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Above Ground Level : [18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km] Salama, Dana 2019-04

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Above Ground Level[18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km]Dana Salama B.Arch.Sci., Ryerson University, 2016Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Applied Science. April 2019. Faculty Mentors: Professor Fionn Byrne, MLA [GPI and GPII]Professor Sara Stevens PhD, MED, B.Arch, BA,  [GPII]External Mentor: Scott Sørli, BASc, B.Arch., M.Arch.Sci., MRAIC© Dana Salamaii iiiAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmiv vAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAbstractAir Space has become an increasingly commodified and militarized landscape that is heavily occupied by machines. The acceleration of technology by state and corporate powers has resulted in an unequal relationship between private and public property distribution and operation in supersurface space. This investigation uses Paul Virilio’s analysis of dromological space as a conceptual framework to understand spatial politics in air space, and how private citizens might reclaim this territory in order to build agency within it. Paul Virilio refers to dromological space as space governed by the acceleration of technology—specifically tied to machinic advancements sustained by the military industrial complex. These values are reflected in recent developments in air space—specifically hybrid technologies such as Google’s Project Loon which are designed to evade legal and technological classifications in order to ambiguously occupy air space. This research provides four provocations; tales told through architectural objects at 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, and 35 786 km which aim to question systems of power Above Ground Level. Fig.1: Preliminary study of the dromological machine’s ambiguous forms. vi viiAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmTable of ContentsAbstractList of Figures Committee AcknowledgmentsKey Figures Key ReadingsField of InquiryArchitectural Issues Relevance Dromological (Air)Space Air Machines Vision CounteroccupationsPrecedentsPrelude to AGLThe Earth’s Dimensions 18 km AGL 79 km AGL408 km AGL35 786 AGLWorks CitedPart I: On Dromology Part II: Above Ground Levelvviiixiiixv3467913313943709093105126143162180viii ixAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmList of Figures1. Salama, Dana. “Study of Dromological Machine.” Collage, October 2018 (p.iv) 2. Goodreads. “Paul Virilio.” Goodreads, www.goodreads.com/author/show/59321.Paul_Virilio.3. G.Garitan. “Bruno Latour.” Wikimedia Commons, 4 Mar. 2015, fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fichier:Bruno_Latour_Quai_Branly_01921.JPG.4. Goodreads. “Lebbeus Woods.” Goodreads, www.goodreads.com/author/show/34870.Lebbeus_Woods.5. Paglen, Trevor. “Trevor Paglen.” Twitter, twitter.com/trevorpaglen.6. Izmestieva, Ekaterina. “Eyal Weizman.” Wikimedia Creative Commons, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyal_Weizman#/media/File:Eyal_Weizman.jpg.7. Sink, Donna. “Liam Young.” Archinect News, 20 July 2015, archinect.com/news/article/132326552/liam-young-an-architect-s-skills-are-completely-wasted-on-making-buildings.8. Salama, Dana. “Book cover- Speed and Politics.” Photograph, December 2018 (p.4) 9. Salama, Dana. “Book Cover - The Eye of War.” Photograph, December 2018 (p4.) 10. Salama, Dana. “Book Cover – Down to Earth.” Photograph, December 2018 (p.4.) 11. Salama, Dana. “Book Cover – Landscape Futures.” Photograph, December 2018 (p.4.) 12. Salama, Dana. “Book Cover – Other Space Odysseys.” Photograph, December 2018 (p.4.) 13. Salama, Dana. “Book Cover – Close Up at a Distance.” Photograph, December 2018 (p.4.) 14. Salama, Dana. “Dromological machine development.” Illustration, October 2018 (p 5.)15. NASA. “NASA Astronaut Dale Gardner Holds up a ‘For Sale’ Sign .” NASA Image and Video Library, 1984, images.nasa.gov/details-51a-104-049.html.16. Salama, Dana. “Pre and post- Ad Coelum Doctrine.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.16.)17. Salama, Dana. “Machine to target ratio I.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.17.)18. Salama, Dana. “Machine to target ratio II.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.18.)19. Salama, Dana. “Machine/ Human speeds.” Working graph, December 2018 (p.19.)20. Carner Aerial Solutions. “Thermal Imagery.” Carner Aerial Solutions, 2014, www.carneraerialsolutions.com/thermal-imagery/.21. Satellite Imaging Corporation. “GIS Map of Liberia .” Satellite Imaging Corporation, www.satimagingcorp.com/gallery/gis/gis-liberia-before/.22. Keller, John. “Directorate (NVESD) at Fort Belvoir, Va.” Military and Aerospace Electronics , 2017, www.militaryaerospace.com/articles/2017/01/lidar-tactical-mapping-uavs.html.23. Lockheed Martin. “Synthetic Aperture RADAR.” Lockheed Martin , www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/products/synthetic-aperture-radar.html.24. US Department of Defense. “Corona Image of the Pentagon.” US Department of Defense, www.nro.gov/images/corona/highres/cor5h.jpg.25. Satellite Imaging Corporation. “Volcano Eruption Mt Sakurajima, Japan Captured on LANDSAT.” Satellite Imaging Corporation, www.satimagingcorp.com/satellite-sensors/other-satellite-sensors/landsat-8/.26. BlackBridge Geomatics Corp. “SPOT-6 New York City.” GIS Geography, 2012, gisgeography.com/spot-satellite-pour-observation-terre/.27. GeoEye. “Ikonos-2 Image of the Rio De Janeiro Port, Brazil Taken on April 20, 2002.” Sharing Earth Observation Resources, 2002, directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/i/ikonos-2.28. Satellite Imaging Corporation. “GeoEye-1 Satellite Image of Kutztown University, Pennsylvania.” Satellite Imaging Corporation, www.satimagingcorp.com/gallery/geoeye-1/geoeye-1-kutztown/.29. Salama, Dana. “Resolution by satellite technology.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.22)30. Salama, Dana. “Coverage by satellite technology.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.23)31. Liberatore, Stacy. “Stills from Tokyo Police Drone Video.” How Do You Catch a Drone? With an Even Bigger Drone and a Giant Net: Tokyo Police Reveal Bizarre ‘UAV Catcher’, 2015, www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3356746/How-catch-drone-BIGGER-drone-giant-net-Tokyo-police-reveal-bizarre-UAV-catcher.html.32. Khan, Shaan, and Jethro Mullen. “Code Pink, a Rights Group from the U.S. Are in Islamabad to Protest U.S. Drone Attacks in Northern Pakistan.” CNN, 2012, www.cnn.com/2012/10/05/world/asia/pakistan-us-drone-protest/index.html?no-st=9999999999.33. Lumb, David. “Project Loon Deployment.” Engadget, 2017, www.engadget.com/2017/11/09/project-loon-delivers-internet-100-000-people-puerto-rico/.34. USAF. “Gorgon Stare.” Aviation Week Network, 2014, aviationweek.com/awin-only/upgraded-gorgon-stare-wide-area-sensor-operational-afghanistan.35. The British Museum. “Gorgoneion, Athenian Red-Figure Hydria.” The British Museum, n.d., www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=399163&partId=1.36. BAE Systems. “Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance Imaging System (ARGUS-IS).” Bae Systems, n.d., www.baesystems.com/en/product/autonomous-realtime-ground-ubiquitous-surveillance-imaging-system-argusis.37. Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien. “Hermes Tötet Den 100-Äugigen Argos.” Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, www.khm.at/objektdb/detail/56716/?offset=7&lv=list.38. Salama, Dana. “Catalogue of war devices.” Collage, October 2018 (p.36)39. Wild, Chris. “Acoustic Locators Inspected by Japanese General .” Mashable, Public Domain, n.d., mashable.com/2015/02/16/war-tubas-radar-wwi/.40. Wild, Chris. “Bolling Air Field Horn Amplifiers.” Mashable, n.d., mashable.com/2015/02/16/war-tubas-radar-wwi/.41. Imperial War Museum. “Plan of Dummy Tree Observation Post.” Imperial War Museum, n.d., www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205252342.42. Imperial War Museum. “A Model of a Sectioned Observation Post with an Artillery Observer. The Tower Is Disguised as a Tree.” Imperial War Museum, n.d., www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205133247.43. Imperial War Museum. “Gunboat HMS KILDANGAN in Dazzle Camouflage, 1918.” Imperial War Museum, 1918, www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205127894.44. Imperial War Museum. “The Manufacture of Papier-Mâché Snipers’ Heads, Which Were Generally Made in Moulds of Plaster of Paris.” Imperial War Museum, n.d., www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205183882.45. Salama, Dana. “Catalogue: How to camouflage  from aerial surveillance.” Illustration, October 2018 (p.51-4.)46. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Archives. “1783 Montgolfier Brothers Flight at Palace of Versailles.” Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Archives, 1783, airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/lta-balloons-france-montgolfier-animal-flight-versailles-19-sep-1783-photograph.47. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. “Reconnaissance Balloons Used in Battle of Fleurus.” Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 1794, airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/balloons-war.48. Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas. “Elevation of the Cemetery for the City of Chaux.” Socks-Studio, 1785, socks-studio.com/2016/11/09/the-ideal-city-of-chaux-by-claude-nicolas-ledoux-1773-1806/.49. Library of Congress. “Zeppelin ‘LZ-1’ First Ascent July 2nd, 1900.” Library of Congress, 1900, hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c00556.50. BBC. “German Zeppelin during WWI.” BBC News , www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-27517166.51. Pettit, Harry M. “King’s Dream of New York.” Columbia University Digital Knowledge Ventures, 1908, ci.columbia.edu/0240s/global/0242_2_media.html.52. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. “Picture of Wright 1903 Flyer.” Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 1903, airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/wright-brothers/online/fly/1903/.53. BBC. “Giulio Gavotti at the Controls of a Farman Biplane, Rome 1910.” BBC News , 2011, www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-13294524.54. Krutikov, Georgii. “Elevation of Flying City.” Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 1928, www.airspacemag.com/daily-planet/soaring-city-180957990/.55. Thiessen, Mark. “Sputnik .” National Geographic , www.nationalgeographic.org/thisday/oct4/ussr-launches-sputnik/.56. Time Magazine. “Race for the Moon .” Time Magazine, 6 Dec. 1968, content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19681206,00.html.57. UN Photo. “January 27 1967 in Washington DC, United States of America. Representatives of the USSR, United Kingdom, and the United States Sign the Outer Space Treaty.” Science Museum, 1967, blog.sciencemuseum.org.uk/space-for-all-of-us/.58. Poli, Alessandro, and Superstudio. “Nuove Architetture Lunari [New Lunar Architectures] for Architettura Interplanetaria [Interplanetary Architecture].” Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1970, www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/411353.59. Foreign Policy. “Sperry Aerial Torpedo.” Foreign Policy, 2012, foreignpolicy.com/slideshow/drones-a-photo-history/.60. World of Weapon. “Still from ‘The New Predator : US x xiAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmReaper Drones Get New 500-Pound Bombs.’” YouTube, 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=drUcrbcrJSw.61. Canadian Centre for Unmanned Vehicle Systems. “Special Flight Operations Certificate Application .” Canadian Centre for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 2012, www.ccuvs.com/services/special-flight-operating-certificate/.62. Young, Liam. “Still from ‘In the Robot Skies’ .” Architects Who Democratize Technology through Speculation, 2017, archpaper.com/2017/10/liam-young-automation-future-of-cities/#gallery-0-slide-0.63. Salama, Dana. “Increasing Drone Usage.” Collage, October 2018 (p.65-6)64. Salama, Dana. “Photogrammetry model of Dana Salama.”  Screenshot, October 2018 (p.) 65. Kiernan, Jim. “Survivaball Press Conference.” TimeOut New York, 2009, www.timeout.com/newyork/own-this-city-blog/recap-survivaball-press-conference.66. United States Air Force. “Project Manhigh Payload.” Stratocat, stratocat.com.ar/fichas-e/1957/FMN-19570602.htm.67. Krutikov, Georgii. “The Flying City Elevation.” The Charnel House, 1928, thecharnelhouse.org/tag/georgii-krutikov/.68. Woods, Lebbeus. “High Houses.” Lebbeus Woods Blog, 2010, lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2010/02/23/high-houses/.69. Diller Scofidio + Renfro. “Blur Building.” DS+R, 2002, dsrny.com/project/blur-building.70. Virilio, Paul. “Section from Bunker Archaeology.” The Funambulist, 1975, thefunambulist.net/architectural-projects/unwall-bunker-archeology-by-paul-virilio.71. Smout Allen. “Speleological Pantograph.” Smout Allen, www.smoutallen.com/speleological-pantograph.72. Young, Liam. “Liam Young Installs Specimens of Unnatural History at the Nevada Museum of Art.” BLDG BLOG, 2011, www.bldgblog.com/2011/08/.73. Smout Allen. “Landmarks.” Smout Allen, www.smoutallen.com/landmarks.74. Paglen, Trevor. “Autonomy Cube.” Trevor Paglen, 2014, www.paglen.com/?l=work&s=cube&i=0.75. Poli, Alessandro, and Superstudio. “Nuove Architetture Lunari [New Lunar Architectures] for Architettura Interplanetaria [Interplanetary Architecture].” Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1970, www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/collection/object/411353.76. Paglen, Trevor. “Nonfunctional Satellites.” Trevor Paglen , 2013, www.paglen.com/?l=work&s=nonfunctional.77. Balashova, Galina. “Proposal for the Exterior of the Spacecraft Mir.” 032c, 2016, 032c.com/galina-balashova-artistic-director-behind-four-generations-soviet-spacecraft.78. Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas. “Elevation of the Cemetery for the City of Chaux.” Socks-Studio, 1785, socks-studio.com/2016/11/09/the-ideal-city-of-chaux-by-claude-nicolas-ledoux-1773-1806/.79. Boullée, Etienne-Louis. “Cenotaph for Newton.” ArchDaily, 2018, www.archdaily.com/544946/ad-classics-cenotaph-for-newton-etienne-louis-boullee.80. Architectural Record. “Amazon Spheres Opens in Seattle.” Architectural Record, 2018, www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/13227-amazon-spheres-by-nbbj-open-in-seattle?v=preview.81. Salama, Dana. “Abridged timeline of dromology in the air.”  Illustration,  March 2019 (p. 91) 82. Salama, Dana. “Earth Scale 1.”  Illustration, March 2019 (p.95) 83. Salama, Dana. “Earth Scale 2.”  Illustration, March 2019 (p.97) 84. Salama, Dana. “Earth Scale 3.”  Illustration, March 2019 (p.99) 85. Salama, Dana. “Earth Scale 4.”  Illustration, March 2019 (p.101) 86. NASA. “Full Earth.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1972, web.archive.org/web/20160112123725/http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001138.html.87. Salama, Dana. “18 km AGL timeline.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.106) 88. Salama, Dana. “Stratosphere with Loon.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.108) 89. Salama, Dana. “Stratosphere with Loon and Climate Migrant.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.110) 90. Salama, Dana. “UNHCSS Advertisement.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.112) 91. Salama, Dana. “Migrant Pod and loon—different payloads.”  Collage and digital drawing, March 2019 (p 114.) 92. Salama, Dana. “Plan of migrant pod over Kutupalong refugee camp.”  Still from animation, March 2019 (p.116) 93. Salama, Dana. “Section of migrant pod.”  Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.118) 94. Salama, Dana. “Map of migrant floatilla routes.”  Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.120.) 95. Salama, Dana. “Manual for flying.”  Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.122.) 96. Salama, Dana. “Model of migrant floatilla with climate migrant.”  Photograph, March 2019 (p.124) 97. Salama, Dana. “79 km AGL timeline.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.127.) 98. Salama, Dana. “Plan of lead cloud over Agbogbloshie Scrapyard.”  Still from animation, March 2019 (p129.) 99. Salama, Dana. “Lead life cycle and consumption.”  Mixed media, March 2019 (p.13.1) 100. Salama, Dana. “Lead cloud at solar minimum.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.133.) 101. Salama, Dana. “Lead cloud component section.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.135.)  102. Salama, Dana. “The New York Times notices the lead cloud.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.137) 103. Salama, Dana. “Lead cloud at solar maximum.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.139.)104. Salama, Dana. “Model of lead cloud component with common ant.”  Photograph, March 2019 (p.141) 105. Salama, Dana. “408 km AGL timeline.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.144.) 106. Salama, Dana. “Axonometric of ISS pre- and post- disassembly.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.146.) 107. Salama, Dana. “Axonometrics of new treaty objects.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.148.) 108. Salama, Dana. “View of ISS treaty object no.1 from Galleria dell’Accademia [cupola looking up].” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.150.) 109. “View of Galleria dell’Accademia from ISS treaty object no.1. [Cupola looking down]” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.152)110. Salama, Dana. “Plan of treaty object no.1 and Galleria dell’Accademia.”  Still from animation, March 2019 (p154.) 111. Salama, Dana. “Section of treaty object no.1 above Galleria dell’Accademia.”  Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.156.) 112. Salama, Dana. “Humanitarian aid worker watches over treaty object no. 1.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.158.) 113. Salama, Dana. “Model of ISS treaty object no.1, Michelangelo’s David, and space aid worker.”  Photograph, March 2019 (p.160.) 114. Salama, Dana. “35 786 km AGL timeline.”  Collage, March 2019 (p.163.) 115. Salama, Dana. “Geostationary orbit divided by billionaire.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.165.)116. Salama, Dana. “Billionaire cryogenic tomb space anchors.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.167.)117. Salama, Dana. “Section through Blue Origin II.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.169.)118. Salama, Dana. “Interior view of Blue Origin II.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.171.)119. Salama, Dana. “Section through Bezos’ golden head.” Digital drawing, March 2019 (p.173.)120. Salama, Dana. “Plan of Blue Origin II and Monument to the middle of the Earth.”  Still from animation, March 2019 (p.175.) 121. Salama, Dana. “Model of Blue Origin II, and Newton’s Cenotaph.”  Photograph, March 2019 (p.177.) xii xiiiAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmCommitteeProfessor Fionn Byrne, MLA Primary AdvisorProfessor Scott Sørli, BASc, BArch, MArchSci, MRAICExternal AdvisorProfessor Sara Stevens PhD, MED, B.Arch, BAPrimary Advisorxiv xvAbove Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAcknowledgmentsThank you to my incredible thesis committee; Sara Stevens, Fionn Byrne, and Scott Sorli. It was a pleasure and privilege to learn from you. Thank you to my friends and family for their unconditional support. Thank you to Yekta Tehrani, Brendan Buchanan Dee, Luis Yanez, Kareem Obey, Jeremy Schipper, and Alena Pavan. This work is dedicated to my aunt and mentor Amira Maher, an Architect and matriarch who left us too soon. She created beauty everywhere, and taught us to see it in the world around us. 1 2Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmOn Dromology3 4Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmKey FiguresPaul Virilio On: Dromocratic TerritoryBruno LatourOn: FactishesLebbeus WoodsOn: Anarchitecture, Utopia Trevor PaglenOn: Surveillance, GazeEyal WeizmanOn: Politics of VerticalityLiam YoungOn: Future Machine Species Key ReadingsSpeed and PoliticsBy Paul Virilio Landscape Futures Edited by Geoff Manaugh Other Space OdysseysBy Greg Lynn, Michael Maltzman, Alessandro PoliClose Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics By Laura KurganThe Eye of WarBy Antoine BousquetDown to Earth: Politics in the New Climactic RegimeBy Lebbeus WoodsFig. 2-7. Fig. 8-13. 5 6Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmField of InquiryA chronological analysis of strata in vertical space in conjunction with emerging airborne technologies revealed that this trajectory is heavily influenced by military operations. Prior to its wide dissemination, airborne technology is typically perfected and mass-produced by a state power during war times. This mass-production typically leads to reforms in property law which affect the ownership and operation of vertical space. Thus, as Eyal Weizman describes, air space becomes a “...discrete dimension absent from political maps. But it is a space of utmost importance – cluttered with civilian and military airways, allowing a vantage observational point on the terrain under it, denying that position to others” (2002.) Architecture has an opportunity to level playing fields between state or large corporate interests and the public—addressing surveillance concerns as well as providing an argument for equitable access to air space. Issues in air space reflect sociopolitical and economic inequalities experienced at ground level--heightened due to a lack of physical access to these infrastructures. Emerging aerial technologies are currently posing the largest challenge to privacy and property law in Canada. These problems are further exacerbated by the speed at which drone and satellite technologies are becoming smaller, less detectable, and easier to operate. Drones offer threats to public space and reasonable expectations of privacy. State and corporate actors have already begun to exploit privileged positions offered in the skies by launching hidden stationary drones to collect data (Butler), and monitoring indigenous protests in Northern Ontario (Bowman.)Above Ground Level seeks to build on the trajectory of Virilio’s notions on dromology in supersurface space by creating provocations designed to illustrate the limitations of current property law, privacy law, and the geopolitics of airborne technology legislation; in order to declassify air space for public benefit.1Technology is invented by private citizen. 2Technology is adopted, developed, and mass-produced for military operation. Recent Innovation 3Property Law is adapted. Fig.14. Dromological machine development. 7 8Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmArchitectural IssuesThe Politics of VerticalityEyal Weizman coined the term ‘Politics of Verticality’ in a series of blog posts exploring the privileged position of the Israeli military from Israeli-occupied airspace . These concepts can be transferred and understood in a projected future wherein airspace is only occupied by dominant state and corporate powers. Airspace has historically been licensed and operated by privileged actors with few exceptions. Additionally, the trajectory and dissemination of airborne technologies has been accelerated by military operations—further establishing the skies as state-controlled space.The Economics of VerticalityAirspace offers speed, efficiency, and discretion; as well as widespread access to resources used to create or control data—thereby attracting corporate power. Increasingly companies such as Amazon and Alphabet are becoming major players in the transformation of vertical space. Furthermore, aerial territory offers access to natural resources in abundance, as well as opportunities to operate in an extraterritory away from public gaze. This research explores the commodification of airspace and offers provocations for how it may impact architectural discourse and the built environment.Surveillance Technology/ Computer VisionFuture airborne technology will not simply utilize cameras to scan landscapes. Surveying and surveillance techniques have altered the manner by which landscapes and territories can be processed by machines, and architectures of the future will reflect this reality. There is also a duality between the naked human eye looking upwards and seeing very little, and surveillance technologies designed to evade this gaze that are able to capture ground activities with increasingly precise detail.  This has been explored by artists and researchers analyzing computer vision. Technonatures/ The Politics of Ecology With the spread of human and machine activity deeper into aerial territory, new natures are created away from the Earth’s surface. This research specifically explores the manipulation of the atmosphere’s inherent properties (magnetization of the ionosphere, for example) as well as the possibilities for ‘technonatures’ to exist, wherein the wealthy recreate highly perfected images of the earth with the aid of machine technology. This reflects humanity’s realization that nature’s abundance will cease to exist on Earth. Only the rich and powerful can afford to displace it above ground level. In addition, themes of resource extraction at and above ground level are explored, as they further inequality and allow for the creation of technonatures by the elite. Blurring of Private and Public SpaceEmerging technologies have caused significant ambiguities in Privacy Law and Property Law in Canada. Corporations have begun to exploit these gray areas and are blurring distinctions between private and public space. Canada’s civil air navigation system is run by a private corporation, Nav Canada. Airborne technologies pose a particular threat because they are increasingly undetectable and can collect data unbeknownst to private citizens.Factishes in the Air In Bruno Latour’s On the Modern Cult of the Factish Gods he theorizes that human beings can be ruled by what they create with their own hands, and that modern technology has come to replace idolatry. Architectural imaginaries have been exploring freedom from gravity from centuries. Historically, this work has been tied to utopian future visions wherein the occupation of the air, and freedom from the ground plane symbolized invention and progress. However in 1967, Herbert Marcuse proclaimed the ‘end of utopia’, stating that technology and ideology had progressed to a point which allowed for the eradication of human afflictions, and that freedom was possible. In his Anarchitecture: Architecture as a Political Act , Lebbeus Woods theorizes that Utopia is impossible as it presumes that there is an ideal which will satisfy all actors. Building on these trajectories, this design project proposes a projected reality which accelerates current trends, as opposed to a utopic vision. Freedom from the surface will be understood as a realistic possibility as opposed to a utopian vision.This research has studied and considered theoretical architectural works influenced by advancements in aerial technologies. Airborne technology was often seen as a means to rapidly reimagine society and was believed to have profound possibilities for reforming urban social structures and modes of operation. Prominent contributors include Ledoux, Le Corbusier, Buckminster Fuller, Archigram, Superstudio, and Lebbeus Woods.9 10Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmRelevanceAs Bruno Latour notes, our political systems are changing with the ‘new climactic regime.’ The spatial ramifications inherent in this shift represent new opportunities for the field of Architecture to explore and engage with systems of power. Architecture has often interfaced with infrastructure, but rarely with the systems of technological supremacy which enable it. This work explores how architectural objects can be appropriated to reveal these phenomena. Architecture has the unique capacity to spatialize systems of power concealed from our gaze—decoding them for public consumption. Although vertical space has historically been romanticized, Above Ground Level seeks to decode supersurface natures and their real operation in order to engage with them critically. Although AGL primarily explores four altitudes, these episodes are microcosms of larger geopolitical trends and extend vertically above and below the sites that are the focus of this study. 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, and 35 786 km represent provocations and opportunities for further study aimed at demystifying vertical space and understanding how and why it is inhabited by the rich and powerful; and the factors which drive the development of supersurface territory. Fig.15 (right.)11 12Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km“For the dromocratic state, mastery over the earth is already the mastery over its dimensions” (Virilio 92.)13 14Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmDromological (Air)SpaceVirilio describes dromology as “the study and analysis of the increasing speed of transport and communications on the development of land-use” (Virilio 8). In a Virilian view, State powers use the acceleration of technology and the resultant collapse of space-time to their advantage—in order to impose absolute control on their populations (see Fig. 14), resulting in a banal and constant ‘total war’ condition. Virilio utilizes air space and orbital space in order to demonstrate the effects of speed on the occupation and control of territory. Aerial territory which has been designated for state and corporate use is an appropriate testing ground for dromological progress and results in ‘despairing populations blocked by the inferiority of their technologies’ (Virilio 70). Canada’s civil air navigation system was transferred to a private corporation, Nav Canada, for $1.5 billion in 1996; Nav Canada now controls 18,000,000 square kilometers of Canada’s navigable airspace (Nav Canada.)A chronological analysis of developments in air property, air technology, and war, (see Fig.46-62, 87) revealed that war was the major accelerant of technological advancement in the air. The militarization of airborne technology generally leads to its post-war mass production, and as a result property laws are adapted. These trends have shifted the balance in vertical property law towards increasingly limiting vertical private property by stratifying and classifying it for military or commercial use. Architects have historically proposed Utopian schemes in the air which advocate for the occupation of airspace by private citizens (see Fig.24-33.) In reality, it is increasingly difficult for private citizens to operate in the air. Journalists, activists and researchers have already begun to experience the criminalization of their use of the drone—such as the  2015 arrest of three AlJazeera journalists in Paris (Graham 93).  A Japanese police force has already tested a drone prototype with a large net designed to intercept civilian drones (Mogg) (see Fig.31.)Prior to the dissemination of the hot air balloon, the ‘ad coelum doctrine’ was widely adopted in Western society, claiming that property owners possessed their parcel of land vertically from the depths of hell to the heights of heaven. However, with each emerging technology this column has been limited and stratified—with the acceleration of these processes proportional to the rapid development of airborne technology. For example, the Geostationary Orbit (approx. 35,786 km AGL) which allows for surveillance technologies to orbit the Earth at the exact speed of the Earth’s rotation is only a few kilometers wide and contains a finite amount of ‘slots’ regulated by the International Telecommunications Union (Paglen 65). Another example of the stratification of aerial territory is United States v. Causby (1946) wherein a farmer complained that his chickens were dying from low-flying military aircraft which were trespassing over his vertical private property. As a result, the United States Supreme Court nullified the Ad Coelum doctrine. The United States Supreme Court set the highest boundary of private property in the United States at eighty-three feet, the height the lowest plane flew over the Causby property. As part of the dromological condition of our world, State powers and corporations have used war as a means to accelerate the development and usage of weapons, surveillance technologies, and airborne machines. These technologies are increasingly integrated into our lives outside of designated war zones. For example, Aerostat RADAR technology developed for use along the US-Mexico border was improved by Lockheed Martin for the US invasions in Afghanistan and Iraq then brought back to US soil with increased efficiency (Paglen 60). Virilio notes that there are no longer battlefields, as airborne technology exists in an outlaw territory where ‘orbital space supplants territorial space’ (Virilio, Strategy of Deception 13) and allows activities in air space to extend beyond sovereign borders both literally and figuratively. According to Stephen Graham, drones have turned the world into a ‘free fire zone’ (73.) Temporally, war zones have also extended to a point of near-banality where occupations last for decades with no real end in sight—elongating the viability of military testing grounds. For example, in Northern Pakistan, drones hover over villages 24/7 (Graham 76) essentially becoming vertical extensions of CCTV cameras with the discernible difference being the ability to strike (See Fig.32.) Put simply, as the practice of targeting becomes more globalized and individualized, the notion of distinct temporal and spatial bounds for the exercise of armed force becomes untenable (Bousquet 4). This has resulted in a condition where the acceleration of technology is designed to aid in a ‘global information dominance’ (Virilio, Strategy of Deception 17) and technology becomes obsolete as soon as its successor is able to obtain information or strike a target more efficiently (see Fig. 17-18.) Global information dominance in airspace results in an imperative to cover and analyze as much territory as possible, and to target with increased precision. The gaze of the state therefore is an extension of its war strategy. The acceleration of airborne technology has also created a knowledge gap which is the result of air space becoming a classified territory—difficult to access by private citizens. Not only does gravity place a physical barrier on access to air space, governments and corporations also limit access to knowledge generated in air territory. Laura Kurgan describes the practice of ‘selective availability’ (40) wherein governments downgrade satellite information for use by private citizens in order to maintain their hegemony in air space. This gap is further exacerbated by the government’s ability to calibrate satellite information with other technologies in order to produce more precise readings—technology which remains unavailable to the citizenry (Kurgan 40). Corporations such as Google also maintain a veil of secrecy over their operations in air space. For example, Google’s Project Loon (see Fig. 33) which aims to launch a network of balloons into the stratosphere remains a secret from most Google employees (Butler).  Furthermore, licensure procedures in air space often require substantial funding Ad Coelum Doctrine “Cujus est solum eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferas...”Rights limited as technology emerges. Post-Ad Coelum and technical training which are cost-prohibitive and largely inaccessible to private citizens. Fig.16: Pre and post Ad Coelum. 15 16Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmWorld War II 2001 World War II PresentWorld War II 2001 World War II PresentFig.17 (left): “During World War II, roughly 108 planes were needed to take out a single target. By the time of the airstrikes over Afghanistan in 2001, the ratio flipped; each plane was destroying 7.07 targets on average per flight” (Singer 100)Fig.18 (Right): “While it may have taken on average around nine thousand bombs to hit a given target from the air during World War II, one or two guided munitions are generally sufficient to accomplish a direct strike today.” (Bousquet 14)17 18Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmhuman walkhot air balloonkitehuman runcivilian drone (mavick pro)001 yr 10 yr 50 yr1 cycle/s  5 cycle/s  10 cycle/s  20 cycle/s100m/s 500 m/s 1000 m/szeppelinwar pigeonmodel aircramilitary dronecommercial airplanebulletsurface of earth at equatorace shulesatellite35 mm photox 100Speed of surveillanceSpeed of movementSpeed of decayx 0.000001human blinkeed of human covering headphotogrammetry scanc v camerainfrared thermography sensor police radarwood­eelmasonryconcreteFig.19: Working graph illustrating speed of civilian movement in relation to surveillance speeds, speeds of material decay.  19 20Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmInfrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrar d ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-t me di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orinet d dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakne s: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also b  misleading (ie. power lin s.) Be results a  night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digit l surface model utilizing tri ngulation of c mmon surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cl ud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Util zes airborne lasers to m asure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolu ion at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unr liable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, oper ting alt tude is low (5 -2000m), inability to penetrate t rough very thick vegetation. AR (Synthetic Aperture ADAR)Utilizes radio waves to m asure diance to ground. Compared to AD , SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to oper te in any wether or light c ditio .) Can create 2  or 3D results. D es not req ire sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolu ion at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and ccurate i ide ce angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanc d Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operatio al Land Imager (OLI) and Therm l InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(R mote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitud  i  low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence ngle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surf ce points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Ap ture RADAR)Utilizes radio w ves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumint r, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Payload Analysis (Expanding) Satellite AnalysisFig.20-23 (left): Expanding catalogue of aerial scanning technologies. Fig.24-28 (right): Expanding catalogue of prominent satellites. 21 22Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmInfrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Infrared ThermographyMo useful for large obje	s and wide areas. Tools: precise dire	-digitaltiming syem, a 3-axis ring-laser-gyro and an inertial navigation syem (INS), which istightly-coupled to a real-time di­erential GPS satellite positioning syem that provides x,y, z positioning of the sensor at all times. Payload orineted dire	ly to the ground (NADIR.)Resolution: Weakness: Easy to confuse sources of heat loss. High voltage obje	s can also be misleading (ie. power lines.) Be results at night. Aerial PhotogrammetryCreates digital surface model utilizing triangulation of common surface points. Tools: Large-format cameras, can be coupled with GIS Resolution: Weakness: Refle	ive obje	s, low contra surfaces, cloud cover. LiDAR (Laser Mapping)Utilizes airborne lasers to measure diance between the laser scanner and the ground and/or obje	s on the ground. Highly penetrative (can capture elevations in a dense fore)Tools:  Leica RCD30 precision digital camera Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Heavy rain, low-hanging clouds, high sun angles, refle	ions, unreliable for calculating water depth/ breaking waves, laser may a­e	 human eye, operating altitude is low (500-2000m), inability to penetrate through very thick vegetation. SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR)Utilizes radio waves to measure diance to ground. Compared to RADAR, SAR has its own microwave illumintor, allowing it to operate in any wether or light condition.) Can create 2D or 3D results. Does not require sun illumination. Tools:  Microwave illuminator,Resolution: 1.5” pixel resolution at 500 feet AGLWeakness: Reliant on orbit precision and accurate incidence angle calibration. Corona 1959-72Payload: CamerasLandsat 1972-PresentNot A	ive: Landsat 1 (1972): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 2 (1975): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 3 (1978): Return Beam Vidicon (RVB) and Multi že	ral Scanner (MSS)Landsat 4 (1982): Multi Spe	ral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper A	ive: Landsat 7 (1999): Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Landsat 8 (2013): Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS)SPOT 1986-Present Ikonos 1999-Present GeoEye-1 2008- Present(Remote sensing) (Private)16km x 193km coverage 170km x 185km  coverage 11.3 km coverageCorona 1959-72 1.5 m2Landsat 1972-Present 15 m2 resolutionSPOT 1986-Present 1.5 m2Ikonos 1999-Present 1.5 m2x100 scale x1,000,000 scaleCorona 1959-72 16km x 193 kmLandsat 1972-Present 170km x 185kmIkonos 1999-Present 111.3 km x 11.3 kmGeoEye-1 15 km coverageGeoEye1-2008-Present 0.5 m2 Satellite Resolution Satellite CoverageFig.29. Analysis of Satellite resolution over time. Fig.30. Analysis of Satellite coverage  area over time.23 24Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.31 (a-c): “Drone-catching drone” introduced by Tokyo Police force after a drone was found on the Prime Minister’s roof.  25 26Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.32: Americans in Pakistan protest USA’s drone regime on behalf of Pakistanis who are ‘suffering’. The American Military is not officially at war with Pakistan. 