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Plants Alive : Representations of the 19th Century Herbaceous Drift Gooch, Hailey 2019-04-26

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 HAILEY GOOCH Plants Alive Representations of the 19th Century Herbaceous Drift  Since the Renaissance, images have been powerful instruments that have shaped perceptions of landscape. These representations of ‘nature’ through the image have inflicted an anthropocentric (human-centered) language onto the innate aliveness of plant life.   This project highlights the dynamic expression of plants through drawing and seeks to understand how the depiction of a plant informs its use in the landscape. The representation of the plant as a static symbol impacts how we see phenomena that shifts, swarms, coevolves, and ultimately hosts human life. Through interpretations of Gertrude Jekyll’s herbaceous perennial drift, this project illustrates the aliveness of plants and asks how the plant can have agency through drawing. Can we collaborate with the language of plants, rather than speak on behalf of them? Can we ‘re-see’ the plant in the design discipline, and if so, how will this inform design decisions?   Daniel Roher   HAILEY GOOCH Plants Alive Representations of the 19th Century Herbaceous Drift  Since the Renaissance, images have been powerful instruments that have shaped perceptions of landscape. These representations of ‘nature’ through the image have inflicted an anthropocentric (human-centered) language onto the innate aliveness of plant life.   This project highlights the dynamic expression of plants through drawing and seeks to understand how the depiction of a plant informs its use in the landscape. The representation of the plant as a static symbol impacts how we see phenomena that shifts, swarms, coevolves, and ultimately hosts human life. Through interpretations of Gertrude Jekyll’s herbaceous perennial drift, this project illustrates the aliveness of plants and asks how the plant can have agency through drawing. Can we collaborate with the language of plants, rather than speak on behalf of them? Can we ‘re-see’ the plant in the design discipline, and if so, how will this inform design decisions?   Daniel Roher  II65SectionsChapter 09INTRODUCTIONI have drawn a section through the middle of the NE Main Flower Border and illustrated the change in each individual plant through 5 different seasons - Spring, Summer, Fall, Fall/Winter and Winter. A 5th season has been added to express the transition from fall into winter, which can sometimes be considered the most unattractive time for the garden, but is significant because the plant is storing energy for the following year. The additional season also speaks to the ways that plants embody their own sense of time distinctive from human interpretation of sea-sons. Each plant species in these sections was drawn by hand throughout the five seasons, revealing the unfolding of time that is un-derrepresented in planting concept drawings. These drawings show the change in form of each individual plant and how this dyna-mism should be expanded and expressed through drawing. Drawing these plants through an artistic ide-ation process is emblematic of how Gertrude Jekyll also diligently studied her plant mate-rial. Drawing each plant by hand was a form of  research that enabled me to study each detail of the plant throughout the seasons, from its roots to its flower. Like Jekyll had done, observing and researching the charac-teristics of each plant through time establish-es connection between the designer and their medium. This allows for the dynamic expres-sion of plants to reveal themselves, and be at the forefront of design decisions.  