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Architectonic Allotropy : Towards Palimpsestic Preservation of UNESCO World Heritage Sites Zlatinis, Kosta 2019-04-26

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architectonic allotropyTowards PalimPsesTic PreservaTion of Unesco world HeriTage siTesKosta ZlatinisB.EnDs [Hons], University of British Columbia, 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecturein The Faculty of Graduate StudiesSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureArchitecture ProgramCommitteeMari Fujita [Chair]Leslie Van DuzerNicole SylviaRoy CloutierWe accept this report as conforming to the required standardMari Fujita  BA, MArchLeslie Van Duzer BA, MArch© Kosta Zlatinis | University of British Columbia | April 2019iTHESiS STATEMENTiiiABSTRACTiiAbstract. The regeneration of urban areas is a polemic discourse which re-establishes and redefines the complex (and ambiguous) relationships that bind the old and the new. The preservation of our built heritage renders architecture not just as brick and mortar, but a medium charged with economic, cultural and political value involving the struggle between the forces of technology and tradition, identity and memory, globalization and identity, city branding and tourism, and heritage and preservation.  Centuries of architectonic interventions resulted in the emergence of a palimpsest architectural expression that embeds the traces of two (or more) architectonic characteristics resulting in architecture with a successional space/time character. Operating at the intersection of design and activism, the architectonic allotropes can go beyond UNESCO’s repetitive mechanisms that make our architectural heritage operate as an actor of political agendas. This thesis is an attempt to propose strategies and devices capable of challenging these mechanisms of preservation and to identify an alternative method for restorative preservation to the hegemonic rules established by UNESCO’s World Heritage Preservation Program.  The possibility of allotropy fosters the mediation of relations between past and present - the lost, the ruin, and the new. Historical architectural works are subjugated to architectonic allotropy in their reconstruction in order to reveal the conflicts and dependencies that the restoration to the “original” conceals. In the same way, designs that are produced by allotropy attempt to reorganize societies they participate in so that these projects can act within the tensions and controversies they are part of.* allotropy. (from Greek αλλος (allos) meaning ‘other’ and τρόπος (tropos), meaning ‘manner’1 * polymorphism: the ability to assume different forms and shapes. (from Greek πολύς (poly-)  meaning ‘many’ and μορφή (morphḗ) meaning ‘form, shape’21. Allotropy. www.wikipedia.org. https://en.wiki-pedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greek,_Modern_lan-guage&action=edit&redlink=1 (accessed Aug.11, 2018). 2. Polymorphism. www.wikipedia.org. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/polymorphism (accessed Aug.11, 2018).Thesis. The widespread uniformity with which we preserve our architectural heritage and the freezing of a building in a particular time in history stimulates a marginalized architectural expression non-representative of the ethos that the building was preserved in.  UNESCO heritage sites and buildings are often described as places where “one can comprehend history”, yet most “world heritage sites” suffer from lack of authenticity. They are mausoleums of nostalgia in which the main exhibits are at the mercy of the tourist crowd. Architectonic allotropy* fosters polymorphic alterations of space and form and preserves the only heritage that can transcend time and remain authentic – the palimpsestic character of our built environment.p.104__Chapter 10. The Following Stories Did Not Happen.p.106__Chapter 10.1. Artifact and Habitat. Cheimarros Tower, Naxos.p.136__Chapter 10.2. Heliographic Diplomacy. Tower of Ro.p.160__Chapter 10.3. Hypostatic Union. Tower of St.Marina, Kea.p.174__Bibliography. p.184__Appendix 1: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites [The Venice Charter 1964].p.188__Appendix 2: Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Adopted by the General Conference at its seventeenth session Paris [16 november 1972].p.23__4.2. Globalization and Identity.p.24__4.3. City Branding and Tourism. p.25__4.4. Technology and Tradition.  p.26__Chapter 5: Epilogue. p.30__Chapter 6: Anthology of Palimpsests: A Primitive Typology Generation Through Precedents Studies.p.70__Chapter 7: Reflection.p.72__Chapter 8: Sites Introduction.p.94__Chapter 9: Methodology. p.96__9.1. Euthanasia.p.98__9.2. Metamorphosis.p.100__9.1. Allotropy.TABLE OF CONTENTSp.i__Title Page.p.ii__Abstract. [in-progress]p.iii__Thesis Statement.p.iv-v__Table of Contents.p.vi-xvii__List of Figures.p.02__Chapter I: Prologue. Field of Inquiry.p.03__Chapter 2: Relevance, Context, Position.p.04__2.1. Monuments and Myths.p.07__2.2. Monomorphism and Polymorphism.p.08__2.3. Objects and Actors. p.09__2.4. Forces of Preservation.p.10__2.5. Architectonic Allotropy. p.14__Chapter 3: Genealogy of Unobstructed Preservation.p.14__3.1. How we preserve?p.14__3.2. Spolia: Opportunistic Recycling as Preservation.p.15__3.3. Spolia: Preservation as Propaganda.p.16__3.4. Political Upcycling: From The Culture of Spolia to Cult of Relics.p.16__3.5. Religious Recycling: Subtractions and Additions.p.18__3.6. Identity Subtracting.p.20__Chapter 4: Towards Allotropic Preservation.p.22__4.1. Memory and IdentityTAble of conTenTs[ iv ]TABLE OF CONTENTSvivthumb/4/46/Cordoba_Cathedral_%286931812488%29.jpg/480px-Cordoba_Cathedral_%286931812488%29.jpgFig.15. Modified. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/demand-for-hagia-sophia-to-be-opened-for-prayer-inad-missible-says-top-court-136816Fig.16. Modified. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/demand-for-hagia-sophia-to-be-opened-for-prayer-inad-missible-says-top-court-136816Fig.17. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Olympieion2_copy.jpg/2560px-Olympie-ion2_copy.jpgFig.18. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DPVd0hUWkAItrHf.jpgFig.19. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DPViFmtWsAAN-L0c.jpgFig.20. Zlatinis, Kosta. Venn Diagram of Macro Relation-ships.Fig.21. Zlatinis, Kosta. Venn Diagram of Micro Relation-ships.Fig.22. Zlatinis, Kosta. Memory and Identity.Fig.23. Zlatinis, Kosta. Globalization and Identity.Fig.24. Zlatinis, Kosta. City Branding and Tourism.Fig.25. Zlatinis, Kosta. Technology and Tradition.Fig.26. Zlatinis, Kosta. Heritage and Preservation. Fig.28. Zlatinis, Kosta. Anthology of Palimpsests.Fig.29. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate.Fig.30. source: www.inexhibit.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Cologne-Cathedral-after-bomb-LiST OF FiGURESlisT offiguresARCHiTECTONiC ALLOTROPyFig.1. https://images.adsttc.com/media/imag-es/589a/9f93/e58e/ce4e/a300/0119/slideshow/Courtesy_of_Wikimedia_user_SteinsplitterBot_PD.jpg?1486528394Fig.2. https://2.bp.blogspot.com/_qpE5hNwi618/TMXd-ceKxKuI/AAAAAAAAKtQ/5EJM0N5BJD0/s1600/panag-ia+atheniotissa.jpg Fig.3. http://arthistoryresources.net/greek-art-archae-ology-2016/greek-art-archaeology-images/parthenon-mosque.jpgFig.4. https://greece.greekreporter.com/files/parthenon_explosion-of-1687.jpgFig.5. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com-mons/e/ee/Parthenon_1839.jpg Fig.6. https://d2v9y0dukr6mq2.cloudfront.net/video/thumbnail/SNhMHLLRej1qkinvl/videob-locks-4k-drone-shot-of-athens-acropolis-parthenon_sp-javplj_thumbnail-full01.pngFig.7. Zlatinis, Kosta. Forces of Preservation. Fig.8. Zlatinis, Kosta. Modified.Fig.9. http://agora.ascsa.net/id/agora/monument/post-herulian%20fortification%20wallFig.10. http://agora.ascsa.net/id/agora/monument/post-herulian%20fortification%20wallFig.11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constan-tine#/media/File:Constantine_arch_datation_en.svgFig.12. Modified. http://justfunfacts.com/interest-ing-facts-about-the-seville-cathedral/Fig.13. Modified. http://justfunfacts.com/interest-ing-facts-about-the-cordoba-cathedral/Fig.14. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/vi viiZHA_Port_House_Antwerp_∏Hufton_Crow_013.jpg?1474566231Fig.43. https://images.adsttc.com/media/imag-es/57e4/19ee/e58e/cef8/b400/0516/slideshow/atrium_∏_Tim_Fisher_2016.jpg?1474566585Fig.44. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tb-n:ANd9GcQdWN18LBMTGOFumZgTC16UNpVFEp-PbIQLxZj71c3gTB4eAbEMN7AFig.45. Zlatinis, Kosta. Doppelgangers.Fig.46. https://dynaimage.cdn.cnn.com/cnn/q_au-to,w_900,c_fill,g_auto,h_506,ar_16:9/http%3A%2F%2F-cdn.cnn.com%2Fcnnnext%2Fdam%2Fas-sets%2F180130154402-francois-prost-eiffel-tower.jpgFig.47. Zlatinis, Kosta. Exfoliate.Fig.48. https://calendarmedia.blob.core.windows.net/assets/55791e51-6a7c-4f02-bcc3-8dad324a2fed.jpgFig.49. https://www.architecturalrecord.com/ext/resources/issues/2018/March/News/1803-Per-spective-News-Newsmaker-Jorge-Otero-Pailos-01.jpg?1519145668Fig.50. Zlatinis, Kosta. Flood.Fig.51. http://st-ar.nl/wp-content/uploads/STAR_natali-ni_05.jpgFig.52. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ghosts.Fig.53. http://www.repstatic.it/content/localirep/img/rep-bari/2016/03/15/185241312-edec5c8a-2786-4533-b6ab-755731bcdde6.jpgFig.54. www.instagram.com/eduardotresoldiFig.55. Zlatinis, Kosta. Hack.LiST OF FiGURESing-1944-2.jpgFig.31. Zlatinis, Kosta. Program distribution.https://www.archdaily.com/72192/kolumba-musuem-pe-ter-zumthor/59-custom     Fig.32. Zlatinis, Kosta. EntrancesFig.33. https://www.inexhibit.com/wp-content/up-loads/2016/09/Kolumba-museum-Koln-Peter-Zumthor-floor-plans.jpgFig.34. https://www.inexhibit.com/wp-content/up-loads/2016/09/Kolumba-museum-Koln-interior-03.jpgFig.35. Modified. https://www.inexhibit.com/wp-con-tent/uploads/2016/09/Kolumba-museum-Koln-Pe-ter-Zumthor-04.jpgFig.36. https://www.inexhibit.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Kolumba-museum-Koln-Pe-ter-Zumthor-sections.jpgFig.37. Zlatinis, Kosta. Bridge.Fig.38. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cap.Fig.39. https://images.adsttc.com/media/imag-es/57e4/16dc/e58e/cef8/b400/0510/slideshow/ZHA_Port_House_Antwerp_∏Hufton_Crow_007.jpg?1474565778Fig.40. Modified. https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/57e4/1d9e/e58e/cef8/b400/051f/slideshow/ZHA_Port_House_Antwerp_LONG_SECTION.jpg?1474567572Fig.41. https://images.adsttc.com/media/imag-es/57e4/155d/e58e/cebe/f800/0c37/slideshow/ZHA_Port_House_Antwerp_∏Hufton_Crow_004.jpg?1474565401Fig.42. https://images.adsttc.com/media/imag-es/57e4/18a0/e58e/cef8/b400/0512/slideshow/LiST OF FiGURESviii ixFig.70. Modified. https://www.architecturalrecord.com/ext/resources/Issues/2015/Dec15/Building-Type-Stud-ies/1512-levitating-mass-CaixaForum-Estudio-Carme-Pi-nos-Zaragoza-Spain-99999.jpgFig.71. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tb-n:ANd9GcTaTZBX7Ex5vCEZLhhl4H1jp2C1p9LKsQanCX-Fn0KdPiiiOUNlPFig.72. https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watchFig.73. Zlatinis, Kosta. Nest.Fig.74. Zlatinis, Kosta. Organ Donors.Fig.75. Plattenbau, Berlin. http://www.bpb.de/ges-chichte/zeitgeschichte/deutschlandarchiv/233369/amne-siopolis-macht-raum-und-plattenbau-in-nordost-berlin.Fig.76. Reiner DeGraaf. Four Walls and a Roof. https://oma.eu/publications/four-walls-and-a-roof-the-complex-nature-of-a-simple-professionFig.77. Zlatinis, Kosta. Patches. Fig.78. https://d3rcx32iafnn0o.cloudfront.net/Pic-tures/2000x2000fit/3/2/8/1681328_WWM_Utrecht_53_ET_ready.jpgFig.79. https://archinect.imgix.net/uploads/8c/8cuqqeqa-nvtz7gjc.jpg?fit=crop&auto=compress%2Cfor-mat&w=615Fig.80. https://archinect.imgix.net/uploads/wq/wqcowks-dt6eohd4o.jpg?fit=crop&auto=compress%2Cfor-mat&w=615Fig.81. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/64/66/5c/64665cb-90ca6831e1fb253efa08ce1cb.jpgFig.82. Zlatinis, Kosta. Quantic.LiST OF FiGURESFig.56. https://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2013/12/Bun-ker-599-by-RAAAF_dezeen_2.jpgFig.57. https://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2013/12/Bun-ker-599-by-RAAAF_dezeen_5sq.jpgFig.58. Zlatinis, Kosta. Incrustations.Fig.59. https://arcspace.com/wp-content/uploads/Cro-pUp/-/media/950399/Ningbo-History-Museum-Ama-teur-Architecture-Studio-4.jpgFig.60. Zlatinis, Kosta. Join. Fig.61. Zlatinis, Kosta. Allotropy.Fig.62. Zlatinis, Kosta. Levitate. Fig.63. https://archileeg.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/10805193_10205541195315148_1298642300_n.jpgFig.64. https://images.divisare.com/images/f_auto,q_au-to,w_800/v1510069567/mr21wkmqvaf8prjfyrqh/her-zog-de-meuron-simon-garcia-arqfoto-caixa-forum-ma-drid.jpgFig.65. Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Obras_del_Caixaforum_Madrid.jpgFig.66. https://images.divisare.com/images/f_auto,q_au-to,w_800/v1/project_images/1363572/028_9298_-421/herzog-de-meuron-duccio-malagamba-caixaforum-ma-drid.jpgFig.67. https://archileeg.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/48.jpgFig.68. https://static.dezeen.com/up-loads/2008/05/0518368-421.jpgFig.69. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tb-n:ANd9GcTaTZBX7Ex5vCEZLhhl4H1jp2C1p9LKsQanCX-Fn0KdPiiiOUNlPLiST OF FiGURESx xiFig.96. https://twitter.com/ZheelaJ/sta-tus/607950827685347328/photo/1?ref_src=tws-rc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E607950827685347328%7Ctwgr%5E363937393b70726f64756374696f6e&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2F-www.theatlantic.com%2Finternational%2Far-chive%2F2015%2F06%2F3d-buddhas-afghani-stan%2F395576%2FFig.97. Tumbas, Jasmina. Yugoslavia Museum. https://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/news/popular-demand-yugoslav-socialist-architecture-muse-um-modern-art/Fig.98. Modified. Zlatinis, Kosta & Google. “Towers of the Aegean Sea, Greece. Fig.99. Google Earth. Naxos Island. Fig.100. https://www.kastra.eu/castleen.php?kastro=xei-maros Fig.101. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context: Cheimarros Tower Fig.102. Google Earth. Andros Island. Fig.103. https://www.androsroutes.gr/wp-content/up-loads/2016/03/15_path-1.jpgFig.104. Google Earth.Fig.105. Google Earth. Amorgos Island.  Fig.106. https://www.mygreekheart.com/wp-content/uploads/cache/images/-πύύύύύ-ύύύύύ-ύύύύύύύ-ύμύύύύύ/-πύύύύύ-ύύύύύ-ύύύύύύύ-ύμύύύύύ-1363849572.jpgFig.107. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context: Fig.108. Google Earth. Sifnos Island. Fig.109. http://sifnos-island.info/en/sifnos-white-tower/sifnos-sightseeing/708.htmlLiST OF FiGURESFig.83. Zlatinis, Kosta. Re-built.Fig.84. Shinto Shrine, Japan. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/ise.htmlFig.85. Zlatinis, Kosta. Subtraction.Fig.86. Keller Easterling. Subtraction Cover Page. https://www.amazon.com/Critical-Spatial-Practice-4-Subtrac-tion/dp/3956790464Fig.87. Modified. https://payload568.cargocollec-tive.com/1/1/44701/13660281/NyT-Democracy-Fi-nal-web_873.jpgFig.88. Zlatinis, Kosta. Parthenon Selfie Takers [Modi-fied].Fig.89. Zlatinis, Kosta. Wedge.Fig.90. https://www.rom.on.ca/sites/default/files/imce/ROM2004_1306_18.jpgFig.91. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com-mons/6/60/XROMandParkPlaza.jpgFig.92. https://www.arch2o.com/wp-content/up-loads/2013/04/Arch2o-Royal-Ontario-Museum-Stu-dio-Daniel-Libeskind-251.jpgFig.93. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/6a/92/e9/6a92e9687e870f91cb9d72d8d96e65e9.jpgFig.94. https://libeskind.com/wp-content/uploads/Lobby-with-crystalline-skylights-c-Michele-Nasta-si-1140x650.jpgFig.95. Modified: http://laresistance.news/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Bamiyan-Buddhas.jpeg & https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/624/media/images/81577000/jpg/_81577467_buddhas_pair.jpgLiST OF FiGURESFig.130. Zlatinis, Kosta. Allotropy.Fig.131. Zlatinis, Kosta. Anthology of Palimpsests.Fig.132. Zlatinis, Kosta. Map of the Aegean Sea.Fig.133. Modified. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context of Naxos.Fig.134. Zlatinis, Kosta. Naxos - Deeper Context.Fig.135. Zlatinis, Kosta. Naxos - Deeper Context. Fig.136. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cheimarros Tower Context.Fig.137. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cheimarros: Euthanasia.Fig. 138. Zlatinis, Kosta. The Ruin as habitat.Fig.139. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cheimarros: Metamorphosis.Fig.140. Zlatinis, Kosta. Allotropic Stages. Fig.141. Cheimarros: Allotropy.Fig.142. Zlatinis, Kosta. Bridge. Section. Fig.143. Zlatinis, Kosta. Bridge. Interior.Fig.144. Zlatinis, Kosta. Bridge. Floor Plans.Fig.145. Zlatinis, Kosta. Live-in space: Arrow slits.Fig.146. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cheimarros. Levitate: View from Birdwatching tower.Fig.147. Zlatinis, Kosta. Cheimarros. Levitate. Circulation.Fig. 148. Zlatinis, Kosta. Levitated ruin artifacts form the circulation of the birdwatching/visitors tower.Fig. 149. Zlatinis, Kosta. Levitated stones from the ruins connect back to the ancient tower through a bridge.LiST OF FiGURESFig.110. Google Earth. Fig.111. Google Earth. Serifos Island. Fig.112. https://www.gtp.gr/showphoto.asp?FN=/MG-files/location/image15145[1798].jpg&W=650&H=400Fig.113 Google Earth.Fig.114. Google Earth. Kea Island. Fig.115. http://images.greece.com/panora-mio/07/21/05/08/59720af0b3c65.jpgFig.116. Google Earth.Fig.117. Google Earth. Ikaria Island. Fig.118. http://www.island-ikaria.com/photos/sites/Dra-kanoFortress3.jpgFig.119. Google Earth. Fig.120. Google Earth. Kastellorizo Island. Fig.121. https://www.kastra.eu/pics/paleo-kasteloriz3.jpgFig.122. Google Earth. Fig.123. Google Earth. Ro Island.  Fig.124. https://www.kastra.eu/pics/ro.jpg Fig.125. Google Earth. Fig.126. Google Earth. Strongyli Island. Fig.127. Google Earth. Fig.128. Zlatinis, Kosta. Euthanasia.Fig.129. Zlatinis, Kosta. Metamorphosis.LiST OF FiGURESxii xiiiFig.169. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro: Allotropy.Fig.170. Zlatinis, Kosta. The Twing Gyms.Fig.171. Zlatinis, Kosta. Map of the Aegean. Fig.172. Modified. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context of Kea.Fig.173. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context of St.Marina.Fig.174. Zlatinis, Kosta. Kea - Deeper Context. Fig.175. Zlatinis, Kosta. St.Marina Tower Context.Fig.176. Zlatinis, Kosta. St.Marina: Euthanasia.Fig.177. Zlatinis, Kosta. St.Marina: Metamorphosis.Fig.178. Zlatinis, Kosta. St.Marina: The In-between.Fig.179. Zlatinis, Kosta. St.Marina: Allotropy.Fig.150. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate: Ancient and New.Fig.151. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate: Floor Plans.Fig.152. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate: Section.Fig.153. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate: Interiors.Fig.154. Zlatinis, Kosta. Amalgamate: Allotropic Floor Plans.Fig.155. Zlatinis, Kosta. Map of the Aegean. Fig.156. Heliograph. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliograph#/media/File:Heliograph-2.jpgFig.157. Zlatinis, Kosta. Context of Ro.Fig.158. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro - deeper Context.Fig.159. Zlatinis, Kosta. Tower of Ro Context.Fig.160. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro: Euthanasia.Fig.161. Zlatinis, Kosta. Organ Donors: Hacking.Fig.162. Zlatinis, Kosta. Organ Donors: Loading.Fig.163. Zlatinis, Kosta. Organ Donors: Exchange.Fig.164. Zlatinis, Kosta. Organ Donors: Exchange Military Parade in the middle of the disputed exclusive economic zone.Fig.165. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro: Metamorphosis. Fig.166. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro: Doppelganger Greece. Fig.167. Zlatinis, Kosta. Ro: Doppelganger Turkey. Fig.168. Zlatinis, Kosta. The Ruin asa Communication Device.xiv xvTo Antonia Nacheva-Zlatinis - a force of nature, an endless inspiration, an intellectual which inspires every breath in me.To Georgios Christo Zlatinis for introducing me to the world of buildings, aesthetics, politics, music, and social awareness. To Maria Konstantinou Lioliou-Zlatini for showing me the value of hard work, strong character, and fostering my curiosity and love of knowledge. DEDiCATiONdedicATionARCHiTECTONiC ALLOTROPyThAnk youARCHiTECTONiC ALLOTROPyi want to thank my committee members Mari Fujita [chair], Leslie Van Duzer, and Nicole Sylvia for sharing a glimpse of their sea of knowledge and being an endless inspiration in the preparation of this thesis. Thanks are also due, as ever, to the people who have employed me as their Teaching Assistant, and helping me gain [as well as spread] knowledge: Leslie Van Duzer, Kees Lockman, Mari Fujita & Blair Satterfield, Patrick Condon, Dharini T. & Patricia Rios, Neal LaMontagne, and John Bass. Thank you - my first studio professor Daniel Roehr for instilling to right habits, Bill Pechet for show-ing me that poetry has spatial expressions, Joe Dahmen for provoking me to always question my design views, Chris MacDonald for sharing his vast knowledge on things that matter, John Bass for showing me that architecture has to touch the lives of marginalized communities, Sherry McKay, Sara Stevens, and Joe Watson for the most entertaining history lectures, Adam Rysanek for his energy and dedication, Thena Tak for showing me that archi-tecture has a sense of humour, Nicole Sylvia & Roy Cloutier for inspiring me to set my scholarship stan-dard high, Leslie for being a mentor and inspiration to always go beyond and do better, and Mari for provoking me to dig deep and question everything I produce [and being an absolute style OG]. Last, but not least - ‘thanks’ is due to the people who helped me produce my final presentation - Jordan Haylor, Shijia Lui, Kaili Sun, and all the SALA volunteers [you know who you are]. Tracy Satterfield, Jaynus O’Donnell, and Theresa Juba - thank you for accommodating all my ridiculous re-quests and making my SALA experience a breeze!xvi xviixviiiArchiTecTonicAlloTropyTOWARDS PALiMPSESTiC PRESERVATiON OF UNESCOWORLD HERiTAGE SiTES.©  Kosta Zlatinis | APR 2019 | UBC2 3“...architecture carries within itself the traces of its future destruction, the already past future, future perfect, of its ruin...it is haunted, indeed signed, by the spectral sil-houette of this ruin, at work even in the pedestal of its stone, in its metal or its glass.” 1.1Jacques Derrida The city is the eternal construction site. Its fabric is in a permanent form of adjustment.The predominant majority of archi-tectural work and research fixates on the new as a means to the future of the profession. In contemporary culture newness is value. Lately, newness mixed with nostalgia is continuously requested.  “Memory is an experience of the present; nostalgia always tells us more about the present than it does about the past.” 1.2Davis, Shaw, Chase Architectural nostalgia more often finds its deposit in heritage pres-ervation. Adaptive re-use, for the most part, is the medium satisfying that obsession. The essence of preservation is to remain productive to the extent that next generations understand history to form their identity. Naturally, such produc-tivity relies on a series of polemic decisions involving the question of why we preserve, what needs to be preserved (what is architectural heritage), and how we preserve?prologue[1]proLogue1.1. Derrida , Jacques and Hanel, Hilary P.  Assemblage No. 12 (Aug., 1990), pp. 6-13. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3171113 (accessed Sept.1, 2018).1.2. Cairns, Stephen & Jacobs, Jane M. “Ruin“ Buildings Must Die. Cambridge, MA: 2014, p.103-134.History finds it deposit in Architecture. The coexistence of two or more different entities – one from the past, the other from the recent that through their amalgamation are able to engender a new spatial and formal translation that is different from the originally conceived. The notion of cause effect relationship between two objects – the old and the new is crucial for their symbiosis. The dialectic relationship between the historic heritage and the new addition can bring about transformations that manifest the true evolutionary character of Architecture. “We have a mental need to grasp that we are rooted in the continuity of time, and in the man-made world it is the task of architecture to facilitate this experience. Architecture domesticates limitless space and enables us to inhabit it, but it should likewise domesticate endless time and enable us to inhabit the continuum of time.”Juhani Pallasmaa 2.1  History is a narrative, not a mere collection of artifacts. Architecture embodies social change. Throughout history buildings evolved in a palimpsestic manner creating a narrative for the past. Such a type of evolution is not only what it preserved them but it also made them relevant on a local and global scale. The notion that in order to preserve a building we need to restore it to its “original” [thus freeze it in a certain time period] and admire releVANCe, CoNTeXT, poSITIoN[2]2.1. Palasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin. London: Wiley, 2005. 35-36.RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNFig.1. Parthenon [432BC]. Fig.2. Church of Parthenas Maria [790]. Fig.3. The mosque [1500s].4 5RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNits museum-like-embalmed-body needs to be rethought – and that means not allowing for a total rejection of preservation - a gesture that traces our architectural legacy, but fostering preservation that is relevant to humanity’s layers of deposition and it reflects the current cultural, economic, and political ethos of human settlements.Monuments and Myths.“Myth is not defined by the object of its message, but by the way in which it utters this message: there are formal limits to myth, there are no ‘substantial’ ones.” 2.2Roland Barthes Human settlements are culturally richer when their architecture has a physical dialogue between the historical and the contemporary. our contemporary social value systems often tend to use our built heritage in a capacity that creates and propagates modern myths. Winy Mass in his “Badass Architectural Copy Guide” challenges Sullivan’s mantra “form follows function” by taking a Darwinian stance and stating that in nature “there are no functions without forms.” Furthermore, Maas clarifies that what Sullivan meant was “form follows purpose.” 