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Images for Earthly Survival : Other Natures of the Low Line Anderson, Rebecca 2019-04-26

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ANDERSON, REBECCASPRING, 2019IMAGES FOR EARTHLY SURVIVALOTHER NATURES OF THE LOW LINE001 INTRODUCTIONThis graduate project in Landscape Architec-ture seeks to subvert the dominant narrative that sets nature apart from culture in favour of an adapted landscape image that is reflective of a more hybridized or cyborg landscape. release form. Landscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British Columbia Rebecca AndersonImages for Earthly Survival: Other Natures of the Low LineIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Rebecca Anderson  04/26/19Name Signature      Dateabstract. This project argues that representations of landscape are used to communicate po-litical and ideological agendas. Whether removing untidy nonhuman nature to create an idealistic picturesque image, or erasing indigenous populations to create the im-age of an untouched wilderness, representations of nature are not neutral, but ab-solutely political. This project makes the claim that the images of landscape that were born in the 17th and 18th centuries continue to serve as an archetype for the production of built landscapes, and are therefore implicated in setting the scene for the anthropocene (an era characterized by unprecedented environmental degrada-tion, species loss, and social inequities). With retrospective awareness, landscape designers are presented with an opportunity to either continue to perpetuate a di-chotomous image of landscape that treats nature as a subordinate other, or to ex-plore alternative narratives that embrace cyborg nature: part culture- part organism. 03"While I concour with and applaud the recent shift in the field away from appearance in favour of performance, I would argue that the centrality of representation to the very origin of the field rec-ommends a fully theorized and critically contex-tualized understanding of the landscape image... I suggest that we necessarily need new models of representation, new strategies for imaging, new modes of subjectivity; particularly those appropri-ate or specific to our contemporary urban culture.” (Waldheim, 2007)Fig. 1: Adapted from Artists Study-ing from Nature, by Claude Lorrain, 1639 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)05figures. Fig. 1 Adapted from Artists Studying from Nature, by Claude Lorrain, 1639 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d) Fig. 2 Methodology diagram (Anderson, 2018) Fig. 3 Adapted from Landscape with Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia by Claude Lorrain, 1682 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)Fig. 4 History of the Landscape Image (Anderson, 2018)Fig. 5 Adapted from Landscape with Saint John on Patmos by Nicolas Poussin, 1640 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)Fig. 6 Adapted from Peticolas, View of the West Front of Monticello and Garden, 1825 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)Fig. 7 Breaking the Frame. Adapted Digital Rendering by Architettura Collecttiva, 2015Fig. 8 Modes of Landscape Representation Fig. 9 Redbooks by Humphrey Repton (cityzenart.blogspot, 2010)Fig. 10 Jean Canneel-Claes, landscape architect; Louis-Herman de Koninck, architect. Canneel garden, Auderghem, Belgium, 1931. Axonometric view with plan of house (Marc Trieb, 2005). Fig. 11 Diagram from Design with Nature by Ian McHarg, 1969Fig. 12 A Cyborg Ecology. A sediment model made using Grasshopper applied in realtime to a sand model by Leif Es-trada, and Praxis, 2018Fig. 13 Adapted from MVVA submission for The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 2015Fig. 14  View of Stowe House and Gardens, 1829 (Wikiwand, n.d) Fig. 15 Adapted still from Bladerunner 2049, 2017Fig. 16 The Wildness creator, adapted render by Cantrall et al., 2017Fig. 17 lIlustration by Anja Kempa, Graduate at Bartlett School of Architecture, 2014Fig. 18 Illustration by Jason Lamb, Graduate at Bartlett School of Architecture, 2014Fig. 19 Lavender Lining (Anderson, 2019)Fig. 21 HighLine Section: Harvesting Apples (Anderson, 2019)Fig. 22 Photograph from Walking the Highline by Joel Sternfeld, 2000 (, n.d)Fig.23 Photograph by Gregoire Alessandrini, n.d (, n.d) Fig.24. Photograph by Jeff Cowen 1980-1989 (, n,d)Fig.25 Children on a Harlem street, 1938. Hansel Mieth—The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images, 2016)Fig.26 Photograph from Walking the Highline by Joel Sternfeld, 2000 (, n.d)Fig.27 Fruit Forest in Mott Haven (Anderson, 2019)Fig.28 Seed Harvesting Instruments (Anderson, 2019)Fig.29 Fruit Forest Site Plan (Anderson, 2019)Fig.30 (p.69) Lavender Fields (Anderson, Carruthers 2019)Fig.31 Lavender Planting Diagram (Anderson, 2019)Fig.32 (p.71) Lavender Planting Plan (Anderson, Niedoba 2019)Fig.33 Stop and Smell the Moses - Perspective (Anderson, 2019)Fig.34 Robert Moses with New Haven Plants (Anderson, 2019)Fig.35 (p.77) Stop and Smell the Moses - Planting Plan (Anderson, 2019)Fig.36 Other Natures of the Low Line - Cyborg Succession (Anderson, 2019) 07acknowledgments. This project is dedicated to John Broadley. I would like to thank Fionn Byrne for his enthusiasm and support as I took risks, philosophized, and got lost in imaginary landscapes. Thank you to Kees Lokman for introducing me to Cyborgs; and to Daniel Roehr for overlooking my drainage blunders and encouraging my writing. I would also like to express gratitude to Adam Kirk for helping me meet my ma-terial and emotional needs, to Kalli Niedoba for the maps, to Aidan Carruthers for the model, to Sahar Khelifa for the moral support, to Jessica Udal for the moody textures, and to Lee Patola for the comments and edits. Finally, thank you to the For a Feminist Architecture (FAFA) for working towards a more intersectional learning environment. 01. PROJECT STATEMENTNature: “Nature in early modern and an-cient times... was contrasted with art (techne) and with artificially created things”(Merchant, 1980).“The critical distinction between art and nature concerns their dif-ferent efficient causes: nature is its own source of motion, whereas techne always requires a source of motion outside itself”(Atwill, 1998).Culture: “Specifically culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institutions, tools tech-niques, works of art, rituals, cere-monies and so forth” (Urvebo, 1997).The Image of Landscape that continues to serve as an ar-chetype for contemporary landscape architecture is born from a dualistic assumption that nature is distinct from cul-ture; an idea that has deep roots in early Western capitalist philosophy. Formative landscape architectural projects (in-cluding the designs of William Kent and Capability Brown) were modeled after picturesque paintings that depict a do-mesticated and pastoral nature - passive and easily exploit-able (Waldheim, 2007). This outdated landscape image has set the stage for the an-thropocene (a period characterized by human caused envi-ronmental degradation including the 6th mass extinction) and does not reflect the degree to which human activity and technology has altered the “natural world.” In this way, nature is necessarily a product of the social conditions under which it is produced and can no longer be conceived of as separate from culture, but rather as a hybrid. The primary intention of this graduate project is to subvert the dominant narratives that set nature apart from culture in favour of alternative images of landscape that are more reflective of hybridized or cyborg nature (a combination of nature and design). Through representation of cyborg land-scape narratives, this project seeks to generate more egali-tarian modes of producing landscapes through rendering vis-ible the human and non-human actors that have been erased by a hegemonic image of landscape.  This project argues that visual landscape representation has historically (through landscape paintings) and continues to (through architectural rendering) greatly influence the form of built landscape projects. Thus, it is important to consider what type of future we intend to build, and by extension, what is the most appropriate image for our desired future. 09METHODOLOGY02. Fig. 2: Methodology diagram(Anderson, 2018)This graduate project leverages social theory and narra-tive towards a framework for speculating on future visions of landscape beyond the anthropocene. To begin speculating on landscape images that are more re-sponsive to current environmental conditions, it is necessary to discuss the origins of this idea. The discussion in Section 03 of this graduate project explores the conception of land-scape during the 18th century (as proposed by Cosgrove and others), and helps solidify this project’s thesis.  