Given the constraints of formatting in this document, the following drawings show de-tails from each one of the seasonal sections. N SPRINGSECTION1:20 66SECTIONSspringDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 70SECTIONSsummerDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 74SECTIONSfallDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 78SECTIONSfall/winterDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 82SECTIONSwinterDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:2087PlansChapter 09 INTRODUCTIONAlso drawn by hand, these series of draw-ings illustrate the same NE flower border in plan view revealing the change in plant form throughout the 5 seasons. Typical representations of planting plans include the same graphic symbol throughout the year and indicate no change in form. These plans illustrate the appearance and disappearance of some of the perennial species, leaving bare soil in the winter. They also indicate the change in form of each individual plant, re-vealing not only one dimension, but growth and expansion, presenting a firework display throughout the year.  88PLANSspringDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 92PLANSsummerDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 96PLANSfallDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 100PLANSfall/winterDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20 104PLANSwinterDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:20Section Detail 21:20Section Detail 31:20109Cross SectionChapter 09INTRODUCTIONThis cross section illustrates a distinguishing feature of the herbaceous perennial bor-der, which is the location of a north wall. This wall absorbed the heat of the sun and radiated the heat onto the plants which encouraged them to flourish. This section also illustrates other non-human organisms – bees, worms, etc - that are integral to the life force of a plant. 110CROSS SECTIONDetail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3Section Detail 11:10Section Detail 21:10Section Detail 31:10115Bloom CalendarChapter 09INTRODUCTIONThis bloom calendar illustrates the latin and common name of each plant, as well as their color and bloom time. It is important to note that Gertrude Jekyll is famous for her use of color in her gardens. These drawing do not include the use of color in order to highlight solely the formation of each plant through drawing. Similar to the drawings of Goethe and Darwin’s, the simple black and white lines highlight the form and expression of each individual plant throughout time. The use of black and white also graphically indicates an ‘academic’ quality, which high-lights the research of each plant through hand-drawing. 117119MaintenanceChapter 09INTRODUCTIONThe herbaceous perennial border in its classic form is a cultivated look. Considering that plants grow, disperse and change, there re-quires a need for maintenance. In the follow-ing section I’ve highlighted 3 types of main-tenance actions, which include: divide, cut back and weed. Jekyll and Lutyen designed a narrow pathway behind the border specifical-ly to provide access to maintenance.Herbaceous perennials have rhizomatous roots which encourage rapid growth. There is a need to split up the plant frequently to control this growth 120DIVIDECutting back perennials in the fall discourages disease, and can also be used to increase flowering.121CUT BACK 122Perennials also readily disperse seed, which can show up in unwanted places in the garden. Weeding is required to control this dispersal.123WEED125AnimationChapter 09 INTRODUCTIONPlease refer to the below link to view the an-imation for this project. This animation was also entirely drawn by hand, and shows plant movement in the same garden throughout 5 seasons. The section moves through year 1 and year 2 of growth, where it shows the movement of the roots underground throughout the year. This reveals how even when plant goes dormant there’s still continuous movement underground, beyond what we can see.  The animation also reveals diversity of movement even between the same species of plants. The plans illustrate the same seasons through 1 year, expressing the appearance and disap-pearance of the plants, and revealing the bare soil in the winter. https://vimeo.com/332565291127Closing RemarksChapter 10CLOSING REMARKSOne of the biggest lessons I have learned in this project is to trust in process. Through-out the year, this subject had taken the form of many different projects, and continuous hand-drawing helped to keep things loose and relatable. Without the demand for immediate refinement, it serves as an explor-atory tool. Hand-drawing was used as a form of research in understanding the intricacies of each individual plant in this project, and I think it should be used more in landscape ar-chitecture as an ideation tool and as a means of observation. Although hand-drawing as a methodology for plant representation is not at the core of this research, I do support its use as an invaluable tool that has potential to express ideas and serve as a means to prob-lem solve.  