2.3 restorations are always political acts that can never remain objective, unbiased and neutral. often political agenda is the diagnostic tool used to identify what needs to be preserved. For example, the Parthenon and the whole of the Acropolis Hill of Athens since 1987 are inscribed in UNESCo’s World Heritage Sites 2.2. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies: The Com-plete edition in a New translation, New York: Hill and Wang, 2013.2.3. Maas, Winy & Madrazo, Felix. Copy Paste: The Badass Architectural Copy Guide. Rotterdam: The Why Factory, 2018, p. 33.due to their “outstanding universal value.” UNESCo’s criterion for admission page only mentions the structures built during the 5th Century BC. The chapters “Authenticity” and “integrity” are only preoccupied with the site’s 5th Century structures. 2.4However, its history is significantly richer than what its remains suggest. The Parthenon [Fig.1] was a treasury/temple until the 6th Century when its entrance was reoriented east, and it became the Church of virgin Mary [Parthenas Maria] rendering it the fourth most famous Christian Pilgrimage destination after Constantinople, ephesus, and Thessalonica [Fig.2].2.5 in the 11th Century after the Latin occupation for 200 years the temple became the Catholic Church of our Lady. 2.6 From the 14th Century on the temple was a mosque – the structure was extended with minarets, a minbar was installed [Fig.3]. in 1687, during Francesco Morosini’s expedition to “free” Athens, the ottomans used the building as a gunpowder magazine, and it exploded during 2.4. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/4042.5. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon, accessed Sept.23, 20182.6. ibid.2.7.ibid. RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNFig.6. Parthenon Restoration [2018]Fig.4. Gunpowder Magazine Explosion [1687].Fig.5. Parthenon [layers] [1839].6 7RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNthe fights [Fig.4].2.7 After the independent Greek stated gained control of the site the area still had the remains from all the political and historical adjustments to the temple [Fig.5]. During the 1970s the greek state decided to restore it to the “original” essentially erasing all the visual cues from the “uncomfortable” historical periods of the site. The palimpsest of the parthenon has only the layers from 432BC and the new intervention [Fig.6].Monomorphism and polymorphism. 2.8  For generations, Architects deposit new layers onto buildings and cities. Throughout the ages increasingly their work became more about mediation and negotiation with [and between] the political, cultural and economic forces of society. At a steady pace, the profession of the architect shifted from designers of monuments into designers of culture. For millennia the profession has enjoyed unrestricted freedom for spatial alterations. When an architectural artifact from previous generations [or cultures] needed to be adjusted to the current political and cultural demand, monomorphic restrictions were never the solution due to their inability to express the zeitgeist of shifting culture and the evolution of building craft and traditions. Since the establishment of UNESCo’s World Heritage Committee, a discourse on authenticity and integrity started to resurface in the profession. Authenticity was first addressed in the venice Charter of 1965 and with the Nara document of 1994. 2.9 integrity was addressed in 1972 at UNESCo’s World Heritage Convention. Buildings not protected as a monument of culture or as a built heritage (“not listed buildings”) can transform depending on the vision of the architect/community and how attentive they are towards any of the previous stages of the building. The only architectural interventions on listed heritage buildings and sites came in the form of maintenance as preservation or partial/complete restorations. What those attempts on preservation managed to accomplish is enforcing a prescribed monomorphism which enforces architectural anachronism 2.10 – the building stopped to belong in the period that it exists due to its inability to change its form and adapt to contemporary cultural demands.  The ongoing approach towards authenticity and integrity is mostly preoccupied with the genuineness of the material (existing and used in the restoration) and the integrity with respect to the “original” version. Historically when times 2.8. polymorphism is the ability to assume different forms and shapes. (from Greek πολύς (poly-) meaning ‘many’ and µορφή (morphḗ) meaning ‘form, shape’; monomor-phism is the opposite.2.9. UNESCo. www.unesco.org (accessed oct.12, 2018). 2.10. Anachronism [from Greek “ana”, “against” and “khronos”, “time”] a thing belonging or appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists.RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNFig.7. Contemporary Forces of Preservation.unescoicomworldheritagecommitteegettyiccromicomos8 9RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNpolitics and society are authentic to their time.objects and Actors.“There are two basic kinds of knowledge about things: we can explain what they are made of, or explain what they do. The inevitable price of such knowledge is that we substitute a loose paraphrase of the thing for the thing itself.” 2.12 Graham Harman  Fundamentally, architecture is the act of creating objects out of parts that can engender spatial and cultural meanings. The problematic aspect of the current UNESCo rule implementations is that even though it states that it accounts for cultural meanings, in reality, it treats buildings strictly as a sum of parts and it expects that by restoring those parts the cultural significance of a given building will magically emerge. graham Harman in his opus magna “immaterialism: objects and Social Theory” defines 2.11. Synchronism - [from Greek “syn”, “with” and “khronos”, “time”] a thing belong-ing or appropriate to the period in which it exists. 2.12. Harman, Graham. immaterialism: objects and Social Theory.  Malden, MA: Polity, 2016, p.5-7.change - buildings adapt, this is the parameter of architecture that helps us interpret cultural expressions and shifts in society and human settlements. Instead of worrying which version is more authentic, which version gets to be preserved, preservationists need to address the matter of how to have preservation that is inclusive to all the layers deposited on a given building throughout its existence in order to counter political agenda. Moreover, more importantly, to embed the possibility for further deposition of new layers in order to make sure that our built heritage stays synchronous. Allowing listed heritage building to evolve in a non-prescriptive polymorphic manner and freeing them from the chains of UNESCo’s draconic rules will ensure their cultural synchronism. 2.11 Furthermore, such polymorphism ensures that the palimpsestic traditions of building evolution, while also allowing us to trace the layers of cultural values and traditions embedded in a building. All additive layers become part of the original since they represent the zeitgeist of culture, the contemporary meanings of undermining [reducing to parts], overmining [reducing to effects], and duomining [reducing to parts and then study their effects]. He explains the problematic aspect of undermining an object by merely reducing it to parts and by doing so we “cannot account for the relative independence of objects from their constituent pieces or histories, a phenomenon better known as emergence.” 2.13 UNESCo’s way of preservation through replacement of parts only manages to achieve is to satisfy exclusionary and selective political agendas that rely on the pornography of the ruin. Forces of preservation.“Sometimes the west is obsessed with the idea of progress, sometimes with the idea of decline, and sometimes both notions fall off the radar entirely.” 2.14 Mario Carpo preservation as a socio-political and subsequently as an architectural movement started in the early 17th century, however, it manifested itself in the nationalism infused late 19th century. it was an attempt of establishing a new identity in the newly-formed European countries. Following the devastating destruction of cities and their built environment during WWII led to the establishment of the united Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural organization (UNESCo) that presides over World Heritage Sites and is invested in “safeguarding the world monuments from destruction and decay.” 2.15 Furthermore, UNESCo defines World’s Architectural 2.13. Harman, Graham. immaterialism: objects and Social Theory.  Malden, MA: Polity, 2016, p.7. 2.14. Carpo, Mario. Carpo, Mario. The Alpha-bet and The Algorithm. Cambridge, MA: MiT Press, 2011., p.106.2.15. UNESCo. https://en.unesco.org/content/preserving-our-heritage] (accessed oct.19, 2018)2.16. ibid.2.17. ibid.RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioN10 11RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNa certain amount of demolition work to be done. The rules imposed by UNESCo/iCoMoS [see attached Appendix 1] allow for very little intervention and enforce a monomorphic model of preservation. However, most buildings stand today because they were able to change and adapt to contemporary demands. There is a paradox produced by such a method of preservation. The ruin’s future is secured, but also its cultural obsolescence is ensured by the pause of its evolution, essentially postponing its endangerment. Architectonic Allotropy 2.19  “The right to the city is far more than the individual liberty to access urban resources: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city. The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is…one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.” 2.20David HarveyHeritage as “a source of identity, heritage is a valuable factor for empowering local communities.” 2.16 Since 1964, UNESCo is advised on the matters of World Heritage Sites by the international Council on Monuments and Sites (iCoMoS),2.17 which in turns gets an input from The international Centre for the Study of the preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property [iCCRoM], The international Council of Museums [iCoM], and The J. paul getty Trust (The geTTY - a cultural and philanthropic organization dedicated to the visual arts) [Fig.7]. 2.18 in architecture context is essential, its evolution is the reference point of any intervention. Apart from the cases that our heritage becomes a collateral victim of natural disasters and armed conflicts, the governing majority of restorative preservation caters to the political ambitions of identity readjustment of a given state yielding reconstructs that are meaningless connections to the past. The problem starts when a site/ruin is “listed” because every adaptation or intervention (no matter how sensitive it is) requires 2.18. UNESCo. https://en.unesco.org/content/preserving-our-heritage] (accessed oct.19, 2018).2.19. Allotropy - from Greek αλλος (allos) meaning ‘other’ and τρόπος (tropos), meaning ‘manner’1. 2.20. Harvey, David. Social Justice and the City. London: Blackwell, 1973, p.57-60. Cultural succession and the side-by-side flourishing of two traces of cultures seems now an accepted fact, it is a part of contemporary society’s consciousness. However, the presence of two contradictory sets of values-the political and the cultural, one not fully accepted and the other not totally rejected gives rise to a conflict plaguing the process of preservation. Culture is partially stabilized by nonhuman objects [as in not being human]. Buildings, being the epitome of human intervention, are often emblazoned as the anchors of human civilization. Buildings have their own form of atomism, their physical composition is achieved by putting parts together. The parts of a given building, by the essence of their definition, are objects themselves. Therefore, it is safe to assume that the physical manifestation of a building is an object made of smaller objects. Allotropy (from Greek ‘allos’ meaning ‘other’ and ‘tropos,’ meaning ‘manner’) is used in chemistry to describe the paradox of existence of two or more different physical manifestations of a chemical element based on the composition of its building blocks [atoms]. 2.21  Architectonic Allotropy is the process [and phenomenon] by which a system of restorative architectural interventions produce something other than the exact literal representation of a building’s original form, space and materiality. In this thesis, allotropy is the mapping of the ruin’s palimpsestic character as a catalyst for its restoration and preservation.  Buildings lose their functions. Sometimes that leads to their 2.21. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the “Gold Book”) (1997). online corrected version: (2006–) “Allotrope”.Fig.8. Allotropy and palimpsests.RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioN12 13RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNpalimpsests of space and time. However, not all architectonic allotropes are created equal. Architecture is often misunderstood if we reduced its physical components [parts] to their political effects. A useful architectonic allotrope is achieved not through the widespread uniformity of preservation of form, colour, mass, and materiality but by examining its meaning through a process of duomining. First objects are made into particles[undermining] and they are studied as cultural mediators, then after understanding the cultural relationships of those particles their cultural effects are examined [overmining] in order to align them with contemporary meanings. An ideal allotrope of UNESCo Built Heritage “monument” restoration is the version that establishes a symbiosis between the ruin and the new that blends the past meaning of the building/site with the cultural expressions of contemporary society. restorations that attempt to reverse time and produce a reconstruct that exists in past tense have passive agency. Eventually, `destruction and transformation into ruins. every social object after its demolition has a point of no return, and it has an inherent limitation of relationality. Grafting the ruin left behind by a building into an approximate butaforic replica of the past is not much more authentic than restoring it through contemporary cultural and technological traditions. Graham Harman, one of the founders of object-oriented ontology, argues, in his concept of finitude, that “relation to an object cannot be translated into direct and complete knowledge of an object.” 2.22 Furthermore, he asserts that since all object relations distort their related objects, every relation is an act of translation, and no object can correctly translate another object into its nomenclature. 2.23 Some translations are genuine to the ideas of the past, some to the ideas of the present. The allotropes of a restored architectural heritage engender a plethora of tectonic adjustments and material explorations that are generated through the acceptance that buildings are cultural 2.22. Harman, Graham (2011). Quentin Meil-lassoux: Philosophy in the Making. Edinburgh University Press .Edinburgh, 2011. p. 134.2.23. Wiki. 2.x. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/object-oriented_ontology#CiTEREFBryan-tHarmanSrnicek2011they lose their ability to mediate the continuity of traditions due to the fact that in their attempts to resurrect the “original” ends up being a partial replicant with a narrow scope of agency with an inability to establish a link between past and present architectural traditions. A built heritage that can evolve and readapt to the current socio-economic and cultural zeitgeist has an active agency due to its ability to embed the traces of layers of depositions of a given society(s). The most significant disadvantage of UNESCo’s prescribed form of preservation through restoration is the treatment of architectural objects and artifacts solely as actors, forgetting that a thing acts because it exists instead that exist because it acts. The most alluring aspect of the architectonic allotropes is their ability to shift the role of our build heritage from an actor towards a mediator. rather than focusing on reproducing exact replicas of the past, allotropy stimulates explorations that result in [or are a result of] the interaction between multiple timelines, operating at different temporalities. The higher the contrast between those timelines, the clearer the re-articulation of the built heritage.RELEvANCE, CoNTExT, PoSiTioNFig.9. Athens Fortification Walls.Fig.11. Athens Fortification Walls.14 15How we preserve? We live in a dynamic world. Change is the only constant. Architecture evolves in order to reflect the prevailing social, cultural, and political ideas of the present. Throughout history buildings were a subject to volumetric adjustments, they have experienced subtractions, additions, and extensions. All adjustments were violent in their essence, and the agency of architecture [for the most part] was to serve higher political force. No matter how high the quality of the materials and craft of a built project, no building can survive the test of time. often maintenance comes in the form of preservation. Such maintenance was stimulated by the desire of keeping the building “alive” for social, cultural, and often political or religious purposes.Spolia3.1: opportunistic recycling as preservation. in 267 the invading Heruli destroyed several public buildings in Athens leaving a plethora of stone piles. The Athenians saw an opportunity to use the ruins as an urban quarry of already cut stones to create a large fortification wall that encompassed the remaining important civic buildings [Fig.9 & 10]. The wall is made of almost entirely from the architectural elements of the destroyed buildings – “marble architrave blocks, Ionic and Doric columns, inscriptions, and statue bases were all used to make two solid faces, while the interior was filled with rubble.” 3.2 geNeAlogy oF uNoBSTruCTeDpreSerVATIoN[3]GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioN3.1. Spolia - repurposed building stone for new construction, or decorative sculpture reused in new monuments, is the result of an ancient and widespread practice whereby stone that has been quarried, cut, and used in a built structure, is carried away to be used elsewhere3.2. Agora. http://agora.ascsa.net/id/agora/monument/post-herulian%20fortifica-tion%20wall (accessed Aug.18, 2018).Spolia: preservation as propaganda. The Arch of Constantine is a prime example of political propaganda masked as preservation. Dedicated in 315, the arch celebrates Constantine’s victory over his rival Emperor Maxentius. 3.3 However, at the spot, there was a structure of an arch that was erected during the time of Hadrian.  What Constantine did was, instead of demolishing it, he ordered the arch to be rebuilt [“restored”] with the vast majority of the structural elements taken from the arches of Trajan and Hadrian [Fig.11]. Prominent symbols of power – the statues and reliefs portraying the faces of The embeds created an amalgam that informed future generations of the lost while metaphorically preserving the destroyed built legacy infusing it with new meaning through new function.Fig.10. Athens Fortification Walls.3.3. Ferris, iain (2013). The Arch of Constan-tine: Inspired by the Divine. Stroud: Amber-ley Publishing Limited., 2013. (accessed oct, 1, 2018).GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioN16 17GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioNthe emperors were reworked to resemble Constantine’s face. 3.4political upcycling: From The Culture of Spolia to Cult of relics.Constantine’s political collage, described in the previous chapter, marked the beginning of the trend of architectural recycling in antiquity. The ensued architectural mishmash was so alarming that in order to preserve the authenticity of their imperial monuments, the romans implemented laws of preservation, conceiving the first rules of preservation. 3.5religious recycling: Subtractions and Additions. Auildings were able to preserve them in times of cultural and political shift. In the case of the Roman-Catholic Cathedral of Coedoba, initially completed in 1198 was known as the Great mosque of Cordoba up until 1248 [Fig.12]. 3.2 After the reconquista, the minarets were removed and it was converted to a Catholic church, which in a way it saved the building from destruction from the Christian devotees [Fig.13]. 3.7 However, the most important metamorphosis of such act is its ability to adapt the building to the new cultural understandings of the iberian Peninsula, leaving behind a palimpsest with the traces of Moorish architectural traditions mixed with Christian [roman and subsequently Gothic] building traditions. Since its listing 3.4. Ferris, iain (2013). The Arch of Constan-tine: Inspired by the Divine. Stroud: Amber-ley Publishing Limited., 2013. (accessed oct, 1, 2018).3.5. Alchermes, Joseph. “Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Ratio-nales and Architectural Reuse”, Dumbarton oaks Papers, vol. 48 (1994), pp. 167-178 (accessed oct.1, 2018)Fig.12. The Great Mosque of Cordoba.Fig.13. Cathedral of our Lady of the Assumption.3.6. Wikipedia. https://https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosque–Cathedral_of_Córdoba [accessed oct.5, 2018]3.7. ibid.the cathedral has experienced a functional transcendence and has fallen into the hands of the tourist industry, where tourists are the predominant majority of the visitors and the locals avoid its long cues at all cost [Fig.14]. A similar narrative underlines the additions of minarets in the case of Hagia Sophia [Fig.15]. Built in 537, after the fall of Constantinople to Mehmet ii in 1453 the orthodox Christian temple was transformed into a mosque [Fig.16]. According to the account of pero Tafur the temple, before the conquest, was in a “dilapidated state.” 3.8 What the ottomans were able to achieve with the conversion was saving it from oblivion, and furthermore, the building technology implemented in the temple influenced generations of ottoman architects. in 1935 the mosque was turned into a museum, the Christian mosaics were revealed for the first time since the conquest of the city. That was the most radical intervention on the building since its conversion to a mosque [besides the 1847 rennovation of Gaspari and guiseppe Fossati], however, it allowed for the enhanced existence Fig.15. Hagia Sophia Church [537].Fig.16. ottoman imperial Mosque [1453].Fig.14. Cathedral of Cordoba.3.8. Tafur, Pero (1926). Travels and Adven-tures, 1435–1439. Trans. M. Letts. London: G. Routledge. pp. 138–148. GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioNFig.19. Temple of olympian Zeus [2017]Fig.17. Temple of olympian Zeus.Fig.18. Stylites addition [1833].18 19GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioN3.9. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia#cite_ref-37 (accessed oct.5, 2018).3.10.Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tem-ple_of_olympian_Zeus,_Athens. (accessed Aug.18, 2018).3.11. ibid.3.12. ibid.building material for the erection of the fortification walls of the recovered city. 3.11Under the Byzantine rule, stylites 3.12 built a small prayer structure of both Cristian and Muslim layers of the building in one space. 3.9Identity Subtraction.The largest religious building in Ancient greece, the Temple of olympian Zeus [Fig.17] was conceived during the 6th century BC. However, it was not finished until Hadrian’s rein in 2nd century AD. 3.10 one hundred years later, during the invasion of Athens by the Heruli, the temple was destroyed, and it was never re-build “donating” some of the on top of one of the 104 surviving columns [Fig.18]. in medieval times, one of the few surviving marble columns was crushed in order to make plaster that was to be used in the building of a mosque. 3.13 in the nationalism infused 19th century, after the greco-Turkish War of Independence, the newly minted greek state used the ruins of the temple as a means for the readjustment of culture, demolished the stylite’s structure and erased all non-Hellenistic layers deposited on the building throughout its centuries of existence [Fig.19].3.13. Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tem-ple_of_olympian_Zeus,_Athens. (accessed Aug.18, 2018).GENEALoGy oF UNoBSTRUCTED PRESERvATioNTHESIS RHIZOMEDIAGRAM OF MACRO THREADS INFORMING THE POSSIBILITY OF ARCHITECTONIC ALLOTROPYheritage+preservationculture economypoliticsFig.20. Diagram of Macro RelationshipsTHESIS RHIZOMEDIAGRAM OF MICRO THREADS INFORMING THE POSSIBILITY OF ARCHITECTONIC ALLOTROPYheritage+preservationcity branding+tourismglobalisation+identitymemory+identitytechnology+traditionidentityFig.21. Diagram of Micro Relationships20 21“The promise of higher profits, changes in people’s lifestyles, and new political regimes turn out to be the most powerful opponents of built objects.” 4.1 Theo Deutinger The Shifting of any inquiry towards preservation through palimpsests - an alternative form of UNESCo’s version of preservation of built heritage is the most critical aspects of architectonic allotropy. However, it is not just a way of justifying that anything goes but rather that the preservation of world heritage sites and buildings must be achieved through different criteria. A criteria that res-onate with contemporary socio-cultural factors that allow for the addition of new architectonic lay-ers that resonate with contemporary culture. The concept it is based on the understanding that the transformation from a ruin that is a feature of the landscape towards a building that embodies the cultural values of a society can only be meaningful when the restoration embeds the current cultural demands and building traditions. By rejecting the restoration to the “original” and allowing the possibility of an allotrope of the original, architecture can counter the freezing in time a human artifact that can best demonstrate the palimpsestic nature of human settlements, while managing to preserve them for future generations. The city is a “product of many builders who are constantly ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioN4.1. Deutinger Theo. Handbook of tyranny. Zurich: Lars Muller Publishers, 2018, p.79.4.2. Lynch, Kevin. Lynch, Kevin. The image of the City. MiT Boston, 1960., p.2.towards allotropicpreservation[4]modifying the structure for reasons of their own,” theorizes Kevin Lynch.4.2 The layers deposited [or removed from] on the built environment and human settlements are defined by three macro factors– culture, economy, and politics [Fig. 20].  