a park, the configuration and spaces can be more flexible and free to match intended design, program, and proposed conditions. Here, a lifeguard station, library lookout inte-grated with library tables, seating, work counter-tops, work tables, and framed programmatic spaces that compliment the beach, park, and residential leisure neighborhood is simulated. The nature of the forms and intended perceptual multistability by users allow for flexible programs, uses, and perception by beach users at the same time and space. The plan is orientated towards the south.NSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          62 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISJERICHO BEACH: GROUP AGGREGATION : NEAR POINT GREY RD.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 64 JERICHO BEACH GROUP AXONOMETRIC DIAGRAMThis simulated axonometric drawing of the Jericho beach public library simulation of a nodal cluster shows how the spatial partitions of the binder shape and bind spaces together with a beach, residential, and park program. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          63 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISJERICHO BEACH: GROUP AGGREGATION : NEAR POINT GREY RD.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 65 JERICHO BEACH GROUP PERSPECTIVESHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          64 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBUS STATION :  CAPITALIZING ON VOIDS IN SPACE-TIME IN PUBLIC SPACE: NEAR E 45TH AVE AND FRASER ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 67. BUS STATION PLAN 1:200The bus stop case study provides a void in space and time, the duration and space where a user waits for a transit bus, in which the public library node can capitalize on to provide program, activity, and use during this time. This case study library node is intended to also be a destination of itself. Library users are able to borrow items at this node, use during transit, and drop items off at a another node with permissible storage sites. The public library node also reframes the otherwise single use public space and context with new program.FRASER STREETFIGURE 66. BUS STATION ELEVATION 1:100In this simulation of a public library binder as a bus station, the void in space - time present for traditional pedestrians at the bus stop is capitalized upon. Waiters can now can socialize, read, use objects, engage in library incited programs at the node and in transit.NSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          65 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBUS STATION :  CAPITALIZING ON VOIDS IN SPACE-TIME IN PUBLIC SPACE: NEAR E 45TH AVE AND FRASER ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 68. BUS STATION AXO. STUDY NIGHTThis simulation study of a public library node integrated with a bus stop in the public sphere shows how program can change over time and is 24 hours. At night, users watch a movie with the locations stored screen, projector, movie cds. FIGURE 69. BUS STATION AXO. STUDY DAYDuring the day, the bus station library node is used as a bus station. Users who wait for the bus (that otherwise have little to do as a void in space-time), can now read borrowed books, sit, work, borrow-return items, and socialize. SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          66 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCOMMERCIAL STOREFRONT:  SYNERGY WITH COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL : CONCEPTUAL SITE VANCOUVER COMMERCIAL.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 70 COMMERCIAL STORE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE VERSION 1 PLAN SCALE 1:200The case study simulation of the public library integrated in commercial facades reflect another way the public library node can expand and accesorize in the public. This version interfaces as a threshold condition with the entrance to the commercial building; users engage with the public library as they go in and out of the store. The storage wall doubles as a facade condition where the integrated storage units of the planar element have double sided access. Storage space, display space, and space to store complimentary items to the commercial store is provided.FIGURE 71 COMMERCIAL STORE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE VERSION 2 PLAN SCALE 1:200This version of how the proposed evolved public library node can accesorize with a commercial store engages with the street-front to reframe the sidewalk and provide a storage-platform where items can be displayed, peo-ple work and sit, and items are stored per public library function. This version can synergize with commercial stores that may benefit with display, performances, or spillage of program to the sidewalk.FIGURE 72 COMMERCIAL STORE VERSION 2 ELEVATION SCALE 1:100This elevation shows how the public library ‘bind-er’ can integrate and accesorize into a infill com-mercial storefront. This version is perpendicularly orientated to the road-sidewalk and reorientates the public space in front of the store in a perpendicular direction aligned with the store facade. Figure 74 describes an example program in more detail. The storage of complimentary library items with the perpendicular planar element and a lower platform / seating / table for flexible use parallel is shown. FIGURE 73 COMMERCIAL STORE VERSION 1 ELEVATION SCALE 1:100This elevation shows how the public library ‘binder’ can integrate and accesorize into a infill commercial storefront. This version emphasizes the library binders integration with the store facade wall where the planar element with storage is accessible from both inside and out. The commer-cial stores are able to loan space to put online or requested items bought buy customers for then to pick up.ROAD SIDEWALKROAD SIDEWALK COMMERCIAL STORE BODYCOMMERCIAL STORE BODYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          67 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISCOMMERCIAL STOREFRONT:  SYNERGY WITH COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL : CONCEPTUAL SITE VANCOUVER COMMERCIAL.