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Temporal Movements as Agency in an Arctic Landscape : Vuntut Gwitchin traditional territory MacDaniel, Jessica 2019-04-26

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Temporal Movements as Agency in an Arctic Landscape : Vuntut Gwitchin traditional territory by  Jessica MacDaniel    A graduate design-project 2019 presented to the University of British Columbia in partial fulfillment for the degree of  Master of Landscape Architecture     Supervisor: Cynthia Girling      Committee: Stanley Njootli Sr               Kees Lokman                 Fionn Byrne    Dave Flanders RELEASE FORMLandscape Architecture School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture University of British ColumbiaName: Jessica MacDanielUBC student number: Graduate Project Title: Temporal Movements as Agency in an Arctic LandscapeIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws. I hereby declare that this thesis-project is my own and preliminary research has been conducted under The University of British Columbia’s Behavioral Research Ethics Board, The Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Heritage Committee’s Review and Yukon Government’s Scientist and Explorers license.II IIIABSTRACTThe praxis of people who work with land and physical spaces that can be inhabited should carry a growing weight in an age that requires sustainable design that is responsive to place and inclusive to values of reconciliation. I cannot and would not want to tell anyone what reconciliation is, but I believe it is a continuous working process that involves cross-cultural understanding, perspective and sensitivity. This involves comprehensive, meaningful and long-term engagement with people indigenous to the land.   Being a white settler and landscape architecture candidate I wanted to become more cognizant of implications of how I consider working with the land. A large reason that I took this project on was to learn about landscape from people whom have deep ancestral connections to the land, of which cannot be replicated.  Research leading up to this project underwent three ethics reviews, one that was from the Heritage Committee in Old Crow. I chose this location due to having spend a portion of my early adult life working a community engagement role in the Yukon and wanted to understand what landscape architecture could be in a remote, arctic community. Members of the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation warmly welcomed me into their community and homes on separate occasions in the summer and winter season leading up to the end of this process. I hope that this project is a starting point for me to continue doing work in the north.  fig. 0.2 bank of the Porcupine River in Old Crow. Summer.IV VAuthor’s Declaration            Abstract    List of Figures Acknowledgments  Introduction                                                                        StatementApproachPrecedents drawing as research on touching the ground approaching the north The Territory   fly-in settlement The Gwich’in Crow Flats Old CrowTABLE OF CONTENTSI I  VXXVII1 35  791113Ch’ihłak1719212327Resiliency historic adaptations way-finding  Challenges seasons routes deteriorations river accessStrategies  communication enhancements low-impact infrastructure behavioral adaptations planning mobility temporal trails strategic deterioration  Neekaii333537Tik41434547Daang51535557616371VI VIIResearch ScheduleSite Visits BibliographyResearch AgreementsProject Application                                                                    7981828488IXVIIILIST OF FIGURESTracks in the snow. Author’s photo.bank of the Porcupine River in Old Crow. Summer. Author’s photo.bank of the Porcupine River in Old Crow. Winter. Author’s photo.Context maps. Author’s image. Shifting boundaries. Author’s image. Data from:     Harsch, M., & Bader, M. (2011). Treeline form - a potential key to       understanding treeline dynamics. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(4),       582-596. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41239344     Royal Canadian Geographic Society. (2018).Indigenous People’s Atlas of       Canada: First Nations.  Ottawa.     Sheppard, L., & White, M. (2017). Many Norths: Spatial Practice in       a Polar Territory. New York, Barcelona, Actar Publishing.     Zwinger, A., & Willard, B. E. (1972). Land above the trees: A guide to       american alpine tundra ([1st]. - ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Air photo upon arrival in Old Crow on Air North’s Hawker Siddeley 748. Author’s photo.Walking near Crow Point. Author’s photo.fluctuation diagrams. Author’s photo.permafrost diagram. Author’s photo.Cover AbstractAcknowledgments 12 46810fig 0.1fig 0.2fig 0.3fig 0.4fig. 0.5fig. 0.6fig. 0.7fig. 0.8fig. 0.9man-caused degradations diagram. Author’ image.Northern vehicular routes. Author’s image.Spatial territory boundary. Author’s image. Settlement Factors Time-lined. Author’s image. Data from:     Hayes, R. D. (2010). Wolves of the Yukon. Part 1. Bob Hayes.     Inoue, T. (2004). The Gwich’in Gathering: The Subsistence Tradition in       Their Modern Life and the Gathering against Oil Development by the       Gwich’in Athabascan. Josai International University.     MacDaniel, J. (2018, August). Personal interview with VGFN citizens.      Smith, S. & Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation (2009). People of the Lakes :       Stories of Our Van Tat Gwich’in Elders = Googwandak Nakhwach’ànjòo       Van Tat Gwich’in. University of Albera Press.     Students of Te’sek Gehtr’oonatun Zzeh. (1997). Recollections: Old Crow         elders tell of change in the community: an oral history project. Old Crow.Aih (snowshoes, Kutchin tribe). Adapted from Gwadal’ Zheii: Belongings from the Land. Canadian Museum of History. https://www.historymuseum.ca/gwichin/artifacts/snowshoes/Gwitchin’ Settlements Map. Author’s image. Data from:     Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development. The       History of Fort Yukon.The Great State of Alaska. http://explorenorth.com/      library/communities/alaska/bl-FortYukon.htm     Alaska Native Language Archive. (2017). Alaska Native Place Names.       University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved from https://www.uaf.edu/anla/      collections/map/names/131616Ch’ihłak1920fig 0.10fig 1.1fig 1.2fig. 1.3fig. 1.4fig 1.5X XI     Census Bureau. Census Designated Place (CDP). United States Census       Bureau. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/help/en/census_desig      nated_place_cdp.htm     Gwitch’in Council International. Our Communities. Retrieved from https://      gwichincouncil.com/our-communities      Gwich’in Tribal Council Department of Cultural Heritage. About the       Gwich’in. Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute. Retrieved from https://      www.gwichin.ca/about-the-gwichin     Haycox, S. W. (2015). An American Colony. University of Washington       Press.      Northwest Territories Tourism. Fort Mcpherson. Northwest Territories       Tourism. https://spectacularnwt.com/destinations/western-arctic/commu      nities/fort-mcpherson      Smith, S. & Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation (2009). People of the Lakes :       Stories of Our Van Tat Gwich’in Elders = Googwandak Nakhwach’ànjòo       Van Tat Gwich’in, Introduction (XLV-XLVI). University of Albera Press.     Prince of Whales Northern Heritage Centre. Community Names.       Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved from https://www.pwnhc.      ca/cultural-places/geographic-names/community-names/           Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. Some of the Vuntut Gwitchin History.       Vuntut Gwitchin Government. Retrieved from http://www.oldcrow.ca/his      tory.htm Porcupine Caribou herd. Reprinted from The Narwhal, by Matt Jacques, 2018. Retrieved from https://thenarwhal.ca/on-trail-porcupine-caribou-herd/traditional trail routes. Author’s image.Crow Flats images. Unknown author.Aerial photo. Author’s photo.21222425fig. 1.6fig. 1.7fig. 1.8fig. 1.9lake drainage. Author’s image. Data from:  Roy-Leveillee, Pascale., & Burn, C. (2015). Geometry of oriented lakes   in Old Crow Flats, North Yukon. Canadian Permafrost Conference.Old Crow town photo. Author’s photo. Map of Old Crow. Author’s image.Talik ponds in Old Crow. Unknown author.Winter town images. Author’s photo.Caribou fence. Adapted from Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Heritage, by Parks Canada and Vuntut Gwitchin Government, Retrieved from https://www.vgfn.ca/heritage/past movement adaptations. Author’s image. Data from:      Smith, S. & Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation (2009). People of the Lakes :       Stories of Our Van Tat Gwich’in Elders = Googwandak Nakhwach’ànjòo       Van Tat Gwich’in. University of Albera Press.people on a moose-hide boat. Reprinted from Yukon Archive, by C. Tidd Fonds., & M. Tidd Fonds, 1964. Retrived from http://www.tc.gov.yk.ca/ar-chives_imagesdatabase.htmlskidoo movement. Author’s photo.2526262728Neekaii323334fig. 1.10fig. 1.11fig. 1.12fig. 1.13fig. 1.14fig. 2.1fig. 2.2fig. 2.3fig. 2.4XII XIIIHistoric Vegetation Timeline. Author’s image. Data from:      Grant Zazula, G., & Froese, D. (2013). Ice Age Old Crow: Yukon’s Ancient       History from North of the Arctic Circle. Government of Yukon.     Hayes, R. D. (2010). Wolves of the Yukon. Part 1. Bob Hayes.     Mossop, D.H. (2015). The Changing Ecology of the Old Crow Flats       Wetland. Yukon Research Centre, Yukon College.skidoo trail. Author’s photo.wayfinding devices. Author’s photo.ice break-up on the Porcupine River.  Reprinted from Yukon Archive, by C. Tidd Fonds., & M. Tidd Fonds, 1964. Retrived from http://www.tc.gov.yk.ca/archives_imagesdatabase.htmlshoulder season vs. hunting season diagram. Author’s image. Data from:     MacDaniel, J. (2018, August). Personal interview with VGFN citizens.     Yukon Government. (2018). 2018-19 Yukon Hunting Regulations Summary.      