A subsequent literature review of the use of post - humanist theory within the realm of design was conducted to help sup-port this project in seeking alternatives to Western anthropo-centric landscape images. Studying precedents from science fiction, art, architecture, and landscape architecture that have explored the cyborg concept has helped to inform potential design applications of these theories (particularly in the second part of this grad-uate project). In the second part of this project, a case study of a contem-porary landscape architecture project (The Highline) was conducted applying findings from GP1. This case study con-sidered the sigificance of Picturesque, Sublime, and Modern-ist images of landscape in the representation and formal de-sign of contemporary landscape projects. Through counter narratives, this project, Other Natures of the Low Line, seeks to elucidate the potenial consquences of continuing to per-petuate these aesthetics within the discipline of landscape architecture.  Post humanism:“...characterized by the con-cern for, first of all, upsetting the normative conventions that position Western “man” as the universal bearer of the human; and second, countering the he-gemony of anthropos relative to other forms of (nonhuman) life. Post humanism thus ap-peared as a new critical episte-mology that not only combined a variety of anti-humanist and post-anthropocentric positions, but also attempted to exceed the terms of this binary scheme”(Gomez- Luque & Jafari, 2017).Anthropocene: “Relating to or denoting the cur-rent geological age, viewed as the period during which human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the envi-ronment” (“Anthropocene | Defi-nition of Anthropocene in English by Oxford Dictionaries,” n.d.).Cyborg: “A cyborg is a cybernetic organ-ism, a hybrid of machine and or-ganism, a creature of social reali-ty as well as a creature of fiction” (Haraway, 1991).STRATEGY02. 113.1HISTORY OF THE LANDSCAPE IMAGEDefinitions of Landscape: Early 17th century: "A picture representing natural inland scenery, as distinguished from a sea picture, a portrait, etc"(Waldheim, 2007, p.4).Early 18th century: "A view or prospect of natural inland scenery, such as can be taken in at a glance from one point of view; a piece of country scenery "(Waldheim, 2007, p.4)."The Dutch word landschap (first Englished as landskip) means not land itself, but a description or depiction of land"(Hunt, 2002, p. 14).This chapter provides an overview of the origins and de-velopment of the landscape image. In the following sections I argue that the definitions of landscape that were born in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries continue to have con-siderable relevance in the discipline of landscape architec-ture today. These definitions position the human subject outside of the landscape, and suggest that vision is the pri-mary mediator between the individual human and external nature (see definitions above). This chapter argues that the production of culture and the production of landscape have a reflexive relationship that can be traced throughout the history of the landscape image. Expanding on the idea of landscape as a social construct, I suggest that through lit-erature and art, the landscape image becomes a work of collective fiction. Finally this chapter makes the case that historically and presently, landscape representation ren-ders the viewer as the owner of the view, and therefore denies that subjectivity of non-human subjects within the landscape (Cosgrove, 1998). The intention of this chapter is to provide historical context and to serve as a jumping off point for the discussions that take place in subsequent chapters of this graduate project.  Fig.3 Adapted from Landscape with Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia by Claude Lorrain, 1682 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)13  In Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape, Denis Cosgrove (1998) explains that the landscape image (or landscape idea) is the product of 17th century elite European sensibilities. He traces the relationship between prevalent ideologies and aesthetic ideals during this period, and points to the physi-cal manifestation of these ideals through the production of landscape. The most significant ideological shift in Europe during this time was the transition from feudalism to capi-talism. The decline of agrarianism and the rise of industrial-ization “represents a radical alteration in material relations between human beings and their land”(Cosgove, 1998, p.37). For example, the transition from common lands to enclosure in late 18th century England is emblematic of the rise in in-dividualism (signified by notions of private property and owner-ship) and decreased emphasis of the land as a means for surviv-al. Cosgrove (1998) furthers this idea by suggesting that the rise of humanism during the modern period freed Europeans from a religious explanation of the exis-tence of the natural world; there-fore, nature become an object that could be owned, controlled, and improved upon. The rise of individualism also ex-tends to picturesque landscape paintings and subsequently to the construction of formal gar-dens. Throughout the early mod-ern period, the landscape image was a way of seeing. Artistic and literary representations of land-scape were symbolic of the way in which a particular society articulated their relationship with the external world (1998, p.9). Sight increasingly be-came regarded as the mediator between human beings and the world around them. The application of linear perspective to landscape painting located the individual artist or viewer outside of landscape - effectively offering “an important el-ement of personal control over the external world”(1998, p. 18). The use of linear perspective afforded picturesque paint-ings a higher degree of realism, and thus, these paintings be-gan to be seen as true representations of landscape. Another “important effect of linear perspective is to arrest the flow of history at a specific moment, freezing that moment as a universal reality”(1998, p.26). In other words, objectifying a moment in history as universal reality negates the possibilityFig. 5 Adapted from Landscape with Saint John on Patmosby Nicolas Poussin, 1640(Wikimedia Commons, n.d)of alternative narratives An ancillary function of picturesque paintings was the domestication and commodification of a formerly alien and uncultivated nature (Waldheim, 2007, p.36). A phenomenon that authors such as Charles Wald-heim have likened to colonial attitudes at this time. A final consideration of the influence of the landscape paint-ing is how these works of art seemingly impacted the profes-sion of landscape architecture. Alexander Pope, a poet and a source of inspiration for garden designers (such as England’s William Kent) is oft- quoted as saying that “all-gardening is landscape painting”(2007, p.32). Further he stressed that paintings be used as models for the construction of formal gardens. William Kent (who is re-sponsible for notable landscape projects such as Stowe Gardens) was greatly influenced by the work of Pope and picturesque painter Claude Lorain, and these influences can be seen in the form of his gardens. The pictur-esque landscape aesthetic was not only applied to 18th century English landscapes, but was also emulated in early 19th century American gardens such as the landscape at Monticello (Thom-as Jefferson’s estate) (Bennet, 2018). In addition to expressing author-ity and the changing material relationship between human be-ings and nature, the early mod-ern landscape image also communicated social prestige. In their discussion on The Use and Misuse of Historical Land-scape views, Harris and Hays examine the ways in which 17th and 18th century representations of landscape communicate material wealth and social standing. They suggest that estate paintings were not intended to depict the true conditions and forms of the site per se, but rather to convey the estate owners specific political, moral, or social agendas. “The gar-dens that appeared as the central subjects of such represen-tations also functioned as reflections of cultural capital based on the international and local cultures of education, literacy, collecting, and theater… Likewise, choosing the right garden forms, reading the correct theoretical and