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 74 COMMERCIAL STORE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE VERSION 2 AXONOMETRIC STUDYOne version of how the proposed public library ‘binder’ can integrate into a commercial store facade as a public infrastructure is shown with an one story infill commercial store. This example shows a simulation of a how a music store can benefit itself and the public library. Selling instruments and related music items, the public library node infrastructure provides a platform for display, music performance, sampling of stored music instruments or music sheets that could compliment items bought in the store, attraction of potential customers or visitors with it’s combined potential pro-grams, and complimentary library reading material (ex. educational music books) for the store.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          68 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 75 COMMERCIAL STORE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE VERSION 1 AXONOMETRIC STUDYOne version of how the proposed public library ‘binder’ can integrate into a commercial store facade as a public infrastructure is shown with an one story infill commercial store. This example shows a simulation of a how a pastry bakery without eating space can benefit and benefit from the acce-sorized public library ‘binder’ at it’s public facade as public infrastructure. Here, seating areas and space framed by the library ‘binder’ creates a separate space to the sidewalk. Seating and resting areas here allow users to consume bought store items and facilitate the use of complimentary library items. The planar element, always integrated with storage-display shelves, has storage space that can be loaned by the store to leave, display, and allow pickup by customers of requested or or-dered items any time of the day. Items stored here in the library node compliment the store programCOMMERCIAL STOREFRONT:  SYNERGY WITH COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL : CONCEPTUAL SITE VANCOUVER COMMERCIAL.SIMULATION CASE STUDYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          69 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 76 COMMERCIAL STORE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE VERSION 1 PERSPECTIVEThis perspective shows one version (version 1) how the proposed public library ‘binder’ can inte-grate into a commercial store facade. How a music store can benefit and benefit from an integrated public library ‘binder’ at the storefront is shown. The storage of complimentary items in the public library node here, such as music sheets, can benefit the use, visitation, and business of the music store. Electricity, audio recoding tools, speakers, seating areas, and music educational books provide by the library can incite a place to perform, learn, and engage with the integrated music store. This, as in previous simulated examples, activates and rearticulates the social milieu of public spaces. COMMERCIAL STOREFRONT:  SYNERGY WITH COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL : CONCEPTUAL SITE VANCOUVER COMMERCIAL.SIMULATION CASE STUDYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          70 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 77 PUBLIC LIBRARY INTERSECTION PLAN SCALE 1:400This simulation studies how the public library can reterrtorialize existing public spaces, which can be single use, lacking user benefit or provision of need as described earlier in the article, or lacking in public library network coverage, in the case of a road intersec-tion. This case study simulates how the public library binders can aggregate at medium aggregations and reframe public space, visually reframing a highly trafficked public space into a pedestrian focused public library community space, and the proposed changes to the public library institution. This plan is orientated to the east.FIGURE 78 PUBLIC LIBRARY INTERSEC-TION SECTION A-A SCALE 1:200 This section is looking towards the east. Located in a single family residential area near a small commercial area along Main St., items stored are related to these programmatic needs. Examples of spaces and inventory include a work counter, travel and household items, and fiction. INTERSECTION: REFRAMING AND RETERRITORIALIZING PUBLIC SPACES: AT E 57TH AVE AND MAIN STREET.SIMULATION CASE STUDYA ANMAIN STREET.E 57TH AVE.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          71 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 79 PUBLIC LIBRARY INTERSECTION AXONOMETRIC STUDYThe configuration of the library nodes in this simulation reframes what is otherwise arguably a single use road intersection with greater pedestrian and community use in tandem with the proposed library functions. The configuration and stored items are intended to facilitate multiple intended uses and support different user intentions over time and space in context to local residential, commercial, and transit programs; for example, travel items like umbrellas are loaned and stored here for commuters at the proximal bus station or pedestrian travelers. Novels and hardware tools for residential occupants nearby are provided for use at home or at the provided counters at this site. INTERSECTION: REFRAMING AND RETERRITORIALIZING PUBLIC SPACES: AT E 57TH AVE AND MAIN STREET.SIMULATION CASE STUDYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          72 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISINTERSECTION: REFRAMING AND RETERRITORIALIZING PUBLIC SPACES: AT E 57TH AVE AND MAIN STREET.