Environment Canada.existing routes map. Author’s image.winter river photo. Author’s photo.route deteriorations. Author’s image. Data from:     MacDaniel, J. (2018, August). Personal interview with VGFN citizens.thawslump slide. Author’s photo.353637Tik4142434445fig.2.5fig. 2.6fig. 2.7fig. 3.1fig. 3.2fig. 3.3fig. 3.4fig. 3.5fig.3.6thawslump slide. Author’s photo.river bank series. Author’s photos.communication enhancement diagrams. Author’s images.infrastructure adaptation diagrams. Author’s images.behavioral adaptation diagrams. Author’s images.landscape plan. Author’s image.highlighted areas on map. Author’s image.mobile structures. Author’s images.process skectches. Author’s images.temporal trails tryptic. Author’s image.trail sequence 1 axonometric. Author’s image.trail sequence 2 axonometric. Author’s image.trail sequence summer (3) axonometric. Author’s image.strategic deteriorations tryptic. Author’s image.4547505355575960616264666870fig.3.6fig. 3.7fig. 4.1fig. 4.2fig. 4.3fig. 4.4fig. 4.5fig. 4.6 fig. 4.7fig. 4.8fig. 4.9fig. 4.10fig. 4.11fig. 4.12XIV XVunmanaged wetland axonometric. Author’s image.winter deterioration-management. Author’s image.summer access axonometric. Author’s image.summer / winter access. Author’s image.river series. Author’s photos.advertisement form. Author’s image.727476788081fig. 4.13fig. 4.14fig. 4.15fig. 4.16fig. 4.17fig. 4.18XVI XVIIACKNOWLEDGMENTSMahsi Choo,   I owe gratitude to the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation of Old Crow for not only hosting me and welcoming me on their traditional territory but for their generosity of sharing traditional knowledge and introducing my to their land. I thank the community for nominating me to be on the Resolutions Committee at their 2018 Annual General Meeting in Tl’oo K’at.  I especially thank Stanley Njootli Sr., Robert Kaye, Douglas Frost, Stephen Frost, Martha Benjamin and Bruce Charlie for their guidance and conversations. I am grateful for all other relationships formed and interactions that aspects of this project afforded me with Gwitch’in community members, the Council of Yukon First Nations, the Arctic Institute of Community-Based Research, the Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College, Environment Canada, the Minister of Environment Yukon and SnowChange. Thank you to the Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation for providing a Northern Research Bursary that allowed for preliminary research during an initial site-visit.  fig. 0.3 bank of the Porcupine River in Old Crow. Winter.XVIII XIXINTRODUCTIONThe north and especially a remote, indigenous arctic community challenges a city-taught, land-based practice. Practicing landscape architecture in what is now called Canada is often considered in the context of a city with colonial values where in its formation the landscape has been removed.   Aesthetics (applied by me in this project) is not called for in its articulation of form but rather in its praxis when thinking about connections to the greater landscape and wilderness in a remote, fly-in community. This involves sensitivity to cultural values and awareness to methods that are feasible by locals and applicable in a changing permafrost environment. This project seeks to apply landscape architectural methods of working, involving; grading, the creation of paths, and regeneration (land-based management practices) in unconventional ways required for an arctic landscape to ensure accessibility on the landscape. It seeks to understand local desires, practices and challenges of access to the greater landscape. The emerging design is a strategic process that delineates the boundary of user and modified (built) landscape, as methods that involve strategic and temporal movements are employed as the landscape intervention in itself (as a working process).         fig. 0.4 Context map.1Continuous permafrostDiscontinuous permafrostSporadic permafrostTreelinelow-temperature growth limitation determines the position   of the treeline (Harsch, 4). Trees grow shorter and often at lower densities as they approach tree line (Zwinger).Living cost differentialThis line differentiates Canadians disadvantaged by abnormally higher costs of living and working in isolated locations, relating to Urbanism and Resources (Sheppard).UNFIXED DEFINITIVE LINESThe problem that I seek to understand and address specific to the community of Old Crow is accessibility to the greater landscape beyond the town-site and specifically to Crow Flats (introduced later) to ensure and enhance subsistence. Hunting, harvesting, processing and tanning of animals largely facilitates and fosters connections to place, wildlife and the greater ecosystem. Access can also mean the ability to partake in traditional activities, cultural pursuits including education, recreation, research and even tourism.   Climate adaptations are necessary for continued lifestyle in arctic environments that exhibit unprecedented rates of changing landscape conditions that create barriers to access and movement in differing seasons and to greater extents of the land. Climate change and permafrost melt is a root cause of barriers now inhibiting accessibility. The extreme conditions, fluctuations and remoteness of this landscape give parameters of what kinds of approaches can be applied in this area.  This thesis-project considers how to visually communicate some of these challenges, brain-storm a set of options that could be applied in this dynamic landscape and develop a sensitive and adaptive approach to modifying the landscape that could be tried and tested in relation to concerns of movement and access.  STATEMENTfig. 0.5 Shifting boundaries.3The method of understanding possibilities and objectives of this site regards listening and observation. The author is merely a coordinator and facilitator of already existing opportunities and practices. The outcome of this process is meant to be articulated as a flexible one since a meaningful and fulfilling process would require extensive input, iteration and detailed planning in its refinement. This is meant to be an iterative, community-driven process.  Adaptation and flexibility is crucial to a place of permafrost which is in part why this project is not site-specific. Fluctuations in the ground conditions of the landscape can be expected but are also unpredictable in nature. Further, for the author to determine a place(s) that would be of importance in a landscape that is so dynamic and understood as holistic method of colonization. This project is about the process of engagement, communication, methods of adaptation and emerging processes of landscape strategies.   The chosen approach to engage in a project that could potentially be of use to a remote indigenous community was to chose a place and visit before honing in on a topic/problem. The site and people will tell you what it needs and what to explore if you listen. The rest of the information required to create a project is about connecting existing pieces of information together to support an endeavor. When I visited the community I wanted to not have too much preconceived knowledge about the place in order to emphasize the value of listening to community members speak about their concerns and traditional knowledge.APPROACHfig. 0.6 Air photo upon arrival in Old Crow on Air North’s Hawker Siddeley 748.4 5PRECEDENTSfig. 0.7 Walking near Crow Point.6 7Throughout this project, drawings from interviews, conversations and existing data were created to cite and communicate implications of a changing climate on accessibility. Representations of relations to the land and its systems are attempted to be presented as accurately as possible and are fact-checked by scientific data when necessary and when possible. Importantly, people pointed me in the direction of climate-related concerns and patterns regarding use of the landscape. This type of work regards “two things not often assumed to be essential to what is often misconstrued as a medium of self-expression; first, an important experience, that of listening and engaging as a form of research; and, translating into compelling drawings the narratives of others” (Bass). Choices were made to leave out information that may have been subjective based on individuals experiences. Specific areas of highlighted concern and information presented in this project should not be used for citation and is intended to be an example of communicating climate-related challenges in this landscape in order to find adaptive solutions.040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			DRAWING AS RESEARCH040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			taller vegetation : traps snow and prevents soils from freezingtemperature projections more forest fires, more rain and more meltprecipitation projections causes ground meltlake drainage lakes drain towards river, fill in with vegetationfig. 0.8 Fluctuation diagrams.8 9ON TOUCHING THE GROUNDHow the land can and should be interfaced with by buildings in frozen soil is thoughtfully written about in Katherine Kovalcik’s architecture thesis, An Index of Groundworks and Bearings: architectural lessons on foundation building in Vuntut Gwitchin traditional territory. It puts into perspective how important it is to consider the challenges and relationship of built interventions to frozen ground. The slightest disturbances can cause the active layer to grow and the surface to become unstable.   Further, Katherine Jenkins, of the landscape-based design-research collaborative Present Practice, offers insight on ways of interfacing with desolate landscapes with consideration to the marks that are left when touching and modifying the land. The work Seeing Through Subtraction offers an aesthetic exploration of intentional and thoughtfully labored markings in the Great Basin.The projects mentioned highlight the importance of considering how the landscape should be modified. Both individuals conduct their work with great sensitivity and have    Building take-aways to move forward with :   - if to build, use permafrost safe methods (use of piles elevating intervention etc.)  - if to build, use piles directly onto bedrock - to consider floating interventions as observed on Great Slave Lake, Yellowknife,      Northwest Territories - to consider patterns rather than fixed objects / interventions  - to consider the relational aesthetics of proposed modifications the landscape   		fig. 0.9 Permafrost diagram.10 11The efforts and care that were taken to ensure a considered landscape in the project of the East Three School by Cornelia Oberlander afford insight to the challenges of planting a designed landscape and sighting a building in the arctic. “The rampant top-down thawing of permafrost in the Arctic presses for a reevaluation of the very ground that landscape architects structure, carve, and plant to create a landscape”, Oberlander’s approaches to investigation, rigor with problem-solving and engagement with the north attest to this. (Herrington).Local and traditional knowledge through engagement along with consideration to the delicate tundra were highlighting factors of the Iqaluit Municipal Cemetery project by Lees and Associates. It is a subtle design that incorporates local, natural materials and artifacts. In conversation, Heidi Redman shared how conventional burying practices had to be considered in their organization as traditional rock burials were not favored for the project. Technical problems arose due to permafrost melt and required the solution of timing phases of burials, further highlighting the challenges of working in an arctic landscape.Considerations:   -what alternative mediators of the landscape can be employed?  -what practices are tried in this landscape?  -how can use of the landscape be facilitated by seasonal approaches?APPROACHING THE NORTH040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			040206020100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Dec0 m1234			building on  permafrost :  can prevent ground from being and staying frozenequipment :  disturbs insulated areas, creates scars and talik ponds and destabalizes the groundharvesting wood :  can destabilize the groundfig. 0.10 Man-caused degradations diagram.12 13THE TERRITORYCH’IHLAK14 15Old CrowDawson CityWhitehorseFig. 1.1 Northern vehicular routes.Fig. 1.2 (opposite) Spatial territory boundary.This project is based in a small, arctic, indigenous, Athabaskan-Gwitch’in speaking community of 220 people. Old Crow is a fly- in community that has adapted to modern technology in many ways, with a population whom live a relatively subsistent lifestyle. Locals foster a range of self-sufficient skills necessary for remote, northern living. The hunting, harvesting, processing, and tanning of animals largely facilitates and fosters connections to place, wildlife and the greater ecosystem. People often forage and hunt for food, however there is also a store in town that is stocked through cargo runs via air travel. FLY-IN16 17Settlement and introductions of technologies such as; dogs (used for dogsledding), skidoo’s and even airplanes have not eradicated traditional mobility methods such as snowshoeing, however it has made for an easier way of life. People now have a harder time spending extended lengths of time on the land in part due to lifestyle changes, such as, the need for jobs, and therefore have a harder time covering the extent that was once used for longer durations of time.  Access and engagement with the landscape means title, protection and is necessary for the lifestyle in Old Crow. Climate-related changes further complicate the ability to use the landscape (described later).  Fig. 1.3 (opposite) Settlement Factors Time-lined.Fig. 1.4 Aih (snowshoes, Kutchin tribe).	 ­€‚ƒ„…†­‡ˆ‰Š‹ƒƒ ŒƒŽƒ  ‘	’‘„‡“‘„”• ƒ–•ƒƒ•„ƒ ƒ•„ —	ƒSETTLEMENT19*Arctic Village: Vashrąįį K'ooNeets'aii Gwich'in: residents of the north side152 people (2010)semi-pernament settlement/ seasonal camp until 1950’s*Venetie: VįįhtąįįGwichyaa Gwich'in: people of the flats166 people (2010)settled in location due to the abundance of fish and game*Circle: Danzhit KhaiinląįįDanzhit Hanlaih Gwich'in:water flowing out of the mountains104 people (2010)established when gold was found in Birch Creek*Birch Creek: DeenduuDendu Gwich'in: foothill mountain people33 people (2010)*Chalkyitsik: Jałk'iitsik “fish hooking place”Dendu Gwich'in: foothill mountain people33 people (2010)settled around 1930Fort Yukon: Gwich'yaa Zhee "House on the Flats"Gwich'yaa Gwich'in: people of the flats583 people (2010)established from a HBC trading post in 1847Old Crow: TeechikVuntut (Van Tat) Gwich'in: people of the lakes,221 people (2016)settled in 1870’slocation due to Muskrat availability in Crow FlatTsiigehtchic: “mouth of the iron river”Dene Tetlit Gwitchin: people of the headwaters172 people (2016)Fort Mcpherson: Teet'lit Zheh “at the head of the waters”Dene Tetlit Gwitchin: people of the headwaters700 people (2016)established in 1849 due to HBC trading postAklavik: Akłarvik “barrenground grizzly place”Inuvialuit, Gwich’in (Dene) and Métis 590 people - 2016 dataestablished in the early 1900’s as a HBC trading postInuvik: “place of people”Inuvialuit, Gwich’in (Dene) and Métis 3, 243 people - 2016 dataestablished in 1953 replaced Aklavik which was prone to flooding*Beaver: Ts'aahudaaneekk'onh DenhKoyukon, Gwich'yaa Gwich'in: people of the flats84 people (2010)settled in location due to start of northern gold trek*Stevens Village: DenyeetKoyukon, Gwich’in78 people (2010)*Eagle Village: Tthee T'äwdlennHan, Gwich’in67 people (2010)Eagle Plainswash-outs, slides and icing,permafrost melt causes instabilityalong the Dempster Highwaya winter ice road will not be viable in 25 yearsice-fog increases inhibits winter airline accessALASKAY.TN.W.T0                                                         100kmThis drawing spatializes the various Gwitchin settlements along with their population densities in relation to mobility between one another. All information drawn is centered on route relations of the Vuntut Gwitchin of Old Crow. The drawing is configured to showcase the connections that the Vuntut Gwitchin of Old Crow have to other settlements. Rivers highlight major route connections between settlements. There are many other important rivers that are used to access areas for hunting and recreation. The winter road from the Dempster highway at Eagle Plains to Old Crow may not be possible in the next 25 years due to climate change, according to the Vuntut Gwitchin Sustainability Plan of 2009. Some years there is not enough snow to construct the winter road and it is only constructed if there is enough demand by infrastructural projects in the community. In addition to the concerns of the ice road winter mobility is increasingly difficult for air travel due to ice fog (NRRC). Fig. 1.5 (opposite) Gwitchin’ Settlements Map.Fig. 1.6 Porcupine Caribou herd.THE GWICH’IN21Common Historic and still usedLand & Water Travel RoutesOld CrowBefore settlement, communities would meet in Crow Flats (just north of Old Crow) in the springtime. The Vuntut Gwich’in, “people of the lakes” consider Crow Flats their “bank”, an important area for the future and historically. Crow Flats is a large wetland complex of thousands of lakes. It is difficult to access due to its remoteness, seasonal changes and route degradations, although some existing routes from the town are minimally used. Crow Flats is one of Canada’s most significant wetland complex with a high intensity of migratory bird populations and is culturally significant for the Gwitch’in.    to Herschel Islandto Fishing Hole Creekto Fort Mcphersonto Rampart Houseto Whitestone Villageto Johnson VillageJohnson Village to La ChuteOld CrowCrow FlatsCROW FLATSFig. 1.7 traditional trail routes23existing lakesdrained basinsA: drained after 1972 all other basins drained before 1951.0 km 6Old Crow Flats (Van Tat K’atr’anahtii)  is one of the most important wetlands in Canada according to the Yukon Special Management Plan. Some of the lakes were leftover from what was once the massive “Old Crow Lake” covering the entire area 14,000 years ago (Hayes). Some of the lakes are also newly forming due to permafrost thaw.  Catastrophic drainage is also part of the natural evolu-tion in this landscape. Thousands of fossils have been found in the area, some of which date the earliest human habitation in North America.-The ground beneath the lakes in Crow Flats frequently changes, causing lake drainage, which channel and usually appear to flow to the Crow River. This can happen spontaneously and in a short period of time. When lakes are empty, vegetation grows in and moose have been reported to use the area. Drained lakes can eventually fill again. The ecosystem is in a constant state of fast reformation.    Fig. 1.8 (opposite) Crow Flats.Fig. 1.9 aerial photo.Fig. 1.10 lake drainage. 24 25SKI TRAILSCROW MOUNTAIN ROADOLD CROW ISLANDPORCUPINE RIVEROLD CROWAIRPORT RUNWAYISLAND TRAILOral accounts state that residents never built up to the edge of the shoreline that has receded 15 meters in the last 10-20 years. Rip-rap has been installed along the edge of the town to prohibit further shoreline recession. Throughout the town and surrounding homes, talik, ground that is unfrozen and surrounded by permafrost is noticed in puddles. This good be due to absent landscaping techniques, and may have been able to be prevented or mitigated with proper grading and draining. Removal of trees and shrubs could have contributed to talik ponds forming.   OLD CROWfig. 1.11 Old Crow town photo.fig. 1.12 Map of Old Crow. fig. 1.13 Talik ponds in Old Crow26 27For the Vuntut Gwitchin to be permanently settled means having to face climate-related changes that have and will likely continue to pose challenges. Overuse of the landscape, building and modifying the landscape can pose issues in itself. Within Old Crow, it is suggested by the Yukon Research Centre to implement thaw mitigation techniques wherever expansion may take place and to not develop in the “high-risk” areas where there are steep slopes that pose a risk of landslides. Points from the Yukon Research Center’s Old Crow Landscape Hazards research: Old Crow is more vulnerable to thaw than expected given the community’s   location in the continuous permafrost zone. Extreme rainfall and heating events will increase landslides by rapidly saturating   soils. Road building in the existing gullies could result in increased slope instability in    the overall gully system and threaten homes on the fans at the mouths of the   gullies. Flooding is an ongoing concern in the study area. With climate change, the  intensities and frequency of this flooding will likely be less predictable. In addition, thermokarst development and channel migration may also pose   significant hazards to any future development in valley-bottoms. fig. 1.14 Winter town images. 28 29RESILIENCY NEKAIIfig. 2.1 Caribou fence.Before the 19th century, historic Caribou fences were landscape interventions that enable spear and arrow hunting and could be km’s long with trees hauled long distances from reciprocal landscapes. 30 31The Gwitchin have survived a harsh lifestyle. Artifacts date people to this region back 12,000 years ago however there is evidence that people may have lived here as far back as 24,000 years ago according to (Hayes, 37).  The 1974 Berger Inquiry recommendations to not construct a pipeline across the Yukon and instead create two national parks, one that protects a portion of the calving grounds of the Porcupine Caribou herd.  The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge has recently been opened by the U.S Government “to allow oil and gas development in the birthing grounds of an international barren-ground caribou herd” (CPAWS). Climate changes have also been creating uncertainty for in this region.  Temperatures and rainfall are predicted to increase into the future, with “greater increases in temperature in winter than in summer”, according to the Yukon Research Center’s Old Crow Landscape Hazards assessment. (79)   Historic  Recent/Now   Future    HISTORICMovements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Decmigrations :  seasonal and animal basedtracking :  supplies pulled up the rivercaribou fence :  strategized based on migrationfig. 