horticultural texts,Fig. 6 Adapted from Pe-ticolas, View of the West Front of Monticello and Garden, 1825 (Wikimedia Commons, n.d)17and cultivating the requisite numberof exotic plants were as import-ant as the collection of material objects in asserting status, and the prints displayed those choices, whether factual or desired” (Harris & Hays, 2008, p.11). In this way, the landscapes depicted here were intended for an audience that were educated in the language of the picturesque garden. These gardens are, as Chandra Mukerji (1994) puts it, “highly literate” and their narrative was one of cultural cap-ital and power.Examination of the origins of the landscape image reveal that these representations of landscape are as much works of art as they are fiction. The position that picturesque paintings and formal land-scapes are constructed social fictions is shared by both Waldheim and Cosgrove. Cosgrove (1998) argues that “all painting is in large measure a work of imagination,” and suggests that early modern representations of landscape intentionally blur the line between reality and fantasy (p.27). This sentiment is echoed by Waldheim (2007) who suggests that “the picturesque is in effect a theory of association, a function of imagination” (p.32). The recognition of the landscape image as fiction is an invitation for an expanded dis-cussion about the use of storytelling within landscape architecture, but it also raises important questions about authorship and the con-struction of the landscape image. In conclusion, acknowledging the origins of the landscape image is crucial to understanding the formation of the discipline of land-scape architecture and as a starting point for future discussions about the direction of representation within the discipline. Early modern landscape paintings communicated control over and a sep-aration from all subjects within the landscape, as well as a distinct message about social standing and taste. An idea that was born during the European transition to capitalism that continues to influ-ence the way in which landscapes are represented presently. This chapter has considered the degree to which landscapes are a work of collective fiction, and how this insight may impact future direc-tions in exploring the creative possibilities of landscape design. Sections 1: ReferencesMerchant, C. (1980). In The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution (p. 384). Harper One.Waldheim, C. (2007) Disabitato and the Emergence of Land-scape,Fellow Presentation, American Academy in Rome, 37. Section 2.0: ReferencesAnthropocene | Definition of Anthropocene in English by Oxford Dictio-naries. (n.d.). Retrieved December, 2018, from Oxford Dictionaries | En-glish website: Gomez-Luque, M., & Jafari, G. (2017). Posthuman. Copublished by the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and Actar, (9), 208. Haraway, D. (1991). A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and So-cialist - Feminism in the late Twentieth Century. In Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (287). Free Association Books. 3.1: References Bennett, B. “The Silence Surrounding the Hut”: Architecture and Absence in Wieland,” Early American Literature 53, no.2 (2018): 369-404.Mukerji, C. (1994) The Political Mobilization of Nature in Seven-teenth-Century French Formal Gardens. Theory and Society 23, (5) 651-677.Waldheim, C. (2007) Disabitato and the Emergence of Land-scape,Fellow Presentation, American Academy in Rome, 37.Cosgrove, D. (1998) Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. Uni-versity of Wisconsin Press, 1998. Treib., M. (2008) Representing landscape architecture. London;New York;: Taylor & Francis. 19         *Redacted for digital  publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version3.2         *Redacted for digital  publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionDEVELOPMENT OF THE LANDSCAPE IMAGEThe previous section considered the origins of the land-scape image, and argues that early depictions of landscape are socially constructed, highly communicative, and ef-fective in the externalization and domestication of nature. Sharing its origins with the genre of landscape painting, the early landscape image relies on sight as the primary means by which it is realized. In the following section, I continue to discuss the landscape image throughout history, focus-ing on significant ideological shifts within the discipline of landscape architecture and the associated impacts on the creation of the landscape image. As my intention is to un-derstand the interplay between representation and culture, and the resulting physical implications on the landscape, discussion on specific tools for representing landscape will be minimal. In the following section I argue that while the motivations behind the landscape image have changed since the 18th century, many of the main tenets remain in-tact. In the last section, I made the case that early represen-tations of landscape place the viewer outside of the land-scape; suggesting that humans have supreme control over nature, and by extension denying the agency of non-human lives within the scene. Despite recent efforts to represent human life as part of a larger ecological network within sub-sects of landscape architecture such as landscape urban-ism, the primary function of the landscape image remains largely unchanged. Another theme that will carry over from the previous section is the consideration of landscape as fiction. I maintain that landscape design has always operat-ed within the realm of fiction, from 18th century picturesque that made its affiliation with storytelling explicit through references to theatre, to computer generated designs that simulate visions of an improved future. Fig. 7 Breaking the Frame. Adapted Digital Rendering by Architettura Collecttiva, 201521The intention of this chapter is not to propose a alternative representational technique for landscape architecture, but rather to consider the power of representation and speculate on how landscape architects may use representation to de-pict a new relationship between humans and nature. As Diana Balmori (2014) points out in Drawing and Rein-venting Landscape, during the 19th century shifting ideals (particularly in relation to sci-entific realism) became evident as “the dominant mode of ren-dering [began to reflect] a new cultural desire to convey infor-mation” (p.57). Balmori explains that landscape was severed from the arts in the 19th century in fa-vour of an expanded study of horticulture, botany, and geol-ogy (p.57). Representations of landscape gained technical pre-cision as measured plans and sections began to replace the estate paintings of the previous century. Another important rep-resentational contribution of the 19th century is the landscape Panorama (as espoused most famously by landscape design-er and painter Humphrey Rep-ton). An interesting function of the panorama discussed by Bal-mori (2014) is its seeming desire to “break the frame” of the pic-turesque, extending the view of the landscape to include greater context. Despite the disciplines growing concern for scientif-ic accuracy and consideration of the landscape beyond the pictorial frame, nature contin-ued to be viewed as immobile. Further, like the picturesque paintings of the previous century, these panoptic views of the landscape were not neutral. As Harris and Ruggles (2007) ex-plain in Landscape and Vision, “in panoptic vistas, the viewer brings a landscape into being but remains unseen, and there-fore is imbued with a globalizing sense of totality and with an imperial and even divine power” (p.24). Fig. 9 Redbooks by Humphrey Repton (cityzenart.blogspot, 2010)The 19th century was a significant moment for the disci-pline of landscape design as the practice expanded to North America and throughout Europe (Balmori, 2014). It was also during this period that the term Landscape Architecture was coined (Balmori, 2014). Early American landscape architects like Frederick Law Olmstead helped the discipline transition from a service reserved for elite Europeans into the public domain. As the romantic sublime gained popularity, partic-ularly through literary representations of landscape such as Thoreau’s Walden, a renewed interest in wilderness was re-flected in the designs of early American parks such as Cen-tral park. Far from natural, the wilder-ness aesthetic became col-onized in these highly main-tained American landscapes, and once again, social and po-litical agendas are naturalized. The Western image of land-scape was reconfigured yet again throughout the 20th century as landscape design began to reflect modern-ist ideals.  