CONCLUSIONTo conclude, this research is intended to ignite questions around the visual represen-tation of plants in landscape architecture, potentially initiating herbaceous planting typologies (or other types of planting) in design ideation. It invites the need for a methodology in the representation of plant movement, and how this methodology can influence design decisions, and orient per-ceptions of the landscape by everyone. Twenty-first century media lends the oppor-tunity to expand on depicting plant aliveness through moving images, or drawings that illustrate the full scope of plant formation. How we represent plants reinforces nar-ratives that impact how humans position themselves as collaborators with non-human organisms, or as drivers of the anthropocen-tric vision. I hope to evolve this research into digital topologies that express the formation of individual plant species. The research can then be used by practitioners as a design tool, and an accurate means of representation for clients. Plant material is the medium that distinguishes landscape architects from other disciplines and there requires new platforms to express their aliveness.63ENDNOTES1 Susan Herrington, “Systems Logic,” in Landscape Theory in Design, Book (Abingdon, Oxon;New York, NY;             Routledge, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, 2017), 221–79, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315470771. 229.2 John May, “Everything Is Already an Image,” Log 40, Observations on Architecture and the Contemporary City,    no. Spring/Summer 2017 (n.d.): 9–25. 3  May, Everything is Already, 15)4  Robin Evans, “Conclusion: The Projective Cast,” in The Projective Cast: Architecture and Its Three Geometries    (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1995), 352–70, https://hdl-handle-net.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/2027/fulcrum.    b2773w09j. 369.5  Robin Evans, “Seeing Through Paper,” in The Projective Cast: Architecture and Its Three Geometries (Massachu   setts: MIT Press, 1995), https://hdl-handle-net.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/2027/fulcrum.b2773w09j., 109. 6  Evans, Seeing Through Paper,  1097  Ibid., 1098  Ibid., 1089  Ibid., 10810  Ibid., 10811  Ibid., 10912  May, Everything is Already,1513  Gina Crandell, “Centering the Spectator: The Renaissance,” in Nature Pictorialized (The John Hopkins Universi   ty Press, 1993), 59–72.. 8. 14  Gina Crandell, Nature Pictorialized (Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press, 1993), 6)15  Crandell, Centering, 64)16  Evans, Seeing Through Paper, 110.17  Crandell, Centering, 64.18  Ibid., 64.19  Crandell, Nature Pictorialized, 8)20  Ibid., 821  Ibid., 822  Evans, Seeing Through Paper, 11023  Ibid., 11024  May, Everything is Already, 15)25  Ibid., 1726  Ibid., 1727  “Euclid | Biography, Contributions, & Facts,” Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed December 5, 2018, https://www.   britannica.com/biography/Euclid-Greek-mathematician..28  Robin Evans, “Introduction: Composition and Projection,” in The Projective Cast: Architecture and Its Three    Geometries (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1995), xxvi–xxxvii, https://hdl-handle-net.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/2027/   fulcrum.b2773w09j.. xxxii.29  Evans, Introduction, xxxii)30  Ibid., xxxii31  Ibid., xxxii32  Evan, Conclusion, 366.33  Ibid., 36834  Ibid., 36635  Ibid., 36936  Ibid., 37037  Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Great Britain: John Wiley& Sons Ltd,     2005. 15.38  Diane Harris and Ruggles, D.Fairchild, “Landscape and Vision,” in Sites Unseen: Landscape and Vision (Pitts   burgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007), 5–29.14. 128 6439  Harris, Landscape and Vision, 9.40  Susanna Pisciella, “Landscape: Sedimentation and Interiority,” Architecture and Culture 2:2 (2015): 175–91.177.41  Juhani Pallasmaa, “Embodied and Existential Wisdom in Architecture: The Thinking Hand,” Body & Society 23,    no. 1 (2017): 96–111, https://doi.org/10.1177/1357034X16681443.100.42  Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin, 30.43  Harris, Landscape and Vision. 