These macro threads further break down into micro relationships that define what we consider heritage and what we want to preserve for the future.  The cultural thread is defined by the interaction [the way technology alters and informs tradition] of technology and tradition, and the generation of identity through memory. The economic thread is defined by the interaction of city branding and economy/tourism, and the issue of identity in the ever-expanding globalization. The political thread is defined by the interaction of memory and identity and the identity in a globalized world [Fig. 21].ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioNmemory + identityformsformsglobalization + identityquestionsquestions22 23ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioNidentity. 4.4  Like landscapes, the built environment obeys non-linear patterns and memory plays an important role in how we experience buildings. We draw conclusions and understandings from what we are being primed to, to what our imagination suggests us. in a way, it is an amalgamation of memory and reality [memoreality]. in other words, to borrow a term used in Aldo rossi’s proposal for the “analogous” city, “an interaction between visible and imagined.” 4.5 The memory of the individual is strong. Collective memory often suffers from amnesia. our collective memory often falls victim to political strategies that have an affinity towards a disregard of the cultural layers of built heritage. Rather than yielding to the political agendas of the selectivity of a particular period deemed “the most important for our architectural heritage preservation” process of architectonic allotropy values the endless possibilities of architectural Memory and Identity [Fig.22]“Looking at the world around me now makes me realize: Everything I see is history. Almost everything that surrounds us, our landscapes, villages, and cities, down to our houses and the rooms where we live, is full of history; we just have to see it. Everything has been made by someone, by people I do not know, people I have never met, and most of them long dead. Increasingly, that is a reassuring feeling; it makes me feel part of the world.”4.3Peter ZumthorAccording to Stanley Kline and Shaun Nichols memory forms 4.3. Zumthor, Peter. A Feeling of History. Scheideger & Spiess Zurich, Zurich, 2018.4.4. Kline, Stanley and Nichols Shaun. “Mem-ory and the Sense of Personal identiity”, Mind, volume 121, issue 483, 1 July 2012, Pages 677–702, https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/fzs080. (accessed Nov. 2, 2018), p.667.4.5. Rossi, Aldo. “Analogous City.“ Archizoom Architectural Exhibitions and Con-ferences. www.archizoom.epfl.ca. https://archizoom.epfl.ch/en/page-127594-en-html/aldorossi/analogouscity_1/. (accessed Nov.12, 2018).expression through the parameters of cultural evolution, ensuring an active agency of successive memory fostering a more authentic identity creation.  globalization and Identity [Fig.23]“Cities are the First to Sense and Express the Transformations of an Era.” 4.6Anna Lazzarini   Architecture always played a role in building the identity of human settlements. That is evident from the early effects of the parthenon in Athens to the Coliseum in rome, from the eiffel Tower in Paris to the Guggenheim in Bilbao. Globalization, due to its constant deterritorialization, questions and alters the political and cultural identity of human settlements significantly. The great dangers of the homogenous identity in a 4.6.Domus.https://www.domusweb.it/en/events/forum/2018/cities-are-the-first-to-express-the-transformations-of-an-era-in-an-emblematic-way.html [accessed Nov.13, 2018].4.7. virilio, Paul. The information Bomb. New york: verso, 2005, p.120.globalized world are that it kills diversity and authenticity after the re-territorialization of the political, social and economic aspects. Such delocalization, as defined by Paul Virilio, 4.7 is not only observed in post-industrial business relations. Currently, the grasp of the building industry is at the forefront of globalization. That phenomenon of the re-territorialization of the political drives the predominant cases of restoration of architectural artifacts in the 21st century. The restoration of ruins to their “original” [earliest] is an attempt on opposing the increase of identity homogeneity [and loss of identity] that has emerged due to the acceleration of times and the fast pace of globalization. in times where homogeneity displaces locality, an allotropic approach towards preservation can counter the use of restoration for the needs of the appearance business and can mitigate the imposition of an identity that is no longer in tune with the new dynamics of a given society.ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioNcity branding + tourism stimulatesstimulatestechnology + traditioninformsinforms24 25ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioN4.8. Cegar, igor. Architecture’s Role in Tour-ism and City Branding. www.iaacblog.org. http://www.iaacblog.com/programs/archi-tectures-role-in-tourism-and-city-branding_/ (accessed oct. 4, 2018).4.9. iAAC. http://www.iaacblog.com/pro-grams/architectures-role-in-tourism-and-city-branding_/ (accessed oct.29, 2018).City Branding and Tourism [Fig.24]“Architecture’s role in Architecture and tourism are very closely related activities. It can be said to depend on each other. Their mutual relationship is obvious since ancient times where the architecture, as tourist attraction, had a very important role. Temples have been built in honor of the gods, grand theatres, stadiums, the Coliseum and other monumental public buildings attracted large crowds as characteristics collected certain culture and society in which they arose.” 4.8Igor Cegar Architecture and Tourism are closely related. From ancient religious temple pilgrimage to the “grand tour” till the present mass tourism destinations of museum cities like Amsterdam, Athens, London, paris, Venice, so on and so forth. Nowadays, often heritage buildings and “monuments” are viewed as stimuli for carefully tailored marketing campaigns that transform the cultural heritage that derives from our built heritage to an object fixation that lacks authenticity and essentially transforming architecture into sculpture. “originality” is enforced by complete rebuilds and restorations to “original.” What that phenomenon was able to produce is a significant increase in tourist demand that goes beyond the experience of culture towards Fig.25. objects and Tourism.the experience of a myth of a culture that no longer exists, and its monuments no longer represent it. Locals are forced to exoticize themselves in order to increase the capital of their city. With the rise of “starchitecture” and its ability to produce “icons” on a conveyor belt, now, more than ever, the architect plays a vital role in city branding. Heritage buildings and monuments are no longer the only dominant scope of architectural tourism. Contemporary architecture has emerged as the new power of attraction. 4.9 Culture evolves, architectural monuments start to fade away as representatives of contemporary culture. Allowing for the possibility of architectonic allotropy in heritage preservation offers a potential to the World’s Built Heritage to express the historical links of a given settlement and create a more authentic branding tuned to its contemporary culture.Technology and Tradition [Fig.26]“only a dialectic relationship between technology and society can bring about enduring techno-social transformations – and with them, meaningful changes in architectural form” 4.10Mario Carpo  Technology is not only a mechanical activity but rather a set of cultural products that play a crucial role in the way we produce our heritage. Availability of technology informs architectural and cultural traditions. Historically the invention of new media and technology produced tools and techniques that engendered new forms and spatial paradigms responsible for evolving the architectural language of an era. Architectural traditions always existed within the symbiosis of the old and the new. Architectonic allotropy allows for the proper expression of the evolution of technology, and it creates a continuity of building traditions by providing alternatives to the current way of preservation.  The variety of possible allotropes create opportunities for enhancement of the existing architectural language of the preserved ruin by infusing it with contemporary means.4.10. Carpo, Mario. Carpo, Mario. The Alpha-bet and The Algorithm. Cambridge, MA: MiT Press, 2011., p.85.ToWARDS ALLoTRoPiC PRESERvATioN26 275.1. Easterling, Keller. “Subtraction” in Critical Spatial Practice 4, Berlin: Steinberg Press, 2014., p.1.5.2. Cairns, Stephen & Jacobs, Jane M. “Ruin“ Buildings Must Die. Cambridge, MA: 2014, p.107.5.3. Cairns, Stephen & Jacobs, Jane M. “Ruin“ Buildings Must Die. Cambridge, MA: 2014, p.103-134..5.4. Baudrillard, Jean. The System of ob-jects. New york: verso, 2005, p. 56.“Ruin and decay has its own pornography.” 5.1 Keller Easterling Society is mesmerized by ruins, or as ruskin observed in his treatise on the lower picturesque – the ruin was appreciated for its “condition of its disorder.” 5.2 With the rise of the neo-cultural syndrome of restoration, the apotheosis of the ruin [before that being ignored as a landscape feature] and the allure of its restoration swiftly implanted it with the notion of monumentality; a monumentality frozen in a certain period of time, unable to evolve, essentially embedded with planned obsolescence. “An obsolete building is in place but out of time. Obsolescence arises when an artifact or technology loses value, sometimes through physical deterioration but often as a consequence of newer or better alternatives becoming available.”5.3Stephen Cairns & Jane M.Jacobs The value of our built heritage comes in various forms: historical, cultural, aesthetic, scientific, social, spiritual, and economic. occasionally, value has a cultural transcendence, because it is produced by the functional aspect of heritage, its desirability and its quality. According to Jean Baudrillard, three types of obsolescence endanger the future of objects. [p.56] The obsolescence of function is a situation where an existing product becomes outmoded when a product is epilogue[5]epILoguemethod of preservation that fosters non-political monuments - the anti-monuments.“Memory is an experience of the present; nostalgia always tells us more about the present than it does about the past” 5.5Davis, Shaw, Chase   Political forces camouflaged as preservation strive to subdue the radical change of our built environment by enforcing the radical status of butaforic restorations. Focused primarily on the objectified effects of buildings and depriving them of their ability to accumulate further layers that manifest the passage of time, the forces behind the nostalgic restorations seem to forget that the city is not only “a construction in space,” 5.6 but it is also a construction in time. Such an act degrades our built heritage into a mere object of nostalgia, and it is a dereliction of architecture’s duty that stimulates the death penalty of authenticity in preservation.   introduced that performs the function better. This is one of the great dangers of heritage buildings and artifacts, and it must be avoided at all cost. often a shift in cultural values poses great dander to heritage. Monuments lose and regain their status based on the cultural values of the times. The story of Archimedes’ palimpsest informs us not about the shift of cultural values and their ability to destroy culturally obsolete artifacts; it rather provides a glimpse at the ability of layered cultural succession to trace an authentic narrative of the evolution of cultural values. It is safe to conclude that the buildings that have lasted over millennia and are still in use today, not because they were built with exceptional quality and were able to avoid the obsolescence of quality, but because they were able to adapt to contemporary demands and were able to avoid the obsolescence of desirability, informing a more genuine form of preservation. Architectonic allotropy provides an opportunity to avoid the risk of the cultural aspects of obsolescence of monumentality providing a 5.5. Davis + Shaw + Chase [Cairns, Stephen & Jacobs, Jane M. “Ruin“ Buildings Must Die. Cambridge, MA: 2014, p.103-1345.6. Lynch, Kevin. The image of the City. MiT Boston, 1960., p.1.epILogue28 29epILogue“When an architectural design draws solely from tradition and only repeats the dictates of its site, I sense a lack of a genuine concern with the world and the emanations of contemporary life. If a work of architecture speaks only of contemporary trends and sophisticated visions without triggering vibrations in its place, this work is not anchored in its site….” 5.7Peter Zumthor This thesis is an attempt of reaping the harvest of the idea that architects must establish a better relationship with heritage preservation in order to weaponize the restorative process of preservation in an attempt to demonstrate the power of architecture instead of the power of the monument as an icon. our culture cannot only be preserved through the narratives of political monuments.  We need built heritage that is integrated more firmly in our daily existence, a heritage that we can engage with and trace all of our culture’s layers of deposition. The next generation of preservationists has to change the intellectual “mother’s milk” as administered by UNESCo. The rules of engagement must become more flexible. The work we are doing in the realm of UNESCo’s World Heritage Sites is not predominantly about architecture, but it can only be done by architects; it is about mediation and negotiation – making the strange familiar again. indeed, if the architect wants to regain the role of his craft in society, its societal power, he must challenge the ideological status quo that remains embedded by the political forces of preservation.5.7 Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Birkhäuser, Basel: Boston, 2006, p.42.anthology of palimpsestsa primitive typology generation throughprecedent studies [ in-progress][6]Fig.27. Anthology of Palimpsests6.1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KolumbaAMALGAMATEKolumba Museum, Cologne, Germany [1250-1944-1954-2007-20qq] A former church now a museum the building contains the history of its site. To describe the nature of the design approach, i must quote the laconic description of the last architect who worked on the building - “we simply continue building.“ The layers of the now Kolumba Art Museum contain the traces of the romanesque church of St. Kolumba from the 1200s, the gothic expansion layers, the legacy of the 1944 WWii bombing of Cologne [Fig.29], Gottfried Böhm’s 1950s brutalist masterpiece “Madonna of the Ruins“, and in 2007 after ten years of designing Peter Zumthor’s addition.6.1Historically, the building had a strictly religious function. However, throughout the late xix and early xx century, the cultural importance of the building started to emerge. At this day there are three aspects of the building - cultural, educational, and religious. The old and new program is weaved together through a circulation path that highlights the history of the site while enforcing the educational aspect of the building [Fig.30, Fig.31]. The worship part of the program was kept ensuring the religious continuity of the site. The religious and the cultural/educational components of the program have separate entrances to avoid interruptions when privacy for one of the program aspects is required [Fig.30, Fig.31].6.2Due to the palimpsestic nature of the building the material amalgamateFig.28. Amalgamate.30 31ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSELTESTRGAN DONORSUANTICE-BUILTATCHES“noun: homogeneous function of two or more variables”ICE WATCHPARIS, FRANCE [VIA GREENLAND][13000BC-2014] UTRECHT TOWN HALLUTRECHT, NETHERLANDS[1350-2000-20QQ]PLATTENBAU > COUNTRY SIDEGERMANY[1950-2016-20QQ]SHINTO SHRINEISE, JAPAN [QQQQ-2019]‚NEUES MUSEUM‘BERLIN, GERMANY[1841-1851-1945-1997-2009-20QQ]MOQNPR EITGEISTUBTRACTIONENICE MEETINGEDGEPLODEUGOSLAVIA MUSEUMABULA RASANESCOThe following are excerpts from the “Venice Mee-ting“ held on June 5, 2015 at Emily Harvey Foun-dation Gallery between the experimental preserva-tionists Andreas Angelidakis, Lucia Allais, Thor-dis Arrhenius, Svetlana Boym, Reinhard Kropf, Erik Langdalen, Louise Masreliez, Jorge Otero-Pailos, and Ines Weizman.“How to take care of the different life cycles of a building? How to find and use the specific qualities of an existing building that can play an active part in its transformation? How can we in the design phase enter into a kind of dialogues with certain intrunsic properties of the building?““What is interesting for us is that preservation is not only dealing with a building but also with the lives and the resources of people in or around the building and how they can influence our role as architects. Preservation becomes thereby a collec-tive and creative act where we as architects take on different roles“ “The professional’s judgement and distinction between what is worth preserving and what not produces both value and waste““We are controlling the disappearance““We are interested in reversing the relationship between a preservation material, like resin, and the material it is meant to preserve“There are a plethora of buildings and monuments of the former Yugoslavian state scattered around the newly-formed republics of Serbia, Monte Negro, Croatia, Bosna & Herzegovina, Slove-nia, FYROM, and Kosovo. The new countries,af-ter the’ve shared the spoils of the “more signifi-cant” heritage, have completely abdicated their duty to protect a heritage which is essentially in a stateless reality. Perifernalia of nostaligia infused “The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th- to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as “spirit of the age” or “spirit of the times”. It refers to an invisible agent or force dominating the characteristics of a given epoch in world history. Contemporary use of the term may, more prag-matically, refer to a schema of fashions or fads which prescribes what is considered to be accep-table or tasteful for an era, e.g. in the field of architecture.“items emerge as an intangible heritage, informed by the living traditions of the separated states.Azra Aksamija, a Bosnian artist and architect, asked residents of Sarajevo to bring her “the objects that were a meaningful part of their reali-ty.“ The objects that she received are in striking contrast with the Bosnian government’s narrative about the rupture with the Yugoslavian past.GAUTAM BUDDHASBAMIYAN VALLEY, HAZARAJAT, AFGHANISTAN [507-554-1221-1847-2001-20QQ] ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM TORONTO, CANADA[1912-1933-1968-1984-2007-20QQ]SVEXWZYUTFLORENCE, ITALY [-Q-1960-20QQ]SUPERSTUDIOTHE ETHICS OF DUST [QQQQ-2008]EIFFEL TOWERTIANDUCHENG, HUANGZHOU, CHINA[2007-20QQ]EIFFEL TOWERPARIS, FRANCE[1887-20QQ]BRIDGE1. AN ATTEMPT TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN CULTURES: JOIN, LINK, CONNECT, UNITE; STRADDLE; OVERCOME, RECONCILE;2. A WALKWAY BRIDGED THE HIGHWAY: SPAN, CROSS (OVER), EXTEND ACROSS, TRAVERSE, ARCH OVER.KOLUMBA MUSEUMCOLOGNE, GERMANY[1250-1944-1954-2007-20QQ]MALGAMATERIDGEAPOPPELGÄNGERSLOODXFOLIATEANTWERP PORT HOUSEANTWERP, BELGIUM[1860-2016-20QQ]CASTEL FIRMIANOBOLZANO, ITALY[3000BC-2008-20QQ]ACEFBDHOSTSACKNCRUSTATIONSOINZEVITATEBUNKER 599NETHERLANDS [1815-1940-2013-20QQ] + [with object] cut with rough+ [no object] use a computer to gain unauthori-zed access to data in a+ informal manage; cope. ACROPOLIS PATHSATHENS,GREECE[3000BC-1954-20QQ] Buildings lose their functions. Sometimes that leads to their destruction and transformation into ruins. Every social object after its demolition has a point of no return, and it has an inherent limitati-on of relationality. Grafting the ruin left behind by a building into an approximate butaforic replica of the past is not much more authentic than resto-ring it through contemporary cultural and techno-logical traditions. An ideal allotrope of UNESCO Built Heritage “monument” restoration is the version that estab-lishes a symbiosis between the ruin and the new that blends the past meaning of the building/site with the cultural expressions of contemporary society. Restorations that attempt to reverse time and produce a reconstruct that exists in past tense have passive agency...A built heritage that can evolve and readapt to the current socio-eco-nomic and cultural zeitgeist has an active agency due to its ability to embed the traces of layers of depositions of a given society(s). The most significant disadvantage of UNESCO’s prescribed form of preservation through restorati-on is the treatment of architectural objects and artifacts solely as actors, forgetting that a thing acts because it exists instead that exist because it acts. The most alluring aspect of the architecto-nic allotropes is their ability to shift the role of our build heritage from an actor towards a mediator.CAIXAFORUMMADRID, SPAIN [1899-2003-2008-20QQ]BASILICA DI SIPONTOFOGGIA, ITALY[1117-1977-2016-20QQ] EDOARDO TRESOLDI CASTEL FIRMIANOBOLZANO, ITALY[3000BC-2008-20QQ]NINGBO HISTORY MUSEUMZHEJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA[3000BC-2008-20QQ] GIKLHJ6.2. https://www.archdaily.com/72192/kolumba-musuem-peter-zumthorcomposition is quite complex. However, all being true to the contemporary architectural traditions of the time of their application. The earliest layer of the building is made from stone blocks and brick. Böhm’s addition in true brutalist expression is concrete with beautiful glass vitralles. [Fig.32]on the outside, Zumthor uses light gray brick for the project produced nearby and specifically for that project to highlight the continuous material traditions of the province while the importance of the new Fig.29. Cologne, 1944.religiousculturaleducationalFig.30. Program distribution.religiousculturaleducationalFig.31.Entrances.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.32. Plans32 33Fig.34. Legibility of history through materiality.cultural icon of Cologne. Such a contrast ensures readability of the historical layers through material treatment [Fig.34]. The placement of the windows up high in the walls aims to create a church like atmosphere referencing the Christian history of the site. The highest point of the Zumthor addition demarcates the height of the temple destroyed during WWii. Furthermore, the same volume engulfs Böhm’s chapel, and by containing it in such a way it makes it part of the museum exhibition, yet the separate entrances allow for its designated religious use. Due to the fact that there is no glazing on the perforated brick facade the acoustics of the interior is unique, allowing for audible connection with the street, yet providing the crucial air circulation for the preservation of the romanesque and gothic layers.6.4With the cultural shift experienced in the city post-WWII, the site Fig.33. The Path through history.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS34 356.3. inexibit. https://www.inexhibit.com/mymuseum/kolumba-art-museum-co-logne-peter-zumthor/ (accessed Sep.10, 2018)6.4. “Peter Zumthor Speaks about Kolumba Museum“. vernissage Tv. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEmCk27ntSi. (accessed Sep.11, 2018)Fig.35. Sectionsgained a significant cultural aspect through its significance in rebuilding the city’s confidence. The latest addition by Zumthor manages to capture the history of the site, the local building traditions while also adapting the space to the new economic and cultural needs of the city without compromising the existence of the old program. This project is an essay on how architecture can capture the essence of the ever-changing political and cultural factors and can infuse them into a Fig.36. Madonna of the Ruins Chapel.heritage icon without freezing it in time but through adding another layer of history while leaving a time capsule that will inform the future generation of the zeitgeist of the time of the intervention.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.37. Bridge.BrIDgeVerb1. An attempt to bridge the gap between cultures: join, link, connect, unite; straddle; overcome, reconcile;2. A walkway bridged the highway: span, cross (over), extend across, traverse, arch over.Fig.38. Cap.CApAntwerp port House, Belgium[1860-2016-2QQQ]The first evidence for the existence of the port of Antwerp dates from the 12th century. 6.7 The former fire station in the island of Mexico in Antwerp’s Kattendijk dock was originally built throughout the 1860s when the dock was first conceived.” 6.8  Following the construction of a new fire station 6.5. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/bridge6.7. Port of Antwerp. www.portofantwerp.com/en/1800-river-port-international-seaport (accessed oct.1, 2018) 6.8. Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Antwerp (accessed oct.1, 2018)6.9. Archdaily. www.archdaily.com/795832/antwerp-port-house-zaha-hadid-architects (accessed oct.2, 2018)36 37cargo ship and a container crane, caps the courtyard of the old volume and plants a its structural elements in the ground thus facilitating circulation and egress for the new structure introduced above [Fig.6.12]. The design principle employed in the preservation of the building was to not engage with the composition of the façade and to keep the integrity of the old volume. The new addition extends the building vertically and it “floats“ above the old roof [Fig.6.12]. The materials used for the new layer of the building are predominantly glass and steel which feel appropriate for the industrial context of the site [Fig.6.13]. in the interior a bland white corporate palette spreads throughout the old and the new layers of the building [Fig.14].  