Following the first world war, influential modern-ist architects like Le Corbusi-er sought architectural solu-tions to social and economic challenges. Influenced by American modes of capitalist production, such as Fordism and Taylorism, Le Corbusier attempted to apply a similar model to the production of ar-chitecture (McLeod, 1983). Aligning with their counterparts in Architecture, landscape architects like Dan Kiley and Garrett Eckbo developed minimal, rational, and functional designs that were liberated from the nostalgia and ornamentation of the previous two centuries (Imbert, 2008). Fig. 10 Jean Canneel-Claes, landscape architect; Louis-Her-man de Koninck, architect. Canneel garden, Auderghem, Belgium, 1931. Axonometric view with plan of house (Marc Trieb, 2005). 25Although the architectural plan and section remained rel-evant throughout the 20th century, axonometric drawing, physical modeling, and use of photography became in-creasingly common. “The trio of representation—model photograph, axonometric view, and garden photograph—depicted a somewhat synthetic space that stressed an in-ternal composition clearly defined by a frame. This framing of the space allowed the self-referential garden to be truly modern, removing from sight any uncontrolled picturesque surroundings” (Imbert, 2008, p.130). The axonometric view is of particular interest as it favours form over perspec-tive - or as Imbert asserts, removes “all sentimentality and chance”(129). In this way, this mode of representation is used to convey a modernist interpretation of the relation-ship between humans and nature; one that treats nature as a means to an end rather than a means in itself. Here the image landscape is neither of pictorial ease or carefully curated wilderness, but rather a vehicle for communicating order. The emergence of landscape urbanism is arguably the most dramatic shift in thinking throughout the history of landscape theory. Ian McHarg’s seminal book Design with Nature advocates for ecology as integral to any landscape project (McHarg, 1969). The work of McHarg (as well as oth-ers such as James Corner and Charles Waldheim) is assisted by a prescriptive method of mapping and layering of data; a way of drawing that has paved the way for numerous built projects such as Fresh Kills in Brooklyn, The Highline in New York,  Madrid Rio in Madrid, and Downsview Park in Toron-to. As Balmori points out, landscape urbanism views nature as a process, and if the process is understood, nature will guide the designer in making ecologically sound decisions (2014, p.81). Landscape urbanism shifted the focus from the garden scale to a municipal or even regional scale. Comput-er aided mapping (and later GIS) and systems diagramming emerged as modes of representation that were best suited for spatializing complex ecological networks across various scales (Balmori, 2014). Increasingly, science (particularly ecology) became the primary driver for landscape design, and these data driven designs offered a degree of objec-tivity that was previously unmatched within the discipline. Critics of landscape urbanism, however, have accused its proponents of abandoning all concern for aesthetics and human experience in favour of scientific objectivity. The im-age of landscape created by landscape urbanists attempts to represent the changeability of nature, and importance of systems thinking and environmental sustainability for the con-tinuation of our planetary existence. In other words, nature is no longer seen exclusively as a resource, but also as having in-herent value. Despite this momentous shift in the way of seeing landscape, the case could be made that landscape urbanists are interested in the processes of nature insofar that they can be co-opted for human benefit. On the subject of contemporary land-scape representation, Diana Balmori (2014) offers the following: "the disci-pline [of landscape architecture] is now in a contested territory, politically and culturally, since its new understanding of nature is not yet shared by society at large.  A deep cultural divide exists between those who find the view of na-ture as constantly changing to be indis-pensable for engaging with the world, and those who resist this idea, hoping to remain in a static equilibrium, main-taining the status quo through techno-logical fixes". In the last 30 years, the production of landscape representation occurs nearly exclusively in the digi-tal realm. The degrees of abstraction from the physical landscape have in-creased manifold: from an artistic inter-pretation of the landscape on a canvas to an algorithm generated 3D model. John May (2017) argues that architec-tural representation has largely moved past orthographic surfaces towards simulation. "What we see on post-or-thographic surfaces is simulated repre-sentation- electrical simulations of the orthographic formats that once repre-sented the world. But unlike drawing, imaging does not want to be a representation of the world, it wants to be a presentation of the world, an automatic and perceptually up-to-date, real-time model of the world"(p.19). Here the line between reality and pre-sentation, and between nature and technology, is increasingly blurred. Through software plug-ins like Grasshopper for Rhino, landscape architects are able to simulate the “real world” with increasing accuracy. Like all of the previous representational techniques mentioned, these simulations are of course subject to bias on the part of both the programmer and Fig. 11 Diagram from De-sign with Nature by Ian McHarg, 1969 27the landscape architect. The introduction of virtual and aug-mented realities to the representational arsenal may be a promising step towards reconciling the externalization of nature through representation.  In a similar way, animation and film may allow for the representation of the landscape throughout time releasing the landscape image from its previously static frame. However, for these representational methods to be effective in illustrating cyborg landscapes, a cultural shift within the discipline is required. This chapter has considered the landscape image as a mirror for a shifting Western perception of nature since the 19th centu-ry. Though significant represen-tational and technological ad-vancements have been made since the 19th century, the 21st century landscape image has yet to progress past the roman-tic notion that the natural world is external to humanity. There is ample evidence to suggest that landscape has been used as ve-hicle for communicating social and political agendas throughout history; however, these messag-es have largely communicated the supremacy humans over an external and exploitable nature. With this in mind, the next chap-ter considers how landscape ar-chitects can adapt methods of representing landscapes to com-municate a more hybridized un-derstanding of nature. Fig. 12 A Cyborg Ecol-ogy. A sediment model made using Grasshop-per applied in realtime to a sand model by Leif Estrada, and Praxis, 2018Section 3.2: ReferenencesBalmori, D. (2014) Drawing and reinventing landscape. Wiley InterScience (Online service). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Harris, D. S., Ruggles, D. F., (2007). Sites unseen: Landscape and vision & Project Muse. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pitts-burgh Press.May, J. (2017). Everything is an Image. Log, 40.McLeod, M. (1983). Architecture or Revolution: Taylorism, Technocracy, and Social Change. Art Journal Vol. 43, No.2 (132-147).Treib, M. (2008). Representing landscape architecture. Tay-lor & Francis eBooks A-Z. London;New York;: Taylor & Fran-cis.  29 *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version“We are told that the old forms and old me-dia just no longer work and that, instead, we need new ways of visualizing and presenting design information. This may be true. But very rarely—almost never—do we learn just what is wrong with existing practices and just which of them might need to be revised or replaced” (Treib, 2008)Fig. 13 Adapted from MVVA submission for The Jefferson Nation-al Expansion Memorial, 20153104.         *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionSUSTAINING THE LANDSCAPE IMAGEIn section 02 & 03, I provided a history of the landscape image and made four central claims against traditional landscape representation: 1. that traditional landscape representation typically denies that subjectivity of nonhuman subjects within the landscape;2.  