27 28Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 33: Project Loon pictured with payload which includes solar panel for energy generation, drone, and camera. This technology can neither be classified  as a drone or balloon and operates in the stratosphere where it cannot be seen or easily held accountable. “…by plunging into the heart of the machine, we may obtain a truer sense of the potential and limits of our agency within it, political or otherwise.” (Bousquet 11)31 32Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAir Machines“No machine has ever been invented to go slower. Speed is growth, slowing down is decline.” (Violeau 12)The history of air territory is a history of machines designed to move faster and target with increasing efficiency—eventually leading to their autonomous operation. This machinic history contains overlaps with weather predicting technology, innovations in camouflage, and cybernetics. The striking fact about air machines is that they have only been manned In order to function—States have implemented unmanned technologies at every opportunity and are increasingly doing so. Virilio notes that astronauts—the great heroes of the Space Race—will be extinct as soon as they are able to be replaced with machines (Virilio, The Information Bomb 81). This will eventually result in a binary relationship between ground territory occupied by humans and air territory occupied solely by machines. This juxtaposition is highlighted by patterns of predictability and unpredictability—where technologies are designed to offer a high degree of accuracy and precision but rely on methods of concealment and unpredictability to target effectively. Air machines have increased their efficiency at exponential rates—with the primary goals of technologies (speed and target efficiency) being met on increasingly shorter timescales (See Fig. 17-18.) This exacerbates differences between technology invented or improved by private citizens and the speed at which governments are able to improve their machines—air space offers a privileged viewpoint with far superior technological capabilities. Air machines are also becoming more ambiguous and difficult to detect. For example, Google’s Project Loon is designed as a hybrid drone-balloon and operates in the largely unregulated stratosphere, allowing it to  take advantage of physical and spatial extralegality simultaneously. The Loon is able to escape drone regulations by claiming it is a balloon, and balloon regulations because it is an unmanned machine which evades this classification. Additionally by combining technologies, the balloon is able to leapfrog technological advancements and take advantage of drone technology which allows for autonomous operation as well as light surveillance payloads. Air machines have been largely funded by military institutions such as DARPA and Israeli defense labs who have invested hundreds of billions of dollars in research pertaining to aerospace and surveillance technologies (DARPA). Many of these innovations are transferable between domestic and military applications and are designed to be reconfigurable or multifunctional. These create what Deleuze and Guattari refer to as ‘machinic assemblages’—organisms continually growing and shedding their individual components (Deleuze and Guattari) and cutting across the ‘organic, mechanical, and social strata of reality’ (Bousquet 16). Air machines essentially act as suspended infrastructures of surveillance with particular machines serving specific objectives defined by the assemblage. Satellites are able to control drones, airplanes, etc. and machines are designed to fulfill a myriad of functions within the apparatus. For example, drones can be repurposed from military applications to survey property for the real estate industry (senseFly), to track whales for marine biologists (Offord), and to follow protestors and drug traffickers by police organizations such as the Ontario Provincial Police (Bowman). Components within these machinic assemblages are often able to communicate with one another utilizing technologies such as shortwave radio which allows satellites to synchronise “global infrastructures, oceanic air traffic control, and weather reporting” (Paglen 63). Additionally, weather forecasts accessible by private citizens have become more accurate due to high resolution satellite data designed to make warfare more predictable (Lele XIV). In Bruno Latour’s On the Modern Cult of the Factish Gods, he writes that modern man has replaced idolatry with the fetishization of machinic objects which are a ‘product of their own human labour’ (Latour 8). The use of aerial technology is especially susceptible to this due to its ability to offer a ‘God’s Eye View.’ Surveillance technologies have often appropriated names from Greek mythical characters—such as the Gorgon Stare, named after a creature who could turn its observers into stone; the ARGUS IS—named after Argus Panoptes, a Greek ‘many eyed giant’ who would serve Hera by surveying her subjects (Bousquet 103) (see Fig. 34-36.) The fetishization of surveillance machines extends into the political sphere, with US Congressman Brian Billbray declaring that drones should be seen as ‘American Folk Heroes’ (Graham 71) and that if a Predator drone registered as President “both parties would be trying to endorse it” (Bennett). The ‘factishness’ of surveillance machines may also be due to the human endeavour to ‘endow machines with perceptual facilities of discernment that would match (and exceed) our own’ (Bousquet 103). Latour alludes that this will lead to a form of life wherein humans are unable to make distinctions as to which objects they have created, and which objects already existed in the ‘outside world’ (29).33 34Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 34-5: Gorgon Stare is a surveillance technology which consists of nine cameras in a spherical composition attached to a drone. It is named after a mythical Greek creature who could turn observers into stone. Fig.36-7: The Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance Imaging System (ARGUS-IS) is a US Military surveillance technology which boasts ‘high resolution images’ as well as embedded processing algorithms. Its namesake is an Ancient Greek mythical giant with one hundred eyes. 35 36Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.39-40: Above: Japanese General inspecting acoustic locator during WWI; Below: Acoustic devices used for locating and contacting planes used by U.S. Naval Air Service. Collapsible TelescopeRifle ScopeOptical RangefinderHelmet Mounted DisplayLaser Guided BulletBombsightTrench PeriscopeNight Vision GogglesFig.38: Catalogue of War Devices which expanded military surveillance capabilities. (Expanding.)“Where you sit in relation to the lens and which side of it you are looking through shapes who you are, your position in the universe, and your place in the City.”  (Liam Young, 2018)39 40Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmVisionThe automation of human vision has been accelerating since the invention of the telescope in the thirteenth century (see Fig.19, 38.) The telescope spurred an era of dromological change wherein the human sense of sight would become increasingly mechanized, detached, and precise. This ‘one-way hierarchy of vision’ (Weizman) has come to define how we watch our world as well as how we are watched.  The act of ‘seeing’ by airborne technology has been equated to military surveillance because the calibration required in order to ‘see’ inherently surveils and records the terrain below (Virilio; Bousquet; Manovich; Weizman). According to Graham, airborne technologies such as satellites are increasingly instantaneous and are designed to view objects in the landscape as targets because these technologies were developed for military applications (29.) The ‘target’ view generally reflects a State or corporate agenda. Aerial surveillance is inherently designed to provide a privileged view of the world to its operators and extends the arm of the powerful up. As Graham and Weizman note, this has resulted in an Orientalist gaze towards the landscape and disproportionately targeting people of colour—purposely ‘bringing them into visibility where they can be destroyed’ (Graham 70). In his analysis of military perception technology, Bousquet divides surveillance into a three-step process: sensing, imaging, and mapping (8).  The imperfections in airborne surveillance technologies largely reside in the ‘imaging’ and ‘mapping’ processes which require manmade algorithms and calibrations to produce useful data—correcting distortions and layering information into a single composition. This includes processes aimed at recognizing three-dimensional objects from a two-dimensional view (photogrammetry) as well as facial recognition procedures, etc.Where maps are now widely understood to be subject to bias and error, satellite images are still widely assumed to present a simple, direct, and truthful correlation of the Earth. This occurs even though there is a history of such images being so imperfect and uncertain—and as so manipulated mislabelled and just plain wrong –that it is necessary to be skeptical about such claims. (Graham 31)Just as the ‘latest weapons systems miss their intended targets’(Bousquet 13), surveillance technologies with human interpreters often result in intentional or unintentional increases in civilian fatalities (Shaheen). It is in the State or Corporate power’s best interest to portray their technology as incredibly precise in order to legitimize their activities. For example, in 2012 Whitehouse spokesperson Jay Carney lamented that counterterrorism efforts are ‘exceptionally precise and surgical’ (Graham 71) in another claim of ‘ethical superiority’ designed to subjugate the surveilled (Bousquet 13). Large technological advancements towards the autonomous operation (and vision) of airborne technology using Artificial Intelligence are designed to improve the manageability and operation of these machines. With the proliferation of AI, large amounts of data created by constant surveillance will be processed and imaged more efficiently (Graham 78). This will result in the complete removal of the human eye from the skies and will essentially automate conflict and surveillance around the globe without the burden of human consciousness. Computer vision will not only reflect the state’s agenda ‘abroad’, but will also represent ‘fourth generation warfare’ initiatives (Graham 84) by supporting the militarization of police forces, and national security defenses such as border patrol. States will continue to claim that the use of autonomous machines with their own vision will save US personnel, and will complete the transformation of conflict space into theatre space (Virilio, War and Cinema). Bousquet notes that the emphasis on precision has overtaken the significance of the weapon used to apply force: If aiming is more important than the weapon itself, it is understood that one day deterrence will no longer be caused by the weapon but by the gaze. (Bousquet 5)“Airspace is a discrete dimension absent from political maps. But it is a space of utmost importance – cluttered with civilian and military airways, allowing a vantage observational point on the terrain under it, denying that position to others.” (Weizman 2002)43 44Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmCounteroccupationsBousquet notes that camouflage was developed by militaries in response to the advent of air machines in wartimes (157.) Camouflage development accelerated during the First World War and led to innovations such as ‘dazzle ships’ (Fig.43) which were designed to distort the outline, size, heading, speed of ships when viewed by submarine periscopes (Bousquet 165). During the Second World War, Architects replaced painters as the camouflage experts of choice due to their understanding of shading and perspective (Zardini and Cohen). This led to the increased development of the art of ‘perpendicular camouflage’ wherein soldiers would practice concealing three-dimensional objects at perpendicular angles. Thus, three-dimensional objects were made two-dimensional—reversing the imperatives of photogrammetry and surveillance technology. Camouflage has also included such bizarre inventions as ‘observation post trees’ in No Man’s Land (Manaugh) (Fig.41-42), smoke generators to hide cities from aerial bombing (Bousquet 164), as well as using papier mâche sniper heads to deceive the enemy (Imperial War Museum) (Fig.44.)Although the speed and efficiency of airborne machines and their surveillance payloads have drastically improved in the last century, many of the underlying technologies used still present the same weaknesses. For example, RADAR technology is still sensitive to orbital calibration, and laser mapping is sensitive to cloud cover—although these weaknesses have reduced in magnitude (Fig. 45). Additionally, Bousquet outlines certain ‘hiding’ strategies such as scattering, creating false targets, and creating unpredictable life patterns (184.) Bousquet also remarks on the infrastructural and external forces which are required by air machines and surveillance technologies in order to operate, such as ground stations for satellites: “technical objects are stabilized by their degree of internal coherence and the strength of their external relations” (16.) Recently Artists and Architects have begun to explore updated means of camouflage as responses to our everpresent surveillance culture. For example, artist Adam Harvey created a line of ‘Stealth Wear’ with prosthetics designed to evade facial recognition software and a ‘drone burqa’ which conceals the heat signature of the wearer (Harvey). Architect Asher J. Kohn designed an anti-drone ‘Muslim city’ with minarets designed to thwart drone attacks and buildings with the ability to confuse heat signatures. Trevor Paglen painstakingly observed and recorded 1,400 secret ‘black’ military satellites in geostationary orbit and became a whistleblower for orbital space. Figure 45  illustrates initial cataloguing of camouflage and hiding strategies designed to make aerial surveillance technologies less perceptive.  