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 80 PUBLIC LIBRARY INTERSECTION PERSPECTIVE STUDYThis perspective study intends to show how the public library ‘binders’ reframe the single automobile centered public intersection into a more pedestrian, use-orientated, and community orientated public library space. This is through program, library functions, integrated social library elements, and the architectural impact of the binders perceptually. The binders can be read independently or together.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          73 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISPUBLIC SPACESBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 81 EXISTING KITSLANO PUBLIC BRANCH LIBRARY PLAN 1:300The existing Kitslano public Branch library provides computer and internet access, wifi, work spaces, printers, photocopiers, scanners, and traditional library items of lending (books, cds, picture books among others). It also has indigenous collections, a Chinese collection, French collection,  and a seed library. Architecturally, the building has a large glass and solid alternating wall with landscape plaza and landscape buffer to 8th Avenue. Currently, there is only one entrance to the public library fronting Macdonald St. This plan drawing was inferred from a site visit and is extrapolated from sketches and may not be accurate to the actual building.NMACDONALD ST.FRONT COUNTERKIDS AREACOMPUTERAND PRINTERSSEATING AREASTABLENOOKLIBRARIAN SPACESW/RW/RSHELVING AREASHELVING AREAPLAZA AREAPARKINGSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          74 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 83. EXISTING KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY SOUTH ELEVATION SCALE 1:200FIGURE 84. EXISTING KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY AXONOMETRIC OF INTERIOR LAYOUTThe existing Kitslano Public Library is architecturally open plan with one entrance. However, the shelves, seating areas, and programs are static. At time of site visit, little patron to patron interaction was observed.FIGURE 85. EXISTING KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY AXONOMETRICIn the times that it was observed in site visits, the exterior plaza was sparsely used. The door interfacing to it from the library was chained up. Landscaping blocked the distance between sidewalk and building.FIGURE 82. EXISTING KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY NORTH ELEVATION SCALE 1:200BRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          75 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 86. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION PLAN SCALE 1:300This simulation study explored how the proposed public library system and binder can work at larger aggregations and building con-ditions. This was done through a case study of a renovation of the kitslano public library in mind of the proposed public library design guidelines. This example reflects how the library node or binders can be aggregated at larger architectural building scales. It is intended that a optionally enclosed meeting/class area, small workshop space, tools, lounge spaces, and domestic/entertainment items are added per new design.BRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYB BNMACDONALD ST.FRONT COUNTERKIDS AREACOMPUTERAND PRINTERSSMALL WORKSOPFLEXIBLE SPACE (CLASS MEETING OR OPEN: SOUND CONTROLLED.)INTEGRATED PLAZA - PROGRAM SPACESFLEXIBLE SPACESFLEXIBLEPECEPTUALLY MULTISTABLESPACESFLEXIBLEPECEPTUALLY MULTISTABLESPACESFLEXIBLEPECEPTUALLY MULTISTABLESPACESNANA DOORSOPENABLELIBRARIAN SPACESW/RW/RPARKINGSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          76 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 87. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION  NORTH FACE ELEVATION 1:100This case study simulation explored the application of the public library binder concept at larger building scales with consideration to required parameters. The architectural ‘binders’ language, clarity to be read by a user, and legibility as an isolated element in context to the larger holistic building was intended. The binders interfacing between the interior and exterior through openable nana glass doors allow the continuity and connection of space inside and out when desired by users and program. FIGURE 88. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION EAST FACE ELEVATION 1:100This elevation view shows how the library binders can be aggregated into a building context while retaining their symbolic nature, legibility, and function. The integrated library elements of the chair, counter, and table int the binders help allow platforms for exchange, interaction, and library program use between users. These gaps, again, also double to allow user multistability of perception of the implied spaces and territories by the binders. FIGURE 89. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION SECTION B-B 1:100 The public library ‘binder’ and its architectural and programmatic effects can persist from outside to the inside of a building. The storage for the planar elements can be accessed from both sides. At the building facade, this double sided access allows users to obtain items or exchange during potential closed hours or in transit.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          77 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 90. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION AXONOMETRIC STUDY DAYThis simulation study explored how the proposed public library system and binder can work at larger aggre-gations and building conditions. The Kitslano Public Library’s original programs and services are retained in this proposal. An additional small workshop, closable meeting or class room space, and other flexible program areas are proposed. With the proximity to transit and residential and commercial, items related to these programs are incorporated. Event and community based programs and their related items such as movie screens, event lights, speakers are provided to facilitate potential community or event programming. During the day, a community barbecue, storytelling using instruments, and user driven programs happen.