2.2 past movement adaptations.fig. 2.3 people on a moose-hide boat. 32 33ADAPTATIONSWinter ground and a frozen river covered in snow allows for traction, stable and faster movement, whereas an unfrozen river allows for passive floating down useful for strategic hunting before the addition of motors. Recently, taller vegetation growth has been becoming physical barriers to movement in some portions of the landscape. Skidoo’s have not only allow movement, they allow for trail making/breaking. Vegetation changes throughout geological time-periods show dramatic differences, correlating to temperature and precipitation. In the last 40 years, vegetation heights have increased dramatically. When the active layer of permafrost is thin, tree’s roots cannot be supported (NSIDC).   Pliocene - warm - pine         - spruce         - larch         - birchBeringia - coldest, driest portion- grassy tundra         warmer, wetter portion- birch shrubs         - willow shrubsrecent- spruce         - poplarfig. 2.4 Skidoo movement. fig.2.5 Historic Vegetation Timeline. 34 35In the wintertime trails are more easily noticed and evidenced by skidoo tracks. Further, way-finding devices are employed as signage at significant points, and simple formations of sticks along trails on the river and landscape. They are subtle but clear communication devices.  WAY-FINDINGfig. 2.6 Skidoo trail fig. 2.7 wayfinding devices 36 37CHALLENGESTIK38 39The river is a primary route of transportation in both the summer and winter season. Winter travel makes larger extents of the landscape more accessible as people can move faster on the landscape with skidoo’s. During the middle season neither of these types of movement are viable; the river is not fully frozen or thawed and there is not enough snow on the ground for movement. This expanding “shoulder season” is increasingly interfering with the different hunting seasons, making those activities null during that time. Freeze up dates are strongly affected by air temperature in the weeks and months leading up to the winter season.  Ice break up is caused by rapid snow melt and is sometimes also by precipitation.* predictions and freeze/thaw implicating factors are from the NCE. *No freeze up records are published or available. Fall/ Winter freeze Spring thawing SEASONSfig. 3.1 ice break-up fig. 3.2 shoulder season vs. hunting season diagram 40 41Ways of accessing the landscape is largely determined by seasons. This drawing spatializes some of the major existing routes in relation to their seasonal uses. People mainly use skidoo to travel in the wintertime and rely on boats during the summer. An ice road is built when there is demand and when it is possible. These are the main non air-travel routes connecting Old Crow to other communities and places of interest.ROUTESfig. 3.3 (opposite) existing routes map fig. 3.4 winter river photo.43DETERIORATIONSAccording to interviews, summertime river access can be inhibited at times when the water levels are too shallow and there is uncertainty about the safety of travel due to rapids and erosion. Access along the winter-trail is seeing degradation likely due to forest fires causing slope instability. Newly forming streams and creeks and thicker, taller vegetation growth also create obstacles.Movements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Decerosion may in part cause low water levels and leads to further silt deposits, which also affect fish habitat.fig. 3.5 (opposite) route deteriorations. fig. 3.6 thawslump slide.45fig. 3.7 River bank series.It should be noted that riverside erosion and landslides are not a new phenomena, however the intensity may be increasing and it is certainly affecting livelihood in unprecedented ways. Yukon Research Centre’s Old Crow Landscape Hazards research suggests the following:   Increases in regional precipitation and runoff could “raise stream levels which   may enhance incision or aggradation rates, and erosion on stream banks.” (81) Changes to rainfall amount and timing, snowmelt and sediment falling into   the river “may also increase stream channel instability and migration, under  cutting and oversteepening of cutbanks and initiation of landslides.” (81)RIVER ACCESS46 47STRATEGIESDAANG48 49A framework of applicable techniques that could be tried and tested in this landscape helped guide considerations for this project. Various suggestions listed could likely be modified and expanded on. A lot of these techniques have been used in other locations “down south”. They are communication enhancements, soft infrastructural adaptation/mitigation techniques, and behavioral adaptations. A multitude of these techniques could likely be applied together to assist with the challenges that are being faced. These could be expanded on.Enhancing communication for people that are using the landscape could ease hesitation to engage with a vast, remote, fluctuating and harsh-climate wilderness. SAT phones and In-reach devices could be borrowed like life-jackets now are in Old Crow. Further, these devices could be employed to geo-track destinations and used in trip-planning. Data for freeze-thaw tracking for both the Porcupine and Crow River is either absent or has gaps. This kind of tracking could be monitored more thoroughly, along with visually communicating to residents when and where portions of the river are open (not fully frozen). Climate related data, such as seasonal temperatures, vegetation heights could be tracked in a prominent and visible way in order to provide residents with objective climate data.Devices of way-finding are used and are present in the landscape. This could be further employed, managed and strategized.COMMUNICATION ENHANCEMENTSMovements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Decgeo tracking :  of places and personsfreeze-thaw tracking :  enhances safe travelway-finding :  further employedfig. 4.1 communication enhancement diagrams50 51Infrastructural adaptations are suggested as possible ways to adapt to climate-related challenges that inhibit accessibility. These are suggested in order to think about adaptations that could allow for expansive use of the landscape in areas that can be subject to degradation or in the middle season.  A cable ferry could be employed in order to assist with crossing rivers during the middle-season. This could allow for further use of areas and develop further points that are well connected to the town.An elevated all-season trail proposed to make a larger portion of the landscape accessible year-round. There was an elevated ATV trail proposed recently for a project in Kinngaaluk Territorial Park, Nunavut, which has the potential to be applied here as building directly onto a permafrost in unstable and causes degradation. It allows for a multitude of diverse mobility methods, which could even be a fat-bike, a newer hunting method that can move on complex terrain and is quiet enough to not scare away animals.In lui of new stream channels forming from excess water on the land, mobile floating docks could be of use. These could be moved/folded as needed seasonally or as route needs may change. Movements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep DecMovements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep DecLOW-IMPACT INFRASTRUCTUREcable ferry :  for middle seasonelevated trail :  evades deteriorationfloating docks :  for channel/stream  barriers soft slope stabilization :  could maybe prevent further erosionfig. 4.2 infrastructure adaptation diagrams52 53Conventional equipment employed in landscape architecture grading and drainage practices are not available in the north. Techniques can be administered in different ways.   Currently deteriorations caused by overuse seem unplanned and unpredicted. Further, evidenced by tracks in the snow, the places that people are driving their skidoos may cause future degradation especially within the riparian zone. Plants that can act as stabilizers are taken out in this process. It could be that in some areas this could be of benefit.   By using trails temporally, detrimental deterioration could be avoided. This can be strategized on a cycle or as-need basis. This can allow for regeneration and even control of planting strategies. After winter deterioration takes place, plants could see seeded or planted in the spring/summer season to inhibit thick willow growth. Strategic deterioration could be employed by skidoo overuse (grading) to re-route lake drainage and prevent lakes from draining into the river and causing erosion. Erosion and low-lake levels could be mitigated in a minimal way through this process through controlled drainage of lakes. New lakes could be formed with control and planning. BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONSMovements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep DecMovements & StrategiesPast : Survival Now : Title / Reoccupation0402060 mm20 °c100-10-20-30Mar Jun Aug DecMar Jun Sep Decdeterioration :  intentionally strategizedsequenced trails :  allows for regenerationre-routing lakes :  by intentionally  deteriorating mobile, low impact structures :  paired with temporal and strategic movementsfig. 4.3 behavioral adaptation diagrams54 55This graduate project takes some of these brainstormed options and showcases a landscape planning and management strategy that assists with the ability to adaptively use, occupy and ensure title to the greater extents of the landscape. A first (Stage 1) is suggested in order to allow for year-round access to further extents of the landscape beyond Old Crow. With an elevated trail, it could support a range of mobility types and adjacent trails. Gathering points (transitory points) could be developed along with this to support outings, educational purposes, traditional activities and even support tourism. Stage 1 is not further elaborated on.The use of greater extents of the landscape is described in Stage 2 and in subsequent sections of this document. This consists of mobile nodes and movements between them as agents of occupation and landscape management.  PLANNINGTWO HOUR SPEEDSfig. 4.4 landscape plan 57Rough suggestions of locations for mobile nodes are based on information available to me that I understood to be of importance and sometimes based on existing routes or connections between places. There are a lot of short-comings in this and any kind of planning would need to consider actual conditions, places that are considered of historic importance and predictions of areas in relation to desired/existing routes. Places could be chosen in relation to Van Tat Gwitch’in Historic Lifeways Projects, climate related assessments of ground monitoring, forest fire trends and data from Geological Survey Canada, and desires routes/places.Names are suggested as a method to identify various locations and placements of mobile nodes. In other words, they were arbitrarily decided but meant to suggest the possibilities of how naming can create interest/identity and be useful for way-finding during and in the planning of trips. The idea proposed is that locations could be modified when wanted. They could be moved when degradations and fluctuations in the wetland occur. It would be of benefit if these were strategically placed and moved and also had embedded geo-tracking to ensure way-finding. research area along traveled route, in area of marsh/polygon tundra transition within smaller wetland along route to  Bluefish Caves smaller trip from town research area nearing and between  caribou fencestoward Fishing Hole Creek and Arctic Oceantoward Herschel Islandtoward the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge & Arctic Village near designated fishing areasfig. 