The interior walls of the courtyard are the predominant features in the interior that hint towards the building’s previous material incarnation and to the old material palette [Fig.6.15]. The exterior manifests the contrast between the Fig.39. Port Station, Antwerp, ZHAwith facilities needed to service the expanding port, the old fire station became redundant and relied on a change of use to ensure its preservation. The only requirement set for the intervention is “that the original building had to be preserved.” 6.9 The new addition by Zaha Hadid Architects was finished in 2016 [Fig.6.11]. The interior of the old building was gutted to make space for the new “reprogramming” of the building. The new volume, resembling a hybrid between a ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS38 39Fig.40. Long sectionFig.41. Materiality [outside] Fig.43.The courtyard.Fig.42. interior.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSold and the new, and while it feels foreign to the site the glazing tries to reference the Hanseatic brick pattern. However, I think it was inspired by the building’s proximity to the water.The choice of somewhat extravagant form and a fully glazed body of the addition intuitively aligns with Antwerp’s ambition to become the number one cargo port of Europe. At night the building manifests itself as a beacon of the city’s prosperity and references its maritime heritage like a lighthouse [Fig.6.16]. DoppeLgäNgerSeiffel Tower, paris, France [1887-20qq]Eiffel Tower, Tianducheng, Huangzhou, China [2007-20qq] Conceived, in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province in China, 120 years after ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.44.”The lighthouse”Fig.46. Doppelgängers:  Par is vs HangzhouFig.45. Doppelgängers40 41Fig.47. Exfoliate.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSexFoLiATEThe Ethics of Dust [qqqq-2008]“exfoliate [no object] (of a material) come apart or be shed from a surface in scales or layers • [with object] cause to do this • [with object] wash or rub (a part of the body) with a granular substance to remove dead cells from the surface of the skin • [with object] shed (material) in scales or layers.“ 6.10“Suspended from the roof and hung parallel to the east wall, the work was the result of a cleaning process in which latex was sprayed onto the walls of this UNESCo world heritage site, then peeled off, gently lifting dirt from the surface. Backlit and further illuminated by natural light from the hall’s high windows, the amber glow of this sculptural installation commanded a moment of consideration for the what John ruskin once called “that golden stain of time.”“6.11Inspired bu John ruskin’s opus “The Ethics of Dust”, Jorge otero-Pailos utilizes a special latex cast  developped for building cleaning its twin sister, the Sky City tower is a life-size replica of the one in Paris, France. The Chinese version albeit being labeled as a counterfeit in our present, in the future it has the potential to become a legitimate icon. Since both towers are representative of the times and cultural circumstances of the countries they were erected, the authenticity of the Tianducheng version will be approved through the stamp of time, and it will enter the architectural heritage of its region. [Fig.6.17]Fig.48. The peel.resets the buildings history [in terms of layers of city life residue]. FLooDFlorence, italy [-q-1960-20qq]Superstudio“Whatever the pleasures and prodigious efforts associated with erecting architecture, the art of causing it to disappear can be equally compelling or satisfying.“ 6.12 Conceived as a joke against the preservation through restoration his work a reproduction, there is a layer of inherited authenticity to this type of preservation. The particles of dust, dirt, and filth trapped by the layer of latex are a medium that connects us to the full extent of the building’s history and the study of the particles can tell a compelling story of previous uses. The latex medium turns into a historic record that once extracted in a way it and restoration. Albeit being a cast, which in many ways makes most of 6.10. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/joinANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.49. Jorge otero-Pailos.42 43Fig.51. Flooded Florence.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS countermeasure to “authenticity“ and against the freezing of buildings in time.gHoSTSBasilica di Siponto, Foggia, italy [1117-1977-2016-20qq] Completed around 1117, destroyed by an earthquake...”rebuilt” in 2016. The architectural cycle contemplates multiple physical obsession of iCoMoS during the 1960s, the italian radicals propose the restoration of the Florence area to the pleistocene where Florence was at the bottom of a lake [Fig.6.22]. Based on studies by Leonardo DaVinci, the proposal aims to dam the Arno river, submerge the city and invite tourist to explore it by submarines. 6.13  Their anti-design ideas are a critique to the notion of arbitrarily assigned value to specific period layers of cities/buildings,  a parody as a 6.11. Artspace. https://www.artspace.com/jorge-otero-pailos/the-ethics-of-dust-west-minster-hall-preparatory-drawing (accessed Nov.1, 2018).6.12. Easterling, Keller. “Subtraction” in Critical Spatial Practice 4, Berlin: Steinberg Press, 2014., 1.Fig.50. Flood.6.12. Easterling, Keller. “Subtraction” in Critical Spatial Practice 4, Berlin: Steinberg Press, 2014., 1.states over the course of its existence.6.14“The Absent Matter is the representation of a mental projection, filter and shape through which places, instants and beings are narrated. it triggers uninterrupted dialogues with space and history, and projects the object’s substance into an unknown temporal dimension: what has disappeared, or never existed, lives again in a different time.“ 6.15Artist edoardo Tresoldi recreates in wire a full-scale interpretation of the 11th-century basilica that once stood on the site of Santa Maria di Siponto, Foggia. The space is interesting in a way that it lack a tension between interior and exterior, and yet it does have an interior and exterior feel to it [Fig.6.23]. A mirage during the day, the ruins become a building [again] at night - almost magical transformation from ruins that are part of the landscape into a Fig.52. Ghosts.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.53. Basilica di Siponto at night.44 45ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS building that references the history of the site [Fig.6.22]. HACKBunker 599, Netherlands [1815-1940-2013-20qq] [with object] cut with rough • [no object] use a computer to gain unauthorized access to data in a • informal manage; cope. 6.16Fig.54. Photo op magnet. 6.13. Star Strategies and Architecture.. http://st-ar.nl/deadly-serious-–-interview-with-ad-olfo-natalini/ (accessed oct.1, 2018) 6.14.Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_Santa_Maria_Maggiore_di_Siponto (accessed oct. 28, 2018).6.15. Trsoldi, Edoardo. https://www.edo-ardotresoldi.com/concept/ (accessed oct. 28, 2018).“our aim with the project was to question the policies on monuments by doing this intervention,” 6.17 ronald rietveld of rAAAFThe bunker is part of the New Dutch Waterline (NDW), a military line of defence in use from 1815 until 1940 protecting the cities of Muiden, Utrecht, vreeswijk and gorinchem by means of intentional flooding [Fig.6.26]. Fig.55. Hack6.16. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/join 6.17. Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2013/12/11/movie-concrete-bunker-cut-in-half-raaaf-atelier-de-lyon/. (accessed Nov.3, 2019) (accessed Nov.23, 2018).Fig.56. Bunker 599.Fig.57. Bunker 599 interior.The bunker was built in 1940 to shelter up to 13 soldiers during bombing raids and the intervention by Dutch studios rAAAF and Atelier de Lyon reveals the small, dark spaces inside, which are normally hidden from view [Fig.6.27].6.17The bunker was subsequently elevated from a municipal monument to a national monument and is now part of the New Dutch Waterline’s bid for UNESCo World Heritage status. 6.18incrustationsNingbo History Museum, Zhejiang Province, China [3000bc-2008-20qq] This is an essay on preservation with preserving form and strictly through craft and material preservation [Fig.6.29]. in a ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS46 47Fig.59. Preservation through materials and craft.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS6.18. Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2013/12/11/movie-concrete-bunker-cut-in-half-raaaf-atelier-de-lyon/. (accessed Nov.3, 2019) (accessed Nov.23, 2018)6.18. ibid.6.19. Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2016/08/18/video-inter-view-wang-shu-amateur-architecture-stu-dio-ningbo-history-museum-movie/ (accessed Nov.2, 2018).6.20. ibidFig.58. incrustations.traditional phenomenological way it relies on preserving the feeling of history rather on preserving the actual history.The museum’s distinctive facade is largely composed of debris collected from the surrounding area, where about thirty traditional Chinese towns and villages were demolished to make way for new developments. Wang Shu insisted on working with local craftsmen, in order to be able to embed the area’s work-traditions cause “tradition should be lived. once you put it into a museum it means the tradition has died.“ 6.19 “everywhere you go, you find ruins of buildings that have been demolished.” 6.20 “But everywhere there are materials, beautiful materials,” says Wang Shu in a movie produced by Dezeen. “So i wanted to build this museum for the people who were originally living here so they can keep some memories.” 6.216.21. Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2016/08/18/video-inter-view-wang-shu-amateur-architecture-stu-dio-ningbo-history-museum-movie/ (accessed Nov.2, 2018). 6.22. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/join. 6.23. Archileeg. https://archileeg.wordpress.com/category/caixa-forum-2/. (accessed Sept. 30, 2018)Fig.61. KZ. in-progress.joIN“verb: [with object] link; connect • become linked or connected to • connect (points) with a line • [no object] unite to form one entity or group.” 6.22kZ_20190417Buildings lose their functions. Sometimes that leads to their destruction and transformation into ruins. every social object after its demolition has a point of no return, and it has an inherent limitation of relationality. Grafting the ruin left behind by a building into an ap-proximate butaforic replica of the past is not much more authentic than restoring it through contem-ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.60. Join48 49current socio-economic and cul-tural zeitgeist has an active agen-cy due to its ability to embed the traces of layers of depositions of a given society(s). The most significant disadvantage of UNESCo’s prescribed form of preservation through restoration is the treatment of architectural objects and artifacts solely as actors, forgetting that a thing acts because it exists instead that exist because it acts. The most alluring aspect of the architectonic allotropes is their ability to shift the role of our build heritage from an actor towards a mediator. [Fig.61]. leVITATeCaixaForum, Madrid, Spain [1899-2003-2008-20qq] Conceived as a power station in 1899 the building is one of Madrid’s few remaining examples of industrial architecture [Fig.6.31]. 6.23 ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSliftFig.62. Levitateporary cultural and technological traditions. An ideal allotrope of UNESCo Built Heritage “monument” restoration is the version that establishes a symbiosis between the ruin and the new that blends the past meaning of the building/site with the cultural expressions of contemporary so-ciety. restorations that attempt to reverse time and produce a recon-struct that exists in past tense have passive agency...A built heritage that can evolve and readapt to the 6.24. Herzog + De Meuron. https://www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/201-225/201-caixa-forum-madrid.html?location=5f56f-6fa-4528-4a90-a700-5308a43cc8a7&typol-ogie=f2917abf-3a2c-4fbf-be3d-9311410b488c. (accessed Sept.30, 2018)6.25. Archileeg. https://archileeg.wordpress.com/category/caixa-forum-2/Fig.65. Construction of façade.Fig.66. Bricks and Corten SteelANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.63. Caixa Power Station.Fig.64. CaixaForum50 51ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS6.26. Herzog + De Meuron. https://www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/201-225/201-caixa-forum-madrid.html?location=5f56f-6fa-4528-4a90-a700-5308a43cc8a7&typol-ogie=f2917abf-3a2c-4fbf-be3d-9311410b488c. (accessed Sept.30, 2018)After Spain’s post-industrialization the building was vacant for many years. The revival of the area and the cultural shift towards a need for more cultural venues in the newly regenerated area demanded an intervention that will preserve the heritage of the area while adapting it to the needs of the present. According to Herzog + De Meuron Architects “the only material of the old power station that we could use was the classified brick shell. In order to conceive and insert the new architectural components of the Caixa Forum, we began with a surgical operation, separating and removing the base and the parts of the building no longer needed.” 6.24 The intervention carefully creates a contrast between the old and the new - the bricks, an important architectural legacy of the city of Madrid and Spain in general are contrasted with perforated corten steel - the symbol of the Fig.67. Corten panels of the façade. Fig.68. interior material palette.local economy and contemporary building techniques [Fig.6.34]. Brick arrangements are a legacy of Spain’s Moorish architectural traditions, so the architects of the addition decided to reference that through the patters of the added steel panels of the extension of the building reminiscent of traditional Moorish mashrabiya grilles [Fig.6.35].6.25 The rusty steel members of the extended façade feel like they reached back in time to make the connection with the Fig.69. Entrance stair. Fig.70. internal circulation.brick layer. Local craftsmanship is manifested as well, through the casting of the steel members, instead of stamping them or laser cutting the tiny perforations [Fig.6.36]. The material palette on the interior is quite simple and nothing exotic - wood, steel, concrete and steel mesh [Fig.637]. The approach to fabrication is very contemporary reflecting the desire of Spain’s new identity as a modern state.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS52 536.27. https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watch. (accessed: Nov, 1st, 2018).Fig.71. Classrooms [beige] + Exhibition [mint].6.28. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/nest6.29. De Graaf, Reinier. Four Walls and a Roof. The Complex Nature of a Simple Pro-fession. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017, p.123-133, 367-371.6.30. https://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Netherlands/Utrecht/Extension%20to%20Utrecht%20Townhall/Fig.72. “ice Watch”, Elafur Eliasson+Minik Rosing54 55new incarnation. A completely new program was devised, significant to the contemporary demand and reflecting the new use of the area. Being a palimpsest on the exterior, nothing on the interior of the Caixa Forum suggests its palimpsestic character [Fig.6.38]. The circulation through the building does not suggest the coexistence of different layers of history [Fig.6.39]. None of the spaces behind the historic brick façade suggest that they are nested “The removal of the base of the building left a covered plaza under the brick shell, which now appears to float above the street level. This sheltered space under the Caixa Forum offers shade to visitors who want to spend time or meet outside, and at the same time, it is the entrance to the Forum itself. problems such as the narrowness of the surrounding streets, the placement of the main entrance, and the architectural identity of this contemporary art institution are ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSaddressed and solved in a single urban and sculptural gesture.” 6.26The architect’s approach towards levitating the old structure and creating a public square underneath it is a significant move towards the readability of the displacement of the “old” by the “new”, and yet by elevating it the “old” feels glorified and on a pedestal supported by the “new“ alteration. None of the previous program of the building was incorporated into the building’s in the heritage layer of the building. it would have been interesting to treat the classrooms [which house the conservation and restoration workshop] and the exhibition area [Fig.6.40] in a way that it reflects the produced palimpsest. MeLTice Watch, Paris, France [via Greenland]  [13000bc-2014] ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSArtist olafur eliasson conceived a set of installations dealing with the preservation of one of the oldest heritage on Earth - the icebergs.  “The first installation was in Copenhagen, at City Hall Square, from 26 to 29 october 2014, to mark the publication of the uN iPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report on Climate Change. The second installation took place in paris, at place du panthéon, from 3 to 13 December 2015, on the occasion of the UN Climate Conference CoP21.“ 6.27 Although the project was not aimed towards the preservationist movement, what eliasson’s gesture is able to communicate is that a lack of adaptation to current conditions could lead to disappearance of heritage. it is an interesting approach of preservation through the observation of disappearance of the object of preservation. The memory of seeing a cultural heritage metamorph in stages from one form to another [in Eliassen’s case from ice to water] is worth investigating.  Fig.73. Nest Fig.74. organ Donors6.31. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merri-am-webster.com/dictionary/quantic6.32. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ise_Grand_Shrine, (accessed oct.23, 2018).Fig.77. Patches.Fig.75. Plattenbau, Ber l inFig.76. Countryside homes from plattenbaus56 57orgAN DoNorSIn Four Walls and a roof,  reinier de graaf describes the fate of the German plantbau social housing buildings. Their prefabricated parts are being used as material for building single family homes in the german country side. 6.29NeST[with object] fit (an object or objects) inside a larger one • [no object] (of a set of objects) fit inside one another. 6.28ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSpATCHESutrecht Town Hall, Netherlands [1350-2000-20qq]  Utrecht’s town hall has an age-long history. The administration of the city of utrecht has been seated at this location for over 650 years. In the course of time, some ten medieval buildings and city castles were interconnected that still form the core of the premises. “The result was an overly compact and 6.34. Easterling, Keller. “Subtraction” in Critical Spatial Practice 4, Berlin: Steinberg Press, 2014., 1-4.6.35. Easterling, Keller. “Subtraction” in Critical Spatial Practice 4, Berlin: Steinberg Press, 2014., 5-7.Fig.78. Utrecht Town Hall. Fig.79. Utrecht Town Hall.6.36. otero-Pailos, Jorge. Experimental Preservation. Zurich: Lars Muller Publishers, 2016, 73.6.37. ibid.6.38. ibid6.39. ibid, 72.6.40. ibid.Fig.82. Quant icFig.80. Utrecht Town Hall interior.Fig.81. Utrecht Town Hall interior.“noun: homogeneous function of two or more variables”58 59impenetrable labyrinth with many different floor levels. “ 6.30 enric Miralles and Benedetta Tagliabue had a radical approach towards the preservation of some of the parts that were demolished in order to make space for the new extension of the building - they decided to use the parts (as window ledges and lintels) and “patch” the façades and interiors with them [Fig.6.43, Fig.6.44]. The circulation of the building emphasizes its history by making its way through the fragments of different periods of additions made to the building.  The town hall does feel like an important civic building while also it serves like a palimpsest where centuries of Dutch architectural and artistic traditions can be encountered as one moves through its premises [Fig.6.45]. Some monumental aspects of the residue of medieval and neoclassical buildings were preserved as well on the interior of the ground level ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSin order to the historic importance of the town hall while also infusing the newly built interiors with historic value [Fig.6.46]. qUANTiC“noun: homogeneous function of two or more variables”6.316.41. Royal ontario Museum. https://www.rom.on.ca/en/about-us/rom/our-history,  (accessed Nov.1, 2018).Fig.83. Re-bui l t Fig.84. Shinto Shr ine,  Japan6.42. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_ontario_Museum (accessed Nov.1, 2018). 6.43. ibid. Fig.86.Subtraction.Fig.85.Subtraction.60 61produce the kimonos used in the traditional ceremonies that take place in the shrine, and any other objects that are needed for the proper execution of the Shinto ceremonies. Living traditions displace objects as heritage. The peculiarities of the craft freeze the building in time, the produced object lives in the present.ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSre-BuILTThe Shinto shrine in Ise, Japan is one of the most prominent examples of intangible heritage that provides continuity through generations. The act of building tradition is the one that transcends time through the help of craft-centric tradition of organization. Builder-monks rebuilt the shrine every twenty years, as well as the tools used for the erecting of the shrine. 6.32 The monks also SUBTRACTioN“Subtraction is not simply absence, but a set of exchanges and advances, aggressions and attritions that are part of most active organizations.““Architectural authorship is measured in building objects, and subtraction exists to facilitate building.“ 6.34Keller Easterling “Subtraction“ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSTABuLA rASA“Rem Koolhaas’s 1991 project for La Defence in paris...artfully inverting the customary methods for producing a tabula rasa, Koolhaas dod not propose to demolish the oldest, densiest, or most dilapitated parts of the city. Rather he designed a sequential deletion of its most recent fabric, working backward in sequence by decade” 6.35  Keller Easterling “Subtraction“6.44. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_ontario_Museum (accessed Nov.1, 2018). 6.45. Studio Libeskind. https://libeskind.com/work/royal-ontario-museum/, (accessed Nov.1, 2018).Fig.87. UNESCo.Fig.88.Death Penalty of Authenticity.Fig.89. Wedge.62 63They are unauthentic in terms of creating a link between the past and the present, thus inscription to the WHL can often lead to the death penalty of authenticity (with the executioners being the tourist crowds) [Fig.6.48].VENiCE MEETiNGThe following are excerpts from the “venice Meeting“ held on June 5, 2015 at Emily Harvey Foundation gallery between the uNESCoDue to the essence of the rules from the venice charter, buildings inscribed in UNESCo World Heritage List (WHL) (and more so the ones in the Monuments of Culture list) tend to be too monitored and too controlled [Fig.6.47]. Such sites a selectively frozen in a time period that presumably is of the most cultural value and they do not reflect the contemporary culture of the place. ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS6.46.Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhas_of_Bamiyan. (accessed Nov.30, 2018). 6.47. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhas_of_Bamiyan, (accessed Nov.30, 2018).experimental preservationists Andreas Angelidakis, Lucia Allais, Thordis Arrhenius, Svetlana Boym, Reinhard Kropf, Erik Langdalen, Louise Masreliez, Jorge otero-Pailos, and ines Weizman.“How to take care of the different life cycles of a building? How to find and use the specific qualities of an existing building that can play an active part in its transformation? How can we in the design phase enter into a kind of dialogues with certain intrunsic properties of the building?“ 6.36“What is interesting for us is that preservation is not only dealing with a building but also with the lives and the resources of people in or around the building and how they can influence our role as architects. preservation becomes thereby a collective and creative act where we as architects take on different roles“ 6.37 “The professional’s judgement and distinction between what is worth preserving and what not produces both value and waste“ 6.38ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS“We are controlling the disappearance“ 6.39“We are interested in reversing the relationship between a preservation material, like resin, and the material it is meant to preserve“ 6.40weDgeRoyal ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada [1912-1933-1968-1984-2007-20qq]6.48. Khaama. https://www.khaama.com/return-of-bamyan-buddhas-with-help-of-3d-image-display-9468/, (accessed Nov.30, 2018).6.49. otero-Pailos, Jorge. Experimental Preservation. Zurich: Lars Muller Publishers, 2016, 32.6.50.ibid.6.51. Wikipedia. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeitgeist#cite_note-StF-4] (accessed Nov.20, 2018).Fig.91. RoM, 1930Fig.90. ROM, 1914Fig.92. RoM, 2007 Fig.93. RoM, 2007.64 65“The eastern wing facing Queen’s Park was designed by Alfred H. Chapman and James oxley. opened in 1933, it included the museum’s elaborate art deco, Byzantine-inspired rotunda and a new main entrance [Fig.6.51]. The linking wing and rear (west) façade of the Queen’s Park wing were originally done in the same yellow brick as the 1914 building, with minor italianate detailing.”  6.42ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSThe first building of the Royal ontario Museum was designed in a romanesque revival style (popular in North America in the late xix early xx centuries) by Frank Darling and John A. pearson. The façades are defined by punctuated by rounded and segmented arched windows with heavy surrounds and hood mouldings [Fig.6.50]. only local materials were employed in the construction of the building. 