that the landscape image is a fictional representa-tion of the living world, and yet the majority of its repre-sentational techniques are static;3. that the production of culture and the production of landscape have a reflexive relationship;4. and the majority of modes of landscape representa-tion position the human subject outside of the landscape, and suggest that vision is the primary mediator between the individual human and external nature.The following section is an exploration of social theory, narrative, and precedents that seek to address these chal-lenges by providing alternatives to the traditional images of landscapes. I do not propose an abandonment of tradi-tional modes of representation in favour of a new model, but rather that landscape architects ask how these meth-ods could be adapted to better suit a contemporary un-derstanding of landscape.33        *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionFig. 14  View of Stowe House and Gardens, 1829 (Wikiwand, n.d)    *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version4.1 IMAGING: HYBRIDITYTowards a Cyborg Image of Landscape:A Disruptive InterludeTo this point, I have made numerous references to a hy-bridized image of landscape that seeks to decenter the an-thropos as the sole creator and sustainer of landscape. The following section seeks to provide theoretical support for such a concept, and inform the direction of the subsequent counter narratives. Near the end of the 20th century, the romantic notion of nature and its associated dualisms were subject to scrutiny by scholars from vastly different disciplines (Cronon, 1994; Haraway, 1991; McKibben, 1989). Central to these critiques is the claim that a dichotomous image of nature is not only inaccurate, but also harmful. In his seminal essay, The Trou-ble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature, Cronon (1995) describes the romantic desire to return na-ture to a pristine state, free from the “taint of civilization” as an erroneous myth that further degrades the environment that it seeks to protect. He laments that the 19th century im-age of wilderness does not account for the degree to which humans always have, and continue to shape nature through culture (in both ideological and material ways), and sees value in protecting only the most remote natures. Cronon’s claims, though made over 20 years ago, remain relevant in contemporary production of nature and by extension pro-duction of the landscape image. It would appear that the collective image of nature in the 21st century is closer to the sublime than not. Illustrating this point, Cronon (1995)suggests that “most of us, I suspect, still follow the conven-tions of the romantic sublime in finding the mountaintop more glorious than the plains, the ancient forest nobler than the grasslands, the mighty canyon more inspiring than the humble marsh”.  Fig. 15 Adapted still from Bladerunner 2049, 201735   *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionContemporary conservation policy and ecological design also appear to subscribe to this type of thinking. Conversationalists advocate for landscapes that are free from human disturbance, and landscape ecologists base their models on projections of native ecosystems that existed prior to European settlement (despite widespread evidence that human indigenous populations also extensively altered their en-vironments). Beyond EdenSo how are landscape architects (also implicated in sustaining the nature culture dualism) to work towards creating a more hybridized image of landscape? Donna Haraway’s (1991) cyborg concept offers an alternative to the Western myth of nature that may inform the cre-ation of a contemporary landscape image. In her influential essay, A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, Haraway (1991) explains that a cyborg “is a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction”. She goes on to explain that effort to sustain the culture-nature dichotomy is futile. “By the late twentieth century… the boundary between human and animal is thoroughly breached. The last beachheads of uniqueness have been polluted if not turned into amusement parks - language, tool use, so-cial behaviour, mental events, nothing really convincingly settles the separation of human and animal”(p.152). At the intersection between human and animal (or organism and machine) lies the cyborg, an en-tity that “would not recognize the garden of Eden” as it is not a prod-uct of the original unity story (p.151). Without obligation to return to a mythic state of innocence, the cyborg allows us to continue with the mongrel nature (Pollan, 1997) that we have inherited. Designers such as Bradley Cantrall, Justine Holzman, and Kees Lok-man have evoked Donna Haraway’s (1991) cyborg concept in the de-sign of responsive landscapes that embrace landscape as a co-collab-orator (Lokman, 2017). An example is the Wildness Creator developed by Cantrall, Martin, and Ellis which is “...a conceptual design for an autonomous landscape in-frastructure system that creates and sustains wildness by enhancing nonhuman influences while countering all forms of human influence. It is a deep learning computing system that controls a physical infrastructure that can sense and manipulate the environment and interact with organisms” (Neeson, 2017, p.163). Functionally, the Wildness Creator is a cyborg that reseeds and controls invasive species. The approach to the cyborg concept taken by Cantrall and others has been criticized, however, for be-ing rather utilitarian and missing elements of radical storytelling that are central to Haraway’s manifesto (Davis, 2017). Storytelling for Earthly SurvivalRadical storytelling as a means of producing a hybridized land-scape image will serve as a point of departure for the next dis-cussion. As previously discussed, literature was instrumental in the creation of the early landscape idea. Further Har-away  (1991)suggests that “the media of the cyborg is language,” and thus, it seems fitting to begin an explora-tion of the cyborg landscape image with fiction. Works of science fiction, beginning with Mary Shelley’s Franken-stein (1818), explore and give form to the boundary be-tween human and nonhuman. In Ecology Without Nature, Timothy Morton (2007) rec-ognizes the usefulness of sci-ence fiction as a didactic tool for envisioning “how to carry on in a cyborg world” (p.186). He commends both Scott's Bladerunner and Shelley’s Frankenstein for asking their audience to identify with these “monsters” and consider the degree to which we are all replicants.37Patricia Piccinini's Curious Imaginings in a series of hyper-real-istic animal- human hybrid sculptures that are featured at the 2018 Vancouver Biennale. Piccinini's work challenges us to explore the social impacts of emerging bio-technology and our ethical limits in an age where genetic engineering and digital technologies are al-ready pushing the boundaries of humanity (Imcurious, n.d.). The likeness of these creature to humans, and the domestic setting in which the installa-tion is set causes the viewer to empathize with these crea-tures and consider their agen-cy. The sculpture shown here (right) is called Kindred. The artist describes this work with the following statement: The idea that we, as hu-mans, are uniquely and fundamentally different from other animals is at the cornerstone of how humans have traditionally thought of themselves. This belief of "specialness" allows us to exploit the environ-ment and other beings around us so completely. How-ever, both genetic analysis and scientific observation are showing us how small those differences actually are... here unique individuals are each set at a different point on a continuum of greater or lesser animal-like behavior. The focus shifts from their differences to their connection. PRECEDENTProject Title: Curious Imag-inings Author: Patricia PiccininiCompletion Date: 2018 Type: Vancouver Bienale Art Installation, scultures made of Silicone, fibreglass, human hair, found objectsRelevance to this graduate project: representation of cyborg nature, discussion about the increasingly blurred boundaries between hu-mans, animals and technol-ogyThis graduate project seeks to emulate Piccinini’s use of represen-tation as a vehicle for expressing an alternative relationship be-tween human and nonhuman beings. This installation causes the viewer to consider the possibility of alternative biological futures that challenge the view of nature as neutral. Keeping the work of Haraway, Cronon, Shelley, Scott, and Pic-cinini in mind, this graduate project asks how landscape architects can adapt the tools of their trade to move beyond the picturesque image of landscape. Section 4.1: ReferencesCronon, W. (1995). The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. In Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature (pp. 60–90). New York: W. W. Norton & Co.Dean Davis, J. (2017). The Cyborg in the Garden. In Posthuman (9th ed., pp. 157–160). Harvard University Graduate School of Design.Haraway, D. (1991). A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Social-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. In Simians, Cy-borgs, and Women (pp. 149–181).imcurious. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://www.imcurious.caLokman, K. (2017). Cyborg landscapes: Choreographing resilient interactions between infrastructure, ecology, and society. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 12(1), 60–73.McKibben, B. (2006). The end of nature (Random House trade pbk.). New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. Morton, T. (2007). Imagining Ecology Without Nature. In Ecology Without Nature (pp. 140–205). Harvard University Press.Neeson, T. (2017, August 2). “Designing Autonomy: Opportunities for New Wildness in the Anthropocene.” Retrieved December 08, 2018, from, P. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from, M. (1994, May 15). Against Nativism. The New York Times Magazine, 1–5.  39               *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version04.4.2 IMAGING: ALTERNATIVE NARRATIVESTowards an image of landscape that represents diverse, hy-bridized narratives and the mobility of nature.  As discussed in Section 02, landscape perspective and pan-optic drawings were inspired by the theatric and literary qual-ities of picturesque paintings. More recently, the final render-ing seeks to capture an elucidative moment and convince the viewer of the project’s narrative. However, as criticized by Bal-mori (2014) and others, these practices treat nature as an im-mobile other, and deny the possibility of alternative narratives. Excessively Imaginative Design Both science fiction and landscape architecture are engaged in world-building; using visual representation and narrative to creatively communicate alternative futures. Both aim to con-vince their audience of the believability of their proposals; however, as science fiction is largely fictional, authors are free to explore alternative visions of earthly existence. If landscape architects embraced their storytelling capabilities and were to consider similarly fantastic futures, what would be the out-come? Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby (2013) see great potential in applying “excessively imaginative” thinking to design chal-lenges. “As  we  rapidly  move  toward  a  monoculture  that makes  imagining  genuine alternatives  almost  impossible, we  need  to  experiment  with  ways  of  developing new  and distinctive  worldviews  that  include  different  beliefs,  values, ideals, hopes,  and  fears  from  today’s”(Dunne & Raby, 2013, p.189). They remind us that the proposal is central to the de-sign process, and is necessarily intended to propose an alter-native future. Therefore, designers are always entertaining the boundary between reality and fiction. Fig. 17 Anja Kempa, Graduate at Bartlett School of Architecture, pres-ents a vision for how spring could be recreated in Tokyo, once cherry trees fail to blossom because of climate change, 201441 *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version“It sometimes seems that story is ap-proaching its end. Lest there be no more telling of stories at all, some of us out here in the wild oats, amid the alien corn, think we’d better start tell-ing another one, which maybe people can go on with when the old one’s fin-ished...Hence it is with a certain feel-ing of urgency that I seek the nature, subject, words of the other story, the untold one, the life story.”Ursula k. Le Guin, 1988Fig. 18 Jason Lamb, recent graduate from Bartlett, takes “an unconventional approach towards hydraulic fracturing” (Lamb, 2014). The project speculates the transformation of Blackpool from an industrial Petropolis, to a less resource dependent and decentralized sustainable city.43As I have suggested in Section 02 of this graduate project, ideology continues to be mirrored in the physical landscape and as Dunne and Raby (2013) suggest, ideology also holds the potential for significant change in the way in which humans relate to nature. Through the creation of images, designers have the capacity to persuade their audience of what is possible. “...the  actual limits  of  what  is  achievable depend  in  part  on  the  beliefs  people  hold  about what sorts  of  alternatives  are  viable” (p.151).  Communicating Urgency Ursula K. Heise, an English professor at UCLA and an advo-cate for multi-species justice, uses science fiction as a didac-tic tool for understanding the present moment and imaging a post-human future. Heise argues that often science fiction may be understood as a rereading of the present disguised as a dystopian future, as the issues explored in speculative fiction are almost always already present. In this way, sci-ence fiction may teach us about the present moment with a sense of urgency that is not typically expressed in mass me-dia. Heise (2016) also recommends that science fiction be used to question human exceptionality through the expo-sure to fictional nonhuman characters (such as aliens) that have not co-evolved with humans. She explains that through science fiction, we may reflect on human-caused planetary transformation, and decide what it means to be human and "offer opportunities  for  redefining  it "(Heise, 2016, p.21). Finally Heise suggests that a purely scientific view in face of mass planetary species loss is not sufficient. "The goal, then, is to understand how endangered species and extinctions mean- that is, to go beyond understanding what they mean ecologically toward understanding how they mean cultur-ally. The future of endangered species and of biodiversity conservation is not, in the end, just a matter of science, but also and mainly one of histories, cultures, and values"(p.24).Both Dunne & Raby and Heise offer insight into how design-ers may co-opt the tools of science fiction with the goal of affecting large-scale change through design. Through narra-tive and cinematic technology found in science fiction films and literature, landscape architects may begin to represent a renewed relationship between humans and nonhumans.   A Rigged New World is a graduate project by Hannah Gaengler (2017) at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. This proj-ect explores a future vision of landscape in which human and non-human agents are given equal rights to their environ-ment. Gaengler describes a technocratic solution to environmental challenges that plague the 21st centu-ry. Her proposed solution to contemporary social and environmental problems is an Algorithm called “Mother Algorithm”. The Mother Al-gorithm is a “mathematical model of nature that would provide the guidelines for the governance of all life on earth” (Gaengler, 2017). She envisions the algorithm to be designed and devel-oped by an activist group of programmers and envi-ronmental extremists. In this model, “all life on earth, in-cluding humans, is ranked according to its contribution to the system it is a part of” (2017). The goal of this project is to stabilize earth’s ecological health so that humans and animals can continue to inhabit it. This graduate project will draws Gaengler’s use of specula-tive narrative to communicate a political message, and Dunne and Raby’s “excessively imaginative” design thinking to pro-pose an alternative to anthropocentrism and the associated environmental degradation. Project Title: Rigged New WorldAuthor: Hannah GaenglerCompletion Date: 2017Type: MLA Thesis Proj-ect, Art InstallationRelevance to this grad-uate project: graphic representation, use of Narrative description, discussion about land-scape architecture and the society vs. nature dichotomyPRECEDENT 4502090603 Section 4.2: References Anja Kempa’s drawings imagine an artificial spring in To-kyo. (2014, July 11). Retrieved December 05, 2018, from, D. (2014). Drawing and reinventing landscape. Wiley InterScience (Online service). Chichester, West Sus-sex: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Dunne, A., & Raby, F. (2013). SPECULATIVE EVERYTHING (pp. 159–189). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Heise, U. K. (2016). Multispecies Fictions for the Anthro-pocene. University of Chicago Press. LeGuin. (n.d.). Retrieved from New World. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from (n.d.).47INTERLUDEPart one of this Images of Earthly Survival: Other Natures of the Low Line has made the claim that representations of landscape are never neutral. A representation of reality is necessarily, at least in part, the product of the producer’s bias. As discussed, the choice of representational method and content is highly communicative, and historically these methods were used to communicate political and ideological messages. With this is in mind, this graduate seeks to co-opt the means of representation towards subversive ends. We can no longer base landscape interventions on the myth of returning the “natural world” to an edenic state. As long as humans continue to inhabit the earth, they will alter their en-vironments. Of crucial importance is the challenge of shifting the dominant narrative from one that sets humans outside of the landscape, to one that acknowledges that the landscape is a co-creation between human and nonhuman forces. This will require an adapted landscape image- a task that land-scape architects are uniquely positioned to tackle. As Donna Haraway (1991) states, “Who cyborgs will be is a radical ques-tion; the answers are a matter of survival” (p. 153). Part two of this graduate project will build on the theory and precedents cited in this booklet. The intention is not to propose a entirely new method of representation, as this may risk the same pitfalls as the methods critiqued here, but rath-er to revisit tradional methods that hold the capacity for tell-ing alternative stories. The second part of this graduate proj-ect will begin with a  case study of the Highline in New York City, exploring this project through the lens of social theory and critque.  nature as domesticated.01.01. 02. 03. 04.04.nature as threatening. city as nature.  nature as hope.nature as female.nature as political. nature as political. nature as political. nature as political. nature as god. nature as irrelevant. nature as apolitical.nature as domesticated.01.01. 02. 03. 04.04.nature as threatening. city as nature.  nature as hope.nature as female.nature as political. nature as political. nature as political. nature as political. nature as god. nature as irrelevant. nature as apolitical.51OTHER NATURES OF THE LOW LINET his project argues that visual representations of land-scape are used to communicate political and ideological agendas. These representations tend to depict nature as being separate from culture; treating humanity as malign and nature as benign. With greater historical prospective, however, the viewer understands that our relationship with nature is not so black and white. Whether remov-ing untidy nature from the frame to create a picturesque image, or erasing indigenous populations in order to cre-ate the image of an untouched wilderness, is it clear that representations of nature are not neutral, but absolutely political. This project makes the claim that the images of landscape that were born in the 17th and 18th centuries have set the scene for anthropocene (an era character-ized by unprecedented environmental degradation, spe-cies loss, and social inequities); and further that contem-porary landscape projects continue to perpetuate these images and are thus implicated in sustaining this trend in Western development. With retrospective awareness, however, landscape de-signers are presented with an opportunity: to either con-tinue to perpetuate an image of landscape that treats nature as a subordinate other, or to explore alternative representations that embrace nature as a collaborator. This work recognizes the power of image creation and storytelling, and asks designers what stories they intend to tell. Fig. 19 Lavender Lining (Anderson, 2019)05.NATURAL MYTHS05. Fig. 20: Semiotic Square: Natual Myths (Anderson, 2019)53To begin to speculate on how designers could represent their relationship to nature differently, it is essential to un-derstand how hegemonic groups in Western culture have historically represented their relationship with nature. I sug-gest that since European enlightenment, natural myths have tended to fall into 4 overarching categories:That Nature is female;  That Nature is god;  That Nature is irrelevant, and That Nature is apolitical. The first myth, that nature is female, nature is domesticated and fertile, and seen as an antidote to the English industrial city. This myth is best represented by the picturesque paint-ings of Claude Lorrain and the English landscapes such as Stowe. The second myth, that nature is god, nature is untouched and awe- inspiring - this myth is best represented in the sublime landscape paintings of the Hudson River school. In the third myth, that nature is irrelevant, the city or state has become nature (human nature). Technology and a re-source based industry supersedes non- human nature. This myths is represented by master planning works of Le Cor-busier or Ebenezer Howard.The fourth myth is that nature is politically neutral. Here nature signifies hope and a potential anti-dote for the as-sociated impacts of climate change. This myth is best rep-resented by Landscape Urbanist projects such as those by field operations like the High-Line. The topic of how Western representations of nature shapes the material environment is a layered and complicated (yet important) subject, that cannot be fully addressed with-in the scope of this graduate project. As such, this project does not aim to provide one final solution, but rather aspires to start a conversation about how contemporary landscape projects continue to perpetuate these myths (both through representation and formal design), and how through rec-ognizing these dichotomous tropes, designers may be em-powered to propose alternative myths. . This project proposes a fifth category of myth. One that rejects the notion that our relationship with nature is black and white, and em-braces the cyborg nature that the anthropocene has inherited (na-ture as neither fully natural or fully cultural). This myth, that nature is political, asks how design can assist nature and naturalized identities in gaining greater agency through co-opting the processes and tools of image creation that labeled them as other. This project considers four narratives that respond to the four aforementioned myths. 55This project uses the Highline as a microcosm of contemporary land-scape projects, and a starting point for the four counter narratives that are situated within the fifth category of myth, that nature is political.Through representing multiple narratives, this project rejects one singular interpretation of nature, and suggests that through a di-versity of interpretations, we can begin to gain a clearer picture the meaning of nature in the anthropocene. To quote Donna Haraway (1991), “ be other is to be multiple, without clear boundary, insub-stantial, frayed”.Fig. 21 HighLine Section: Har-vesting Apples (Anderson, 2019) *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version575.1 THE HIGHLINE: RECORDED NARRATIVE Since its redesign in 2009 by James Corner Field Op-erations & Diller Scofidio + Renfro, the Highline has been the subject of much critique and praise. Located in the former meatpacking district of NYC, this project has cap-tured global attention and has become the standard of success for landscape architecture projects. This site has been referred to as urban palimpsest, a site with a lay-ered history of unusual adjacencies, where wild cultural and ecological communities were free to thrive. Image and narrative were instrumental to the redesign of this elevated park in Chelsea. In the early 2000s, pho-tographer Joel Sternfeld captured idyllic photographs of an abandoned post- industrial structure that had been colonized by ruderal vegetation, creating an image of a new wilderness. A rare space of spontaneity and disor-der within the heavily ordered metropolis. The voluntary ecological community that occupied on the Highline pri-or to the redesign came to signify optimism: a hope that even in the most unnatural of places, that nature will find a way. Easing our anxieties about any impending eco-logical disasters. What is not captured in these photos, however, is the human community that inhabited this site.   *Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionFig. 