4.5 highlighted areas on map59The mobile nodes facilitate orchestrated temporal movement strategy to adaptively activate and occupy greater extents of the landscape. These allow for destinations that are not tied to specific sites that can be placed and spaced according to the changing human needs and based on animals, desired routes, destinations and even demands of tourism.These have the character of being highly modifiable, multiplied, easily assembled and are in between a cabin and a tent. The overarching design is to understand this is a temporal management strategy and movement is key to access, adaptation but further, this it can allow for regeneration and even strategic degradation. Movement is a tool to modify the landscape strategically allowed by small, mobile structures.move-able :  with skis embedded on the bot-tom, also ensuring that ground is not heatedmultipliable :  smoking and cooking of food with fire-sites embedded and lifted in order to not heat the groundfloat-able :  fire hole can be removed for access to ice-fishingMOBILITYfig. 4.6 mobile structuresfig. 4.7 process sketches60 61TEMPORAL TRAILS Sequence as Adaptationfig. 4.8 temporal trails tryptic62 63By shifting winter movement patterns, degeneration of the ground caused by excessive use could be avoided. This could be especially useful in areas around town that may be at risk of landslides, and areas that are subject to or have recently endured wildfires. People are known to have moved camp when dog teams have contributed to erosion in the past. Anticipation of detrimental degradations could enhance the ability to ensure future access on portions of the landscape. This would require study in order to map areas of potential concern. A full management plan like how wildlife are on schedules would need to be developed. Determining areas where plant stabilization is important should be considered when suggesting routes.fig. 4.9 trail sequence 1 axonometric64 65By sequencing trail uses on a timed (seasonal) or as needed basis people may be able to ensure that their ecological footprint does not further degrade the landscape that they want to retain access to. Through management, people will be actively engaged in activities that foster connections to the landscape; place, wildlife and the greater ecosystem. This can build wilderness confidence and may be a larger project that relies on and ensures youth involvement.This would be a research project in itself that would require monitoring, trial, error and great skill of wilderness intuition and observation.fig. 4.10 trail sequence 2 axonometric66 67Regeneration may be able to take place when deteriorations allow. This could be further managed to ensure that willow thicket and shrubs do not take over and create future barriers. Seeding or planting a new species could be tried to ensure that areas of past trails can remain cleared for human or animal use, with beneficial plantings. Planting/ seeding could also be tried in areas that have endured landslides and deterioration, which may be able to help stabilize slopes. This assisted spring/summer, regeneration/management strategy would be experimental and would need to be monitored, requiring trial, error and skilled botanical knowledge.fig. 4.11 trail sequence summer (3) axonometric68 69STRATEGIC DETERIORATION Movement as Managementfig. 4.12 strategic deteriorations tryptic70 71Sporadic and spontaneous lake drainage can be unwanted in itself; it can deplete aquatic species in that lake and change a landscape that people have grown up to rely on and know. Further, drainage channels to the river and causes further cut-bank erosion, which can create uncertainty for summer travel (rapids and even dangerous thawslump slides). The channeling may be contributing to lower water levels, river width expansion and sediment/silt deposits.fig. 4.13 unmanaged wetland axonometric72 73By strategic overuse of trails and intentional degradation, grading may occur due to the active layer growing (recession from the surface) and causing talik ponds to form on the grounds surface. This could re-route how lakes drain and could alter or expand their formation rather than “break” and channel out to the river. It would need to be predicted what lakes are anticipated to drain and decisions would need to occur to determine which lakes should be “saved”. It could be that lakes adjacent to where the river levels are too low are saved in order to help manage that portion of the river for summer travel.This type of activity would foster a better understanding of how this wetland complex forms and changes throughout time. Strategic burns are common practices in managing wildfires. This could be a new management practice specific to this landscape.fig. 4.14 winter deterioration-management axonometric74 75If strategic deteriorations were to re-route drainage then occupation and use of this landscape may become more viable. People could more actively use, understand and manage this landscape and ecosystem. The winter movements of people may be able to manage summer use in this landscape. Movements to Crow Flats could be reconfigured through used and modern technologies (skidoo) that are known to cause detriments on the landscape.fig. 4.15 summer access axonometric76 77BeginningsNov 2017  Funding proposal to the Landscape Architecture Canada FoundationApr 2018  Vuntut Gwitchin Heritage Committee Application for Research   Yukon Scientists and Explorers License   UBC ethics Review Summer Site Visit July - Aug 2018  Interviewing and accessing the oral history archives   Volunteering on the Resolutions Committee at the General Meeting in Tl’oo K’at   Trip to Crow Flats and to where Ch’oodèenjik meets Sriinjik (two rivers)Further ResearchSept - Dec 2018    Volunteer grant writing for climate adaptations for Vuntut Gwitchin Government   Graduate project part 1: research as visualization of climate related data    Attendance at the Permafrost General Meeting in Whitehorse Winter Site Visit Mar 2019  Walking on the river, skidooing and observing tracks in the snow Graduate Project Jan - Apr 2018  Mapping as research      Inventorying of possible climate adaptation techniques as design research   Design of movement strategies and facilitators Latertbd   Presentation and visiting Old CrowRESEARCH SCHEDULEfig. 4.16 summer / winter image78 79SITE VISITSEach visit to Old Crow required two or more full days of travel and one full day of travel to return to Vancouver. During my first visit to Old Crow I spent a little over two weeks in the community staying with an elder, volunteering at the general assembly, picking berries and making jam, and talking with locals.  On a boat trip to Crow Flats, we ended up stranded on the river due to the motor breaking down. According to my geo-tracker app it would have taken us nearly 40 hours to float back to Old Crow at the rate we were going. Needless to say I was glad to spend more time on the river sketching and taking photos despite all of the mosquitoes and despite a scare of a bear breaking into a cabin that we ended up at (this did not actually happen). We were lucky that the river levels remained high enough for a couple of people (who happened to see us leave the previous day) to come get us the following day.On a winter site visit, a classmate and I spent time walking about -30 degree temperatures. We took a skidoo up Crow Mountain and walked on a river that was reported to be open a few weeks later.This study will build on climate change and food security conversations Version date: July 27th, 2018. Page 1/1Visualizing Memory of Changes Over Time    Old Crow Yukon You are invited to speak about this topic because you have knowledge about how the climate has been affecting the landscape of Old Crow. Drawings created from conversations will be given to the  community. Researcher, Jessica MacDaniel, a Master of Landscape Architecture student from UBC will be in town from:               XX/YY - XX-YY To participate please contact Jessica MacDaniel at: 1-306-717-4259 or jessica.macdaniel@ubc.caPrincipal investigator: Cynthia Girlingfig. 4.17 river seriesfig. 4.18 ad rtisement form81BIBLIOGRAPHYBass, J. (2005). Naming and Claiming: a visual history of Tsawwassen. UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.Benkert, B.E., Kennedy, K., Fortier, D., Lewkowicz, A., Roy, L.-P., de Grandpré, I., Grandmont, K., Drukis, S., Colpron, M., Light, E., Williams, T. (2016). Old Crow landscape hazards:  Geoscience mapping for climate change adaptation planning. Northern Climate ExChange, Yukon  Research Centre, Yukon College. Berger, T. R., & Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (1988). Northern frontier, northern homeland: The report of the mackenzie valley pipeline inquiry. Canada. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyreCanadian Parks and Wilderness Society. (2018). U.S. government barrels forward to open Canadi-an caribou herd’s calving grounds to drilling. CPAWS Yukon.Hayes, R. D. (2010). Wolves of the Yukon. Part 1. Bob Hayes.Herrington, S. (2013). Designing with water above the arctic circle: East three school. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 8(2), 44-51.Kovalcik, K. (2018). An Index of Groundworks and Bearings: architectural lessons on building foundation in Vuntut Gwitchin traditional territory. (Master of Architecture thesis). University of Waterloo. MacDaniel, J. (2018, August). Personal interviews with VGFN citizens.Mossop, D.H. (2015). The Changing Ecology of the Old Crow Flats Wetland. Yukon Research Centre, Yukon College.Przybylski, L., Sheppard, L. (2015). At Extremes. Bracket and Actar Publishing. Smith, S. & Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. (2009). People of the Lakes : Stories of Our Van Tat Gwich’in Elders = Googwandak Nakhwach’ànjòo Van Tat Gwich’in. University of Alberta Press.Vuntut Gwitchin Government Heritage Branch. (2016). Van Tat Gwitch’in Historic Lifeways Proj-ect. Vuntut Gwitchin Government.Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. (2009). Integrated Community Sustainability Plan. Vuntut Gwitchin Government.Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. (2018). Annual General Assembly. Vuntut Gwitchin Government.82 83Research AgreementBetween Vuntut Gwitchin Nation and Jessica MacDaniel (the “Researcher”)Jessica MacDanielThe School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture The University of British Columbia Address: 204-6333 Memorial road, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z2July 7, 20181. This Agreement is for Visualizing Memory of Landscape Changes Over Time in the Canadian Arctic - Old Crow Yukon (the “Project”).2. The Researcher will not use any material provided by the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (“VGG”) or gathered from the Vuntut Gwitchin Nation citizens (collectively referred to as the “Information”) for any purpose other than as specifically outlined in the approved VGG Research Application, which forms part of this Agreement and is attached hereto.3. The Researcher will carry out the Project between July 2018 and April 2019.4. Any interview data collection to be performed by the Researcher with the cooperation of informed Vuntut citizens will be conducted in direct consultation with the VGG Heritage Branch and the Heritage Branch may impose any stipulations, requirements, or obligations it determines are appropriate.5. Where human resources are required for the Project that are not part of the research team listed in the approved VGG Research Application, the Researcher will use onlyVuntut Gwitchin guides, assistants, translators, community coordinators, facilitatorsand/or other relevant local experts.6. The Researcher will employ local human resources directly or may use employees or contractors provided by VGG where funding for such capacity is provided by the Researcher under a funding agreement with VGG.7. The Researcher will use VGG-approved informed consent forms for any interviewsconducted as part of the Project.8. The Researcher will use VGG-approved consent forms for any photographs, artwork, or other cultural materials used as part of the Project.9. The Researcher will ensure that before conducting any interview, informed consent has been obtained from the interviewee and that the interviewee understands, agrees to, and signs a consent form and does so under appropriate research conditions; for example, obtaining informed consent from an Elder may require the presence of family membersto assist and to ensure that no undue pressure or influence is experienced by the Elder.10. VGG holds the copyright in all Information and data generated through work on a Project, unless traditional rules or laws dictate that copyright in specific materials is held by the interviewee or the family that is the source of the materials.11. The Researcher will provide to VGG any product of the research pertaining to a Project including any publication, report, compilation, article, manuscript, poster, or presentation notes, for review subsequent to finalization. 12. The Researcher will not distribute, release, or make public any Information in any form, or any product of the research pertaining to a Project, without the express written consent of VGG.13. VGG may establish the means and process for the dissemination of any Information in any form, or any product of the research pertaining to this Project, to the Vuntut Gwitchin community from the Researcher. 14. Metadata will be submitted to the central data repository – the Polar Data Catalogue (www.polardata.ca). 15. The Researcher will ensure that all partners, agents, contractors, employees, or students that work on the Project agree to be bound by the terms of this Agreement. 16. The Researcher will comply with all relevant legislation and guidelines pertaining to their Project and will take the necessary safety precautions for their partners, agents, contractors, employees, or students.17. The Researcher understands and acknowledges that the Information, and products of the research pertaining to this Project must be kept confidential, and that any breach of confidentiality may result in damages to VGG and to VGG’s Final Agreement and Aboriginal rights and interests.18. The Researcher indemnifies and saves harmless VGG from any and all suits, damages, or actions resulting from any work by their partners, agents, contractors, employees, or students or from their presence and operations in Vuntut Gwitchin Traditional Territory ands.____________________Date84 85   The University of British ColumbiaOffice of Research ServicesBehavioural Research Ethics BoardSuite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL - MINIMAL RISKPRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: INSTITUTION / DEPARTMENT: UBC BREB NUMBER:Cynthia Girling UBC/Applied Science/School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture H18-01263INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT:Institution SiteOther locations where the research will be conducted:Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Heritage Branch, Old Crow community centre, in the field of the Old Crow flats - walking in the town and throughout the regional Old Crow flats landscape. CO-INVESTIGATOR(S):Jessica MacDaniel  SPONSORING AGENCIES:Landscape Architecture Canada Foundation - "VISUALIZING CLIMATE IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SOURCES IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC" PROJECT TITLE:Visualizing Memory of Landscape Changes Over Time in the Canadian Arctic - Old Crow Yukon CERTIFICATE EXPIRY DATE:  July 24, 2019DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVAL: DATE APPROVED: July 24, 2018Document Name Version DateConsent Forms:Parental Interview Consent 2 June 15, 2018Interview Consent 2 June 15, 2018Assent Forms:Assent Form 2 June 15, 2018Advertisements:Advertisement Form 2 July 6, 2018Questionnaire, Questionnaire Cover Letter, Tests:Questionnaire for Children/Dependents 1 June 15, 2018Questionnaire for Adults 1 June 15, 2018  The application for ethical review and the document(s) listed above have been reviewed and the procedures were found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects.   This study has been approved either by the full Behavioural REB or byan authorized delegated reviewer   86 87  Project :  Community Engagement on Route Access to Crow Flats  in a Rapidly Changing Environment2 / 10 ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĂŶĚZĞŐŝŽŶĂůWƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐ͗    Access to, and being on the land, is cited as a top priority for our Vuntut Gwitchin community in Old Crow ĂƐŝƚĞŶĂďůĞƐĨŽŽĚƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJĂŶĚƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůǁĂLJƐŽĨůŝĨĞ͘ƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͕ĂǁĞƚůĂŶĚĐŽŵƉůĞdžŽĨƐĞǀĞƌĂůƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚůĂŬĞƐ͕ŝƐĂƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂƌĞĂǁŝƚŚĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͕ĚĞƚĞƌŝŽƌĂƟŶŐĂĐĐĞƐƐĨƌŽŵKůĚƌŽǁ͘/ƚŝƐĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJĂŶŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĂƌĞĂĨŽƌĨŽŽĚƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJ͕ ŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽŚƵŶƟŶŐ͕ĮƐŚŝŶŐĂŶĚƚƌĂƉƉŝŶŐĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJŝŵƉĂĐƚƐƚŚĞŚĞĂůƚŚĂŶĚǁĞůůͲďĞŝŶŐŽĨŽƵƌƉĞŽƉůĞ͘tĞ͕ƚŚĞsƵŶƚƵƚ'ǁŝƚĐŚŝŶ&ŝƌƐƚEĂƟŽŶ;s'&EͿ͕ŬŶŽǁŶĂƐƚŚĞƉĞŽƉůĞŽĨƚŚĞůĂŬĞƐĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐŽƵƌ͞ďĂŶŬ͕͟ ĂƚĞƌŵƵƐĞĚƚŽĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJ͘KůĚƌŽǁǁĂƐƐĞƩůĞĚŝŶŝƚƐĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůŽĐĂƟŽŶĚƵĞƚŽŝƚƐĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŚĞƌŝĐŚƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĂƌĞĂ͘ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽŽƌĂůŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ͕ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůůLJ͕ ǁĞ͕ƚŚĞsƵŶƚƵƚ'ǁŝƚĐŚŝŶǁŽƵůĚŶŽƚŚĂǀĞƐƵƌǀŝǀĞĚǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĚƵĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůĨŽŽĚƐŚƵŶƚĞĚĂŶĚƚƌĂƉƉĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘ĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĂůƐŽĞŶĂďůĞƐŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŽŶƚŚŝƐǁĞƚůĂŶĚĐŽŵƉůĞdžĂŶĚĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽĐƵůƚƵƌĂůůLJƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚĐĂƌŝďŽƵĨĞŶĐĞƐǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞĚĞƚĞƌŝŽƌĂƟŶŐ͘  WƌŽũĞĐƚKďũĞĐƟǀĞƐ͗   ͻdŽďƵŝůĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞĨŽŽĚƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJŝŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƌŽƵƚĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐŝŶŽƵƌƌĂƉŝĚůLJĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘   ͻ,ĂǀĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŝŶĨŽƌŵĨƵƚƵƌĞĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐƌĞŐĂƌĚŝŶŐƚŚĞƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƌŝǀĞƌĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘    • dŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲŐƵŝĚĞĚŽƉƟŽŶƐĨŽƌĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚĂŶĚĞŶŚĂŶĐĞĚĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘ĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĚĞƐŝŐŶŝƚĞƌĂƟŽŶƐŵĂLJďĞĨŽƌŵƵůĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚĂƐĞŶƐŝƟǀŝƚLJƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚƉůĂĐĞĂŶĚƚŚĂƚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůƐŝƚĞƐ͕ǁĂLJƐŽĨůŝĨĞĂŶĚĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂƚƉůĂLJ͘ ͻdŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŚŽǁƚŚĞĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬĂŶĚŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJŽƵƚůŝŶĞĚŝŶƚŚŝƐƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůĐŽƵůĚďĞĂƉƉůŝĞĚƚŽŽƚŚĞƌ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐƚŚĂƚŽƵƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŵĂLJĂůƐŽǁĂŶƚƚŽĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂŶĚĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ͘ 88 893 / 10WƌŽũĞĐƚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶ͗    dŚŝƐ/ŶĚŝŐĞŶŽƵƐͲůĞĚƉƌŽũĞĐƚďƵŝůĚƐĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽĚĞƐŝŐŶĨŽƌĂŶĚĞŶŚĂŶĐĞĨƵƚƵƌĞƌŽƵƚĞͲĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐǁŝƚŚŽƵƌĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ͕ĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞŝƐŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJŝŶŚŝďŝƟŶŐƌŝǀĞƌͲƌŽƵƚĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĚƵĞƚŽ͗ϭͿǁĂƌŵĞƌƚĞŵƉĞƌĂƚƵƌĞƐ;ĂŶĚŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐǁŝŶĚͿͲĐĂƵƐŝŶŐƉĞƌŵĂĨƌŽƐƚƚŚĂǁĂŶĚƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐƐůƵŵƉƐůŝĚĞƐ͕ ϮͿǁĂƚĞƌůĞǀĞůƐƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐƚŽŽůŽǁƚŽƚƌĂǀĞůŽŶĨŽƌŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐĚƵƌĂƟŽŶƐĚƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞƐƵŵŵĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚϯͿ͞ƚŚĞƐŚŽƵůĚĞƌ ƐĞĂƐŽŶƐ͟ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐůŽŶŐĞƌ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚĐĂƵƐĞƐƉĞŽƉůĞƚŽƌĞŵĂŝŶ͞ůĂŶĚͲůŽĐŬĞĚ͟ŝŶKůĚƌŽǁ͕ĚƵĞƚŽƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌŶŽƚĨƵůůLJĨƌĞĞnjŝŶŐ͘/ŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƟŶŐƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƌŽĂĚĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĨƌŽŵŽƵƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŽĨKůĚƌŽǁǁĂƐƉĂƐƐĞĚĂƐĂ ƌĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶĂƚƚŚĞϮϬϭϳ'ĞŶĞƌĂůƐƐĞŵďůLJ;'ͿďƵƚůĂƚĞƌĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚƵŶĨĞĂƐŝďůĞĚƵĞƚŽƚŚĞŚŝŐŚĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚĐŽƐƚƐ͘ŶŝŶŝƟĂůƐŝƚĞǀŝƐŝƚǁĂƐĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚŝŶϮϬϭϴǁŚĞƌĞƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐĂŶĚůĂŶĚǀŝƐŝƚƐǁĞƌĞĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚƵŶĚĞƌ ĂŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚƐǁŝƚŚƚŚƌĞĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŝŶŐƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚďŽĚŝĞƐ͘dŚŝƐĂůůŽǁĞĚĨŽƌĂŶĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚŽĨĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐŝŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ͘    &ŽůůŽǁŝŶŐs'&E Ɛ͛ϮϬϭϴ'͕ĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚĞĂŵǁĂƐƐƚƌƵĐŬƚŽĨŽůůŽǁͲƵƉŽŶƚŚĞĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚ'ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐĨŽĐƵƐĞĚŽŶƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐĂŶĚĂĨƵŶĚŝŶŐƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůǁĂƐŝŶŝƟĂƚĞĚďLJs'&EŚŝĞĨƌƵĐĞŚĂƌůŝĞ͘dǁŽŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚĞĂŵŵĞŵďĞƌƐ;s'&EŵĞŵďĞƌĂŶĚůĚĞƌ͕ ^ƚĂŶůĞLJEũŽŽƚůŝ^ƌ͘ ͕ĂŶĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨƌŝƟƐŚŽůƵŵďŝĂ;hͿDĂƐƚĞƌŽĨ>ĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶĚŝĚĂƚĞ:ĞƐƐŝĐĂDĂĐĂŶŝĞůͿ͕ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚƚŚĂƚƚŚĞďĞƐƚĐŽƵƌƐĞĨŽƌǁĂƌĚǁĂƐƚŽĮƌƐƚĂƐƐĞƐƐƐŝƚĞƐŽĨĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĂŶĚĞŶŐĂŐĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƚŽĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĂĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲďĂƐĞĚĐŽƵƌƐĞŽĨĂĐƟŽŶŐŽŝŶŐĨŽƌǁĂƌĚƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘dŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐĞĞŬƐƚŽŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞŚŽǁƚŚĞĮĞůĚŽĨ>ĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲďĂƐĞĚĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶŝĚĞĂƐĂŶĚ͕ŝŶƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉůĞƐƐ ŝŶǀĂƐŝǀĞƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐĂĚĂƉƟŶŐƚŽĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐƐĞĂƐŽŶĂůŚLJĚƌŽůŽŐLJƌĞŐŝŵĞƐ͕ĞŵƉůŽLJŝŶŐŶĞǁĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƚŽŽůƐƚŽĞŶŚĂŶĐĞŚĂƌǀĞƐƟŶŐĂŶĚĞŶƐƵƌĞƐĂĨĞƚLJ͕ ŵŽĚŝĨLJŝŶŐĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĂŶĚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚŝĚĞŶƟĨLJŝŶŐ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌĂůƐŚŝŌƐƚŽĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘   sŝƐƵĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐĐŽŵŵŽŶůLJƵƟůŝnjĞĚďLJ>ĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐǁŝůůďĞĞŵƉůŽLJĞĚƚŽĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĨƵƌƚŚĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚŝƐƐƵĞƐŝŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ͘h^ĐŚŽŽůŽĨƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ >ĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŽƌƐ<ĞĞƐ>ŽŬŵĂŶĂŶĚ&ŝŽŶŶLJƌŶĞǁŝůůƉƌŽǀŝĚĞŵĞŶƚŽƌƐŚŝƉĚƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞWƌŽũĞĐƚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚǁŝůůĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĚŝƌĞĐƚǀŝƐƵĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶŽĨĚĞƐŝŐŶͲƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ;ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐͿǁŝƚŚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘dŚŝƐǁŝůůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ Ɛ͛ĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞŝƐƐƵĞƐŝŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƌŽƵƚĞͲĂĐĐĞƐƐĨŽƌĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶŵĂŬŝŶŐƉƵƌƉŽƐĞƐ͘dŚĞƐŝƚĞǁŝůůďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŽĨŝƚƐŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͕ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͲƵƐĞ͕ĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĨƵƚƵƌĞŝŵƉĂĐƚƐŽĨĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘KƵƌƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚhǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĂĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚĂŶĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƚŚĂƚŚĂƐĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJŝŶƉĞƌŵĂĨƌŽƐƚĂŶĚƐŽůƵƟŽŶͲŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚĚĞƐŝŐŶƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ǀĂůƵĂďůĞĨŽƌWŚĂƐĞϮŽĨƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘  ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŶĞĞĚƐ͕ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞǁŝůůďĞƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚƚŚĞĞŶƟƌĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘/ŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĐŽŶĚƵĐƚƚŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŵŵĞƌƐŝǀĞĂŶĚƵŶͲďŝĂƐĞĚĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚͬĐŽŶƐƵůƚĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͕ ĂƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝnjĞĚ/ŶĚŝŐĞŶŽƵƐWůĂŶŶĞƌ͕ ůĂŝŶĞůĞĐǁŝůůďĞƵƟůŝnjĞĚ͘^ŚĞǁŝůůŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůŝnjĞĚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐĂŶĚƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝnjĞĚĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƟŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐǁŚŝůĞĐŽŶĚƵĐƟŶŐŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐĂŶĚǁŽƌŬƐŚŽƉƐďŽƚŚŝŶƚŚĞ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĂŶĚŽƵƚŽŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚ͘dŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁŝůůǁŽƌŬƚŽǁĂƌĚƐƚŚĞĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĨŽƌ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ͕ůŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵĂĐĐĞƐƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚǁŽƵůĚďĞŐŝŶƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐƚĂŐĞ;ĂŶĚŽŶůLJĂƚƚŚĞ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ Ɛ͛ƌĞƋƵĞƐƚͿĂŶĚǁŽƵůĚƵŶĚĞƌŐŽƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůĐŽŶƐƵůƚĂƟŽŶ͘ĂƐĞĚŽīŽĨĞĂƌůLJĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJƐĞŶƐŝƟǀĞƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐĂŶĚƌĞƐƚŽƌĂƟǀĞĞīŽƌƚƐǁŝůůůŝŬĞůLJďĞŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŽ ĞǀĞŶƚƵĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶŝƚĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ͘    dŚŝƐƉƌŽũĞĐƚŚĂƐƚŚĞĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽĂŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨǁŚĂƚĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲĐŚĂŶŐĞƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐLJŵĞĂŶƐŝŶƚŚĞƌĐƟĐ͕ĂŶĚĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJƚŽour community in Old Crow͘&ƵŶĚŝŶŐǁŝůůďĞĂƉƉůŝĞĚĨŽƌŝŶƚǁŽŝŶŝƟĂůƐƚĂŐĞƐ;ŶŽǁĂŶĚůĂƚĞƌͿƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƚǁŽĚĞůŝǀĞƌĂďůĞƐĂŶĚƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ͘dŚĞƌĞĐŽƵůĚďĞĂƚŚŝƌĚƐƚĂŐĞŝĨƌĞƋƵĞƐƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͘&ƵƌƚŚĞƌƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉƐǁŝůůďĞŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞĚŝŶůĂƚĞƌƐƚĂŐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͕ĂƐŶĞĞĚĞĚ͘ĂƉĂĐŝƚLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ;ǁŝƚŚƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƐ͕ĞdžƉĞƌƚƐĂŶĚƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐĂƐŶĞĞĚĞĚͿ͕ĂŶĚƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚǁŝůůďĞŽŶŐŽŝŶŐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚƚŚĞĚƵƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘  4 / 10 DĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJKǀĞƌǀŝĞǁ͗ ^ƚĂŐĞϭ/ĚĞŶƟĮĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ;ĂƉƉůŝĞĚĨŽƌĂƚƚŚŝƐƟŵĞͿ͗     dŚĞĮƌƐƚƐƚĂŐĞŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚǁŝůůĨŽĐƵƐŽŶŚĞĂƌŝŶŐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐŚŽǁ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĨĂĐƚŽƌŝŶƚŽĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘dŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨǀŝƐƵĂů͕ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐǁŽƌŬǁŝůůĞŵĞƌŐĞ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐĨƌŽŵĂĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨůĂŶĚͲǀŝƐŝƚƐĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐ;ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐͬĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĞƐƐŝŽŶƐͿ͕ƚŚĂƚǁŝůůŚĂǀĞƚŚĞĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶ͕ƐƉĂƟĂůŝnjĞĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ͕ĂŶĚŝŶĨŽƌŵƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƐƚĞƉƐŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘    sŝƐƵĂůŝnjŝŶŐĂƌĞĂƐĂŶĚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŽĨĐŽŶĐĞƌŶǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĂŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨǁŚĂƚŶĞĞĚƐƚŽďĞĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚǁŚĞŶĞdžĂŵŝŶŝŶŐƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƌŽƵƚĞͲĂĐĐĞƐƐŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŝĚĞĂƐ͘WŽƚĞŶƟĂůĂƉƉůŝĐĂďůĞƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐǁŝůůďĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞĚƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉĂƐĞƚŽĨůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞͲďĂƐĞĚĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶƐŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƚŚĂƚĐĂŶďĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚǁŝƚŚƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĨŽƌǁŚĞŶĚĞƐŝŐŶŽƉƟŽŶƐďĞŐŝŶƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉ͘     ƚƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐƐƚĂŐĞŽŶĞ͕ŵŝdžĞĚͲŵĞĚŝĂƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐǁŝůůĚĞǀĞůŽƉĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ͞ŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͟ ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚ͕ůŝƐƚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ͕ ĂůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚĂƌĞƉŽƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ Ɛ͛ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚŝŶĂĚĚƌĞƐƐŝŶŐƚŚĞŝƐƐƵĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚĞĂŵƚŽŵŽǀĞĨŽƌǁĂƌĚǁŝƚŚ͘dŚŝƐǁŝůůŝŶĨŽƌŵĂŶLJŶĞdžƚƐƚĂŐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ͘    Ύ/ŶKůĚƌŽǁ͕ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĚŝƐƉůĂLJƐǁŝůůĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚ Ɛ͛ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐǁŝůůďĞĂďůĞƚŽƐĞĞĂŶĚƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞŝŶƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůůƚĂŬĞƉůĂĐĞĚƵƌŝŶŐĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚ͕ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚǁŽƌŬƐŚŽƉƐĂŶĚƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶƐ;ĚĞƚĂŝůƐƚŽďĞĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚĂƐWƌŽũĞĐƚWůĂŶŶŝŶŐĚĞǀĞůŽƉƐͿ͘'ǁŝƚĐŚŝŶƚƌĂŶƐůĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞƐŽƵŐŚƚ͕ŝĨƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞ,ĞƌŝƚĂŐĞŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ͘ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůǁŝůůďĞĞdžƉůŽƌĞĚŽŶĐĞĐƵƌĂƚŽƌŝĂůŶĞĞĚƐĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƟŵŝŶŐŝƐĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ͘dŚŝƐǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĨŽƌŝŶƉƵƚĨƌŽŵsƵŶƚƵƚ'ǁŝƚĐŚŝŶŵĞŵďĞƌƐǁŚŽĂƌĞŶŽƚůŝǀŝŶŐŝŶKůĚƌŽǁ͘dŚŝƐŵĂLJƚĂŬĞƚŚĞĨŽƌŵŽĨĂŶ ĞdžŚŝďŝƟŽŶĂŶĚͬŽƌǁĞďͲďĂƐĞĚĐŽŶƚĞŶƚ͕ǁŚĞƌĞĂƩĞŶĚĞĞƐĐĂŶƉƌŽǀŝĚĞŝŶƉƵƚ͘ 90 915 / 10Project Development (Oct 2018 - Apr 2019) : Detailed methodology, preparatory materials and ůĂŶĚͲďĂƐĞĚĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŵĞƚŚŽĚƐĂŶĚĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŽǀĞƌĂůůŐŽĂůƐ͘>ĂŶĚͲĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ;ďĂƐĞĚŽŶƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ Ɛ͛ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐͿǁŝůůďĞƉůĂŶŶĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞNorth Yukon Renewable Resource Council͘KǀĞƌĂůůŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ͕ ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŵĞƚŚŽĚƐǁŝůůďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚǁŝƚŚElaine Alec, Indigenous Planner͕ǁŚŽǁŝůůĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ͘dŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůƉƌŽũĞĐƚ Ɛ͛ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJǁŝůůďĞƌĞǀŝĞǁĞĚďLJƚŚĞƌĐƟĐ/ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞŽĨŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲĂƐĞĚZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘Vuntut Gwitchin’s ,ĞƌŝƚĂŐĞĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŝƐĂǁĂƌĞŽĨƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĂŶĚǁŝůůďĞĂďůĞƚŽŵĂŬĞƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐĂƐƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉƐ͘Background Analysis and Research (Oct 2018 - ongoing) :/ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĨƌŽŵƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂǁŝůůďĞƵƟůŝnjĞĚĂŶĚƵƐĞĚƚŽŚĞůƉĨƌĂŵĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐŽŶ;ĐŽŵƉƌŽŵŝƐĞĚͿƌŽƵƚĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘dŚŝƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐĂŶĂůLJƐŝŶŐĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞĚĂŶĚͬŽƌŽŶŐŽŝŶŐƐĐŝĞŶƟĮĐƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͕ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲďĂƐĞĚƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐͬƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ͕ĂŶĚŽƌĂůŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂƌĐŚŝǀĞƐ͘ZĞůĂƟǀĞĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJƐĞŶƐŝƟǀĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐĂŶĚĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJǁŽƵůĚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJƚŽĂƉƉůLJ͕ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽůĂŶĚĂĐĐĞƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ;ŝŶůŝĞƵŽĨĐůŝŵĂƚĞͲĐŚĂŶŐĞͿǁŝůůďĞƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞĚĂŶĚŝŶǀĞŶƚŽƌŝĞĚŽŶĂŶŽŶŐŽŝŶŐďĂƐŝƐ͘dŚŝƐǁŽƌŬǁŝůůƵŶĚĞƌŐŽĞdžƉĞƌƚĐŽŶƐƵůƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚďĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĂƚĂůĂƚĞƌƉŚĂƐĞŝŶƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝĨĂŶĚǁŚĞŶĚĞƐŝŐŶŽƉƟŽŶƐďĞŐŝŶƚŽĨŽƌŵƵůĂƚĞ͘Engagement (May - Sep 2019) :ƵƌŝŶŐŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ͕ůĂŶĚͲďĂƐĞĚŐĂƚŚĞƌŝŶŐƐĂŶĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲǁŝĚĞŵĞĞƟŶŐƐ͕ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŵĞŵďĞƌƐǁŝůůďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞƐŚĂƌŝŶŐĂŶĚĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐĂďŽƵƚŚŽǁĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞŝƐŝŶŚŝďŝƟŶŐƌŽƵƚĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽƌŽǁ&ůĂƚƐ͘dŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚĞĂŵǁŝůůĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞŝŶǁŚŝĐŚƟŵĞƉĞƌŝŽĚƐƚŚŝƐǁŝůůŚĂƉƉĞŶ͘dŚĞƌĞǁŝůůůŝŬĞůLJďĞĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶĂŶĚĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚĂĚǀŝƐŽƌLJŐƌŽƵƉƐ͕ƐƉĂƟĂůŝnjŝŶŐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐĂŶĚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ;ƐĞĞďĞůŽǁͿ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚƐĞƐƐŝŽŶƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͘/ŶƉƵƚǁŝůůďĞƌĞĐŽƌĚĞĚĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůŝnjĞĚǁŚĞŶƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͘ZĞĐŽƌĚĞĚĚĂƚĂǁŝůůďĞƐĞĐƵƌĞůLJƐƚŽƌĞĚŝŶĂŶĞŶĐƌLJƉƚĞĚh^͕ǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚƚĞĂŵǁŝůůŚĂǀĞĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽ͘ŶLJĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨƌĞĐŽƌĚĞĚĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐŐŽŝŶŐďĞLJŽŶĚs'&EƵƐĞǁŝůůďĞĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞs'&E,ĞƌŝƚĂŐĞŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ͘^ƉĂƟĂůŝnjŝŶŐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐΘ&ĂĐƚŽƌƐ;DĂLJͲKĐƚϮϬϭϵͿ͗ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚďĂƐĞĚŽŶĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞĚĂƚĂĂŶĚĐŽŵƉŝůĂƟŽŶŽĨǀŝƐƵĂůŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĚƵƌŝŶŐƐŝƚĞǀŝƐŝƚƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨƚŚĞůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƚŽďĞǀŝƐƵĂůŝnjĞĚ͘dƌŝƉƐŽƵƚŽŶƚŚĞůĂŶĚǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĨŽƌĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĂĞƌŝĂů;ĚƌŽŶĞͿĂŶĚŐĞŽͲƚĂŐŐŝŶŐƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ͖ŽƚŚĞƌĨŽƌŵƐŽĨĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶǁŝůůĞŵĞƌŐĞ͘^ŽŵĞŽĨƚŚŝƐŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚǁŝƚŚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ǁŚĞŶƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͕ĂŶĚŝŶĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚhƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐǁŚŽĂƌĞƚƌĂŝŶĞĚŝŶƐŝƚĞĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐĂŶĚǀŝƐƵĂůĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ͕ŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ͕ŝŶǁŚŝĐŚϯŵŽĚĞůůŝŶŐ͕ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĚƌĂǁŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚĂŶŝŵĂƟŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐǁŝůůĞŵĞƌŐĞ͘ŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ;EŽǀͲDĂƌϮϬϮϬͿ͗sŝƐƵĂůŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶǁŝůůďĞĮŶĂůŝnjĞĚ͕ĂŶĚĐƵƌĂƚĞĚĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂŶĚƚĂůŬĂďŽƵƚǁŚĂƚŝƐŚĂƉƉĞŶŝŶŐ͘WƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůǀŝƐƵĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐƚŚĂƚůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐƵƐĞĨŽƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŶŐƚŽĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŵĞŵďĞƌƐĂŶĚƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƐǁŝůůďĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ͘ŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶŶĞĞĚƐǁŝůůďĞĞdžƉůŽƌĞĚǁŚĞŶŵŽƌĞŝƐŬŶŽǁŶĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĚĞƐŝƌĞĚƚŽĞŵĞƌŐĞ͕ĂŶĚŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƵůĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŚĂƐŽĐĐƵƌĞĚ͘ŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚŚĂƉƉĞŶĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚŝƐŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůǁŝůůŝŶĨŽƌŵƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨŶĞdžƚƐƚĞƉƐƚŽĞdžƉůŽƌĞŝŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚƐƚĂŐĞŽĨƚŚĞWƌŽũĞĐƚ͗/ĚĞĂĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘/ĚĞŶƟĮĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶProject Planning and Background AnalysisDĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ͗ 6 / 10 ^ƚĂŐĞϮƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ/ĚĞĂĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ;ĂƉƉůŝĞĚĨŽƌĂƚĂůĂƚĞƌƟŵĞͿ͗    The previous stage will inform what further testing and/or data collection requirements there may be in relation to identified significant areas of focus for route access objectives. Partnership with a science-driven group/ and or professional(s) will be sought.     Design options will begin to develop, informed by community members preferences, gauged through  interviews/surveys and idea-development sessions (charrettes). Design options will be developed from the bases of precedent practices and built projects. Practical design options that the community has the capacity to apply, prioritizing local materials will be developed (when possible), and undergo expert and professional consultation. Ideas will then go to the community for discussion on what ideas to further develop and pursue. Designs may look at riparian enhancement and natural slope stabilization while employing large-system  thinking that considers the context of site(s) of focus.    * A report that addresses the communities interests in addressing the issues  and recommendations that they may have for the project team to pursue small-scale demonstration (testing and piloting) projects or an implemented project will be developed at the end of this stage.   If requested by the community, the project could evolve into another phase:   The community may opt for demonstration projects that could help understand the potential for  mitigating route access concerns, this may consist of stabilization techniques, vegetative material testing, etc.   Demonstration designs could be designed in collaboration with a professional consultant team, installed by trained, local community members when possible. Monitoring could take place over a determined period by a designated community team, recommended by the North Yukon Renewable Resource Council. A larger-scale  project could be implemented after demonstrations.    92 93

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