6.41 in 2005 the façades of the two initial buildings were restored, the galleries were made larger, and the windows were uncovered.6.43 in 2007, the Daniel Libeskind designed “Crystal“ extension opened its doors to the public [Fig.6.52]. in a typical Libeskind style the building was inspired by the crystal collection of the museum and is non-referential to the existing architectural language; however it ideally coincides with the modernist self-awareness of ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.94. RoM Crystal interior.Fig.95. Bamiyan Buddhas, Afghanistan.Fig.96. Bamiyan Holograms.66 67Toronto and its struggle for identity on a global scale. “The Deconstructivist crystalline form is clad in 25 percent glass and 75 percent aluminum, sitting on top of a steel frame produced in ontario; however the extruded anodized aluminum cladding was fabricated by Josef gartner in Germany making it the first extension of the museum to break the tradition of using local materials and craftsmanship. 6.44 “The Crystal’s canted walls do not touch the sides of the existing heritage buildings, but are used to close the envelope between the new form and existing walls. These walls act as a pathway for pedestrians to travel safely across “The Crystal.” 6.45 on the interior there are clear thresholds between the old and the new addition [Fig.6.54]. Some parts of the 1933 façade are framed in the interior in a way that they appear as to be part of the museum’s exhibition (essentially rendering the previous extension part of the new extension’s exhibition). Circulation meanders between the xx and xxi century buildings in order to emphasize the palimpsestic aspect of the building.eXpLoDegautam Buddhas, Bamiyan valley, Hazarajat, Afghanistan [507-554-1221-1847-2001-20qq] The Buddhas of Bamiyan were 35m and 53m tall monumental statues of gautam Buddha, which were carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, northwest of Kabul. 6.46  Built in the classic blended style of gandhara art in 507 CE (smaller) and 554 CE (larger), the statues represented a male and a female body.6.47in 1221 Ghengis Khan while ravaging the area spared the statues from destruction, only to be defaced by the Afghan king Abdul Rahman Khan in 1847 and finally in 2001 to be demolished by the Taliban [Fig.6.55].After their destruction, the statues did not lose their cultural significance. instead, the voids and the mostly pulverized “bodies“ became the symbol of heritage in the valley, and after the defeat of the Taliban in the area, the site flooded with pilgrims. According to iCoMoS anastylosis is possible with the remaining parts, yet the site is still on their endangered list. Temporary voids are being restored through a series of projected holograms by the artist couple Janson yu and Liyan Hu [Fig.6.56]. 6.48 ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSFig.97. Bamiyan Holograms.68 69yUGoSLAviA MUSEUMThere are a plethora of buildings and monuments of the former yugoslavian state scattered around the newly-formed republics of Serbia, Monte Negro, Croatia, Bosna & Herzegovina, Slovenia, FyRoM, and Kosovo. The new countries,after the’ve shared the spoils of the “more significant” heritage, have completely abdicated their duty to protect a heritage which is essentially in a stateless reality. perifernalia of nostaligia infused items emerge as an intangible heritage, informed by the living traditions of the separated states.Azra Aksamija, a Bosnian artist and architect, asked residents of Sarajevo to bring her “the objects that were a meaningful part of their reality“ 6.49 The objects that she received are in striking contrast with the Bosnian government’s narrative about the rupture with the yugoslavian past. A Soviet photo camera, a 1984 Sarajevo olympics mascot, a map of yugoslavia’s former border - all objects of heritage from a non-existing state. 6.50zeITgeIST“The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th- to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as “spirit of the age” or “spirit of the times”. it refers to an invisible agent or force dominating the characteristics of a given epoch in world history. Contemporary use of the term may, more pragmatically, refer to a schema of fashions or fads which prescribes what is considered to be acceptable or tasteful for an era, e.g. in the field of architecture.“ 6.51ANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTSANTHoLoGy oF PALiMPSESTS Times change, buildings need to adapt to regain their authentic social value. Adaptive re-use uses the existing as a generative force/narrative for the new design. it adopts the historical legacy of architectonic language [as identified in Chapter How We Preserve: Volumetric Adjustments.] while infusing it with an updated meaning through the use of contemporary cultural, economic, and political expressions. it also allows for the possibilities of polymorphic architectural expression and fosters the emergence of architectonic allotropy by re-establishing the model of the palimpsest. Despite the weaknesses and contradictions, that have emerged in the attempt to create up-to-date hybrids, all the projects that I have described in the preceding pages were clearly conceived by their authors with the intent of evolving the architectural language of preservation and also, an attempt to construct a new meaning of the symbiosis between the old and the new, the ruin and the whole, the obsolete and the contemporary.* other precedent studies, not mentioned in the following pages, however were some how influential to the further understanding of the issues studied in the thesis are: • Castel Firmano, Bolzano [Werner Tscholl], • Neues Museum, berlin [David Chipperfield], • Coracera Castle [Carlos de riano], reFleCTIoN[7]SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN• Museum of Popular Art, Salvador [Lina Bo Bardi].• Abade Pedrosa Museum [Alvaro Siza and Soto DeMoura], • San Jeronimo Hospital, Marchena [Sv60], Castelvecchio, verona [Carlo Scarpa], • Civic Center Cristallers [H Arquitectes], • Women’s Library, Glasgow [Collective Architecture], • Pergamon Museum, Berlin [Hoffmann and Messel], • Chiesa Parrocchiale, Laives [Holler and Klotner], • Fondazione Prada, Milano [oMA/AMo], • Museo Prado Extension [Rafael Moneo], • Templo de Diana, Merida [Jose Garcia Maria Sanchez], • University of Tartu, Narva [Kavakava], • San Telmo Museum [Nieto Sobejano], SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN70 71ANCiENT ToWERS oF THE AEGEAN SEA, GREECEon January 16th, 2014, the Permanent Delegation of Greece  to UNESCo submitted to the World Heritage Center 10 towers located on 10 different islands in the Aegean.8.0  The sites were  added to the Tentative List under Criteria (iii) and (iv).8.1 Criteria (iii) states that the site needs “to bear a unique or at least except ional  test imony to a cultural  t radit ion or to a civ i l izat ion which is l iv ing or which has disappeared “; and criteria (iv)  requires the site “to be an outstanding example of  a type of bui ld ing, architectural or  technological  ensemble or landscape which i l lustrates (a) s igni f icant stage(s)  in human history”.8.2 The application also compares the towers to other similar existing properties - “The ancient towers of the Aegean form a category of cultural good that is not represented on the World Heritage List. Inscribed monuments of this period are either in an urban setting or sanctuaries, but nothing exclusively connected to rural organisation and life is recorded. The only similar example is the cultural landscape of Stari grad Plain in Croatia, a colony of Paros in the 4th c. BC, but this is included in World Heritage List solely with regard to the preservation of the agricultural landscape from antiquity to the present.“ 8.3 “The numerous ancient towers scattered across many SITeS INTroDuCTIoN[8]SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN8.3.  Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 5.8.0. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 1.8.1. ibid, 18.2. UNESCo World Heritage Center, Criteria For Selection, unesco,org, https://whc.unes-co.org/en/criteria/ (accessed Nov.14, 2018).Naxos is the largest island of the Cyclades archipelago wit ha population of close to 19 000 inhabitants .8.6 Its climate is a typical Mediterranean with mild winters and very warm summers. The island is quite windy, so it is perfect for kite-surfing and in direct line of sight, in some cases covering extremely wide geographical areas.” 8.5CHEiMARRoS ToWER, NAxoS iSLANDAegean islands [Fig.99] and the mainland, constitute a particular type of ancient building with various uses. The vast majority of the towers are dated to around the mid-4th century BC and up to the first quarter of the 3rd century BC. Despite their numbers and dispersal, they present common architectural features, such as their circular, square or rectangular plan and their sturdy construction of local stone. The towers were built in non-urban areas, in order to serve a wide range of needs depending on circumstances and location. The main motive for their construction was defense in the wider sense, i.e. the protection of people, animals and goods.” 8.4  “The towers sometimes formed part of a wider system of defenses and refuges, while others functioned as watchtowers and lighthouses. They are also often found in areas where mining activities are attested. one notable use of towers is as points in an early communication system consisting of networks of beacons (fryktoriai), for the transmission of light signals between towers Fig.98. Location: Cheimarros Tower, Naxos8.4.  Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 1.8.5. ibid.8.6. Stamatelos, Michalis & Fotini Vamva-Sta-matelou Μιχάλης Σταματέλος, Φωτεινή Βάμβα-Σταματέλου. Greek Geographical Encyclopedia “Ελληνική Γεωγραφική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια”.Athens: Domi Αθηνα: Δομή, 1996, 226.SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN72 73Fig.99: Towers of the Aegean Sea, greece. SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNSiTES iNTRoDUCTioN74 75Herodotus places it as the most prosperous island on the Cyclades during his time. “The Cheimarros Tower is located on the Se side of the island of Naxos [Fig.98]. it is a circular marble tower of the 4th c. BC, measuring 9.20 m. in diameter and preserved to a height of 14 m., with an estimated original height of 17 m”. 8.7 [Fig.99].”The tower is built with double walls, its two faces joined with bondstones extending through the full thickness of the wall. 8.7 The interstices are filled with mud and rubble. Inside are four storeys connected by a marble staircase set into the wall. The SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNwindsurfing, as well as sailing. From an economic point of view tourism is big part of Naxos, with agriculture and mining being second and third respectively.  Historically a major source of marble, emery and corundum, the local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete. in Greek mythology, Naxos is the island where Zeus grew up. Cheimarros Tower, Naxos[25.519974E, 36.995901N]Fig.101. Context: Cheimarros Tower, NaxosFig.100. Cheimarros Tower, Naxos8.7.  Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.is linked to that of the rest of the Aegean islands. The name of the island dates back to mythology. The predominant version claims that the first inhabitant of the island was the divine origin, Andros (or Andreas). His father was Annios, son of god Apollo, and his mother was Kresa or Reio, daughter of Staphylos, son of Dionysus. The mythological origins of the inhabitants of the island interpret the dominant worship of the god Dionysus and the presence of the entrance is on the south side. The few openings, the single window 10 m. above ground level and the arrow-slits highlight the defensive nature of the structure, which is surrounded by an almost square fortification wall measuring 35 m. on a side.” 8.8 [Fig.101]. “Workshops (olive presses) and storerooms of the Late roman period have come to light within this enceinte.” 8.9ToWer oF Ag.peTroS,ANDroS ISLANDAndros is the northernmost island of the Cycladic archipelago [Fig.99]. its population is around 9200 inhabitants. According to Strofilias Liritzis, the island had one of the first fortification structures in the late Neolithic age, predating the Cycladic culture of the Bronze age.8.10 Tourism and agriculture are the main economic factors on the island, with shipping coming as third. the local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete. The history of Andros Fig.102. Location: Tower of Ag. Petros, Andros8.8. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.8.9. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).8.10. Liritzis, i, Strofilias (Andros island, Greece): new evidence for the cycladic final neolithic period through novel dating methods using luminescence and obsidian hydration, Journal of Archaeological Science, volume 37, issue 6, June 2010, Pages 1367–13778.11. Archive.in.gr.. http://archive.in.gr/Reviews/article.asp/?lngReviewiD=1668&lng-itemiD=17361 (accessed Nov.25, 2018)SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN76 77Cheimarros Tower on Naxos.” 8.12 [Fig.101]“The monument is preserved to a height of approximately 21 m. and is built of large ashlars of local stone. It is set on a circular base, approximately 20 m. in diameter and 4 m. high. The main entrance (on the east) is low (1.30 m. high) and square, framed by four blocks of masonry, two of which form 2-metre-thick door jambs. There was a second, smaller entrance at first-floor level.” 8.13 [Fig.103] “The ground floor consists of a single room with a vaulted roof. on the upper storeys are windows and narrow openings. A spiral SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNancestral gods in their coins. other names of Andros are: Hydraousa (because of its many sources), Eparchi, Nagoria and Lasia. 8.11“on the hillside below the small village of Agios Petros Gavriou on Andros rises the imposing mass of the cylindrical tower of the same name. The tower, dating from the Hellenistic period (4th/3rd c. BC), is one of the best preserved in the Cyclades, together with the Fig.104. Tower of Ag. Petros, AndrosFig.103. Context: Tower of Ag. Petros, Andros8.12. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.8.13. ibidgood observation post overlooking both the interior of the island and the sea.” 8.14ToWer oF Ag.TrIADA, AMoRGoS iSLANDAmorgos is the easternmost island of the Cycladic archipelago with a population of 2000 inhabitants. The island is a popular hiking and diving destination. one of the most important centers of Cycladic and Minoan culture.8.15 The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete.“The Tower of Agia Triada (the Holy Trinity) is located in the countryside of ancient Arkesini and constitutes a characteristic example of Hellenistic architecture. [Fig.105] it is a rectangular fortress built of local limestone in irregular coursed masonry. It consists of two rectangular structures of unequal height (the tower and the paved courtyard). Access is via an elevated archway, while there is also a low exit door at the staircase leads from the first floor to the upper part of the tower. The second storey is 2.30 m. high and it seems that the monument would have had at least another five storeys. The area around the tower was mined for iron in antiquity, continuing into the modern era (19th-20th c.). There is evidence that in antiquity there would have been a settlement here, probably connected to the mining activity. The tower was presumably built to protect the local mines, and was a Fig.105. Location: Tower of Ag. Triada, Amorgos8.14. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.8.15. Tourlidis, Georgios Τουρλίδης, Γεώργιος.  “Amorgos in the Times of the Tacitus”  “Η Αμοργός εν τοις Χρονικοίς του Τακίτου”, Cycladic Studies Society  Επετηρίς Εταιρείας Κυκλαδικών Μελετών, Vol.8 τομ.8 (1969-1970), 666SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN78 79has remained in use from antiquity to the present day. The remains of the early modern era are also impressive: modern built structures linked to agricultural installations, collection channel systems, a rainwater collection cistern, a built oven, an olive press and a byre, all indicating the continued use of the site through the ages.” 8.17 [Fig.107] WHITe ToWer, SIFNoS ISLANDSiTES iNTRoDUCTioNback of the tower. The location of the baths and latrines has been securely identified, while other areas were the andron (men’s quarter), the atrium, etc. The tower water supply and drainage system is also interesting. The main tower was accessed by a staircase, of which the lowest steps survive.” 8.16 [Fig.106] ”The area around the monument also includes the remains of an ancient olive press and a cellar, while the movable finds demonstrate that the site Fig.106. Tower of Ag. Triada, Amorgos Fig.107. Context: Tower of Ag. Triada, Amorgos8.16.  Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.8.17. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).8.18. Maranti, Anna Siphnos: The Brilliance of Apollo. Athens, Toubis, 2002, p. 18.pounta, with an unimpeded view of the east and southeast Aegean and the interior of the island [Fig.108]. it is one of the largest, best preserved and best known of the 77 identified towers on Sifnos. it is a circular structure, with an outer diameter of 13m. and a preserved height of 5.50m. (12 visible courses of masonry). it is built of coursed masonry, with rectangular and trapezoid blocks of white, and more rarely grey, marble, their size diminishing with height. on the Sifnos has been inhabited since 4000 BCE.8.18 Today the island’s population is 2600 inhabitants. The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete. “The White Tower (Aspros Pyrgos) is located in the southern ore-bearing zone of Sifnos, close to ancient gold-mining galleries. it dominates the hilltop of Cape Fig.108. Location: White Tower, Sifnos Fig.109. White Tower, Sifnos8.19. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2.SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN80 81Fig.110. Context: White Tower, Sifnosthe west face of the inner surface of the outer wall, opposite the entrance. This room also contains the remains of an olive press next to a built platform, a stone vessel set into the floor, a block of stone with two mortises and an underground cistern [Fig.109].” 8.20“The tower entrance is on the Se, with door posts formed of vertically and horizontally placed blocks of stone. In the inner corners of the door posts are mortises corresponding to the sockets in the threshold for closing the door. There are two unique cylindrical marble elements on the inside of the door posts, perhaps to support the wooden beam used to bar the door.” 8.21“There are traces of outbuildings in the area around the tower, although their presence has not been confirmed by excavation. The monument is dated to the 4th c. BC, mainly on the basis of elements of the masonry. The White Tower is a landmark for modern-day Sifnians, a symbol linked to beliefs and legends, a source of inspiration for painters and poets.” 8.22SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNinner side is a second course of well-built marble blocks.” 8.19“Two parallel inner walls divide the interior of the tower into three rooms; the north room is the only space in which beam-holes to support the floor of the upper storey remain. In the south room, against the outer wall, to the left of the entrance, is a staircase of 10 steps which used to lead to the upper storey [Fig.109]. The central room has three triangular niches on 8.20. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 2-3.8.21. ibid, 3.8.22. ibid.8.23. Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018).Fig.112. White Tower, SerifosFig.111. Location: White Tower, Serifos“The ancient tower known as the White Tower (Aspros Pyrgos or Aspropyrgos) is built high on the rocky ridge of the line of hills delimiting Koutalas Bay on the northwest. it is a fortified structure that stood alone in the Serifos countryside, dominating the southwest part of island, the richest in metal ores. The tower is built of local white marble and its foundations are set firmly into the sloping rock [Fig.112]. it is circular WHITe ToWer, SerIFoS ISLANDSerifos is located in the western Cyclades, with a population of 1400 inhabitants [Fig.111]. 8.23 The island is known for its extensive resources of iron ore while also being a very popular tourist destination.The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete.SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN82 83500 marble blocks), it is estimated that the tower would have been three storeys and approximately 12 m. high. There are no attached annexes and no traces of an enceinte or outbuildings have been found in the immediate environs. The entrance is on the southeast side, while there appear to have been arrow-slits and windows on the upper storeys. The roof was probably flat. inside and immediately to the right of the entrance is a spiral staircase that led to the upper storeys. The five lowest marble steps are preserved in situ, but the rest of the staircase may have been of wood. on the ground floor, a transverse party wall isolates the stairwell and divides the room in two.”8.24“The features of the White Tower - solid construction, prominent position overlooking the surrounding area, visual contact with other towers (Psaropyrgos, Tou Choirou i Trypa) - indicate its defensive character and multiple uses, simultaneous or otherwise, as a watchtower, beacon tower and guardhouse. its presence in this area - where there is evidence of active mines, at least during SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNin plan with an external diameter (at the base) of 8.54 m. its masonry is particularly well built and the double outer wall, 1.05 m. thick, is built of well-dressed marble ashlars, laid without the use of mortar, in courses whose height diminishes progressively as they rise. The ground floor is preserved to a height of 4.20 m. Based on the building material found fallen inside the tower, scattered around it, set into the walls of nearby buildings and used in drystone walls (over Fig.113. Context: White Tower, Serifos8.24. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 3.8.25. ibid.8.26. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).Kea is the closed island to the mainland in the Cycladic archipelago. Population of 2500 inhabitants the island has settlements dating back to the Bronze age and the Minoan civilization.8.27 The island is one of the best scuba diving destinations in the Cyclades.  The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete.“The Tower of Agia Marina still rises to its original height and is the best-preserved example of an ancient square tower in greece. It is located in the interior of western Kea, in the middle of a valley between the two ancient western cities of the island, Korissos and Poiessa [Fig.114]. The building appears to have stood alone, while in the modern era it was incorporated into the post-Byzantine Monastery of Agia Marina [Fig.115]. The tower was square, measuring 9.90 x 9.90 m., and built of ashlars of local stone the Late Classical, Hellenistic and roman periods - also means that it was connected to their activities and protection.” 8.25“The White Tower would have been built in the 3rd c. BC, while its final period of use is dated to Late Roman times, specifically the 4th c. AD.” 8.26ToWER oF AG. MARiNA, KEA ISLANDFig.114. Location: Tower of Ag.Marina, Kea8.27. Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018). 8.28. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 3.SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN84 85“The tower entrance is on the south side, at a height of 2.00 m. above the ground. on the south, east and west sides are windows with white marble frames and cornices, while on the north side there were only narrow slits, widening on the inside. It is still uncertain whether the roof was flat or pitched.” 8.29“The Tower of Agia Marina is dated, based on the evidence available today, to the 4th c. BC. The Monastery of Agia Marina was SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN(schist and grey dolomitic marble) in irregular trapezoid masonry, with small plaque-like plugs in the gaps. The inside of the tower was laid out on five storeys, which were connected by a stone staircase set into the external tower walls, and divided into smaller rooms. on the fourth storey is a small, isolated balcony on the south side of the building, while on the upper storey a circular balcony supported on stone corbels runs right around the tower.” 8.28Fig.115. Tower of Ag.Marina, Kea Fig.116. Context: Tower of Ag.Marina, Kea8.29. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).8.30. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 3.population of 8400 the island is a known refuge for greek rebels and radicals.8.31 The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete.“At the northeast tip of Ikaria, on Cape Fanari, stands the ancient Drakanou Tower, a round marble tower with an external base diameter of 8.4 m. and a maximum preserved height of almost 13 m. It is built on rock, approximately 51 m. above sea level with an uninterrupted view founded circa 1600 AD and the ancient tower was incorporated into the enceinte and used for lodging, storage and defense until 1837, when the monastery was abandoned [Fig.116].8.30DRAKANoU ToWER, iKARiA ISLANDAccording to Greek mythology, Ikaria is named after Icarus, the son of Daedalus. positioned on the east side of the Aegean with  a Fig.118. Drakanou Tower, ikariaFig.117. Location: Drakanou Tower, ikaria8.31. Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 8.32. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 4.SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN86 87east side, while a little to the north is an entrance to the first storey, 1.26 m. wide and 2.80 m. high [Fig.118]. There are three arrow-slits on both the ground floor and the first storey, and six windows on the second storey. No traces of the staircases connecting the storeys remain. presumably they were wooden and have been destroyed along with the floor-beams. The tower is built of massive marble ashlars, varying in color from white to gray. The original total height of the tower is estimated to have been 13.5 m., so it would have had another two courses of stones.The tower would have served a variety of needs simultaneously. Due to its position, it is an excellent watchtower and beacon tower [Fig.119]. The fortified part of the cape is defended on the east and north by the steep rocky cliff side, for gathering and defense in case of attack. The walled area would have been a particularly safe refuge and a protected area in which to collect goods. The tower is dated by the archaeological evidence to the 4th c. BC. 8.33SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN[Fig.117]. Two sides of the enceinte wall, approximately 2.4 m. thick, converge on the tower at an angle of 34◦.” 8.32“Drakanou Tower is the best-preserved ancient greek tower in the Aegean. it is three storeys high with a wall approximately 1 m. thick at the base, progressively diminishing to 0.85 m. as it rises. The ground-floor entrance, with a free opening 1.32 m. wide and a maximum 2.33 m. high, is on the Fig.119. Context: Drakanou Tower, ikaria8.33. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).8.34.Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018).made of limestone hence it is not covered with much vegetation. The local architectural vernacular is predominately made from stone from the island, while more contemporary projects employ the use of reinforced concrete. “palaiokastro is the main and largest fortified site of ancient Megisti, modern-day Kastellorizo. It stands on a hill on the west side of the island, the closest to the Asia Minor coast opposite, in order to control the sea routes and the port ToWER oF KASTELLoRiZo ISLANDThe official name of the island of Kastellorizo is Megisti. The name translates as “the biggest“, however it is the smallest island in the Dodecanese archipelago. With a pleasant climate year round and a population of only 492 inhabitants the island is a refuge for people seeking a calm relaxing atmosphere. 8.34  The island is known amongst speleologist and it is a popular destination for cave exploring. The island is mostly Fig.121. Tower of KastellorizoFig.120. Location: Tower of KastellorizoSiTES iNTRoDUCTioN88 89into the rock and faced with clay and lime plaster. on the west side of the tower, on a sheer rock face, rectangular niches were intended to house votive reliefs.” 8.35in the Byzantine period and the era of the Knights of Rhodes, the site continued in use as a fortress and a refuge for the local population in case of danger. outside the walls, a small wine press indicates that people engaged in agricultural activities in times of relative peace. The fortress would have housed a small permanent garrison, to control the seas. It would have communicated with the other towers on the island, which were in line of sight, and also with the corresponding watchtowers on the opposite coast. The strategic position of the tower was also exploited in the modern era by the Italians, as evidenced by the three gun emplacements built during the Second World War [Fig.122]. palaiokastro would have had lines of sight to both the ancient harbor fortress and the beacon towers (fryktoriai) on the two islets below Kastellorizo, Ro to the west and Strongyli to the east [Fig.118].” 8.36SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNon the north side of the island. It consists of an enceinte fortified by three towers on the southeast side and a smaller inner tower, which is proposed for inclusion in the list. The inner tower, measuring 11.6 x 5.6 m., is built in coursed masonry of dressed ashlars and is preserved to a height of 8 courses (approximately 4 m.), while in the enceinte the original ashlars are only visible in the foundations [Fig.121]. Numerous rainwater collection cisterns have been cut Fig.122. Context: Tower of Kastellorizo8.35.Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 4.8.36. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).8.37. Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018).8.38. Chronicle of the 20th century Chroniko tou Eikostou Aiona, ed. 4E, Athens, 1990, p. 1258.enceinte, parts of which survive on the southwest and southeast sides, and an inner rectangular tower measuring 12.5 x 13 m., both built in coursed masonry of dressed ashlars. The central tower is preserved to a height of approximately 4 m. inside there is a rainwater collection cistern faced with clay and lime plaster, approximately 5.5. m. in diameter. 8.39 “The remains of a wine press outside the tower and a stone conical vessel indicate engagement in agricultural activities to supply ToWer oF ro ISLANDLocated in the south of the Aegean close to the Turkish coast [Fig.123], Ro has a population of zero inhabitants. 8.37 only a small military unit stationed there to raise the Greek flag in honor of a woman who set the trend during the 1940s, known as the Lady of ro, is present these days on the islet. 8.38“The fortress on the islet of ro is set on a hilltop and covers a small area of 30 x 25 m [Fig.124]. Access is from the south side, while there are steep cliffs on the north. The fortress consists of a double Fig.123. Location: Tower of RoFig.124 Tower of Ro8.39. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 4.8.40. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018). 8.41. Hellenic Statistical Authority. National Statistical Service of greece. http://dlib.statistics.gr/Book/GRE-SyE_02_0101_00098%20.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2018).SiTES iNTRoDUCTioN90 91makes the Tower of Strongyli the easternmost building in Greece. Being 1.5km long and 700meters wide the islet is not inhabited. 8.41 “The islet of Strongyli with its tower, east of Kastellorizo, completes the southeast end of the chain of watchtowers operated by the Rhodian state.” 8.42 “The foundations of an ancient tower are preserved on the west peak of the island. A double enceinte SiTES iNTRoDUCTioNthe small garrison posted there. In the early modern era, Lambros Katsonis used the fortress as his base of operations during the ottoman rule (1788-1792). That must be when the upper course of small stones was added to the west wall.” 8.40ToWer oF STroNgYLIISLANDThe islet of Strongyli is the easternmost island of greece which Fig.125. Location: Tower of Strongyli Fig.126. Tower of Strongyli8.42. Ancient Towers of the Aegean Sea Tentative List Submission Document - uNeS-Co World Heritage, unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5867/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2018), 4.8.43. ibid, 5.8.44. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. odysseus.culture.gr, http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/2/eh251.jsp?obj_id=1811, (accessed Nov. 25, 2018).situated at the closest point to the port.” 8.43“The three towers of Kastellorizo, Ro and Strongyli comprise the main links in a dense network of watchtowers constructed by the Rhodian state during the Hellenistic period, to control the sea routes and the Lycian coast across the water [Fig.128].” 8.44protects mainly the north side, while on the south are cisterns cut into the rock and faced with clay and lime plaster, and the remains of an olive press. The central rectangular tower covers an area of approximately 7.5 x 8.5 m. and is built in coursed masonry of dressed ashlars. only a single course of stones of the superstructure is preserved. The tower has not been built on the highest peak of the island, but watches the opposite shore unseen, while also being Fig.127. Context: Tower of Strongyli Fig.128. Context: Tower of StrongyliSiTES iNTRoDUCTioN92 939.1. Whiting, Sarah,  Whiting, Sarah. “Wel-come to the Banquet (or, How to Increase the Relative Happiness of the M.Arch. Thesis Student),“ Architecture from the outside in: Selected essays by robert gutman. New york: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010, p.317.94 95SiMULATiNG PURiFiER w“simulating purifier is a project that advances the intellectual project of the discipline while also offering an effect on practice that will resonate throughout a graduate’s career.”Sarah Whiting 9.1 Historically images of ruins corre-spond to realities of the past where ruins were harvested as building material transcending their function and fostering their reincarnation in a new uncontaminated version of reality. our historic legacy finds its deposit in Archiecture, and we are increasing-ly preoccupied with restorations as a medium to connect our past with our present and future. restorations and preservation are never neutral gestures, they are always a precise political act. The idea that restoration can take an artifact back or closer to its original condition is a false illusion. Ruins, are buildings that have lost their program. in rural remote areas they become features of the land-scape.  The sites were chosen on the basis that they were included in 2014 in UNESCo Tentative List for World Heritage. They have to remain there for ten years before they can be admitted or refused admission. UNESCo’s rules on conservation are so restrictive that are able to fossilize buildings and disrupt the timeline of history and breaking the palimpsestic character of building and site evolution. Examples of their restrictive rules can be found in the following articles: Article 5 - “it must not change the lay out or decoration of the building,” Article 6 - “no new construction, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of mass and colour must be allowed,“ Article 7 - “the moving of all or part of a monument cannot be allowed except where MeTHoDology[9]METHoDoLoGypHASINg To test the thesis’ argument the chosen sites/towers will experience a set of 3 phases as an attempt for a methodological proposal of strategies devised to challenge and oppose UNESCo’s established mechanism of preservation. The phases are: Euthanasia, Metamorphosis, and Allotropy. The interventions have the intention of engaging with the hidden forces operating in the contemporary context of the towers and using their relationship to one another to make allotropes. The results will not be seen as right or wrong but more likely revealing different allotrope. They will be used as a reference point for understanding if the proposed “rules for allotropy” were successful in terms of heritage preservation (or not). The notion of the palimpsest will be a major driver for any intervention. The types of spatial/volumetric adjustments observed in the case studies and the genealogy of preservation [mirroring, symmetry, axis, etc.] will inform the interventions.the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified by national or international interest of paramount importance.“ The Greek delegation appeals for a total reconstruction of the towers as a set, completely disregarding their rich contemporary context, essentially transforming then into monuments that will attract a monocultural type of tourist audience. The work of the second part of my thesis  starts with the choice of 3 particular sites [one on an inhabited island, one on an island with high concentration of religious sites, and one on an island with the biggest flora and fauna sanctuary in the Cyclades], providing a greater understanding of their cultural and political context, as well as questioning what are the possible scenarios for site/building development according to the local legislation and governing body. The specificity of the program derives from the in-depth research of the particular geographic, cultural, economic, and political multiplicities of the chosen sites. Program capacities will evolve with the polymorphic evolution of the allotropic iterations. METHoDoLoGyFig. 128. Euthanasia.ARTICLE 5.THE CONSERVATION OF MONUMENTS IS ALWAYS FACILITATED BY MAKING USE OF THEM FOR SOME SOCIALLY USEFUL PURPOSE. SUCH USE IS THEREFORE DESIRABLE BUT IT MUST NOT CHANGE THE LAY-OUT OR DECORATION OF THE BUILDING. IT IS WITHIN THESE LIMITS ONLY THAT MODIFICATIONS DEMANDED BY A CHANGE OF FUNCTION SHOULD BE ENVISAGED AND MAY BE PERMITTED.ARTICLE 6.THE CONSERVATION OF A MONUMENT IMPLIES PRESERVING A SETTING WHICH IS NOT OUT OF SCALE. WHEREVER THE TRADITIONAL SETTING EXISTS, IT MUST BE KEPT. NO NEW CONSTRUCTION, DEMOLITION OR MODIFICATION WHICH WOULD ALTER THE RELATIONS OF MASS AND COLOUR MUST BE ALLOWED.ARTICLE 7.A MONUMENT IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE HISTORY TO WHICH IT BEARS WIT-NESS AND FROM THE SETTING IN WHICH IT OCCURS. THE MOVING OF ALL OR PART OF A MONUMENT CANNOT BE ALLOWED EXCEPT WHERE THE SAFEGU-ARDING OF THAT MONUMENT DEMANDS IT OR WHERE IT IS JUSTIFIED BY NATIO-NAL OR INTERNATIONAL INTEREST OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE.EUTHANASIAI THE [GOOD] DEATH OF A MONUMENTTHE INITIAL PHASE IS ACHIEVED THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL ACTIVISM AND IT IS TRIGGERED BY BREA-KING UNESCO‘S ARTICLES 5, 6, AND 7. THE RUINS ARE STRIPPED FROM THEIR UNESCO  VALUE AND BECOME INSUITABLE FOR THEIR INSCIRPTION ON THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST.THIS STAGE OF THE INTERVENTION IS NON-PROGRAMATIC AND IT AIMS STRICTLY TO „KILL“ THE UNESCO VALUE OF THE MONUMENT. 96 97METHoDoLoGyMETHoDoLoGyeuthanasia. The [good] Death of a Monument.This initial phase is achieved through architectural activism and it is triggered by breaking UNESCo‘s aforementioned articles 5, 6, and 7. the ruins are stripped from their “UNESCo value” and become unsuitable for their inscription on the world heritage list.TRANSFORMATION TO A THEATRE OF INTERACTIONTHE METAMORPHOSIS EMBODIES THE THE SHIFT FROM LIMITATION TO FREEDOM FOR FURTHER INTER-VENTIONS FOSTERING A PALIMPSESTIC FUTURE. AT THIS PHASE THE RUIN IS TRANSFORMED INTO AN ARTIFACT THAT CAN BE OCCUPIED AND INTERACTED WITH - OR TOUCHED, SAT ON, CLIMBED ON, DIS-MANTLED, MOVE PARTS OF IT.THIS STAGE OF THE INTERVENTION FRAMES THE RUIN INTO A THEATRE OF INTERACTION BY INTRODU-CING BASIC PROGRAM THAT AIMS TO ENCOURAGE ENGAGEMENT WITH THE RUIN.METAMORPHOSISIIFig. 129. Metamorphosis.98 99METHoDoLoGyMETHoDoLoGyMetamorphosis. Transformation to a theatre of Interaction.The metamorphosis embodies the the shift from limitation to freedom for further interventions fostering a palimpsestic future. At this phase the ruin is transformed into an artifact that can be occupied and interacted with - or touched, sat on, climbed on, dismantled, or move parts of it. This stage of the inter-vention frames the ruin into a theatre of interaction by introducing basic program that aims to encourage engagement with the ruin.THE EXISTENCE OF TWO OR MORE PHISICAL EXPRESSIONS OF AN ARTIFACTLITERAL TRANSLATION “OTHER MANNER”. IN THIS PHASE THE “ATOMIC” PARTS COMPOSING THE RUIN, ENGENDER DIFFERENT ARCHITECTONIC GESTURES AND ARRANGEMENTS, ESSENTIALLY PROVIDING ALTERNATIVE WAYS THAT THE RIUNS CAN EXIST. SAME PARTS STIMULATE DIFFERENT MEANINGS.THE ALLOTROPES OF THE RUIN FORM A PALIMPSEST INTERTWINING MULTIPLE TIMELINES OPERATING AT DIFFERENT TEMPORALITIES.ALLOTROPYIIIFig. 130. Allotropy.100 101METHoDoLoGyMETHoDoLoGyAllotropy. The existence of two or more physical expressions of an artifactLiteral translation “other manner”. in this phase the “atomic” parts composing the ruin, engender different architectonic gestures and arrangements, essentially providing alternative ways that the ruins can exist. Same parts stimulate different meanings. The allotropes of the ruin form a palimpsest intertwining mul-tiple timelines operating at different temporalities.FLORENCE, ITALY [-Q-1960-20QQ]SUPERSTUDIOTHE ETHICS OF DUST [QQQQ-2008]EIFFEL TOWERTIANDUCHENG, HUANGZHOU, CHINA[2007-20QQ]EIFFEL TOWERPARIS, FRANCE[1887-20QQ]BRIDGE1. AN ATTEMPT TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN CULTURES: JOIN, LINK, CONNECT, UNITE; STRADDLE; OVERCOME, RECONCILE;2. A WALKWAY BRIDGED THE HIGHWAY: SPAN, CROSS (OVER), EXTEND ACROSS, TRAVERSE, ARCH OVER.KOLUMBA MUSEUMCOLOGNE, GERMANY[1250-1944-1954-2007-20QQ]MALGAMATERIDGEAPOPPELGÄNGERSLOODXFOLIATEANTWERP PORT HOUSEANTWERP, BELGIUM[1860-2016-20QQ]CASTEL FIRMIANOBOLZANO, ITALY[3000BC-2008-20QQ]ACEFBDHOSTSACKNCRUSTATIONSOINZEVITATEBUNKER 599NETHERLANDS [1815-1940-2013-20QQ] + [with object] cut with rough+ [no object] use a computer to gain unauthori-zed access to data in a+ informal manage; cope. ACROPOLIS PATHSATHENS,GREECE[3000BC-1954-20QQ] Buildings lose their functions. Sometimes that leads to their destruction and transformation into ruins. Every social object after its demolition has a point of no return, and it has an inherent limitati-on of relationality. Grafting the ruin left behind by a building into an approximate butaforic replica of the past is not much more authentic than resto-ring it through contemporary cultural and techno-logical traditions. An ideal allotrope of UNESCO Built Heritage “monument” restoration is the version that estab-lishes a symbiosis between the ruin and the new that blends the past meaning of the building/site with the cultural expressions of contemporary society. Restorations that attempt to reverse time and produce a reconstruct that exists in past tense have passive agency...A built heritage that can evolve and readapt to the current socio-eco-nomic and cultural zeitgeist has an active agency due to its ability to embed the traces of layers of depositions of a given society(s). The most significant disadvantage of UNESCO’s prescribed form of preservation through restorati-on is the treatment of architectural objects and artifacts solely as actors, forgetting that a thing acts because it exists instead that exist because it acts. The most alluring aspect of the architecto-nic allotropes is their ability to shift the role of our build heritage from an actor towards a mediator.CAIXAFORUMMADRID, SPAIN [1899-2003-2008-20QQ]BASILICA DI SIPONTOFOGGIA, ITALY[1117-1977-2016-20QQ] EDOARDO TRESOLDI CASTEL FIRMIANOBOLZANO, ITALY[3000BC-2008-20QQ]NINGBO HISTORY MUSEUMZHEJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA[3000BC-2008-20QQ] GIKLHJELTESTRGAN DONORSUANTICE-BUILTATCHES“noun: homogeneous function of two or more variables”ICE WATCHPARIS, FRANCE [VIA GREENLAND][13000BC-2014] UTRECHT TOWN HALLUTRECHT, NETHERLANDS[1350-2000-20QQ]PLATTENBAU > COUNTRY SIDEGERMANY[1950-2016-20QQ]SHINTO SHRINEISE, JAPAN [QQQQ-2019]‚NEUES MUSEUM‘BERLIN, GERMANY[1841-1851-1945-1997-2009-20QQ]MOQNPR EITGEISTUBTRACTIONENICE MEETINGEDGEPLODEUGOSLAVIA MUSEUMABULA RASANESCOThe following are excerpts from the “Venice Mee-ting“ held on June 5, 2015 at Emily Harvey Foun-dation Gallery between the experimental preserva-tionists Andreas Angelidakis, Lucia Allais, Thor-dis Arrhenius, Svetlana Boym, Reinhard Kropf, Erik Langdalen, Louise Masreliez, Jorge Otero-Pailos, and Ines Weizman.“How to take care of the different life cycles of a building? How to find and use the specific qualities of an existing building that can play an active part in its transformation? How can we in the design phase enter into a kind of dialogues with certain intrunsic properties of the building?““What is interesting for us is that preservation is not only dealing with a building but also with the lives and the resources of people in or around the building and how they can influence our role as architects. Preservation becomes thereby a collec-tive and creative act where we as architects take on different roles“ “The professional’s judgement and distinction between what is worth preserving and what not produces both value and waste““We are controlling the disappearance““We are interested in reversing the relationship between a preservation material, like resin, and the material it is meant to preserve“There are a plethora of buildings and monuments of the former Yugoslavian state scattered around the newly-formed republics of Serbia, Monte Negro, Croatia, Bosna & Herzegovina, Slove-nia, FYROM, and Kosovo. The new countries,af-ter the’ve shared the spoils of the “more signifi-cant” heritage, have completely abdicated their duty to protect a heritage which is essentially in a stateless reality. Perifernalia of nostaligia infused “The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th- to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as “spirit of the age” or “spirit of the times”. It refers to an invisible agent or force dominating the characteristics of a given epoch in world history. Contemporary use of the term may, more prag-matically, refer to a schema of fashions or fads which prescribes what is considered to be accep-table or tasteful for an era, e.g. in the field of architecture.“items emerge as an intangible heritage, informed by the living traditions of the separated states.Azra Aksamija, a Bosnian artist and architect, asked residents of Sarajevo to bring her “the objects that were a meaningful part of their reali-ty.“ The objects that she received are in striking contrast with the Bosnian government’s narrative about the rupture with the Yugoslavian past.GAUTAM BUDDHASBAMIYAN VALLEY, HAZARAJAT, AFGHANISTAN [507-554-1221-1847-2001-20QQ] ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM TORONTO, CANADA[1912-1933-1968-1984-2007-20QQ]SVEXWZYUTFig. 131. Anthology of Palimpsests.102 103METHoDoLoGyMETHoDoLoGyTo implement the phases i’m using a set of precedent studies of build-ing interventions of palimpsestic character which are outside of the context of UNESCo’s world heritage sites. similarities are extracted and compiled in a form of alphabetical anthology that includes amalgams of buildings, proposals for experi-mental preservations, buildings as organ donors, copy/pastes, re-builds, and etcetera. 104 105THe FollowINg STorIeSDID NoT HAppeN“…nobody knows when, why and by whom this tower on the sea was built. nobody knows when and why it fell down. but it fell and broke into thousand of fragments, and since that time it lies like a mountain range…” 9.2Utkin & Brodsky9.2. Brodsky, Alexander & Utkin, Iliya. Braodsky & Utkin. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2015.ATHENSTHESSALONIKIANDROSROKASTELLORIZOSTRONGYLINAXOS IKARIA AMORGOS KEASERIFOS SIPHNOS AEGEAN SEA • GREECEFig. 132. Map of the Aegean Sea. Fig. 133. Context of Naxos.Naxos is the greenest Cycladic island.NOT TO SCALENAXOS BIRD SANCTUARY[284 SPECIES]CHEIMARROS TOWER, NAXOS ISLAND, HELLAS25.51’99.74E | 36.99’59.01N16KM > NAXOS4.5KM > KLIDO + KANAKI8KM > KALANTOS9KM > AGIASSOSCHEIMARROS TOWER106 107ArTIFACT AND HABITATTHE FiRST SToRy TAKES PLACE oN THE iSLAND oF NAxoS, GREECE.ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATFig. 134. Context of Naxos.CHEIMARROS TOWERNAXOS ISLANDPROTECTED SECIES OF AVIOFAUNA &ENDANGERED MEDITERRANEAN FLORAThe island is an important migratory bird stop protected by the international union for conservation of nature.ATH > JNX = 0:40 [1x]ATH > NAXOS = 4:00 [6x]JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01NNAXOS ISLAND25.51’99.74E | 36.99’59.01NLOCAL POPULATION: 19 000SUMMER POPULATION: 75 000+MIGRATORY BIRD SANCTUARYPROTECTED MEDITERRANEAN FLORAThere is a circular marble preserved to a height of 14 m that stands at the edge of a protected habitat.  Fig. 135. Naxos - deeper context map.108 109ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTAT25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01N25.51’99.74E36.99’59.01NCHEIMARROS TOWERNAXOS ISLAND, GREECEERECTED : 350SOUTH VIEWERECTED : -300 GREY MARBLE ASHLARSDOUBLE WALLFORTIFICATION DIMENSIONS FORTIFICATION WALLS: 35x35MEXISTING HEIGHT: 0.5MTOWER DIMENSIONS ORIGINAL HEIGHT: 17MEXISTING HEIGHT: 14MTOWER DIAMETER: 9.2MFig. 136. Cheimarros Tower Context. Inside of it are four storeys connected by a marble staircase set into the wall. The en-trance is on the south side. The few openings, the single window 10 m. Above ground level and the arrow-slits highlight the defensive nature of the structure, which is sur-rounded by an almost square fortification wall measuring 35 m. on a side. Ruins of storerooms of the late roman period are within its enceinte.euthanasia.Azalas is an environmentalist group on Naxos that runs the bird-watching society and flora protection. They take the first phase of delivering the death to the UNESCo monument by using the force of habitat expansion and preservation opposing the value of the artifact vs the value of the habitat – questioning what needs to be preserved and suggesting an anti-anthropocentric preservation with much broader scope which refuses to con-sider humans as special in a way which renders their creations superior to other beings. 