25.44  Allen S. Weiss, “No Man’s Garden: New England Transcendentalism and the Invention of Virgin Nature,” in    Unnatural Horizons: Paradox and Contradiction in Landscape Architecture (1998: Princeton Architectural Press,    n.d.), 85–108., 90)45  James Corner, “Taking Measures Across the American Landscape,” AA Files 27 (Summer 1994): 47–54..50.46  “Technoscience | Encyclopedia.Com.” Accessed December 7, 2018. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/ency   clopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/technoscience.47  Donna Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth    Century,” in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women | The Reinvention of Nature, 1st Edition (New York, 2013), 149–81,    https://www-taylorfrancis-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/books/9781135964764.149.48  Donna Haraway, “The Contest for Primate Nature:Daughters of Man-the-Hunter in the Field, 1960-80,” in    Simians, Cyborgs, and Women | The Reinvention of Nature, 1st Edition (New York, 2013), 312, https://www-tay   lorfrancis-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/books/9781135964764.. 81.49  Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, , 15050  Donna Haraway and Thyrza Goodeve, “Historical Good Luck,” in How Like a Leaf | An Interview with Don   na Haraway, 1st ed. (New York: Routledge), 61–79, accessed December 3, 2018, https://www-taylorfrancis-com.   ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/books/9781136686696.67.51  Janet Wirth‐Cauchon, “Donna Haraway,” in The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists, vol. 1    ( John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011), 500–519, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444396621.ch40.. 506.52  Donna Haraway, “The Biopolitics of Postmodern Bodies: Constitutions of Self in Immune System Discourse,” in    Simians, Cyborgs, and Women | The Reinvention of Nature, 1st Edition (New York, 2013), 203–30,     https://www-taylorfrancis-com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/books/9781135964764. 209.53  Wirth-Cauchon, Donna Haraway, 506)54  Haraway, How Like a Leaf, 67.55  Ibid., 507)56  Haraway, The Contest for Primate, 81.57  McGee, R., and Richard Warms. “Theory in Social and Cultural Anthropology: An Encyclopedia.” by pages 462-   465. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2018. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452276311.58  Mcgee and Warms, Theory in Social, 2)59  Ibid., 260  Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory (University of Oxford: Ox   ford University Press, 2005), https://hdl-handle-net.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/2027/fulcrum.rv042t698.1061  Bruno Latour et al., “Down to Earth Social Movements: An Interview with Bruno Latour,” Social Movement    Studies 17, no. 3 (May 4, 2018): 353–61, https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2018.1459298.. 354.62  Latour, Down to Earth, 35563  Ibid., 35664  Ibid., 35665  Ibid., 35666  Ibid., 35667  “Definition of Anthropocentric.” Accessed December 4, 2018. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/an   thropocentric.68 Palmer Cooper and David E, “Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe 1749-1832,” in Key Thinkers on the Environment, 1st ed. (Milton: Routledge Ltd, 2017), 70–75, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315543659.69  Rosetta S. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life,” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no. 2    (2017): 60–73, https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087.60. 70  Elkin, Live Matter, 601296571 Rosetta Sarah Elkin, “2nd Annual Architecture Resilience Colloquium and Workshop” (Lecture, September 17,    2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiNfjYaDiEE&fbclid=IwAR1QjJhDXJCrkz7LdKnu-jp9VqlXsQvtx   jMeBxXDMMmjfBS_Axq5LYdK46g 72  Evans, Introduction, xxvii. 