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          78 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 91. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION AXONOMETRIC STUDY NIGHTThis axonometric study shows how the proposed renovated branch can function in the proposed pub-lic library system at all hours. By allowing access of items from the exterior face of the ‘binders’ planar elements, the spaces around the building in tandem with the integrated public library elements of the chair, table, counter can be utilized to use loaned items to the users intended program. Here at night, a small local concert using speakers, lighting, and instruments is performed. Movie screens and projectors lent facilitate a movie night event for the community.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          79 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 92. PROPOSED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION AXONOMETRIC STUDYThe clerestory and roof height reinforces the user interpretive partitioning of spaces, programs, uses by the public library user through the ‘binder’ elements. The binders double as structural elements; the point of intersection in appropriate cases hide an integrated structural column and beam at interfacing planes that support the roof (or other required entities in other cases). This applies to other cases. such as a combination of a library ‘binder’ node with a column in the Vancouver Central Library location.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          80 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISBRANCH RENOVATION: LARGER AGGREGATION SCALES SIMULATION : KITSLANO PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH 2425 MACDONALD ST.SIMULATION CASE STUDYFIGURE 93. KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION PERSPEC-TIVE LOOKING NORTH WEST INTERIOR FROM ENTRANCEThe proposed effects and logic of the individual library binders alone and in aggregate integrates from interior to the public outdoor realm.FIGURE 94. KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY RENOVATION PERSPECTIVE LOOKING SOUTHWESTThe public library branch binders integrates with the public realm outside and shapes the spaces around the library.SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          81 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESIS9:00 PM 7:00 AM 6:30:00 8:00 AM 7:00 AM12:00 PM9:00 PM12:00 PM1:00 PM7:30 PM2:00 PM8:00 PM1:00 PM2:00 PM7:00 PM3:00 PM4:00 PM4:30 PM5:00 PM6:00 PMAT HOMERESIDENTIALAT HOMERESIDENTIALAT HOMERESIDENTIALLIBRARY NODE CKERRISDALEDRIVELIBRARY KITSLANODRIVERESTAURANT CLASSUNIVERSITYCLASSLIBRARY NODE DUNIVERSITYSCHOOLDRIVESCHOOLDRIVELIBRARY KITSLANODRIVELIBRARY NODE DUNIVERSITYDRIVELIBRARY NODE CLIBRARY  BRANCH NODEKERRISDALELIBRARY  KITSLANO BRANCHDRIVELIBRARY  BRANCH NODEKERRISDALELIBRARY  BRANCH NODEKERRISDALESTOREDRIVELIBRARY NODE CWALKLIBRARY NODE CON-WAY AT-SITE SOCIAL CAPITAL9:15 PMAPARTMENTSLIBRARY NODE AIN RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD.LIBRARY NODE AIN RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD.APARTMENTLIBRARY NODE CWITH WORKSHOP-CARVING  SPACELIBRARY NODE CWITH WORKSHOP-CARVING  SPACE. NEAR BRANCH AND HARDWARE/MATERIAL SUP-PLY COMMERCIAL STORE.LIBRARY NODE CWITH WORKSHOP-CARVING  SPACE. NEAR BRANCH AND HARDWARE/MATERIAL SUP-PLY COMMERCIAL STORE.FAST FOOD RESTAURANTDETACHED HOUSEDETACHED HOUSE TOWNHOUSETOWNHOUSERENOVATED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY WITH ‘BINDER’ NODES.RENOVATED KITSLANO BRANCH LIBRARY WITH ‘BINDER’ NODES.PRESCHOOLPRESCHOOLLIB. NODE DIN UNIV.LIB. NODE DIN UNIV.UNIVERSITY CLASSROOMKERRISDALE LIBRARY NODEPAVILION - COVEREDWITH SLIDE-ABLE DOORSLIBRARY NODE BIN AIRPORTLIBRARY NODE BIN AIRPORTAIRPORTBUS STOP9:30 PM5:45 AM6:45 AM7:00 AM8:45 AM9:00 AM8:00 PM9:00 PM10:30 PM10:45 PM2:00 AM5:15 AM5:30 AMLIBRARY NODE ARESIDENTIALWALKEDBUS TO WORKIN TRANSITBUS TO HOMEIN TRANSITLIBRARY NODE ARESIDENTIALWALKEDLIBRARY NODE ARESIDENTIALHOMEWALKEDHOMEHOMEDRIVEHOMEDRIVELIBRARY NODE BAIRPORTWALKEDWORKAIRPORTWORK BREAKAIRPORTWORKAIRPORTLIBRARY NODE BAIRPORTWALKEDWAKE UP TO GO TO AIRPORT SHIFT.EATS BREAKFASTCHECKS WEATHER: RAIN.USE PUBLIC LIBRARY PHONE APPLICATION ACCOUNT TO CHECK AVAILABILITY AND RESERVE UMBRELLA AND NEW NOVEL AND BOOK LIGHT AT LOCAL LIBRARY ‘NODE’ A. GETS PASS CODE FOR ACCESS. PASS CODE PROVIDED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE PROXIMAL TERRITORY OF USE FOR 1/2 DAY FOR UMBRELLA AND WEEK FOR BOOK.TAKES COOKIE CUTTER MOLD.THIS SIMULATED STORY OF AN IMAGINARY AIRPORT WORKER PROVIDES AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE PROPOSED PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM CAN WORK. THIS SHOWS LOANING AT SITE OF LIBRARY NODE AND ALONG THE WAY IN WAKE UPEATS BREAKFASTPACKS IN-PROGRESS WOOD CARVING.WAKE UPMAKE BREAKFAST FOR SELF AND KID.REVIEWS SCHOOL PRESENTATION NOTESTHIS IS A SIMULATED STORY OF AN WOOD SCULPTURE FINISHING A CARVING AND PROPOSING HIS WORK TO A CLIENT.THIS SHOWS LOANING IN ADVANCE AND LIMIT OF USE OF ITEMS TO LIBRARY TERRITORY. THIS IS A SIMULATED STORY OF A UNIVERSITY STUDENT PARENT GOING TO CLASS. THIS EXAMPLES SHOWS THE NEW MILIEU AND POSSIBILITIES OF CIVIC PUBLIC SOCIETY WITH PUBLIC LIBRARY, AND NORMALIZATION OF SERVICE INTO DAILY LIFE.GO TO PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE CWITH ARTIST + WORKSHOP COUNTER.BORROW RESERVED WOOD CARVING TOOLS 10-12 ON WEDNESDAYS.  USE CHIPPED PUBLIC LIBRARY CARD TO ACCESS MINI BAND SAW, BELT SANDER, AND CHAIN SAW.OTHER ITEMS ARE OPEN USE IN LIBRARY NODE C TERRITORY OF USE. CHISELS, 3 GOUGES, KNIVES, 1 MINI BAND SAW, 1 MINI DRILL, MALLET, PALM TOOLS, FOREDOM FLEXIBLE SHAFT TOOL, SITE-RESTRICTED BELT SANDER, SITE RESTRICTED CHAIN SAW. A WOOD CARVING TEACHER HAS BOOKED SOME OF THE TOOLS AND AREA FOR AN INFORMAL CLASS AFTER FROM 12PM TO 1PM.FINISH CARVING SCULPTURE.TALK AND RECEIVE WOOD CARING INSTRUCTION FROM SAMANTHA, A FELLOW CARVER WHO USES THE SPACE ON WEDNESDAYS TO EDUCATE AND ADVISE USERS ON WOOD SCULPTING. FINDS OUT THERE IS A SCULPTURE FESTIVAL FAIR NEXT TUESDAY IN KERRISDALE FROM HER. COMPARES WORKS WITH HER. TELL HER ABOUT STRATHCONA WOOD CARVER MEETING ASSOCIATION DATE HAVE CHANGED.