22 Photograph from Walk-ing the Highline by Joel Stern-feld, 2000 (, n.d)*Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version*Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print versionIn the 80’s the High Line was host to a diverse population of addicts, artists, homeless, racialized, queer, or sexually non-conforming individuals seek-ing privacy (McEntee, 2012). By the early 90’s, New York’s meatpacking district was known as a site of sexual and artistic liberation. Like the picturesque and romantic landscapes of the past, the rede-signed Highline capitalizes on formerly alien human and nonhuman communities; the site’s wild history is domesticated and made legible through design, and any unruly characters are removed from the frame. Fig.23 Photograph by Gregoire Alessandri-ni, n.d (, n.d) 59*Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version*Redacted for digital     publication due to copyright. Visit UBC reading room for full print version This project picks up where the offi cial narrative left off, embracing the wild characters that have been oth-ered by the creation of this park, and seeks to rein-scribe their presence within the urban fabric under the guise of nature. In each counter story I have borrowed visual language from the winning competition panels from Field Operations and company, and have insert-ed this drawing style into these projects as a means of critique and contrast. Fig.25Children on a Harlem street, 1938. Hansel Mieth—The LIFE Picture Collec-tion/Getty Images, 2016)Fig.26Photograph from Walking the Highline by Joel Sternfeld, 2000 (, n.d)In this story, a group of labourers have orga-nized to collect apple seeds from the High-line, and redistribute them to New York’s low-est income neighbourhood of Mott Haven. The Bronx, where this reciprocal site for this project is located, was selected as this bor-ough receives the least resources towards park space in all of New York City. Further, as the picturesque landscapes of the past exclu-sively severed the ruling class, the Highline primarily serves the City  as a tourist amenity and space for the contemporary leisure class. As such this projects seeks to appropriate the aesthetic of the picturesque to benefi t the working class that has been historically oth-ered by these landscapes. Equipped with specialized apparel and knowl-edge of the Highline’s waste stream, members of this subversive crew divert seeds and compost to vacant lot in Mott Haven. Here the non-expert designs the planting, balancing requirements for food security, and aesthetic enjoyment. Through re-planting, the Apple is given greater agency through the opportunity to adapt to a new en-vironment and to increase its resiliency through biodiversity. The symbol of the Apple has had considerable signifi cance in Western history and has oft highlighted humanity’s shifting relation-ship with nature and morality. Here this symbol of fallen humanity no longer symbolizes our desire to return to the garden of Eden, but rather a de-sire to embrace the cyborg nature of our cities.  64Fig.27 (p.63) Fruit Forest in Mott Haven (Anderson, 2019)Fig.28 Seed Harvesting Instru-ments (Anderson, 2019)Fig.29 Fruit Forest Site Plan (Anderson, 2019)Just as the images of romantic landscapes of the 19th century have erased the histories of human and non human communities that inhabited these lands before colonization, much of the wilder history of this site is not made apparent in the site’s redesign. Follow-ing the war, Chelsea and the meatpacking district were marked as areas that are unde-sirable for investment through the process of redlining, and were host to a signifi cant amount of NYC’s social housing stock ((Inter-boro Partners, 2017). Housing unaffordability have made it challenging for many of these establishments and populations to remain on this site; particularly trans-gender commu-nities that historically experience dispropor-tionate rates of housing discrimination and homelessness in the United States. As real estate prices in Chelsea have gone up 103% since 2009 (McEntee, 2012), many queer es-tablishments have been priced out.Former owner of the nightclub Florent, two blocks from the Highline, describes a marked ef-fort to clean up the neighbourhood in the years leading up to the redesign. Although there is still a strong queer presence in Chelsea, as Darren Pat-rick (2017) explains in A Queer Urban Ecology of the High Line, the Highline’s queerness has been re-branded, and invoked as a cultural, economic and sustainable “added value,” attracting a demo-graphic of largely affl uent gay white men to set-tler here (Baker et al., 2017). In 2010, organizers of the long running fetish festival were forced to erect a wall so not to disturb park visitors, an il-lustrative example of the neighbourhoods shifting demographic (Interboro Partners, 2017).70Fig.30 (p.69) Lavender Fields (Anderson, Carruthers 2019)Fig.31 Lavender Planting Dia-gram (Anderson, 2019)Fig.32 (p.71) Lavender Planting Plan (Anderson, Niedoba 2019)More abstractly, this project draws parallels between the displacement of racialized hu-man populations in the 20th century city, and the “displanting” of indigenous plant species that took place during colonial expansion to the Americas (Barber, 2016). During coloni-zation, plants were taken from the colonies were brought back to European to be planted as ornamental species in gardens. Conversely, plants were brought to the colonies from Eu-rope, permanently transforming the Ameri-can landscape, making it increasingly difficult to define what constitutes a native planting. As such, this project asks if all planting for or-nament is a colonial endeavor, and what can landscape architects gain by acknowledging the shared history of displacement between plants and people? The planting palette detailed here (left) fea-tures plants that are native to the communities that were displaced by Moses’ expressways the 20th century; with species from the Caribbean, West Africa, Mexico, and the Southern United States.  Acknowledging the role that plants play in signifying who is welcome in a space and what programs are acceptable, in this proposal plants the challenge the rigidity of the agri-tec-ture system and the American planting aesthet-ic as proposed by the Highline’s garden design-er Piet Oudolf. 76Fig.33 (p.74-75) Stop and Smell the Moses - Perspective (Anderson, 2019)Fig.35 (p.77) Stop and Smell the Moses - Planting Plan (An-derson, 2019)Fig.34 Robert Moses with New Haven Plants (Anderson, 2019)80Fig.36 Other Natures of the Low Line - Cyborg Succession (Anderson, 2019)Section 5.0: ReferencesBaker, T., Corner, J., Brash, J., Birgen, P., Lindner, C., Larson, S., … Wesselmam, D. (2017). De-constructing the High Line: Postindustrial Urbanism and the Rise of the Elevated Park. Rutgers University Press.  Cowles, S. (n.d.). Ruderal Aesthetics. University of Southern California. Field Operations - project_details. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Garden Zones | The High Line. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Interboro Partners. (2017). The Arsenal of Inclusion and Exclusion. Actar. James Corner Field Operations, Diller, Scofidio and Renfro. (n.d.). The High Line. Phaidon. Lavender Lining | Urban Omnibus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from McEntee, P. (2012). Deconstructing the Highline: The Representation and Reception of Nature in Post-Industrial Urban Park Design (Master of Landscape Architecture). University of Colora-do Denver. New York, NY Neighborhood Map - Income, House Prices, Occupations - list of neighborhoods. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Oudolf, P., & Darke, R. (2017). Gardens of the High Line: Elevating the Nature of Modern Land-scapes. Timberpress. OUTgoing: Explore NYC’s historic gay nightlife. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Park Features | The High Line. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Ryan, A. (2018, December 1). The Legacy of Robert Moses. Retrieved April 26, 2019, from Ford-ham Political Review. website: Schwartz, M., & Gray, E. (2009). The Botany of Desire [Documentary]. Zaheer, B. (2016). The Plants of Empire: Botanic Gardens, Colonial Power and Botanical Knowl-edge. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 46(4). ANDERSON, REBECCASPRING, 2019001 “Cyborg [imaging] is about the power to survive, not on the basis of original innocence, but on the basis of seizing the tools to mark the world that marked them as other. The tools are often stories, retold stories, versions that reverse and displace the hierarchical dualisms of naturalized identities. In retelling origin stories, cyborg authors subvert the central myths of origin of Western culture. We have all been colonized by those origin myths, with their longing for fulfill-ment in apocalypse” (Haraway, 1991, p.175)


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