73  Ibid., 201674  Ibid., 201675  Ibid., 201676  Ibid., 201677  Ibid., 201678  Ibid., 201679  David Seamon and Arthur Zajonc, Goethe’s Way of Science (New York: Unicersity of New York Press, 1998). xi80  Seamon, Goethe’s Way,  xi81  Ibid., 2)82  Ibid., 283  Ibid., 384  Ibid., 285  Ibid., 386  Jochen Bockemuhl, “Transformations in the Foliage Leaves of Higher Plants,” in Goethe’s Way of Science: A    Phenomenology of Nature (Unicersity of New York Press, 1998), 115–28.115.87  Bockemuhl, Transformations, 115)88  Ibid., 12789  Ibid., 12790  Ibid., 12791  Tim M. Berra, Charles Darwin: The Concise Story of an Extraordinary Man, Book, Whole (Baltimore: The Johns    Hopkins University Press, 2009), https://muse.jhu.edu/ Accessed December 18, 2018, I)92  Berra, Charles Darwin, I.93  Charles Darwin and Darwin, Francis, The Power of Movement in Plants (New York D. Appleton and Company,    1898). 194  Maria Stolarz, “Circumnutation as a Visible Plant Action and Reaction,” Plant Signaling & Behavior 4, no. 5    (2009): 380–87. 95  Elkin, 2nd Annual Architecture, 201696  Ibid., 201697  Ibid., 201698  Paul J. Thibault, “The Linguistic Sign,” in Re-Reading Saussure : The Dynamics of Signs in Social Life (Rout    ledge, 2013), 211–32, https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203443767. 99  Susanna Pisciella, “Landscape: Sedimentation and Interiority,” Architecture and Culture 2:2 (2015):     175–91. 189 100  Elkin, 2nd Annual Architecture, 2016101  Ibid., 2016102  Jamie Horwitz and Todd W Bressi, “Mississippi Floods - Designing a Shifting Landscape,” Places, no. 15 (1)    (2002): 38–41.38..103 Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha, “Mississppii Floods: Designing a Shifting Landscape,” Mathur/Da    Cunha, n.d., https://www.mathurdacunha.com/mississippi-floods..104 Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha, Mississippi Floods: Designing a Shifting Landscape (Yale University:    Yale University Press, 2001).xi. 105 Mathur and Cunha, Mississippi Floods, xii 106 Ibid., xii107  Horwitz and Bressi, Mississippi Floods, xii108  Mathur and Cunha, Mississippi Floods Book, xii109 Ibid., xii 110 Mathur and Cunha, Mississippi Floods Book, 16 111  Corps of Topographical Engineers, “Map of the Alluvial Region of the Mississippi,” image, Library of Congress,    Washington, D.C. 20540 USA, 1861, https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4042m.cws00185/..130 66112  Mathur and Cunha, Mississippi Floods Book, 18113 Ibid., 18 114 Ibid., 18115  Ibid., 18116  Ibid., 20117  Ibid., 20118  Marie Adrien Persace, “Norman’s Chart of the Lower Mississippi River,” image, Library of Congress, Washing   ton, D.C. 20540 USA, accessed December 12, 2018, https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4042m.ct000765/.119  Ibid., 20120 Ibid., 8121 Ibid., 8 122  Ibid., 8123 Mathur and Cunha, Mississsippi Floods, front page of website.124  Ibid., front page of website125  Mathur and Cunha, Mississippi Floods Book, 2)126 David Ross Scheer, “Introduction,” in The Death of Drawing (Routledge, 2014), 1–17. .127  Tony Morrison, “The Site of Memory,” in Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Culture (Cambridge,    Mass.: MIT Press, 1990), 305. 39128 Rosetta S. Elkin, “Live Matter: Towards a Theory of Plant Life,” Journal of Landscape Architecture 12, no. 2 (2017): 60–73, https://doi.org/10.1080/18626033.2017.1361087. 67.129  Rosetta Sarah Elkin, Tiny Taxonomy, Newsprint (Massachusetts Cultural Council, 2013), http://rse-landscape.com/work/tiny-taxonomy-metis/.130  Rosetta, Tiny Taxonomy, front page)131  Ibid., front page132  Ibid., front page133  “MoMA | Robert Smithson. Corner Mirror with Coral. 1969.,” MOMA Learning, accessed December 17, 2018,   https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/robert-smithson-corner-mirror-with-coral-1969/.134 Harvard GSD, “Ocean State: Structures of Coastal Resilience,” Website, SCR: Structures of Coastal Resilience, accessed April 24, 2019, http://structuresofcoastalresilience.org/locations/narragansett-bay-ri/.135 SCR: Structures of Coastal Resilience, Sumac Growth and Disturbance, 2014, Animation, 2014, https://vimeo.com/108369689.136 SCR: Structures of Coastal Resilience, Sachuest Growth and Disturbance Animation, 2014, Animation, 2014, https://vimeo.com/108366965.137    Elkin, Live Matter, 64 138    Ibid., 64 139 Ibid., 64 140 Ibid., x. 141 Batey, Mavis. “Gertrude Jekyll and the Arts and Crafts Movement.” In Gertrude Jekyll: Artist, Gardener, Crafts-woman, 542nd ed., 16–21. 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