(LIBRARY KITSLANO “CLOSED” BUT ACCESS IS PROVIDED)WITH LIBRARY FOB ON OUTSIDEBORROW PROJECTORBORROW LUGGAGE BAG WITH WHEELSFOB USED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE USING TERMINAL AT NODE. 1 DAY LOAN FOR PROJECTOR AND WEEK FOR LUGGAGE.RETURN PICTURE BOOK AND BOARD GAMESTORE TOOLS AND LOAN STORAGE SPACE AT LIBRARY NODE C TO PUT SCULPTURE WORKEAT LUNCH AT FAST FOOD RESTAURANT.GO TO CLASS AND TAKE NOTES USING BORROWED PAD AND PEN. PRESENT USING PROJECTOR.RETURN PEN AND PADRETURN BIKERETURN PROJECTORRETURN LUGGAGE BAGS WITH WHEELSWHEN STORED IN AVAILABLE AREA OR ZONE, LIBRARY RECOGNIZES ITEM OR ENTITY AS RETURNED.PICK UP KID FROM SCHOOL.DROP KID OFF AT PRE SCHOOL.TAKE KID TO LIBRARY TO SOCIALIZE, PLAY, STUDY AND READ BOOKS.ARE FREE TO USE IN LIBRARY STORAGE AND TERRITORY. TALK TO OTHER PARENTS AND LIBRARY ABOUT PRIVATE SCHOOL RATINGS.STUDY AND WORK ON LIBRARY PC IN MEANTIME. USE BOOK TO STUDY.PLAY GUITAR AT LIBRARY SPACE. ARE FREE TO USE IN LIBRARY STORAGE AND TERRITORY. BORROW BIKEBORROW PEN AND PADFOB USED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE USING TERMINAL AT NODE. HALF DAY LOAN FOR LIBRARY. FIVE HOUR LOAN FOR PEN AND PAD.USE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODE C TERMINAL TO CHECK PREVIOUSLY RESERVED LIBRARY MEETING SPACE AT ANOTHER BRANCH AND RESERVED ITEMS FOR WEDNESDAY 3:00-4:00ACCESSED THROUGH LIBRARY CARD.IN RENOVATED LIBRARY BRANCHLOAN PROJECTOR AND SCREENLOAN SPACE > CLOSE SLIDING DOORSLOAN LAPTOP, CHAIRS, TABLE.ITEMS ARE RESERVED AUTOMATICALLY PREVIOUSLY USING LIBRARY CARD . ARE FREE TO USE IN LIBRARY STORAGE AND TERRITORY. USE OF CHAIRS AND TABLES RESTRICTED TO THE LIB SPACE. PREPAIR PRESENTATION AND SPACE FOR MEETING WITH POTENTIAL CLIENT.COMMUNITY MOVIE NIGHT EVENTCOME TO MEET PEOPLECOOKS FOOD WITH COMMUNITY AT LIBRARY LOANED KITCHEN USING LOANED KITCHEN TOOLS/UTILITIESEATS DINNER WITH KIDTALKS WITH RACHEL, CHELSEA, MATT.ARE FREE TO USE IN LIBRARY STORAGE AND TERRITORY. KITCHEN TOOLS CAN BE LOANED AND HAVE LARGER TERRITORY OF USE.WATCHES MOVIE USING EMBEDDED MOVIE SCREEN, CD, AND PROJECTOR, AND SPEAKERSARE FREE TO USE IN LIBRARY STORAGE AND TERRITORY. LOAN VACCUME CLEANERLOAN BLUERAY OF NEW MOVIELOAN KIDS BOARD GAMEFOB USED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE USING TERMINAL AT NODE. 1 DAY LOAN FOR VACUUM. 2 DAY LOAN FOR BLUE-RAY AND BOARD GAME. VACUUM USE LIMITED TO NEIGHBORHOOD TERRITORY.MEETS POTENTIAL CLIENT AND DOES PRESENTATION USING LOANED LIBRARY ITEM AND SPACE.PRINT OUT CONTRACT AND SIGN VIA LIBRARY SERVICE.CLIENT AGREES TO SERVICE.RETURNS BORROWED PROJECTOR, SCREEN, LAPTOP, CHAIRS, TABLE. WALK TO CARVING STORE NEAR TO LIBRARY NODE C TO BUY WOOD, LACQUER, AND PAINT.VISIT LIBRARY NODE C AND CHECK AVAILABILITY OF CIRCULAR SAW, LACQUERING TECHNIQUE BOOK AND PAINT BRUSHES.RESERVES CIRCULAR SAW FOR NEXT TWO DAYS AS AVAILABLE. USE LIMITED TO LIBRARY NODE C TERRITORY. BORROWS LACQUERING TECHNIQUE BOOK AND PAINT BRUSHES.PASS CODE PROVIDED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE PROXIMAL TERRITORY OF USE FOR 2 WEEKS FOR BOOK AND 7 DAYS FOR BRUSHES. LIMITED TO VANCOUVER.AT LIBRARY NODE C, FINISH CARVING WORK. (TAKE HOME).AIRPORT WORKER WOOD SCULPTOR STUDENT GET UMBRELLA AND NEW NOVEL AND BOOK LIGHT INPUT PASS CODE TO BORROW.RETURNS BORROWED COOKIE MOLDLIBRARY AUTOMATICALLY RECOGNIZES CHIPPED COOKIE MOLD AS RETURNED IN APPROPRIATE STORAGE LOCATION..READS NEW NOVEL.READS NEW NOVEL WAITING FOR AND ON BUSCHECKS SMART-PHONE.WEARS NECK PILLOWREADS NEW NOVEL ON BUSRETURN NEW NOVEL TO LIB. NODE A.USE PUBLIC LIBRARY PHONE APPLICATION TO: CHECK OUT NEW NOVEL ANDBORROW BREAD MACHINE.WATCH A MOVIE AT LIBRARY NODE A WITH A FEW OTHERS.TALK WITH KARIE NATHEL TO SEE WHATS UP WITH HER COUSIN. KNOWS APARTMENT NEIGHBOR BETTER.WALK HOME USING UMBRELLA.LISTENS TO CD ON LOANED LIBRARY SPEAKER.EATS DINNER AND SHOWERS.USES SMART PHONE.TRIES TO MAKE BREAD USING LOANED BREAD MACHINE.PAYS BILLS ONLINE.SLEEP AT AROUND 12:00PMEATS DINNER AND SHOWERS.READS LACQUERING TECHNIQUE BOOK.WATCHES TELEVISION AND USES SMARTPHONE.WATCHES NETFLIX.SLEEPAT AROUND 10:00PMMAKES SNACK.VACUUMS LIVING ROOM USING VACUUM CLEANER.DOES ASSIGNMENT ON PERSONAL LAPTOP AND STUDIES FOR TEST.PLAYS KIDS BOARD GAME WITH KID.OWNS NO TOYS AT HOME. USES LIBRARY.TELLS STORY TO KID.SLEEPAT AROUND 10:00PMUSES UMBRELLA TO WALKRETURNS UMBRELLA TO LIBRARY NODE B. LIBRARY AUTOMATICALLY RECOGNIZES CHIPPED UMBRELLA AS RETURNED.GO THROUGH AIRPORT SECURITY CHECKS INTO WORK SHIFTREADS NEW NOVEL DURING BREAK TIME.EATS LUNCH.FINISHES WORK SHIFT AND CHECKS OUT OF AIRPORT SECURITY.UNEXPECTED RAINING.USE PUBLIC LIBRARY PHONE APPLICATION ACCOUNT TO BORROW UMBRELLA AND NECK PILLOW AT LIBRARY NODE BPASS CODE PROVIDED TO LOAN OUT OF LIBRARY NODE PROXIMAL TERRITORY OF USE FOR 1/2 DAY.FIGURE 95.STORY DIAGRAM SIMULATIONThese three story diagrams show examples of how the proposed public library sys-tem-form is incorporated into the normal daily lives of the community in three different possible ways. These show how there is a new social milieu for civic public space in the city space.HOW THE SYSTEM WORKS: PUBLIC LIBRARY VALUE NORMALIZED INTO SOCIAL MILIEUSTORY SIMULATIONSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          82 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISFIGURE 96. DIAGRAM SHOWING EXAMPLE ENTITIES OF VALUE THAT COULD BE TO BE LOANED AND STORED IN EXPANDED DEFINITION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY.The public library’s stored value is expanded in programs and items in context to the proposed design. These items and value have different rang-es of