45 46Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.41-2: Fake plastic spy trees were constructed by military forces as observation posts during World War I. 47 48Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.43: World War I battleship in ‘dazzle camouflage’ used to distort the speed, heading, and scale of the ship. 49 50Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig.44.: Manufacture of papier mache fake sniper heads made from Plaster of Paris (Imperial War Museum).51 52Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmfog machine mirror/ refleive surface baery poweredfankiddie pooldense tree cover search lightinsulationambiguously shaped proheticmetal  box1 Create low contra/ ambiguous paerns.2 Hide under dense tree cover. 5 Create confusion with moving sources of high illumination. 4 Hide under refleive moving liquid. Make as deep as possible. 7 Move fa. 10 Conceal heat signature with insulative layers. insulation8 Confuse thermal scans with false heat signatures. 3 Hide under refleive surfaces, use oblique angles. 6 Use ambiguous shapes to avoid recognition. 9 Use signal-blocking materials to prote your identity.fog machine mirror/ refleive surface baery poweredfankiddie pooldense tree cover search lightinsulationambiguously shaped proheticmetal  box1 Create low contra/ ambiguous paerns.2 Hide under dense tree cover. 5 Create confusion with moving sources of high illumination. 4 Hide under refleive moving liquid. Make as deep as possible. 7 Move fa. 10 Conceal heat signature with insulative layers. insulation8 Confuse thermal scans with false heat signatures. 3 Hide under refleive surfaces, use oblique angles. 6 Use ambiguous shapes to avoid recognition. 9 Use signal-blocking materials to prote your identity.Fig.45: Catalogue of techniques for evasion of surveillance technologies (expanding.)53 54Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmfog machine mirror/ refleive surface baery poweredfankiddie pooldense tree cover search lightinsulationambiguously shaped proheticmetal  box1 Create low contra/ ambiguous paerns.2 Hide under dense tree cover. 5 Create confusion with moving sources of high illumination. 4 Hide under refleive moving liquid. Make as deep as possible. 7 Move fa. 10 Conceal heat signature with insulative layers. insulation8 Confuse thermal scans with false heat signatures. 3 Hide under refleive surfaces, use oblique angles. 6 Use ambiguous shapes to avoid recognition. 9 Use signal-blocking materials to prote your identity.fog machine mirror/ refleive surface baery poweredfankiddie pooldense tree cover search lightinsulationambiguously shaped proheticmetal  box1 Create low contra/ ambiguous paerns.2 Hide under dense tree cover. 5 Create confusion with moving sources of high illumination. 4 Hide under refleive moving liquid. Make as deep as possible. 7 Move fa. 10 Conceal heat signature with insulative layers. insulation8 Confuse thermal scans with false heat signatures. 3 Hide under refleive surfaces, use oblique angles. 6 Use ambiguous shapes to avoid recognition. 9 Use signal-blocking materials to prote your identity.Fig.45 (b): Catalogue of techniques for evasion of surveillance technologies (expanding.)55 56Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 48: Simultaneously, radical French architect Ledoux conceived of an airborne cemetery where bodies occupy the airspace above Chaux—suspended in the air with no visible support like hot air balloons.   1783First ‘modern’  hot air balloon flight in Annonay, France by Montgolfier brothers.  1794Battle of Fleurus: Reconnaisance balloons first used by French. 1815Pickering v. RuddLord Ellenborough:“if this board overhanging the plaintiff’s garden be a trespass, it would follow that an aeronaut is liable to an action of trespass quare clausum fregit, at the suit of the occupier of every field over which his balloon passes in the course of his voyage. Whether the action may be maintained cannot depend upon the length of time for which the superincumbent air is invaded. If any damage arises from the object which overhangs the close, the remedy is by an action on the case. Here the verdict depends upon the new assignment of excess in cutting down the tree.”1783First ‘modern’ hot air balloon flight in Annonay, France by Montgolfier brothers.1794Battle of Fleurus: Reconnaissance balloons first used by French.1815Pickering v. Rudd. Lord Ellenborough:“if this board overhanging the plaintiff’s garden be a trespass, it would follow that an aeronaut is liable to an action of trespass quare clausum fregit, at the suit of the occupier of every field over which his balloon passes in the course of his voyage. Whether the action may be maintained cannot depend upon the length of time for which the superincumbent air is invaded. If any damage arises from the object which overhangs the close, the remedy is by an action on the case. Here the verdict depends upon the new assignment of excess in cutting down the tree.”Fig.46-7 (left): The hot air balloon illustrates a historical trajectory which was relatively commonplace prior to the first world war. It was the first technology to limit the ‘ad coelum doctrine’ when in 1815, an English judge claimed that trespassing airspace which was of no practical use to a property owner would not infringe on their rights. 57 58Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km1908- Harry Petit “King’s Dream of New York”Fig.51 (right): A frontispiece for a book by Moses King published during this period depicted zeppelins and elevated roadways in a futuristic vision of New York. Private citizens could use vertical space in the city for daily transportation. 1900Luftschiff Zeppelin LZ1 made its first flight on Lake Constance in Germany. (Developed by German military.)Germans make balloons for Americans as part of WWI reparations.  1914-18WWI:  German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts, killing over 500 people in bombing raids in Britain.1919Paris Convention First international convention to address the political difficulties and intricacies involved in international aerial navigation. It recognized the rights of sovereign nations to control the airspace above their territory. “The contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over -the airspace above its territory.”1900Luftschiff Zeppelin LZ1 made its first flight on Lake Constance in Germany. (Developed by German military.)Germans make balloons for Americans as part of WWI reparations.  1914-18WWI:  German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts, killing over 500 people in bombing raids in Britain.1919Paris Convention First international convention to address the political difficulties and intricacies involved in international aerial navigation. It recognized the rights of sovereign nations to control the airspace above their territory. “The contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over -the airspace above its territory.”1900Luftschiff Zeppelin LZ1 made its first flight on Lake Constance in Germany. (Developed by German military.) Germans make balloons for Americans as part of WWI reparations.1914-18WWI: German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts, killing over 500 pe ple in bombing raids in Britain.First international convention to address the political difficulties and intricacies involved in international aerial navigation. It recognized the rights of sovereign nations to control the airspace above their territory. “The contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over -the airspace above its territory.”1919Paris ConventionFig. 49 -50 (left): The zeppelin represents the first major airborne technology invented by the state. It was developed by the German military and used for offensive tactics including surveillance during World War I. Immediately after the war, the 1919 Paris convention recognized the rights of sovereign nations to control the airspace above their territory.59 60Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 54 (right): This influenced Russian Constructivist Architect Georgy Krutikov who proposed airborne communes flying above the city with mobile living pods containing every human comfort. 1904Wright brothers flight 1911 Italian invasion of Libya. 1911-131911, 1913 Air Navigation Acts (Great Britain)Stated Great Britain’s right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircraft might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircraft might enter the airspace over its lands and waters.1904 Wright Brother’s flight. 1911Italian invasion of Libya. 1911-13 1911, 1913 Air Navigation Acts (Great Britain)Stated Great Britain’s right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircraft might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircraft might enter the airspace over its land and waters. Fig. 52-3 (left): The Italian invasion of Libya in 1911 represented an increase in the severity and scale of air warfare which ushered in a new type of warfare in the skies. This led to Air Navigation Acts in Great Britain which created the first restricted air spaces and placed further limitations on foreign aircrafts flying above British land and water. 61 62Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km1957Soviet Union launches Sputnik I. 1957-75Cold War- Space Race 1967 “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”Stated Great Britain’s right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircraft might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircraft might enter the airspace over its lands and waters.1957Soviet Union launches Sputnik I. 1957-75Cold War- Space Race 1967 “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”Stated Great Britain’s right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircraft might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircraft might enter the airspace over its lands and waters.Fig. 55-7 (left): The development of Sputnik by Russia and the resultant Space Race led to accelerated developments in airborne technology and furthered the establishment of a dromocracy. As Virilio notes, “there is not democracy, only dromocracy; there is not strategy, only dromology.”1957Soviet Union launches Sputnik 11957-75 Cold War/ Space Race 1967Treaty on Principles Governing the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon a d Other Celestial Bodies Fig. 58 (right): Polli of Superstudio described Interplanetary Architecture as a scheme to move valuable masses from the Earth to Outer Space and to give people a chance to start over in outer space, leaving the earth only for the extraction of natural resources. Superstudio [ironically] advocates for a dromology working to benefit the masses.63 64Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 59-61 (left): The development of the drone has been driven by private contractors working for the US Military. Drones evolved from remote-controlled technology such as reconnaissance satellites and use surveillance technology to navigate autonomously. Recent developments in drone technology have made them smaller, less detectable and able to operate for longer durations on renewable energy sources. 1916Hewitt-Sperry Automatic airplane developed for the US Army and controlled by radio. It became known as ‘the flying bomb.’ 2001United States Air Force (USAF)  attempts killing of Taliban Supreme Commander Mullah Muhammad Omar in first remotely-piloted lethal drone strike. 