110 111ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATEUTHANASIAIXPLODEENDEMIC SPECIESANCHUSA UNDULATA SUBSP. SARTORIIASPERULA ABBREVIATABUPLEURUM AIRACERASTIUM RUNEMARKIICREPIS HELLENICA SUBSP. INSULARIS DIANTHUS CINNAMOMEUS SUBSP. CINNAMOMEUS (ENDEMIC CYCLADESDIANTHUS CINNAMOMEUS SUBSP. NAXENSISERYSIMUM NAXENSEOPHRYS ANDRIAOPHRYS BLITOPERTHAOPHRYS CRETICA SUBSP. BELONIAEOPHRYS ISRAELITICAOPHRYS THESEIORNITHOGALUM DICTAEUM SUBSP. NAXENSESCILLA ANDRIASYMPHYTUM NAXICOLAVERBASCUM ADELIAEALLIUM SPHAEROCEPHALON VAR. AEGAEUMALYSSUM SMYRNAEUMCORYDALIS INTEGRAGALIUM CONFORMELAMIUM GARGANICUM SUBSP. STRIATUMMUSCARI PULCHELLUM SUBSP. CLEPSYDROIDESORIGANUM DUBIUMRANUNCULUS CRETICUSRANUNCULUS THASIUSSCUTELLARIA NAXENSISSILENE COMPACTATORDYLIUM AEGAEUMTORDYLIUM HIRTOCARPUMARTIFACT + HABITATWALLS + CREVICES SPECIESplant bombs are plugged into the tower’s arrow slits, door opening, and window aperture. Furthermore, the interstice between the double wall is drilled and seeded.Fig. 137. Cheimarros : Euthanasia.112 113ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATMetamorphosis.The Avifauna Flood: The new sprung flora increases the reach of the avifauna habitat and transforms the ruin of the tower into a place where species can interact with it. Nature is not some-thing external anymore.Fig. 138. The ruin as Habitat.BLACK KITE BLACK-WINGED STILTS WOOD LARK STONE CURLEWLANNER FALCON GREAT SNIPE LITTLE RINGED PLOVERS PEREGRINE FALCONMARSH SANDPIPE RMARSH HARRIER LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD BONELLI’S EAGLEGRIFFON VULTURE    LEVANT SPARROWHAWKS LESSER SPOTTED EAGLE COMMON BUZZARDRED-RUMPED SWALLOW RED-FOOTED FALCON PURPLE HERONS SQUACCO HERONUPUPA EPOPS BEE-EATER [EURO] NORTHERN WHEATEAR CORN BUNTINGNIGHTJARS EUROPEAN STONE CHATEUROPEAN STONE CHATNIGHTJARSCORN BUNTINGNORTHERN WHEATEARBEE-EATER [EURO]UPUPA EPOPSSQUACCO HERONPURPLE HERONSRED-FOOTED FALCONRED-RUMPED SWALLOWCOMMON BUZZARDLESSER SPOTTED EAGLELEVANT SPARROWHAWKSKESTRELELEANORA'S FALCONSHORT-TOED EAGLEHONEY BUZZARDSGRIFFON VULTURE BONELLI’S EAGLELONG-LEGGED BUZZARDMARSH HARRIERMARSH SANDPIPERPEREGRINE FALCONLITTLE RINGED PLOVERSGREAT SNIPELANNER FALCONSTONE CURLEWWOOD LARKBLACK-WINGED STILTS BLACK KITETHE ARTIFACT AS AVIFAUNA + FLORA HABITATEAGLES + VULTURES FROM MT. ZASINSECTS ATTRACT BIRDS1400 BIRD SPECIES CAN BE OBSERVED IN THE CYCLADESTHRUSHES + FINCHES FROM TRAGAIA OLIVE GROVESSTOP-OVER FOR MIGRATING WATER FAUNAWOODED VALLEY SPECIESBARN OWLSSONG BIRDSEAGLES + VULTURES FROM MT. ZAS83 ENDEMIC TO CYCLADESMIGRATORY BIRDS OF PREY FROM MOUNT KALOGEROSNATURE IS NOT SOMETHING EXTERNALMETAMORPHOSISLOODIIF114 115ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATBLACK KITE BLACK-WINGED STILTS WOOD LARK STONE CURLEWLANNER FALCON GREAT SNIPE LITTLE RINGED PLOVERS PEREGRINE FALCONMARSH SANDPIPE RMARSH HARRIER LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD BONELLI’S EAGLEGRIFFON VULTURE    LEVANT SPARROWHAWKS LESSER SPOTTED EAGLE COMMON BUZZARDRED-RUMPED SWALLOW RED-FOOTED FALCON PURPLE HERONS SQUACCO HERONUPUPA EPOPS BEE-EATER [EURO] NORTHERN WHEATEAR CORN BUNTINGNIGHTJARS EUROPEAN STONE CHATEUROPEAN STONE CHATNIGHTJARSCORN BUNTINGNORTHERN WHEATEARBEE-EATER [EURO]UPUPA EPOPSSQUACCO HERONPURPLE HERONSRED-FOOTED FALCONRED-RUMPED SWALLOWCOMMON BUZZARDLESSER SPOTTED EAGLELEVANT SPARROWHAWKSKESTRELELEANORA'S FALCONSHORT-TOED EAGLEHONEY BUZZARDSGRIFFON VULTURE BONELLI’S EAGLELONG-LEGGED BUZZARDMARSH HARRIERMARSH SANDPIPERPEREGRINE FALCONLITTLE RINGED PLOVERSGREAT SNIPELANNER FALCONSTONE CURLEWWOOD LARKBLACK-WINGED STILTS BLACK KITETHE ARTIFACT AS AVIFAUNA + FLORA HABITATEAGLES + VULTURES FROM MT. ZASINSECTS ATTRACT BIRDS1400 BIRD SPECIES CAN BE OBSERVED IN THE CYCLADESTHRUSHES + FINCHES FROM TRAGAIA OLIVE GROVESSTOP-OVER FOR MIGRATING WATER FAUNAWOODED VALLEY SPECIESBARN OWLSSONG BIRDSEAGLES + VULTURES FROM MT. ZAS83 ENDEMIC TO CYCLADESMIGRATORY BIRDS OF PREY FROM MOUNT KALOGEROSNATURE IS NOT SOMETHING EXTERNALMETAMORPHOSISLOODIIFFig. 139. Cheimarros : Metamorphosis.116 117ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATFig. 140. Cheimarros: Allotropic Stages.12ARTiFACT AND HABiTAT BrIDge34leVITATe AMALGAMATE118 119ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATB1A1 A2B2ALLOTROPYRIDGEEVITATEMALGAMATEIIIBLA0204 0302 01 0303011 • 100B1 • B2A1 • A2LOOKING SWLEVITATED RUIN PIECES HIGHLIGHT THE TOWER’S CIRCULATIONLOOKING NCIRCULATION THROUGH THE OLD BARRACKSARTIFACT + HABITATLOOKING FROM LEVITATE TOWERFig. 141. Cheimarros: Allotropy.120 121ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATB1 • B2Bridge: The Hellenic ornithological Society marks its presence on the site by erecting a tower with the same ancient monu-mentality that bridges the ruin’s habitat a the new human arti-fact lightly while creating a counterpoint and expressing ancient monumentality with modern materials and techniques.Fig. 142. Brige. Section.The confined feeling of an ancient tower is referenced in the narrow circulation of the new tower.Fig. 143. Bridge. Interior.122 123ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATA1B20204 0301ARTIFACT + HABITATThe footprint references the diameter of the existing tower. The shape refer-ences the proklos - an ancient observation tool. An ornithologist and a botanist move in. A visitor’s center is established on the ground floor, live-in quarters on the second, work spaces on the third. Fig. 144. Bridge. Floor Plans. Fig. 145. Live-in space: arrow slits reference.124 125ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATlevitate: Nature photographers are attracted by the fusion of nature and human artifact. Daily visits augment. A bird watching tower is erected. Fig. 146. Cheimarros: Levitate. View from bird watching tower.Stones scattered around the site are incorporated into the circulation of the tower levitating them to the bridge, where they connect with the ruin. As visitors move up the vertical the tilt of the tower brings them closer to the ancient artifact. Fig. 147. Cheimarros: Levitate. Circulation.B1A1 A2B2ALLOTROPYRIDGEEVITATEMALGAMATEIIIBLA0204 0302 01 0303011 • 100B1 • B2A1 • A2LOOKING SWLEVITATED RUIN PIECES HIGHLIGHT THE TOWER’S CIRCULATIONLOOKING NCIRCULATION THROUGH THE OLD BARRACKSARTIFACT + HABITATLOOKING FROM LEVITATE TOWER126 127ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATFig. 148. Levitated ruin artifacts form the circulation of the birdwatching/visitors tower.Fig. 149. Levitated stones from the ruins connect back to the ancient tower through a bridge.128 129ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATFig. 150. Amalgamate: ancient and new.Amalgamate: a hostel for overnight visitors is erected on top of the small barracks from late roman times. Fig. 151. Amalgamate: Floor Plans. The ground floor is an amalgam between ancient and new. The roofs of the ancient barracks protrude through the second floor into the lounge area of the hostel.B1A1 A2B20204 0302 01 0303011 • 100130 131ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATFig. 152. Amalgamate: Section.The vertical circulation passes through the old and continues upwards to the new. Fig. 153. Amalgamate: Interior. 132 133ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATB1A1 A2B20204 0302 01 0303011 • 100Fig. 154. Amalgamate: Allotropic Floor Plans.The allotropes of the 4th Century BC tower reference the same maximum footprint of 9.2 meters and use its height as a datum.134 135ARTiFACT AND HABiTATARTiFACT AND HABiTATATHENSTHESSALONIKIANDROSROKASTELLORIZOSTRONGYLINAXOS IKARIA AMORGOS KEASERIFOS SIPHNOS AEGEAN SEA • GREECEFig. 155. Map of the Aegean Sea.Fig. 156. Heliograph.Heliographs are army communication devices that use mirrors.136 137HelIogrApHIC DIploMACyTHiS SToRy TAKES PLACE oN THE iSLAND oF Ro, WHiCH iS LoCATED 5KM AWAy FRoM TURKEyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 157. Context of Ro.The island has no local population apart from a small greek Navy commando unit. The waters around the island are part of the never ending Aegean dispute between greece and Turkey and it has been a theatre of display of military egos on numerous occasions. TOWER OF RORO SIALNDHELLENIC NAVY SEALS UNITGREEK TERRITORIAL WATER CLAIMTURKISH TERRITORIAL WATER CLAIMA ruin of a fortress set on a hilltop where there are steep cliffs on the north overlooking the Turkish coast. A woman dubbed “The Lady of Ro” lived there from 1927 till her death in 1982 and every morning she would fly the Greek flag over the islet. Fig. 158. Ro - deeper context map.RO ISLAND29.50’28.04E | 36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01NMILITARY POPULATION: 23ANTI-VESSEL MISSILE: 2NAVAL RECONNAISSANCE VESSELS: 1 DISTANCE TO TURKISH COAST: 5KMLOCAL POPULATION: 0ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES: 2GREEK FLAGS: 3138 139HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 159. Tower of Ro Context. its inner rectangular tower measures 12.5 x 13 m. and it is preserved to a height of approximately 4 m. inside there is a rainwater collection cistern. walking around in the island is prohibited, hence the visit to the tower ruins, normally, is not possible.29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01N29.50’28.04E36.15’68.01NTOWER OFRORO ISLAND, GREECEPROXIMITY TO BASE : 800MLADY OF ROERECTED : -300 GREY MARBLE ASHLARSFORTIFICATION DIMENSIONS FORTIFICATION WALLS: 30x25mEXISTING HEIGHT: 0.5mTOWER DIMENSIONS ORIGINAL HEIGHT: 12MEXISTING HEIGHT: 4MTOWER: 12.5 x 13Meuthanasia.Given the island’s close proximity to turkey, the territorial dis-putes between both countries, and the tower’s historic defen-sive character, the ruins are used as a means for relaxing the strained diplomatic relationship between both neighbours. 140 141HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyIOEUTHANASIARGAN DONORKAS BASE, TURKEY36º11’03.38”N | 29º30’15.22”E36º11’03.38”N | 29º30’15.22”EMIDDLE OF EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE DISPUTEDONOR EXCHANGE POIONTTOWER OF RO, HELLAS36.15’68.01N | 29.50’28.04EEXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONEAS CLAIMED BY TURKEYEXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE, GREECEFig. 160. Tower of Ro: Euthanasia.142 143HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyorgan Donor: The tower is cut in the middle, and half of its body is donated and shipped to the Turkish naval base near Kas on the opposite coast of the Aegean sea.Fig. 161. Organ Donors: Hacking.Fig. 162. Organ Donors: Loading.144 145HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 163. Organ Donors: Exchange.146 147HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 164. Organ Donors: Exchange Military Parade in the middle of the disputed exclusive economic zone.148 149HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyMetamorphosis: The Doppelgänger ghosts - to continue the token of diplomacy, both towers are developed as twins.Fig. 165. Ro: Metamorphosis.METAMORPHOSIS METAMORPHOSISOPPELGÄNGER GHOSTS OPPELGÄNGER GHOSTSII IID DTOWER OF BAYINDIR, TURKEY36º11’03.38”N | 29º30’15.22”ETOWER OF RO, HELLAS36.15’68.01N | 29.50’28.04E-... .-. --- - .... . .-. --..-- / - .... . / -... --- .-. . -.. --- -- / .. ... / -.- .. .-.. .-.. .. -. --. / .-- .... .- - . ...- . .-. / - .... . / .... . .- - / .-.. . .- ...- . ... / -... . .... .. -. -.. .-.-.- / .-- .- - . - / - --- / .--. .-.. .- -.-- /-.-. .... . ... ... / .- --. .- .. -. ..--......- .-.-.- -... .- ....- / -. ..-. -.... / ..... .-.-.- ----- -....- ----- / -... . --... / -.... .-.-.- .-. . .---- / -... ..... / --... .-.-.- -... -... ...-- / -.. -.... / ---.. .-.-.- -.-. ...-- / ----- -....- ----- ‘‘‘‘ -... .-. --- - .... . .-. --..-- / - .... . / - ..-. --- / ... .... .. --.. --.. .-.. . / -- .- / -... .-. .. --.. --.. .-.. .-... .-. --- - .... . .-. --..-- / - .... . / -... --- .-. .150 151HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 167. Ro: Doppelganger Greece. Fig. 168. Ro: Doppelganger Turkey.operable mirrors are installed on the north side of the Greek tower and on the south side of the Turkish tower restoring the tower’s original height. Soldiers climb and engage in sending morse code messages using the ruin as a heliograph. 152 153HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 168. Ro: The Ruin as a communication device.The ruin is transformed from an artifact of military heritage into a communication device which fosters a dialog.154 155HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 169. Ro: Allotropy.ALLOTROPYAPIIICB1A1A2B2B1 • B2A1 • A2Allotropy.The Caps: The doppelgangers are capped and enclosed. The gym, being the ultimate simulator and training facility for military purposes since antiquity, engenders the next incarnation of the ruin’s allotrope. The ruin, the communication devise, and the gym compose the first layers of the new palimpsest of time, space and history. The ancient water collection cistern is converted to a pool.156 157HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyFig. 170. The Twin Gyms referencing the arm race between Greece and Turkey.158 159HELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyHELioGRAPHiC DiPLoMACyATHENSTHESSALONIKIANDROSROKASTELLORIZOSTRONGYLINAXOS IKARIA AMORGOS KEASERIFOS SIPHNOS AEGEAN SEA • GREECEFig. 171. Map of the Aegean Sea.Hypostatic union is a mystic union of divine and human. Theorized by both the stoics and later by Christianologues. Contemporary Greek culture being a hybrid between primarily Hellenistic and Christian traditions of divine and human.160 161HypoSTATIC uNIoNTHiS SToRy TAKES PLACE oN THE iSLAND oF KEA, THE CLoSET To THE MAiNLAND FRoM THE SETHyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNFig. 173. Context of St. Marina.The tower stood alone untill the 1600s where it was incorporated into the en-ceinte of the monastery of St. Marina.AGIA MARINA TOWERKEA ISLANDFig. 172. Context of Kea.A ruin of a tower exist in the interior of Kea, in the middle of a valley between the two ancient cities. 162 163HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNFig. 175. Tower of St.Marina Context. The tower rises to its original height of 15m with a square base measurement of 9.9m x 9.9m. After the 1858 earthquake the structure was abandoned. Pilgrims visit the site on July 17th. ARTIST RENDERING [1826]24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E 37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63NST.MARINA TOWERKEA [TZIA] ISLAND, GREECE ST.MARINA MONASTERYABANDONED 1858ERECTED : -300 MATERIALS: SCHIST+ GREY DOLOMITIC MARBLE ASHLARSFORTIFICATION DIMENSIONS FORTIFICATION WALLS: 35x35MEXISTING HEIGHT: 0.5MTOWER DIMENSIONS ORIGINAL HEIGHT: 15EXISTING HEIGHT: 15TOWER FOOTPRINT: 9.9 x 9.9The island is which is sprinkled with numerous hiking paths and monasteries and at the days of their patron saints celebrations abound. Fig. 174. Kea - deeper context map.24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E 37.37’01.63N24.18’17.06E37.37’01.63NPOPULATION: 2 500SUMMER POPULATION: 15 000+PLETHORA OF MONASTERIESHIKER’S PARADISE: EXTENSIVE HIKING PATH NETWORKLAV > KEA = 3:30 [6x]TOURIST SEASON: JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DECKEA ISLAND24.18’17.06E | 37.37’01.63N164 165HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNeuthanasia.re-built. UNESCo’s funding is approved. The tower is restored. There is no fund-ing for the refurbishment of the monastery.Fig. 176. Tower of St.Marina: Euthanasia.EUTHANASIAE-BULTIR166 167HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNFig. 177. Tower of St.Marina. Metamorphosis.Metamorphosis.Nesting: a group of religious monks, move into the monastery and rebuild its fortification walls thus fully envelopping the tower’s ruins in its enceinte.  entrance to the complex is through the tower’s original entrance on the south at a height of 2m above the ground.METAMORPHOSISESTIIN168 169HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNFig. 178. Tower of St.Marina: The In-between.Allotropy.quantic: a homogenous existence of two variables. inhabiting the in-between: The void produced between the nesting of the byzantine religious building and the classical Greek tower forms the in-between space where contemporary Greek culture finds its contemporary deposit. The in-between manifests the layers of the palimpsest of Greek cultural succession. A cultural center is established.170 171HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNFig. 179. Tower oF St.Marina: Allotropy.ALLOTROPYUANTICIIIQ172 173HyPoSTATiC UNioNHyPoSTATiC UNioNbibliography architectonic allotropyAbramson, Daniel. 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Imbued with a message from the past, the historic monuments of generations of people remain to the present day as living witnesses of their age-old traditions. People are becoming more and more conscious of the unity of human values and regard ancient monuments as a common heritage. The common responsibility to safeguard them for future generations is recognized. It is our duty to hand them on in the full richness of their authenticity. It is essential that the principles guiding the preservation and restoration of ancient buildings should be agreed and be laid down on an international basis, with each country being responsible for applying the plan within the framework of its own culture and traditions. By defining these basic principles for the first time, the Athens Charter of 1931 contributed towards the development of an extensive international movement which has assumed concrete form in national documents, in the work of ICOM and UNESCO and in the establishment by the latter of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property. Increasing awareness and critical study have been brought to bear on problems which have continually become more complex and varied; now the time has come to examine the Charter afresh in order to make a thorough study of the principles involved and to enlarge its scope in a new document. Accordingly, the IInd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, which met in Venice from May 25th to 31st 1964, approved the following text:  DEFINITIONS Article 1.  The concept of a historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a significant development or a historic event. This applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past which have acquired cultural significance with the passing of time.  Article 2.  The conservation and restoration of monuments must have recourse to all the sciences and techniques which can contribute to the study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage.   Article 3.  The intention in conserving and restoring monuments is to safeguard them no less as works of art than as historical evidence.   CONSERVATION Article 4.  It is essential to the conservation of monuments that they be maintained on a permanent basis.  Article 5.  The conservation of monuments is always facilitated by making use of them for some socially useful purpose. Such use is therefore desirable but it must not change the lay-out or decoration of the building. It is within these limits only that modifications demanded by a change of function should be envisaged and may be permitted.  Article 6.  The conservation of a monument implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale. Wherever the traditional setting exists, it must be kept. No new construction, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of mass and colour must be allowed.  Article 7.  A monument is inseparable from the history to which it bears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of a monument cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified by national or international interest of paramount importance.  Article 8.  Items of sculpture, painting or decoration which form an integral part of a monument may only be removed from it if this is the sole means of ensuring their preservation.   RESTORATION Article 9.  The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and is based on respect for original material and authentic documents. It must stop at the point where conjecture begins, and in this case moreover any extra work which is indispensable must be distinct from the architectural composition and must bear a contemporary stamp. The restoration in any case must be preceded and followed by an archaeological and historical study of the monument.  Article 10.  Where traditional techniques prove inadequate, the consolidation of a monument can be achieved by the use of any modern technique for conservation and construction, the efficacy of which has been shown by scientific data and proved by experience.    Article 11.  The valid contributions of all periods to the building of a monument must be respected, since unity of style is not the aim of a restoration. When a building includes the superimposed work of different periods, the revealing of the underlying state can only be justified in exceptional circumstances and when what is removed is of little interest and the material which is brought to light is of great historical, archaeological or aesthetic value, and its state of preservation good enough to justify the action. Evaluation of the importance of the elements involved and the decision as to what may be destroyed cannot rest solely on the individual in charge of the work.  Article 12.  Replacements of missing parts must integrate harmoniously with the whole, but at the same time must be distinguishable from the original so that restoration does not falsify the artistic or historic evidence.  Article 13.  Additions cannot be allowed except in so far as they do not detract from the interesting parts of the building, its traditional setting, the balance of its composition and its relation with its surroundings.   HISTORIC SITES Article 14.  The sites of monuments must be the object of special care in order to safeguard their integrity and ensure that they are cleared and presented in a seemly manner. The work of conservation and restoration carried out in such places should be inspired by the principles set forth in the foregoing articles.   EXCAVATIONS Article 15.  Excavations should be carried out in accordance with scientific standards and the recommendation defining international principles to be applied in the case of archaeological excavation adopted by UNESCO in 1956.  Ruins must be maintained and measures necessary for the permanent conservation and protection of architectural features and of objects discovered must be taken. Furthermore, every means must be taken to facilitate the understanding of the monument and to reveal it without ever distorting its meaning.  All reconstruction work should however be ruled out "a priori". Only anastylosis, that is to say, the reassembling of existing but dismembered parts can be permitted. The material used for integration should always be recognizable and its use should be the least that will ensure the conservation of a monument and the reinstatement of its form.      PUBLICATION Article 16.  In all works of preservation, restoration or excavation, there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs. Every stage of the work of clearing, consolidation, rearrangement and integration, as well as technical and formal features identified during the course of the work, should be included. This record should be placed in the archives of a public institution and made available to research workers. It is recommended that the report should be published.   The following persons took part in the work of the Committee for drafting the International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments:  Piero Gazzola (Italy), Chairman Raymond Lemaire (Belgium), Reporter José Bassegoda-Nonell (Spain) Luis Benavente (Portugal) Djurdje Boskovic (Yugoslavia) Hiroshi Daifuku (UNESCO) P.L. de Vrieze (Netherlands) Harald Langberg (Denmark) Mario Matteucci (Italy) Jean Merlet (France) Carlos Flores Marini (Mexico) Roberto Pane (Italy) S.C.J. Pavel (Czechoslovakia) Paul Philippot (ICCROM) Victor Pimentel (Peru) Harold Plenderleith (ICCROM) Deoclecio Redig de Campos (Vatican) Jean Sonnier (France) Francois Sorlin (France) Eustathios Stikas (Greece) Gertrud Tripp (Austria) Jan Zachwatovicz (Poland) Mustafa S. Zbiss (Tunisia)     UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION     CONVENTION CONCERNING THE  PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL  AND NATURAL HERITAGE  Adopted by the General Conference at its seventeenth session Paris, 16 november 1972       English Text    CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION  OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE  The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization meeting in Paris from 17 October to 21 November 1972, at its seventeenth session,  Noting that the cultural heritage and the natural heritage are increasingly threatened with destruction not only by the traditional causes of decay, but also by changing social and economic conditions which aggravate the situation with even more formidable phenomena of damage or destruction,  Considering that deterioration or disappearance of any item of the cultural or natural heritage constitutes a harmful impoverishment of the heritage of all the nations of the world,  Considering that protection of this heritage at the national level often remains incomplete because of the scale of the resources which it requires and of the insufficient economic, scientific, and technological resources of the country where the property to be protected is situated,  Recalling that the Constitution of the Organization provides that it will maintain, increase, and diffuse knowledge by assuring the conservation and protection of the world's heritage, and recommending to the nations concerned the necessary international conventions,  Considering that the existing international conventions, recommendations and resolutions concerning cultural and natural property demonstrate the importance, for all the peoples of the world, of safeguarding this unique and irreplaceable property, to whatever people it may belong,  Considering that parts of the cultural or natural heritage are of outstanding interest and therefore need to be preserved as part of the world heritage of mankind as a whole,  Considering that, in view of the magnitude and gravity of the new dangers threatening them, it is incumbent on the international community as a whole to participate in the protection of the cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value, by the granting of collective assistance which, although not taking the place of action by the State concerned, will serve as an efficient complement thereto,  Considering that it is essential for this purpose to adopt new provisions in the form of a convention establishing an effective system of collective protection of the cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value, organized on a permanent basis and in accordance with modern scientific methods,    Having decided, at its sixteenth session, that this question should be made the subject of an international convention,  Adopts this sixteenth day of November 1972 this Convention. I.  DEFINITION OF THE CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE Article 1 For the purpose of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage":    monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;   groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;   sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. Article 2 For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "natural heritage":   natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;   geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;   natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.  Article 3 It is for each State Party to this Convention to identify and delineate the different properties situated on its territory mentioned in Articles 1 and 2 above.  