territory, duration, and frequency in which they can be loaned given the value entities nature and use. The diagram groups themes of items that could be curated, stored, and lent to particular programs or uses for the appropriate site.ESPRESSO MACHINEPANCAKE MACHINERICE COOKERCOFFEE MACHINEBRAZIERAIR FRYERBUTANE TORCHSLICERCORN ROASTERCOMBI STEAMERELECTRIC COOKERKETTLEPOPCORN MACHINEPIE IRONTOASTERWAFFLE IRONPAN RICE COOKERBREAD MAKERBLENDERSPECIAL POTSMINI OVENBREAD MIXERJUICERBLENDERICE MAKERICE SHAVERICE CRUSHERNOODLE MAKERPRESSURE POTWHISKCOOKIE MOLDDOUGHNUT MOLDFLAME TORCHBARBECUE SLIDECANDLE HOLDERELECTRIC CANDLESBAKING OVENFRIDGESTOVEDISHWASHEROVENFOOD STORAGEKITCHEN TABLE EATING SPACESINKCOMMUNAL KITCHEN SPACECOUNTER-TOP SPACELAWN MOVERGARDEN CLAWSHOVELRAKELEAF SHEARLEAF BLOWERFERTILIZER PUSHERAERATORHOSEWATER SPRAYERWATERING SPRAYHEDGE TRIMMERSEED SPREADERWEED WHACKER WHEEL BARROWGARDEN SPACEAGRICULTURAL SPACEPLANTING SPACEGARDENTOOL BENCHGARDNER (TEACHER)CAN OPENERHAIR DRYERHAIR IRONVACUUMSEWING MACHINENEEDLESHUMIDIFIERHAIR APPLIANCESFANAIR CONDITIONERHEATERMOBILE RADIATORSWIFFER POLEMINI WASHERDEHUMIDIFIERELECTRIC WATER BOILERSTEAM CLEANERTRUING STANDCLEANING SINKFOLDING TABLEFOLDING CHAIRFOLDING SCREENEVENT LIGHTINGSMALL SPEAKERSPROJECTORPYLONSFAIRY LIGHTSWOOD DOLLYSTOP SIGNSIGN BOARDSEVEN SPEAKERSEVEN TENTPROJECTOR SCREEN (S)PERFORMANCE SPACEDISPLAY SPACESTAGELARGE MOVIE SCREENLARGE MOVIE PROJECTORBIKEELECTRIC CARSCOOTERROLLER BLADESSKATEBOARDSKI STICKSKISSKATESWAGONELECTRIC SKATEBOARDBIKE PUMPHAND AIR PUMPSKISNOW BOARDSSNOW SHOESBIKE PUMPBIKE STANDELECTRIC CAR CHARGERBIKE TOOL SETBENCH SEATCAMPING CHAIRTENTPROPANE TANKPROPANE STOVEELECTRIC STOVESOLAR PANEL CHARGERSLEEPING BAGELECTRIC LAMPELECTRIC CHARGERCOOLERFIRE STARTERMOSQUITO NETHAMMOCKCAMPING BACKPACKFUEL STOVEELECTRIC STOVETARPSLEEPING PADSLEEPING BAG (CLEANABLE)TREKKING POLEWATER CARRIERFILTRATION PACKAGEUMBRELLAWATER BOOTS COVERRAIN JACKETSAFETY GLASSESWORK GLOVESSAFETY VESTSTEEL TOE BOOTSBINOCULARSFLASHLIGHTBLOW DRIERBACKPACKFLASHLIGHTBLOW DRIERHANDBAGSPORT BAGTOTE BAGSUITCASECLOTHHEADLAMP SNOWSHOESCAMPING BAGSKISVIDEO GAMESMOVIESFICTION BOOKSPICTURE BOOKSBOARD GAMESTOYSSAND SHOVELSSAND BUCKETSDOGE BALLKID SLIDES INFLATABLE TOYSNERF GUNSWATER GUNSPINBALL MACHINEPIN PONG TABLECHESS SETDART SETELECTRIC SCOOTERKITESTELESCOPEBUBBLE MAKERELECTRIC AIRPLANEDRONESELECTRIC CARSPLAY ENTERTAINMENT AREALARGE TELEVISIONGAMING CONSOLERECREATIONAL COMPUTERAMPHITHEATER SEATINGPOOL TABLESPORTS SPACERELAXING SEATINGGAME TABLEMAGICIAN (ENTERTAINER)ENTERTAINMENTEVENTCOOKINGGARDENHOUSEHOLDTOOLSTRAVELMOBILITYSPACE - CAMPINGSPORTINFORMATIONWATER - BEACHMUSICARTISTELECTRONICSSOFTWARE - DESIGNPRINTINGSCREW DRIVERSTEP LADDERHAMMERDRILLWRENCHNAIL GUNRAKEWATER SPRAYERDRILL SETANGLE GRINDERCLAMPDRILL BITSWIRE STRIPPEREXTENSION CORDHOLE SAW KITSHOVELLEVELRATCHETING CLAMPLONG LADDERLOCKING PLIERSPAINT ROLLERPAINT TRAYPLUMBING AUGERPRESSURE WASHERSOCKET SETWRENCH SETLOCKING PLIERHEAT GUNJIG SAWHACK SAWMALLETTAPE MEASUREUTILITY KNIFEEXACTO KNIFECAULKING GUNPRY BARPUDDY KNIFECAR BATTERYPLUNGE ROUTERRECIPROCATING SAWPOWER BANKHEX SETSAWMILLPALM SANDERORBITAL SANDERSPAINT POLEHAND DOLLYCIRCULAR SAWWOOD SAWING STATIONCOMPOUND MITER SAWWORKSHOP AREACOUNTER-TOPWORKBENCHREPAIR-SHOPCRAFTER (TEACHER)MECHANIC (TEACHER)CDMOVIEMAGAZINENEWSPAPERCOMPUTERSMEDIA COMPUTERTV SCREENRECORDING STUDIOVIDEO GAMESPACKRESEARCH MATERIALLAPTOPCOMPUTERCOMPUTER SCREEN TV SCREENPROJECTORPHONE CHARGERPHONE BATTERYDRONESCAMERASVIDEO CAMERASFILM CAMERALIGHTINGFILM STANDSLENDSMICROPHONES PROF.EARPHONESVIDEO EDITING SOFTWARECOMPUTER TERMINALVIDEO MAKING SOFTWAREDESIGN SOFTWARE COMPUTERADOBE CREATIVE SUITEADOBE PDFPDF MAKERRHINOEDUCATIONAL SOFTWAREVIRTUAL LIBRARYRHINOAUTO-CADVECTOR-WORKSREVITMICROSOFT OFFICEOTHER SOFTWARELASER PRINTER3D PRINTERHALLOWEEN COSTUME PROPSHOLIDAY PROPSGLOW STICKSIRENSPEAKER-PHONETASERBATONSHIELDBEACH CHAIRTOWELSFANSSUNGLASSESSANDALSBEACH HATSBOATSFLOATSTUBERSBEACH UMBRELLALIFE VESTSWIM ARM BANDSFLOATERSSURFBOARDSFISHING RODFISHING LURESFLAGSNETSCRAB TRAPSWHISTLESBUCKETMICROSCOPEHOT PLATE + SPINNERPIPETDISTILLERYRADIO STATIONSCIENCE LAB STATIONSHOWERTOILETDRINKING FOUNTAINCHANGING ROOM(LIFEGAURD - PARTNERED)FISHING (TEACHER)MUSIC SHEETSTUBATRUMPETFLUTESAXOPHONEGUITARELECTRIC PIANOTRIANGLEDRUMSXYLOPHONEVIOLIN RECORDEROTHER INSTRUMENTSELECTRIC SPEAKER AUDIO SOFTWARESPEAKERRECORDING SOFTWARERECORDING STUDIOPIANOMICROPHONESOUND PROOF SPACEMUSICIAN (TEACHER)WACOMB TABLETIPAD DRAWINGTABLET DRAWERPAINTBRUSHINK PENEASELSHARPENERPOMMEL MORTARBRUSHOIL PAINT TOOLSCARVING TOOLSWELDERSOLDEROIL PAINTING TOOLSCLAY TOOLSARDUINO BOARDCRAFTING TOOLSRULERCUTTING BOARDSCISSORSGLUE GUNPAPER CUTTERLASER CUTTERCLAY FRIDGECLAY STORAGEARTIST OVENCERAMIC KILNCERAMIC SPINNERPRINT SCREENART DISPLAYART WORKSHOPPRINTERLASER PRINTERINK PRINTERPLOTTERCOPIERLARGER SCANNERXEROXSCANNERBADMINTON RACQUETTENNIS RACKETBOCCE BALL SETGOLF SETGOLF BALLSBASKETBALLSOCCER BALLVOLLEYBALLBASEBALLBEACH BALLFOOTBALLFOOTBALL GEARHOCKEY STICKSHOCKEY GEARLACROSSE GEARLACROSSE STICKSTEESTENNIS BALLSBASEBALL BATCONESDUMBBELLSBARBELLSPING PONG TABLEKETTELBELLMEDICINE BALLEXERCISE BALLEXERCISE BANDYOGA SPACEEXERCISE BENCHESTREADMILLEXERCISE MACHINESTREADMILLDANCE STUDIO MIRROREXERCISE SPACEEXERCISE TEACHER MUSEUM SPACECURATOR (PERSON)HISTORIAN (TEACHER)LOUNGE SPACEWORKING TABLESOWING EXPERTCAMPING SPACESLEEPING SPACEHAMMOCK HANG SPACECHANGING ROOMSTORAGE SPACECHANGING BENCHWIFIHEATINGELECTRICITYPHONE SERVICESTATIC SEATTABLECOUNTERSHELF STORAGECLASSROOM STUDY AREA GROUPSTUDY AREA LONECLASSROOM STUDY AREA GROUPSTUDY AREA LONEDIAGRAM NOTETRADITIONAL LIBRARY LOANED ITEMS, SUCH AS BOOKS, TEXTBOOKS, FICTION, CDS, CASSETTES, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, AND OTHER ITEMS, THAT ARE COMPLIMENTARY TO THE EXPANDED PROPOSED ITEMS CAN BE PROVIDED TOGETHER TO PROMOTE TRADITIONAL PUBLIC LIBRARY FUNCTIONS. A EXAMPLE WOULD BE THE PROVISION OF MUSICAL SHEET SCORES, BOOKS ON MUSIC, BIOGRAPHIES ON SINGERS/MUSIC PROFESSIONALS, CDS ON MUSIC, DVDS OF MUSIC EDUCATION IN TANDEM WITH AN PROVIDED INVENTORY OF INSTRUMENTS, MOVIE SCREENS AND PROJECTOR, CHAIR AND TABLES, EVENT ITEMS (ALONG SIDE COMMUNITY DONATED OR CROWDSOURCED STORED ITEMS OF VALUE)THIS PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF GROUP OF ITEMS COULD BE CURATED BY A DESIGNATED LIBRARIAN FOR A SUMMER MUSIC FESTIVAL WHERE THE LIBRARY NODE IS LOCATED IN THE PUBLIC SPACE IN THE CITY.THESE CURATED ITEMS WITH DESIGNED SYNERGY TOGETHER AND WITH LOCATION CONTEXT - PROGRAM CAN BE LIMITED IN ‘TERRITORY OF USE ‘AT THE LIBRARY NODE. LOANING OF STORED ENTITIES OF VALUE THE SYSTEM OF LOANING AND BORROWING IN THE EXPANDED PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM BUILDS AND CARRIES ON FROM ITS EXISTING SYSTEM TODAY IN VANCOUVER/PUBLIC LIBRARIES.  