2007Transport Canada begins to require licenses (Special Flight Operating Certificate) for UAVs flown in national airspace over a specific weight. Stated Great Britain’s right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircraft might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircraft might enter the airspace over its lands and waters.Fig. 62: Liam Young’s film “in the Robot Skies” focuses on the transgressive behaviors of two teenagers kept apart by police who send messages to each other with hacked drones. 1916Hewitt-Sperry Automatic airplane developed for the US Army and controlled by radio. It became known as ‘the flying bomb.’2001United States Air Force (USAF) attempts killing of Taliban Supreme Commander Mullah Muhammad Omar in first remotely-piloted lethal drone strike.2007Transport Canada begins to require licenses (Special Flight Operating Certificate) for UAVs flown in national airspace over a specific weight.65 66Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 63: The Ontario Provincial Police have been using drones to surveil protestors and for drug trafficking investigations (Bowman.)The superimposed graph illustrates the increase in Special Flights Operations Certificates (SFOCs) issued since 2012 and projects increases based on a linear projection to 2023. Flying drones in Canada requires obtaining a license which can be a laborious and expensive for individuals. However there has been a sizable increase in Special Flights Operation Certificates obtained by the government and by corporate actors. This creates a privileged class of operators in our air space. The aerospace industry is the top R&D stakeholder among all Canadian manufacturing industries, with investments totaling $1.7 billion in 2017. 67 68Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 64: Photogrammetry technology study. Twenty low quality images were able to produce a three dimensional model using Agisoft’s Photoscan software. Movement and low contrast elements produced inaccuracies. 69 70Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmPrecedents71 72Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmYes Men[Fig. 65]United States Air Force[Fig. 66]Haliburton’s Survivaball Project Manhigh73 74Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmGeorgii Krutikov[Fig. 67]Flying CityLebbeus Woods[Fig. 68]High Houses75 76Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmDiller Scofidio[Fig. 69]Blur BuildingPaul Virilio[Fig. 70]Bunker Archaeology (sections) 77 78Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmSmout Allen[Fig. 71]Speleological Pentograph Liam Young[Fig. 72]Species of Unnatural History79 80Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmSmout Allen[Fig. 73]LandmarksTrevor Paglen[Fig. 74]Autonomy Cube81 82Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmSuperstudio[Fig. 75]Interplanetary ArchitectureTrevor Paglen[Fig. 76]Nonfunctional Satellites83 84Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmGalina Balashova[Fig. 77]Proposal for the exterior of the spacecraft MirClaude Nicholas Ledoux[Fig. 78]Cemetery Above Chaux85 86Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmCenotaph for Sir Isaac NewtonÉtienne-Louis Boullée[Fig. 79]NBBJ[Fig. 80]Amazon Spheres87 88Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAboveGroundLevel89 90Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmPrelude to AGL400 BC: Kites invented in China. Ancient Greece: Icarus Myth. 1840: Fir photo taken of moon. 1504: Michelangelo’s David is sculpted. 1785: Fir-ever air crossing of the English Channel. The trip was completed in a hydrogen balloon and took 2 1/2 hours.1888: Louis Brennan [Irish Inventor] remotely controls torpedoe in English Channel. 1898:  Nikola Tesla uses ‘teleautomation’ to remotely control a four-foot long boat and inru’ it to turn its lights on and o“. 1849: UAV  (balloon carrier) used by Auria in a˜ack on Venice. 100-44 BCE Julius Caesar used war pigeons in Ancient Rome. 6th Century BC: King Cyrus of Persis used carrier pigeons. 13th century: Accursius of Bologna coins the term “Nota - Cujus e solum ejus debat essc usque ad coelam” , translating to "whoever's is the soil, it is theirs all the way to Heaven and all the way to Hell" which was subse-quently referred to as the ad coelom do’rine. (Abramovitch)1852:  A eam engine powers the fir airship flown by Henri Gi“ard.1900 The fir flight of the Zeppelin, a "rigid" airship - the fir aircra« to use large metal ru’ures.In the early 1900s, property owners in New York and Chicago began trading air rights, separating the ownership of defined parcels of air®ace from ownership of the surface of the earth. (Schwartz)1997-2001: DARPA begins a multi-year $35 milliun initiative to develop micro aerial vehicles (MAVs.)1998: Fir drone flight in Canada o“ the coa of Tofino by The Insitu Group. 2001: USA Military (Defense Advanced Research Proje’s Agency) begins to develop small UAV’s (SUAV’s)2007: Canada home to 220 drone-related companies in a variety of se’ors. 2008: TU Del« develops small ornithopter fi˜ed with camera (10 cm length.)2012:  British Army deploys the sixteen gram Black Hornet Nano Unmanned Air Vehicle to Afghanian to support infantry operations.2013: Harvard develops small ornithopter fi˜ed with camera (3 cm length.)2014 (March): Ontario Provincial Police  use drones over protes at Tyendinaga Fir Nation. 2016: FAA issues Small Unmanned Aircra« Regulations. 2017: Fir airborne drone-drone takedown by US Airforce. 1981: Israel develops fir UAV with real-time surveillance. 1982: Israel’s fir successful use of UAV’s in Lebanon.1946: United States v. Causby: The main issue in this case involved a low flight path of U.S. bombers and other aircra« over plainti“'s property. The flight path and size of the aircra« caused intense noise and vibrations resulting in death to plainti“'s chickens and mental diress to plainti“. Juice Douglas, however, writing for the Court, ated that the so called "ad coelum" do’rine "has no place in the modern world. The air is a public highway, as Congress have declared." (Connot and Zumo) 1865 Italian Civil Code: “He who has ownership of the land has also ownership of the ®ace above the land and of everything which is found above and below the surface.” (Abramovitch)1870 (England) Corbe˜ v. Hill suained an a’ion in tre®ass and acknowledged an owner’s right to air ®ace - at lea to the vertical column of air over a building.1888: Fir aerial photographs taken from a kite invented by Arthur Ba˜ut [France.]1916: Fir Zoning Ordinance ena’ed in New York.1911: Fir example of air warfare: Italian invasion of Libya 1918: The United States Po O´ce inaugurated airmail service from the Polo Grounds, Washington, D.C.1919 Paris Convention: fir international convention to address the political di´culties and intricacies involved in international aerial navigation. It recognized the rights of sovereign nations to control the air®ace above their territory. "The contra’ing States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over -the air®ace above its territory."1904: The Wright Brothers accomplish the fir successful "bank" and complete circular flight in Dayton.1923 Lieutenants Oakley Kelly and John Macready complete the fir nonop coa to coa airplane flight. New York to San Diego - 26 hours, 50 minutes.1920: English Air Navigation A’ is passed. 1932 Newcombe J. (Supreme Court of Canada) is reversed. It was argued that the "maxim does not apply so as to prevent aerial navigation from being a public right; flying over land is not a tre®ass to any proprietary right". (Abramovitch)1944: Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago): Eablished “Freedoms of the Air” which are international commercial agreements (tra´c rights) that grant a country’s airline(s) the privilege to enter and land in another country’s air®ace.1946 The U.S. and France sign a bilateral Five Freedoms Agreement, giving reciprocal rights for the operation of each country's commercial airlines over the territory of the other.2001: Terroris fly three Boeing airliners into New York's Twin Towers and the Pentagon – a fourth aircra« crashes in Pennsylvania – changing hiory and aviation security in the 21 century.1957: The Boeing 707 makes its fir flight. It is generally credited with ushering in the Jet Age. It enters service in O’ober 1958 with Pan American World Airways, becoming the fir successful jet airliner to enter passenger service.1958 (USA) Federal Aviation A’ Congress redefined “navigable air®ace” to mean “air®ace above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed by regulations issued under this chapter, and shall include air®ace needed to [e] nsure safety in take-o“ and landing of aircra«.” 49 U.S.C. § 1301(26) 1959: Discover 1: The fir polar orbiting satellite is launched.1963: Fir TV program transmi˜ed by satellite.2009: (SpaceX) Falcon 1 Flight 5 becomes the fir privately developed liquid fuel rocket to deliver a commercial satellite to Earth’s orbit. 2015: Spurring Private Aero®ace Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship A’ of 2015 signed in USA, allowing  "US citizens to engage in the commercial exploration and exploitation of '®ace resources' [including ... water and minerals]."”1984: Ronald Raegan signs Commercial Space Launch A’ into law, enabling private operators of expendable launch syems.  1962: Communications Satellite A’ (USA) bans private involvement in ®ace. 1969: Fir moon landing. 2004: NASA  required to legalize private ®ace flight by Commercial Space Launch Amendments A’. 2018: Donald Trump announces that USA will eablish Space Force as sixth branch of the US Military. 1960 Tiros I: Fir weather satellite launched.1961 Spy satellites developed. 1967: Treaty on Principles Governing the A’ivities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celeial Bodies, dra«s submi˜ed by USA and Soviet Union: binding the parties to use outer ®ace only for peaceful purposes.1995: The Global Positioning Syem, becomes fully operational.2016: 250,000 pieces of human-made material in orbit. 1996: Canada begins to legislate drone usage. The term ‘non-piloted aircra«’ is introduced in ‘Canadian Aviation Regulations.” 2017: SpaceX Falcon 9 successfully delivers 10 satellites to low-Earth orbit for Iridium Communications, an American company that operates mobile voice and data satellite communications. 1944: Operation Aphrodite: Fir unmanned aircra« operation by US military used B-17 aircra«s taken out of service.  1964 USA uses unmanned drones in Vietnam. 1995: General Atomics develops fir Predator Drone to be used by US Army. 2002: CIA fir used an unmanned Predator drone in a targeted killing. 1944-45: Germans develop V-1 and V-2 flying bombs (remotely controlled.)Late 1950’s: US military develops ‘cruise missiles’ with ability to be guided during flight. 1940 : US Congress legislates that “[t]he United States of America is hereby declared to possess and exercise complete and exclusive national sovereignty in the air ®ace above the United States” and that every citizen of the United States has “a public right of freedom of transit in air commerce through the navigable air ®ace of the United States.” 1935 The U.S. Secretary of Commerce signs a ®ecial tra´c rule prohibiting flights over downtown Washington D.C.1926 US Congress ena’s Air Commerce A’, eablishing navigable air®ace in the United States. “Navigable air®ace is defined as air®ace above the minimum altitudes of flight and is designated a nationally shared common area for modern flight. Generally ®eaking, the navigable air®ace consis of air®ace above an elevation of 500 feet from ground level.”1870-71 Carrier pigeons used by Parisians during Franco Prussian War. 6th Century BC: Pythagoras discovers Earth is round. 300-400 CE Rabbi Dimi of Nahardea said in the Gemara: If one sells a house with the intention of giving title to all its contents, although the bill of sale ates the word (I sell you) the depth and the height, title is not acquired in wells etc., unless he writes: 'You shall acquire title from the depth of the earth to the height of the sky.' And it is not su´cient to ate 'from depth to the height of this house is sold to you'. 1909: Supreme Court USA rules that height reri’ion on buildings are legal. 1910 Paris Conference: Di“erences developed as to the extent to which foreign aircra« might have privileges of flight in the air®ace over national territory. But not one of the European governments there represented was ready to accept the theory that the air®ace over its territory was not part of its domain and thereby not subje’ to its control.1909: Canadian John McCurdy makes the fir powered flight in the British Empire in the"Silver Dart", at Baddeck, Nova Scotia. The flight las for 800 meters and lands safely on the ice.1911, 1913 Air Navigation A’s (Great Britain):  ated its right to set up prohibited areas in its territory over which no foreign aircra« might fly and to control the terms under which such foreign aircra« might enter the air®ace over its lands and waters.1913 The fir air rights conru’ion begins in New York (New York Central Terminal1925 (USA) Air Mail A’/ Kelly A’  authorized the Po O´ce Department to contra’ with private airlines for feeder routes into the main transcontinental syem.1906: Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont makes the fir o´cially recorded aeroplane flight in Europe for 8 seconds.1861-63: Union Army Balloon Corps was a reconnaisance operation during the American Civil War which consied of seven balloons. 2019: British Government Comensses with Brexit.AMERICAN CIVIL WARSPANISH-AMERICAN WARWORLD WAR IWORLD WAR IIRUSSIAN CIVIL WARFRANCO-PRUSSIAN WARVIETNAM WARLEBANON WAR AND ISRAELI OCCUPATION IRAQ WARWAR IN AFGHANISTAN COLD WAR1800 CE[PRE-1800 CE] 1900 CE 2000 CE 2100 CEFig.81: Abridged timeline of dromology in the air. 92 93Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe Earth’s Dimensions94 95Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km105 kmHighe limit of 5km deep sodium layer used to create guide ars for optical corre	ion. 3 km3.8 km0.025 km0.3 km1.5 km0 km 5.5 km 6 km 7.6 km 8 km Height of surveillance drones. Height of persient surveillance (airships, aeroats.)Lower limit of Tropohere. Upper limit of Class B Airace in Canada.Lower limit of Class A Airace in Canada. Lower limit of Class B Airace in Canada. Upper limit of Class C, D Airace in Canada.  Fauchille’s Code (1902) forbade navigation of foreign aircra‡ under 1500 m above national territory. Causby LineUpper Limit of private property in USA Upper limit of Class E AiraceMinimum height for aircra‡ over built up area in Canada300 m 01500 mEarth Scale 1 / Fig. 821: 60 00096 97Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km18 kmUpper Limit of Class A Airace in Canada.Height of Mount Evere. Armrong limit: Humans absolutely cannot survive above this limit in an unpressurized environment.50 kmUpper limit of ratohere. Lower limit of mesohere. Upper limit of Ozone layer. [ ozone layer]60 kmStart of Ionohere. 85 kmUpper limit of Mesohere. Lower limit of Thermohere. 100 kmKarman Line (art of outer ace.) Maximum height of commercial suborbital ace flight. 105 km79 kmHeight of shortwave transmissions used for intelligence.  80 kmLowe limit of 5km deep sodium layer used to create guide ars for optical corre‡ion. Highe limit of 5km deep sodium layer used to create guide ars for optical corre‡ion. 8.8 kmLower limit of Stratohere/ ozone layer. 10 km3.5 km01.75 kmEarth Scale 2/ Fig. 831: 700 00098 99Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km700 km800 km1000 km160 km0 km 400 km2000 km(5 hr orbital period)(2.5 hr orbital period)End of lower Earth Orbit. Rough height of y satellites. Current max. height of commercial suborbital flight[ace junk]Medium Low Earth Orbit. End of ionohere. POLAR ORBIT Upper limit of thermohere. Altitude of International Space Station. Lower limit of thermohere. Start of lower Earth orbit. 100 km0500 kmEarth Scale 3/ Fig. 841: 2 000 000100 101Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km1000 km05000 km0 km10,000 km2000 km 35,786  km36,300 km20,200 kmGeoationary Orbit. Graveyard Orbit24 hrorbital period15 hrorbital period5 hrorbital periodSemi-Synchronous Orbit (GPS) End of Exohere Line between Earth’s atmohere and interplanetary ace End of Lower Earth Orbit End of Lower Earth Orbit 500 km01 000 kmEarth Scale 4/ Fig. 851: 40 000 000102 103Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe spaces above us are inaccessible. Yet, since Ancient Times, humanity has been fascinated by what exists beyond our reach. Now that the rich and powerful have occupied air space and tried to bend it to their will, only they can exist in this space. Gravity works to their advantage. Information dominance happens out of our sight and consciousness. The Earth’s elite reach through the atmosphere and into outer space, reclaiming extratoerritories for their benefit. The Blue Marble is a shared vision of the Earth. The Blue Marble ideal is a falsity spread through airwaves owned and operated by the technosupremacy. Blue marble/ Fig. 86nts104 105Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km1[18 km AGL]StratosphereMigrant Floatilla2022Countries in Sub-saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin Americaexperiencing high levels of population growth and extremeclimate change events see increasing levels of mass migration. 2020 2025 2030 2035 20402019Brexit. Border wall conruion commences on the US-Mexico border. Trump is re-eleed in 2020. 2026Weern countriescontinue to block climate migrants at borders which resultin large refugee camps at international borders.2028The EU iscompletely dismantled due to the threat of climaterefugees entering its borders. 2035Anticipating the number of climate migrants, the UNHCSS (United Nations High Commissionfor Climate Safety) is formed. 2039The UNHCSS beginsto secretly diributethe Climate Refugee Flying Machine at border camps. 2042The Climate Refugee Flying Machines are used widely by refugees until teleportation is possible.  2031The Canada-United States Safe Third Country Agreement is dismantled.   SSThe UN Agency for Climate SafetyFig. 87.107 108Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe first episode occurs in the stratosphere, at approximately 18km above ground level. 18 km represents the Armstrong Limit, the height above which humans cannot survive in an unpressurized environment. The stratosphere is home to a long history of technologies designed to evade legal and technological classifications, often marketed as weather balloons. These ‘pseudo-satellites’ take advantage of layered wind patterns in the stratosphere, where each wind layer moves in a different speed and direction. Balloons are able to accelerate or decelerate and change direction by moving up or down onto carefully monitored currents—essentially sailing the winds.Pictured here, is a visualization of Alphabet’s Project Loon; which purports to launch a network of balloons into the stratosphere. Alphabet claims they will provide Wi-Fi to remote areas of the world—however, the full contents of the balloon’s payload remain unknown. Is it a satellite, a balloon, or a drone? The Loon thrives in this physical, legal, and technological grey space. Fig. 88nts109 110Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAt  0km AGL, the world’s most vulnerable climate migrants are forced to navigate sovereign border restrictions and their movements remain highly visible and monitored. The UN predicts that by 2045 there will be 135 million migrants fleeing only due to desertification (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification). Fig. 89nts111 112Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAccording to the 1951 UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, Climate migrants are not officially recognized as refugees, unless an armed conflict is somehow triggered (Palmer, 2015.) This results in a condition wherein those fleeing the adverse effects of climate change are not entitled to protection, as they are unable to claim asylum. While corporations responsible for the world’s largest emissions contributions are able to operate in legal grey space and reap the benefits of globalization, refugees bear the brunt of national border restrictions.The migrant floatilla envisages a post-Brexit future where wealthy countries experiencing growing waves of nationalism actively turn all migrants away at land borders.The floatilla is a system designed and distributed by a grassroots UN agency—UNHCSS (United Nations Climate Safety Agency) which can no longer cope with the demands of growing populations of climate refugees. They choose instead to supply refugees with the same agency as a private corporation.SSThe UN Agency for Climate SafetyFig. 90nts113 114Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmMigrant floatilla is a product which can be purchased or distributed in case of catastrophic climate change, and the resultant collapse of border treaties. It allows users to transgress borders in a safe and discrete manner. SOLAR PANEL MIGRANT PODGPS TECHNOLOGYRADIO TECHNOLOGY*FULL PAYLOAD CONCEALED BY CORPORATION*FULL PAYLOAD CONCEALED BY CLIMATE MIGRANTS18 kmLoon balloon with migrant payload/ Fig. 911: 1000.5 m02.5 m115 116Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmEach pod is outfitted with a system which is able to mix liquid nitrogen and hot water in order to produce camouflaging clouds when hiding from nearby devices with surveillance payloads, as well as provisions for twenty days in the stratosphere. KUTUPALONG REFUGEE CAMPUIKHIA, BANGLADESH21.2126°N 92.1634°E0.1 m00.5 mPlan of Loon balloon above Kutupalong Refugee Camp / Fig. 921: 10117 118Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmEach pod is outfitted with a system which is able to mix liquid nitrogen and hot water in order to produce camouflaging clouds when hiding from nearby devices with surveillance payloads, and provisions for twenty days in the stratosphere. UNHCSS RATIONS AND DEHYDRATED FOOD12345789101112131415166POLYETHYLENE  EXTERIOR BALLOON(FILLED WITH HELIUM)1234INTERIOR BALLOON(FILLED WITH AIR)FAN FOR INFLATING/ DEFLATING INNER BALLOONCOLD AIR INTAKE 567891011121314151617CAMERA BOXGPS TRACKER IPAD TO CONTROL BALLOON INFLATION ADJUSTABLE LIGHTCLOUD OUTPUTLIQUID NITROGENBACKUP CAR BATTERY OXYGEN TANKS HOT WATER TANKFLOORALUMINIUM ALLOY POD STRUCTURE FEET FOR LANDING 1718 km0.1 m00.5 mSection through migrant pod/ Fig. 931: 20119 120Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmMigrants are provided with a map which allows them to follow wind flows on latitudinal lines as they travel freely to their desired destinations. 10ON0O20ON30ON40ON50ONMIGRANT ROUTESCLIMATE MIGRANT BALLOONWIND PATTERNSREFUGEE CAMP (CIRCLE INDICATES SIZE)LATITUDINAL LINES Reccommended migrant routes / Fig. 94nts121 122Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmPOLARISNORTHSTAR NORTHSTAR BIG DIPPER LITTLEDIPPER CASSIOPEIAFACEBOOK MESSENGER ENABLES CALLS TO PEOPLE ON THE GROUND. SMARTPHONEDOCUMENTATIONNON-PERISHABLE FOOD ITEMSLIGHTER FIRST AID SUPPLIESBLANKETSMAPS.MEALLOWS USERS TO FIND THEIR COORDINATORS, SEE OBSTACLES HIDDEN BY CLOUD COVER. WHATSAPPFREE SERVICE FOR MAKING CALLS AND TEXT. FEATURES END-TO-END ENCRYPTION.  INFOAID (HUNGARY)APP WHICH FEATURES ASYLUM PROCEDURES IN HUNGARY.   WELCOME APP (DRESDEN)APP WHICH FEATURES IMPORT-ANT CONTACTS AND PROCE-DURES IN GERMANY.   LIQUID NITROGEN TANKS COMPASSThe UNHCSS provides basic tools and food provisions—usually local food supplies and fuel sources that are cheap and readily available. UNHCSS Manual/ Fig. 95nts123 124Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmClimate MigrantFig. 96. 125 126Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km2[79 km AGL]IonosphereLead Cloud2033As facial recognition sowareis adopted by more governments,citizens around the world build theirown lead machines. 2021A group of Chinese technoaivis decide to control the dissemination of their personal information from ate power. 20252020maximum2030 2035 20402041Solar maximum. Solar flare allowedto temporarily interrupt radio service bylead cloud.  2024The group begins to colle lead from cell phones when they are delivered to Guiyu, China in order to make lead machines.2026The group publishes their manual and conituents fromaround the world begin to make their own machines.2030Solar maximum. Solar flare allowedto temporarily interrupt radio service bylead cloud.Fig. 97.128 129Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe second episode occurs in the ionosphere, 79 km above ground level. The ionosphere is charged by solar and cosmic radiation which is ideal for reflecting and transmitting radio-based communications. From Earth, this results in radio stations used for transmitting codes to spies internationally known as shortwave radio stations.  These stations have been active since World War I and still operate today in countries such as the USA, Canada, Russia, China, Cuba, and Japan. Long periods of static, songs, and strings of number sequences can still be heard on shortwave radio. Governments have been attempting to biohack this ecology in order to increase their signal strength by artificially ionizing the atmosphere (see: Russia’s Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility.)  AGBOGBLOSHIE SCRAPYARDACCRA, GHANA5.554122, -0.22589025 m0100 m3867 CONSTITUENTS9654 CONSTITUENTS1589 CONSTITUENTS21,091 CONSTITUENTSLead Cloud Plan/ Fig. 981:5000130 131Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmLead cloud investigates inequalities in the global supply chain—specifically disparities between sites of resource extraction and consumption—and how these are reflected in the ionosphere. In countries such as India, China, Ghana, and Indonesia, resources are illegally dumped by Western countries where they are handpicked for minerals by informal ewaste processors. This increases disparities in health and spatial justice between the developing and developed worlds. Resource Extraction Cycle/ Fig. 99nts132 133Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmIn 2021, a group of ewaste workers in China transgress the state’s military-surveillance complex by sending miniature lead machines into the atmosphere, creating lead clouds. As facial recognition software is adopted by other governments, a worldwide coalition of citizens work to create these clouds.0.1 cm00.5 cmLead Cloud at solar minimum/ Fig.1005:1134 135Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe lead cloud’s components are assembled from 12mg of lead picked from a common cell phone, ineffective and undetectable as individual constituents, but capable of changing an ecology as an assemblage.  capacitorresior x1x201 cm79 km0.05 cm00.25 cmLead Cloud components and source parts/ Fig.10110:1136 137Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmBy blocking solar waves, lead machines are able to scatter ionized clouds—thereby decreasing the state’s signal strength. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. Authorities suspect that this cloud is composed of a signal blocking material designed to weaken magnetization in the Ionosphere. Similar claims have been made recently in Ghana and China, although government officials have declined further comment. Last month, an anonymous employee of the Chinese government claimed that state officials suspect that e-waste workers in Guiyu have been launching small devices into the Ionosphere, although there is no corroberation. Indonesian police authorities are responding to calls from the International Telecommunications Union after an ITU employee claimed that he saw a black cloud hovering above his ranch. E-waste Workers Weaken Ionosphere, Demand Environmental Rights WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 6, 2033WORLD NEWSState authorities in China suspect balloons used as launching devices. ?Fig.102nts138 139Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmEvery eleven years at the solar maximum, the cloud components transition into a vertical position in order to allow naturally occurring high solar flares to interrupt radio service. The balloons reclaim sites of extraction and waste by displacing lead 79 km into the ionosphere, where global power operates. 0.1 cm00.5 cmLead Cloud at solar maximum/ Fig.1035:1140 141Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmCommon AntFig. 104.142 143Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km3[408 km AGL]Lower Earth OrbitSpace Treaty 20372024International Space Stationis decommissioned.Russia separates its modules from the International Space Station.  2030Roscosmos(Russian Space Agency)eablishes its ownace ation.  2034International coalition of Humanitarian Aid workers sent to orbit.Space objes fused together.  SPACE WAR2020The core module of the Chinese Space Station, Tianhe-1 (“Harmony of the Heavens”) is launched. 20252020 2030 2035 20402037Art objes sent into ace as per the 2037 Outer Space Treaty.  2018Donald Trump eablishes Space Force as a new branch of US Armed Forces. Fig. 105145 146Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe third episode occurs at 408 km above sea level—in the Lower Earth Orbit.  The Lower Earth Orbit’s relative proximity to the Earth’s surface makes it ideal for mass surveillance. Satellites at this height are cheaper to operate and can be controlled from the ground, or by satellites operating in higher orbits. Paul Virilio refers to LEO as the Earth’s cosmic dustbin. The Lower Earth Orbit contains many smaller orbits which increases the chance of collision with other objects, and especially with space junk which can strike at speeds up to 57 600 km/hr. The Kessler Syndrome increases the potential scale of this destruction. This future begins when the International Space station is decommissioned in 2024. Space stations for Russia, China, and the US have quietly been under construction. Donald Trump’s Space Force furthers American imperialism in space. By 2030, the 1967 Outer Space Treaty is considered archaic, and international cooperation in space ends.1162431 Solar ArraysNASAAdded  2000-2009Truss StruureNASAAdded 2000-20095345UNITY (Node 1)NASAAdded  1998DESTINY LabNASAAdded  2001QUEST AirlockNASAAdded 2001Radiators (Heat rejeion subsy€em)NASAAdded 20006776NaukaRoscosmosTo be added 201988‘Zarya’ Funional Cargo Block RoscosmosAdded 1998‘Zveda’ Service ModuleRoscosmosAdded 2000910119Canadarm-2Canadian Space Agency Added 200110111213Columbus LabESA2008KIBO Lab (JEM)JAXAAdded  2008-200912HARMONY (Node 2)NASA20071325 m 025 mISS dismantling in 2024/ Fig.1061:1000147 148Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmAn all-out war for resources in space ensues—increasing the probability of the Kessler Syndrome. The Kessler syndrome is an increasingly likely scenario in which space junk crashes into a satellite, and thus produces more debris to become part of an ever-growing spiral that inevitably makes it almost impossible to safely launch into space or satellite orbit (Futurism, 2013).When the war finally ends in 2034, the clearing of space debris is made more complicated by Article 8 in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty which maintains the launching State’s jurisdiction over objects it has launched into orbit (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 1967). The Space War accelerates the violence and technological innovation between the three nations. Eventually, all three space stations are mutually destroyed.  By 2045, lower earth orbit is a minefield of weapons and surveillance technologies. The uneven terrain of the earth’s gravitational field makes the trajectories of space junk unpredictable and collisions occur—threatening remaining satellite infrastructures. An international coalition of humanitarian space workers are sent to disassemble floating weapons. Distinguishing the national origins of space junk heaps is a difficult and costly endeavor, and with public pressure brewing, aid workers decide to abandon the last vestiges of the 1967  treaty—permanently welding together space junk from various jurisdictions.Treaty Obje No.1Treaty Obje No.2 Treaty Obje No.3Treaty Obje No.4 Treaty Obje No.5 Treaty Obje No.6Treaty Obje No.8Treaty Obje No.94 m020 mISS post-war reassembly/ Fig.1071: 800149 150Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmIn an attempt to reestablish international cooperation in space, a new treaty designed to protect international infrastructures sends humanity’s most valuable artifacts into Lower Earth Orbit, where they will be preserved in dust-free space capsules and can be watched via live feeds from earth. Post-treaty Galleria dell’Accademia/ Fig.108nts151 152Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe 2037 Space Treaty uses as its model ‘The Spoils of War World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property’ Symposium which took place in New York City in 1995. Treaty Object no.1 live feed/ Fig.109nts153 154Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km Humanitarian space workers are selected to stay aboard the new stations in order to guard the works; and to continue to consolidate space junk to their objects as they travel through orbit—essentially becoming part aid worker, and part space prospector. GALLERIA DELL'ACCADEMIAFLORENCE, ITALY43°46'36.4"N, 11°15'32.3"E1 m05 mPlans of Michelangelo’s David in Treaty Object and Galleria dell’Accademia/ Fig.110155 156Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe value of space is thus made tangible through the displacement of a cultural object 408 km above the earth’s surface. With the object, humanity’s gaze is extended into space where it can monitor the decisions of governments and megacorporations.35 786 km18.7 m 0 m 0.5 m02.5 mSections of Michelangelo’s David/ Fig.1111:100157 158Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmSpace Treaty 2037 asks whether the displacement of culture from the Earths surface can work to highlight environmental loss or imbalances in power—and explores the role of architectural space—both suspended and grounded—in telling these stories.Aid worker in treaty object no. 1/ Fig.1121:250159 160Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmMichelangelo’s DavidSpace Aid WorkerFig. 113161 162Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km4[35 786 km AGL]Geostationary OrbitBlue Origin II2045 2050 2055 2060 20652045China commences conruion on the fir ace elevator. Billionaires immediately purchase remaining GSO slots.  2048Je Bezos dies at the age of 84, is cryogenically frozen,and placed into his GSO tomb with his movaluable possessions. 2051Space tourism opens for Je Bezos’ ark, and begins to colle tarisfrom touris.2059 Colonization on Mars of  proven viable. 2063 Bezos is unfrozenand travels to Mars.His ark detaches fromthe ace tether and  catapults into ace. 2065Global warming projeed to reach 3oC above pre-indurial levels. 1. 3.4.5.6.7.8.2.Fig. 114.164 165Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmThe fourth episode, Blue Origin II, investigates the flight of the rich and powerful from the Earth’s surface into interplanetary space. The Geostationary Orbital Belt is located approximately 36,000 km above ground level. This belt operates directly above the equator at the Earth’s speed and is ideal for telecommunications satellites as they do not have to rotate their antennae to communicate with Earth stations.  Operated by the International Telecommunications Union, the Geostationary Orbit is the most valuable real estate in the Earth’s orbital space—containing only 1800 available slots. Future space elevator anchors will also be positioned in GSO due to its geosynchronous position. Pictured here, are the Geostationary orbital slots divided by the number of billionaires from the world’s richest countries.USAUKSWGERRUSCHINAHGKGINDIAUAESAAFUSAUKSWITZERLANDGERMANYRUSSIACHINAHONG KONGINDIAUAESAUDI ARABIA0 km35,786  kmGeoationary Orbit Redistribution of GSO slots by billionaire/ Fig.115nts166 167Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmBruno Latour draws a direct link between the elite’s fascination with interplanetary travel and the dissemination of consumer culture and climate change denial. Blue Origin II represents the next phase in Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos’ luxury space company Blue Origin. It occurs in a future where anticipating the total destruction of the earth by climate change, billionaires (Bezos included)decide to cryogenically freeze themselves in geostationary orbit.Billionaires are already working to cure aging through ventures such as Alphabet’s billion dollar company, Calico. Cryogenic tombs in Geostationary orbit have two advantages: first: they will allow ageing billionaires to avoid orbital and environmental decay, and second: billionaires are able to monetize their space arks by using them as anchors for space elevators, collecting tariffs until the colonization of Mars is proven viable.SLOT #989CHARLES KOCHCOUNTRY OF ORIGIN: USANET WORTH: $51 BILLION USDD.O.F. 2021PLACE OF FREEZING: SCOTTSDALE, AZSEX: MALECOLOUR: WHITESLOT #988JEFF BEZOSCOUNTRY OF ORIGIN: USANET WORTH: $146.6 BILLION USDD.O.F. 2048PLACE OF FREEZING: MOSCOW, RUSSEX: MALECOLOUR: WHITESLOT #987LARRY PAGECOUNTRY OF ORIGIN: USANET WORTH: $53.9 BILLION USDD.O.F. 2053PLACE OF FREEZING: SUNNYVALE, CASEX: MALECOLOUR: WHITE“...the elites have been so thoroughly convinced that there will be no future life for eveyone that they have decided to get rid of all the burdens of solidarity as fast as possible- hence deregulation; they have decided that a sort of guilded fortress would have to be built for those (a small percentage) who would be able to make it through - hence the explosion of inequalities; and they have decided that, to conceal the crass selfishness of such a flight out of the shared world, they would have to reject absolutely the threat at the origin of this headlong flight - hence the denial of climate change.” Bruno Latour (p.18, 2017)Billionaire space elevator tombs/ Fig.116nts168 169Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmOne such geostationary tomb is Blue Origin II, an ode to Amazon’s geodesic spheres, Boulee’s cenotaph for Newton—and a shrine celebrating all things Bezos. “The disparity of wealth in the United States will create a “class of immortal overlords. Because I’m a billionaire, I’m going to have access to better healthcare so… I’m going to be, like, 160 and I’m going to be part of this class of immortal overlords.”-Sean Parker[Former Facebook President at Cancer Innovation Conference](Loudenback, 2017)x50Aual Size 35 786 km30 m50 m 0250 mSection through Blue Origin II/ Fig.1161:10 000170 171Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmEach satellite chamber reflects the most innovative headquarters of each billionaire on Earth so that private citizens accessing space can appreciate shrines to the Earth’s largest industries. Bezos’ tomb is anchored at the monument to the middle of the earth in Ecuador. Sitting directly above, his golden head splits the northern and southern hemispheres. “Blue Origin believes that in order to preserve Earth, our home, for our grandchildren’s grandchildren, we must go to space to tap its unlimited resources and energy.”-Blue Origin Website, 2019Space tourist view of Blue Origin II Interior/ Fig.118nts172 173Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmBezos’ golden head tomb is surrounded by a Californian eden of palm trees to remind space tourists of his silicon valley routes. His head, nature perfected in his own image, contains nutrients, weapons, and embryos to ensure his future success. His nostrils contain jet propulsion packs to aid in his imminent escape into interplanetary space. 1. CRYOGENIC CHAMBER 2. MUNITIONS STORAGE 3. VALUABLE BELONGINGS4. MISSION CONTROL 5. REPRODUCTIVE STORAGE 6. NUTRIENT TANK 7. AIR FILTER 8. PROJECTION MACHINE 9. ROCKET PROPULSION 10. FUEL STORAGE 1. 3.4.5.6.7.8.2.5 m 025 mSection through Blue Origin II Cryogenic Chamber Fig.1191:1000174 175Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmLike its predecessor, Blue Origin II believes in manufacturing new luxurious technonatures fit for billionaires. The technological elite deserve better than the spoiled and polluted planet Earth. MIDDLE OF THE WORLD MONUMENTQUITO, ECUADOR0.0022° S, 78.4558° WEQUATORIAL LINE [-0.0, -78.455834]Space Tether Location [northern hemihere][southern hemihere]0°EQUATORIAL LINE 0°x 10 magnification 100 m 0500 mPlan of Blue Origin II/ Fig.1201:20 000176 177Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmFig. 121Newton’s Cenotaph178 179Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 km180 181Above Ground Level: 18 km, 79 km, 408 km, 35 786 kmWorks CitedAaron, Bob. “Who owns air above our homes?” The Toronto Star 26 March 2005.Abramovitch, Yehuda. “The Maxim ‘Cujus Est Solum Ejus Usque Ad Coelum’ As Applied in Aviation.” McGill Law Journal (1962): 154-61.American Society of Planning Officials. Air rights. Information Report. Chicago, 1964. 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