II. NATIONAL PROTECTION AND INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF THE CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE Article 4 Each State Party to this Convention recognizes that the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 and situated on its territory, belongs primarily to that State. It will do all it can to this end, to the utmost of its own resources and, where appropriate, with any international assistance and co-operation, in particular, financial, artistic, scientific and technical, which it may be able to obtain. Article 5 To ensure that effective and active measures are taken for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage situated on its territory, each State Party to this Convention shall endeavor, in so far as possible, and as appropriate for each country:  (a) to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community and to integrate the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning programmes;  (b) to set up within its territories, where such services do not exist, one or more services for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage with an appropriate staff and possessing the means to discharge their functions;  (c) to develop scientific and technical studies and research and to work out such operating methods as will make the State capable of counteracting the dangers that threaten its cultural or natural heritage;  (d) to take the appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of this heritage; and   (e) to foster the establishment or development of national or regional centres for training in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage and to encourage scientific research in this field. Article 6 1. Whilst fully respecting the sovereignty of the States on whose territory the cultural and natural heritage mentioned in Articles 1 and 2 is situated, and without prejudice to property right provided by national legislation, the States Parties to this Convention recognize that such heritage constitutes a world heritage for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate. 2. The States Parties undertake, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, to give their help in the identification, protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11 if the States on whose territory it is situated so request.  3. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to take any deliberate measures which might damage directly or indirectly the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 situated on the territory of other States Parties to this Convention. Article 7 For the purpose of this Convention, international protection of the world cultural and natural heritage shall be understood to mean the establishment of a system of international co-operation and assistance designed to support States Parties to the Convention in their efforts to conserve and identify that heritage. III INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE Article 8 1. An Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, called "the World Heritage Committee", is hereby established within the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It shall be composed of 15 States Parties to the Convention, elected by States Parties to the Convention meeting in general assembly during the ordinary session of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The number of States members of the Committee shall be increased to 21 as from the date of the ordinary session of the General Conference following the entry into force of this Convention for at least 40 States.   2.  Election of members of the Committee shall ensure an equitable representation of the different regions and cultures of the world.  3. A representative of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre), a representative of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and a representative of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to whom may be added, at the request of States Parties to the Convention meeting in general assembly during the ordinary sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, representatives of other intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations, with similar objectives, may attend the meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity. Article 9 1. The term of office of States members of the World Heritage Committee shall extend from the end of the ordinary session of the General Conference during which they are elected until the end of its third subsequent ordinary session.  2. The term of office of one-third of the members designated at the time of the first election shall, however, cease at the end of the first ordinary session of the General Conference following that at which they were elected; and the term of office of a further third of the members designated at the same time shall cease at the end of the second ordinary session of the General Conference following that at which they were elected. The names of these members shall be chosen by lot by the President of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization after the first election.  3. States members of the Committee shall choose as their representatives persons qualified in the field of the cultural or natural heritage. Article 10 1. The World Heritage Committee shall adopt its Rules of Procedure.  2. The Committee may at any time invite public or private organizations or individuals to participate in its meetings for consultation on particular problems.  3. The Committee may create such consultative bodies as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.  Article 11 1. Every State Party to this Convention shall, in so far as possible, submit to the World Heritage Committee an inventory of property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage, situated in its territory and suitable for inclusion in the list provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article. This inventory, which shall not be considered exhaustive, shall include documentation about the location of the property in question and its significance.  2. On the basis of the inventories submitted by States in accordance with paragraph 1, the Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, under the title of "World Heritage List," a list of properties forming part of the cultural heritage and natural heritage, as defined in Articles 1 and 2 of this Convention, which it considers as having outstanding universal value in terms of such criteria as it shall have established. An updated list shall be distributed at least every two years.  3. The inclusion of a property in the World Heritage List requires the consent of the State concerned. The inclusion of a property situated in a territory, sovereignty or jurisdiction over which is claimed by more than one State shall in no way prejudice the rights of the parties to the dispute.  4. The Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, whenever circumstances shall so require, under the title of "list of World Heritage in Danger", a list of the property appearing in the World Heritage List for the conservation of which major operations are necessary and for which assistance has been requested under this Convention. This list shall contain an estimate of the cost of such operations. The list may include only such property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage as is threatened by serious and specific dangers, such as the threat of disappearance caused by accelerated deterioration, large-scale public or private projects or rapid urban or tourist development projects; destruction caused by changes in the use or ownership of the land; major alterations due to unknown causes; abandonment for any reason whatsoever; the outbreak or the threat of an armed conflict; calamities and cataclysms; serious fires, earthquakes, landslides; volcanic eruptions; changes in water level, floods and tidal waves. The Committee may at any time, in case of urgent need, make a new entry in the List of World Heritage in Danger and publicize such entry immediately.  5. The Committee shall define the criteria on the basis of which a property belonging to the cultural or natural heritage may be included in either of the lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article.  6. Before refusing a request for inclusion in one of the two lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article, the Committee shall consult the State Party in whose territory the cultural or natural property in question is situated.   7. The Committee shall, with the agreement of the States concerned, co-ordinate and encourage the studies and research needed for the drawing up of the lists referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article. Article 12 The fact that a property belonging to the cultural or natural heritage has not been included in either of the two lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11 shall in no way be construed to mean that it does not have an outstanding universal value for purposes other than those resulting from inclusion in these lists. Article 13 1. The World Heritage Committee shall receive and study requests for international assistance formulated by States Parties to this Convention with respect to property forming part of the cultural or natural heritage, situated in their territories, and included or potentially suitable for inclusion in the lists mentioned referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11. The purpose of such requests may be to secure the protection, conservation, presentation or rehabilitation of such property.  2. Requests for international assistance under paragraph 1 of this article may also be concerned with identification of cultural or natural property defined in Articles 1 and 2, when preliminary investigations have shown that further inquiries would be justified.  3. The Committee shall decide on the action to be taken with regard to these requests, determine where appropriate, the nature and extent of its assistance, and authorize the conclusion, on its behalf, of the necessary arrangements with the government concerned.  4. The Committee shall determine an order of priorities for its operations. It shall in so doing bear in mind the respective importance for the world cultural and natural heritage of the property requiring protection, the need to give international assistance to the property most representative of a natural environment or of the genius and the history of the peoples of the world, the urgency of the work to be done, the resources available to the States on whose territory the threatened property is situated and in particular the extent to which they are able to safeguard such property by their own means.  5. The Committee shall draw up, keep up to date and publicize a list of property for which international assistance has been granted.   6. The Committee shall decide on the use of the resources of the Fund established under Article 15 of this Convention. It shall seek ways of increasing these resources and shall take all useful steps to this end.  7. The Committee shall co-operate with international and national governmental and non-governmental organizations having objectives similar to those of this Convention. For the implementation of its programmes and projects, the Committee may call on such organizations, particularly the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (the Rome Centre), the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), as well as on public and private bodies and individuals.  8. Decisions of the Committee shall be taken by a majority of two-thirds of its members present and voting. A majority of the members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum. Article 14 1. The World Heritage Committee shall be assisted by a Secretariat appointed by the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  2. The Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, utilizing to the fullest extent possible the services of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (the Rome Centre), the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in their respective areas of competence and capability, shall prepare the Committee's documentation and the agenda of its meetings and shall have the responsibility for the implementation of its decisions. IV FUND FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE Article 15 1. A Fund for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, called "the World Heritage Fund", is hereby established.   2. The Fund shall constitute a trust fund, in conformity with the provisions of the Financial Regulations of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  3. The resources of the Fund shall consist of:   (a) compulsory and voluntary contributions made by States Parties to this Convention,   (b) Contributions, gifts or bequests which may be made by:    (i) other States;    (ii) the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, other organizations of the United Nations system, particularly the United Nations Development Programme or other intergovernmental organizations;    (iii) public or private bodies or individuals;   (c) any interest due on the resources of the Fund;   (d) funds raised by collections and receipts from events organized for the benefit of the fund; and   (e) all other resources authorized by the Fund's regulations, as drawn up by the World Heritage Committee.  4. Contributions to the Fund and other forms of assistance made available to the Committee may be used only for such purposes as the Committee shall define. The Committee may accept contributions to be used only for a certain programme or project, provided that the Committee shall have decided on the implementation of such programme or project. No political conditions may be attached to contributions made to the Fund.  Article 16 1. Without prejudice to any supplementary voluntary contribution, the States Parties to this Convention undertake to pay regularly, every two years, to the World Heritage Fund, contributions, the amount of which, in the form of a uniform percentage applicable to all States, shall be determined by the General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention, meeting during the sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This decision of the General Assembly requires the majority of the States Parties present and voting, which have not made the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article. In no case shall the compulsory contribution of States Parties to the Convention exceed 1% of the contribution to the regular budget of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  2. However, each State referred to in Article 31 or in Article 32 of this Convention may declare, at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession, that it shall not be bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article.  3. A State Party to the Convention which has made the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article may at any time withdraw the said declaration by notifying the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. However, the withdrawal of the declaration shall not take effect in regard to the compulsory contribution due by the State until the date of the subsequent General Assembly of States parties to the Convention.  4. In order that the Committee may be able to plan its operations effectively, the contributions of States Parties to this Convention which have made the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, shall be paid on a regular basis, at least every two years, and should not be less than the contributions which they should have paid if they had been bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article.  5. Any State Party to the Convention which is in arrears with the payment of its compulsory or voluntary contribution for the current year and the calendar year immediately preceding it shall not be eligible as a Member of the World Heritage Committee, although this provision shall not apply to the first election.   The terms of office of any such State which is already a member of the Committee shall terminate at the time of the elections provided for in Article 8, paragraph 1 of this Convention.  Article 17 The States Parties to this Convention shall consider or encourage the establishment of national public and private foundations or associations whose purpose is to invite donations for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage as defined in Articles 1 and 2 of this Convention. Article 18 The States Parties to this Convention shall give their assistance to international fund-raising campaigns organized for the World Heritage Fund under the auspices of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. They shall facilitate collections made by the bodies mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article 15 for this purpose. V. CONDITIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE Article 19 Any State Party to this Convention may request international assistance for property forming part of the cultural or natural heritage of outstanding universal value situated within its territory. It shall submit with its request such information and documentation provided for in Article 21 as it has in its possession and as will enable the Committee to come to a decision. Article 20 Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 13, sub-paragraph (c) of Article 22 and Article 23, international assistance provided for by this Convention may be granted only to property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee has decided, or may decide, to enter in one of the lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11. Article 21 1. The World Heritage Committee shall define the procedure by which requests to it for international assistance shall be considered and shall specify the content of the request, which should define the operation contemplated, the work that is necessary, the expected cost thereof, the degree of urgency and the reasons why the resources of the State requesting assistance do not allow it to meet all the expenses.  Such requests must be supported by experts' reports whenever possible.   2. Requests based upon disasters or natural calamities should, by reasons of the urgent work which they may involve, be given immediate, priority consideration by the Committee, which should have a reserve fund at its disposal against such contingencies.  3. Before coming to a decision, the Committee shall carry out such studies and consultations as it deems necessary. Article 22 Assistance granted by the World Heritage Fund may take the following forms:  (a) studies  concerning the artistic, scientific and technical problems raised by the protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the cultural and natural heritage, as defined in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11 of this Convention;  (b) provisions of experts, technicians and skilled labour to ensure that the approved work is correctly carried out;  (c) training of staff and specialists at all levels in the field of identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the cultural and natural heritage;  (d) supply of equipment which the State concerned does not possess or is not in a position to acquire;  (e) low-interest or interest-free loans which might be repayable on a long-term basis;  (f) the granting, in exceptional cases and for special reasons, of non-repayable subsidies. Article 23 The World Heritage Committee may also provide international assistance to national or regional centres for the training of staff and specialists at all levels in the field of identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the cultural and natural heritage. Article 24 International assistance on a large scale shall be preceded by detailed scientific, economic and technical studies. These studies shall draw upon the most advanced techniques for the protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the natural and cultural heritage and shall be consistent with the objectives of this Convention. The studies shall also seek means of making rational use of the resources available in the State concerned.  Article 25 As a general rule, only part of the cost of work necessary shall be borne by the international community. The contribution of the State benefiting from international assistance shall constitute a substantial share of the resources devoted to each programme or project, unless its resources do not permit this. Article 26 The World Heritage Committee and the recipient State shall define in the agreement they conclude the conditions in which a programme or project for which international assistance under the terms of this Convention is provided, shall be carried out.  It shall be the responsibility of the State receiving such international assistance to continue to protect, conserve and present the property so safeguarded, in observance of the conditions laid down by the agreement. VI. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES Article 27 1. The States Parties to this Convention shall endeavor by all appropriate means, and in particular by educational and information programmes, to strengthen appreciation and respect by their peoples of the cultural and natural heritage defined in Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention.  2. They shall undertake to keep the public broadly informed of the dangers threatening this heritage and of the activities carried on in pursuance of this Convention. Article 28 States Parties to this Convention which receive international assistance under the Convention shall take appropriate measures to make known the importance of the property for which assistance has been received and the role played by such assistance.  VII. REPORTS Article 29 1. The States Parties to this Convention shall, in the reports which they submit to the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on dates and in a manner to be determined by it, give information on the legislative and administrative provisions which they have adopted and other action which they have taken for the application of this Convention, together with details of the experience acquired in this field.  2. These reports shall be brought to the attention of the World Heritage Committee.  3. The Committee shall submit a report on its activities at each of the ordinary sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. VIII FINAL CLAUSES Article 30 This Convention is drawn up in Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish, the five texts being equally authoritative. Article 31 1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification or acceptance by States members of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures.  2. The instruments of ratification or acceptance shall be deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Article 32 1. This Convention shall be open to accession by all States not members of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization which are invited by the General Conference of the Organization to accede to it.   2. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Article 33 This Convention shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession, but only with respect to those States which have deposited their respective instruments of ratification, acceptance or accession on or before that date. It shall enter into force with respect to any other State three months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession. Article 34 The following provisions shall apply to those States Parties to this Convention which have a federal or non-unitary constitutional system:   (a) with regard to the provisions of this Convention, the implementation of which comes under the legal jurisdiction of the federal or central legislative power, the obligations of the federal or central government shall be the same as for those States parties which are not federal States;    (b) with regard to the provisions of this Convention, the implementation of which comes under the legal jurisdiction of individual constituent States, countries, provinces or cantons that are not obliged by the constitutional system of the federation to take legislative measures, the federal government shall inform the competent authorities of such States, countries, provinces or cantons of the said provisions, with its recommendation for their adoption. Article 35 1. Each State Party to this Convention may denounce the Convention.  2.  The denunciation shall be notified by an instrument in writing, deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  3. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the receipt of the instrument of denunciation. It shall not affect the financial obligations of the denouncing State until the date on which the withdrawal takes effect. Article 36 The Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization shall inform the States members of the Organization, the States not members of the Organization which are referred to in Article 32, as well as the United Nations, of the deposit of all the instruments of ratification, acceptance, or accession provided for in Articles 31 and 32, and of the denunciations provided for in Article 35. Article 37 1. This Convention may be revised by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Any such revision shall, however, bind only the States which shall become Parties to the revising convention.  2. If the General Conference should adopt a new convention revising this Convention in whole or in part, then, unless the new convention otherwise provides, this Convention shall cease to be open to ratification, acceptance or accession, as from the date on which the new revising convention enters into force. Article 38 In conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, this Convention shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations at the request of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  Done in Paris, this twenty-third day of November 1972, in two authentic copies bearing the signature of the President of the seventeenth session of the General Conference and of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all the States referred to in Articles 31 and 32 as well as to the United Nations. 

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