ITEMS ARE NOW CHIPPED AND ARE TRACKED USING THE PUBLIC LIBRARY NODES/NETWORK IN THE CITY. FOR ITEMS WITH TERRITORIAL RESTRICTED, THEY MUST REMAIN IN INDICATED PUBLIC LIBRARY TERRITORY NOTED THROUGH THE THEORETICAL PUBLIC LIBRARY APPLICATION.THE ITEMS OF PUBLIC LIBRARY TO BE LOANED TO THE PUBLIC MAY HAVE A TERRITORY OF USE THAT IS LIMITED TO THE NODE, THE NEIGHBORHOOD, OR IS UNLIMITED (GIVEN THE TIME OF THE LOANED ITEM). AN EXAMPLE WOULD BE A LIBRARIAN’S CURATED READING COLLECTION AND SURF BOARD COLLECTION THAT IS LIMITED IN TERRITORY OF USE TO A BEACH-SIDE LIBRARY NODE. THESE ITEMS WOULD BE COMPLIMENTARY TO THE SITE AND LOCAL PROGRAMS AND WOULD NOT HAVE AS MUCH VALUE IN OTHER SITES OR CONTEXTS.SOME ITEMS, MAY BE ALLOWED HIGHER FREQUENCY AND/OR DURATION OF USE AND LOWER GIVEN THE NATURE OF THEIR USE. IN RAINY VANCOUVER, LOANED UMBRELLAS MAY ALLOW HIGHER FREQUENCY OF BORROWING BY USERS AND SHORTER DURATIONS OF USE.CURATED INVENTORY IN PUBLIC LIBRARY NODES CAN CHANGE OVER TIME. THIS CAN BE CURATED BY LIBRARIANS TO COMPLIMENT CITY PROGRAMS, LOCAL STORES, OR OTHER CONDITIONS THAT MAY CHANGE OVER TIME.TERRITORY OF USE: UNLIMITEDHIGHER FREQUENCY OF USETERRITORY OF USE: AT LIBRARY NODERELATIVELY LOWER FREQUENCY OF USEFIRST AID KITWHAT CAN BE STORED IN PUBLIC LIBRARY EXPANDED INVENTORYSHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          83 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACEBIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHYSOURCESAnderson J., Siim Birte “The Politics of Inclusion and Empower-ment” Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.Atcheson J, Green L. “Car Sharing and Pooling: Reducing Car Over-Population and Collaborative Consumption” web.archive.org. Stanford Precourt Institute for Technology. Web. 2012. April 9. Accessed Nov 18th 2018. < https://web.archive.org/web/20141123161330/http://energyseminar.stanford.edu/node/425>Agosto, Denise “ “This is Our Library, and Its a Pretty Cool Public Place”: A User-Centered Study of Public Library YA Space”. Public Library Quartery. 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Accessed March 20 2019.  <https://www.bestbuy.com/site/electronics/com-puters-pcs/abcat0500000.c?id=abcat0500000> Amazon “Blendtec Designer 625 Blender - WildSide+ Jar (90 oz) - Professional-Grade Power - 4 Pre-Programmed Cycles - 6-Speeds - Sleek and Slim - Pomegranate” amazon.com Web. Accessed March 21 2019.  <https://www.amazon.com/Blend-tec-DD28PA01EA-A1GP1D-Parent-Designer-Blender-Pomegranate/dp/B00MGV4R1Y>Amazon “Stand Mixers: Heavy Duty” amazon.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019.  <https://www.amazon.com/Stand-Mixers-Heavy-Duty/s?rh=n%3A289932%2Cp_n_feature_keywords_browse-bin%3A5028954011.Indiamark “Garden Tools” dir.indiamart.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019. <https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/garden-tools.html>Misterioseando.info “Japanese Garden Tools” misterioseando.info Web. Accessed March 20 2019.  <http://misterioseando.info/japanese-garden-tools/>Raindrops of Sapphire “The Classic Yellow Rain Coat - Get The Look”raindropsofsapphire.comWeb. 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Accessed March 30 2019. <https://www.sears.com/lawn-garden-lawn-mow-ers/b-1020198>SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          88 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACEENDHSS Hire “Mini Dumper” hss.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019. <https://www.hss.com/hire/p/mini-dumper-0-25-ton>Giant “Animator 16” giant-bicycles.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019. <https://www.giant-bicycles.com/us/animator-16-2018>Walmart “Set of 4 Sports Balls for Kids (Soccer Ball, Basketball, Football, Tennis Bal..” www.walmart.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019. <https://www.walmart.com/ip/Set-of-4-Sports-Balls-for-Kids-Soccer-Ball-Basketball-Football-Tennis-Bal/141889455>Amazon “Tower T11001 Digital Bread Maker 13 Preset Functions Including Gluten Free and Jam Options, Keep Warm Settings, 0.9 Litre, 650 W, Stainless Steel” amazon.co.uk Web. Accessed March 21 2019. <https://www.amazon.co.uk/Tower-T11001-Digital-Set-ting-Stainless/dp/B00MMLHXYG>Ebay “Flotador boya salvavidas Torpedo De Rescate Uso Con Cuer-da + Ahorro de la vida del arnés” ebay.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019. <https://www.ebay.com/itm/Torpedo-Rescue-Float-Buoy-Lifeguard-Use-With-Rope-Harness-Life-Saving-/390877451025?_ul=CL>Temple University “Symphony for a Broken Orchestra“ news.temple.edu Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <https://news.temple.edu/news/2016-10-24/symphony-broken-orchestra>Betty Crockers “ Classic Sugar Cookies” bettycrocker.com Web. Accessed March 31 2019. https://www.bettycrocker.com/recipes/classic-sugar-cookies/90993177-b5fe-4cc7-a6b6-8f58913d36e8JamBak Foods “Our Process” jambakfoods.com Web. Accessed March 31 2019.<https://www.jambakfoods.com/process>TasteSpotting “Beautiful rich two tier Raspberry Chocolate cake topped with Ganache icing, fresh Raspberries and chocolate shards {recipe}“tastespotting.com  Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <http://www.tastespotting.com/tag/Raspberry+Chocolate+-cake+topped+chocolate+ganach>Wayfair “Utensil Sets” wayfair.com Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <https://www.wayfair.com/kitchen-tabletop/sb0/uten-sil-sets-c417518.html>Anthony Formal Wear “MensWear Brands” anthonyformalwear.co.uk Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <https://www.anthonyfor-malwear.co.uk/>Symphony for a Broken Orchestra “A Symphony Breathes Life Into 400 Broken School Instruments” symphonyforabrokenorchestra.org Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <http://symphonyforabro-kenorchestra.org/press/>cryptomove.info “Wall Mount Guitar” cryptomove.info  Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <http://cryptomove.info/wall-mount-guitar/>Pintrest “Discover ideas about Music Studio Room” pinterest.com  Web. Accessed March 31 2019. <https://www.pinterest.com/pin/315322411380456949/>Basil Bangs “Beach Umbrellas” basilbangs.com  Web. Accessed March 21 2019 <https://www.basilbangs.com/us/beach-umbrel-las/>Best Buy “Insignia™ - 75” Tripod Projector Screen - Black/White”bestbuy.com/Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.bestbuy.com/site/reviews/insignia-75-tripod-projector-screen-black-white/4238900>Uline “Totes / Pleastic Storage Boxes” uline.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019 <https://www.uline.com/Grp_289/Totes-Plas-tic-Storage-Boxes>Uline “Storage” uline.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019<https://www.uline.com/Product/AdvSearchResult?key-words=storage..>Amazon “STEEL CORE 42703 30 Bin Wall Mount Parts Rack “amazon.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019<https://www.am-azon.com/STEEL-CORE-42703-Mount-Parts/dp/B075CPJTZM>Hollon John “More on the Fired Lifeguard: Is It Simply a Parable About Outsourcing?”tlnt.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019 <https://www.tlnt.com/more-on-the-fired-lifeguard-is-it-simply-a-parable-about-outsourcing/>Walmart “JOOLA Inside 15 Table Tennis Table with Net Set, 15mm, 9’ x 5’, Blue” walmart.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.walmart.com/ip/JOOLA-Inside-15-Table-Ten-nis-Table-with-Net-Set-15mm-9-x-5-Blue/39131565>Simplee Good: The Party Store “Rent Beach ball theme Cutout with Stand at Rs.300 (35 inch diameter)” simpleegood.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019 <https://www.simpleegood.com/beach-ball/2137-rent-beach-ball-theme-cutout-with-stand-at-rs300-35-inch-diameter.html>Amazon “48” (4 FEET) Beachball” amazon.com Web. Accessed March 21 2019 https://www.amazon.com/Rhode-Island-Novelty-IN-BEA48-Beachball/dp/B007Y9PHK8>Black Knight “Pool Noodles” efl.net.nz Web. Accessed March 20 2019<https://www.efl.net.nz/pool-noodles-noodle-aqua-stix/en-quire?return=pool-noodles-noodle-aqua-stix%2F%3Fmc%3DB-M0hmdehi7ZW8jbL1CJJCsU2eYhYfzrtd2uHMF-V5GOjh_DmB-NdF7PD4fj23ohOJq3HsniziKHji5ZnlvEhSRo0HZZhgKrlklwLxIIF-GIWz6YRuSKAc5SAgif7bMkxNQBuiLoF6QZPgz-NubVQJHr-wQ2Hrq3cDQ09D2_8q90kW5oKCr5zMRm5L2GJfn_kThZ-3eSX-Xcu90DvyaXJzYD3ZXaW2j0wyvXVjAmhUw05kH-vUAW3V7glPm-wSkXksT1gy-XSNAgpyuixKWUDO6paC54VwqL-cXbMaQXi-VwQkFuyXyUOsFpHoUP8uCEkheYtj7gtwfW-JVwaEnPBXK-3gDfae1CkW2Ltq-aYqDcecYC2u1KdgAqxpbeID-kLohMpjLthKXluvrUN_kK_jyHV3XGvxnM3w8XG68WIeaWjP-WoyBpesyKwusNATv1ceZ3Up8HN-jCUEeWdtG6zDT9HxXLNJjTn-5nER-R3rtsqyZ1qUO-2uLtJGFAw18ezdBKkT59F8k>Dive Right in Scuba “Regulator Packages” diverightinscuba.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019 <https://www.diverightinscuba.com/packages-c-402-2.html>Game Room Mania “The Ultimate Guide to Finding the Best Ping Pong Table 2018” gameroommania.com Web. Accessed March 21 2019 <https://www.gameroommania.com/best-ping-pong-table/>Glassy, Dawn M. “Not Such a Mundane Monday’ Into Design, Inc.’ intodesigninc.wordpress.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019<https://intodesigninc.wordpress.com/tag/magazines/>State Safety & Compliance “Emergency/Rescue” statesafety.com Web. Accessed March 30 2019 <http://www.statesafety.com/emergencyrescue?orderby=11&pagesize=3>Ebay “Boat Safety Life Rings” ebay.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.ebay.com/b/Boat-Safety-Life-Rings/26450/bn_33938669>Amazon “Outdoor Barbecues” amazon.co.uk  Web. Ac-cessed March 20 2019 <https://www.amazon.co.uk/barbe-SHENG ZHAO : APRIL 2019          89 SALA ARCHITECTURE - THESISEVOLUTION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY AS PUBLIC SPACEENDcues/b?ie=UTF8&node=4295687031>Matami Print “Leisure” matamiprint.com  Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.matamiprint.com/leisure-61-c.asp>Amazon “Teacher Created Resources 4586 Surfboards Accents” amazon.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.amazon.com/Teacher-Created-Resources-4586-Surfboards/dp/B00BWSYBKY>Bingley Francesca “Renting a Surf Board” surfholidays.com  Surf Holidays Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.surfholi-days.com/blog/renting-a-surf-board>Amazon “19 PCs Kids Beach Sand Toys Set Sand Water Wheel, Beach Molds, Beach Bucket Beach Shovel Tool Kit, Sandbox Toys for Toddlers, Kids Outdoor Toys” amazon.com  Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.amazon.com/Beach-Bucket-Shov-el-Sandbox-Toddlers/dp/B06XZQ9196>Amazon “Aquaglide Yakima Boat” amazon.com  Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.amazon.com/Aquaglide-Yaki-ma-Boat/dp/B00JS23YF4>Silver Birches “Kayak, SUP & Canoe Rentals” silverbirchesresortpa.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://silverbirchesresort-pa.com/kayak-and-sup-rentals/>Leisure Pro “Shop Scuba Gear & Dive Equipment” leisurepro.com  Web. Accessed March 21 2019 <https://www.leisurepro.com/c/Scuba>Pepper Fry “Hayao 4 Tier Book Shelf in Wenge Finish by Mintwud” pepperfry.com Web. Accessed March 20 2019 <https://www.pepperfry.com/hayao-4-tier-book-shelf-in-wenge-finish-by-mintwud-1680106.html>

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