Open Collections

UBC Graduate Research

Lost Wor(l)ds : The role of landscape architecture in Indigenous language revitalization Gagnon-Creeley, Michelle 2019-04-26

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata


42591-Gagnon-Creely_Michelle_LARC_598_Lost_worlds_2019.pdf [ 129.82MB ]
JSON: 42591-1.0378623.json
JSON-LD: 42591-1.0378623-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 42591-1.0378623-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 42591-1.0378623-rdf.json
Turtle: 42591-1.0378623-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 42591-1.0378623-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 42591-1.0378623-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Lost Wor(l)dsThe role of landscape architecture in Indigenous language revitalizationMichelle Gagnon-CreeleyInstructor: Susan HerringtonAdvisor: Cynthia GirlingExternal Advisors: Martin Lewis & Daniel RoehrApril 2019Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Master of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of British ColumbiaLost Wor(l)ds The role of landscape architecture in Indigenous language revitalizationMichelle Gagnon-CreeleyMLA Graduate Project 11University of British ColumbiaApril 2019ii iiiRelease FormLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaName: Michelle Gagnon-CreeleyUBC Student Number: Graduate Project Title:Lost Wor(l)ds: The role of landscape architecture in Indigenous language revitalization  In presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws.  DateSignatureNameAcknowledgmentsTo the Haida community, hawaa, thank you for sharing your stories and allowing me to do research on your land.To the Gagnon-Creeley-Delhaes-Adam families, for having faith in me even when I no longer had it in myself.To my beautiful classmates, for being my primary sources of laughter and hope. And a special thank you to Divine, Brendan, Shaheed, Benham & Erin for all of your help towards the end.To Daniel, Cynthia & Martin, for their unwavering support and guidance.To Stew, for being my rock.iv vAbstractThis graduate design project argues that language is spatial, and seeks to examine the relationship between language, place and local ecology. Specifically asking the question of how local environments can play a role in shaping language, ultimately influencing the speaker’s perception of space and environment. The rapid decline of Indigenous languages over the last 300 years due to colonization and industrialization has led to the loss of localized knowledge surrounding culture and ecology. As a response to this decline, many Indigenous communities are working to revive and sustain their languages. This research project investigates the possibility of landscape architecture being a vehicle for developing outdoor spaces conducive to language revitalization. The project will examine the endangered Haida language as an example of this phenomena and develop a proposal for how landscape architecture might be able to contribute to Haida Gwaii’s language revitalization viiTable of ContentsIntroduction   2   Personal Narrative   4   Problem Statement   6   Thesis Statement   8   Methodology    10   Projected Schedule   12   Winter Semester Timeline  13Discussion   14   Spatiality of Language   16   Language Loss    20   Landscapes of Identity   22Approaches   26   The Language Ecology   28   Landscape as Textbook   30   Intergenerational   34   The Act of “Doing”   38Site     44   “Islands at the Edge of the World” 46   “Islands of the People”   48   A Brief History of Haida Gwaii  50   The Visit    52   Where Haida is Taught   56 Stories    64   gina ‘waadluuxan gud kwaagid  70   nee kun (rose spit)   72   taaw (tow hill)    74   guuhlg̱a siiwaay (spirit lake)  76   hlg̱aa ḵ’aayhllna (balance rock)  78   jiidalda (building tumble down)  80   x̱anjuu gii (many travels)  94   final notes (to be continued)  102References   104Appendix   108List of FiguresFigure 1: Methodology         11Figure 2: Projected Schedule         12Figure 3: Winter Semester Work Plan        13Figure 4: Map of English names for places for Northern Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, BC   17Figure 5: Map of Haida names for places for Northern Graham Island, Haida Gwaii, BC    17Figure 7: A comparison of the English word “wave” and 9 of the 30 Haida words for wave   19Figure 8: Author’s interpretation of the forest, pre-learning a new language     23Figure 9: Author’s interpretation of the forest, pre-learning a new language     25Figure 10: Design Strategy         29Figure 11: A comparison of learning in a classroom setting vs. learning in the landscape    31Figure 12: Swan Bay Rediscovery Program        33Figure 13: Swan Bay Rediscovery Program        33Figure 14: Seljord and the Legends, Feste Landscape       37Figure 15: Seljord and the Legends, Feste Landscape       37Figure 16: Seljord and the Legends, Feste Landscape       37Figure 17: Edge of the Knife, Filming         41Figure 18: Edge of the Knife, Weaving        41Figure 19: Edge of the Knife, Teaching        41Figure 20: Confluence Project: Cape Disappointment, Maya Lin Studios, Fishing Basin being Used 43Figure 21: Confluence Project: Cape Disappointment, Maya Lin Studios, Landscape Integration   43Figure 22: Confluence Project: Cape Disappointment, Maya Lin Studios, Basalt Basin Details   43Figure 23: Haida Gwaii Context, aerial view, 1:3,000,000      46Figure 24: Haida Gwaii, aerial view, 1:1,500,000       48Figure 25: Timeline of Haida Gwaii        50Figure 26: Skidegate Haida Immersion Program       53Figure 27: Skidegate Haida Immersion Program Entrance      54Figure 28: Diigwaay, Haida Bingo        55Figure 29: Diagram, How language is taught       57Figure 30: Map, Where language is taught in Skidegate - Queen Charlotte City    58Figure 31: Where language is taught in Old Masset - Masset       60Figure 32: Harvest Chart, Ocean Food        63Figure 33: Landscapes & their stories        67Figure 34: The thread & the 6 stories        71Figure 35: Where language is taught, Haida Gwaii       72Figure 36: Model of the Archipelago of Haida Gwaii, CNC on Yellow Cedar     74 Figure 37: Artifacts from the archipelago        75Figure 38: Hiking Nee Kun         77Figure 39: Depiction of Raven & the First Men        77Figure 40: Reaching the end of Nee Kun        77 Figure 41: Top of Taaw         79 Figure 42: Pathway in the forest of Taaw        79 Figure 43: A moment of silence in the forest of Taaw       79 Figure 44: At the base of Taaw         79Figure 45: Forest along the Cape Fife trail        81Figure 46: Culturally modified tree along the Golden Spruce Trail      81Figure 47: Moss & mycellium along the Cape Fife Trail       81Figure 48: Balance Rock         83Figure 49: Skidegate in the late 1800s        85Figure 50: Skidegate in the late 1800s        86Figure 51: Traditional housing layout of Skidegate       89Figure 52: Current relationship of Haida housing to the ocean in Skidegate     89Figure 53: Construction diagram of wall take-down & re-use      89Figure 54: Site Plan, Skidegate Waterfront, 1:1000       90Figure 55: Perspective, Storytelling Circle at the Skidegate Waterfront, 1:50     92Figure 56: Section of the Haida Heritage Center       94Figure 57: Diagram of a typical Haida Canoe       95Figure 58: Site Plan, Haida Heritage Center        96Figure 59: Long Section of the canoe dock        98Figure 60: Canoe Dock, Plan         99Figure 61: Canoe Dock, Section         99Figure 62: Canoe Dock, Perspective        100 2 3One | Introduction4 5Personal NarrativeGrowing up in rural Quebec, the language I spoke was vital to how I maneuvered in the spaces around me. In Quebec, your identity is tied to the language you speak. The way you interact with the world and spaces you inhabit change dramatical-ly depending on your language—Anglophones tend to live in certain areas while Francophones live in others. I happened to be a hybrid—I was born and raised in both. My identity then, is entirely different from most. As a bilingual Quebecer, I was able to move and exist in between two completely different worlds. French and English flow through me like water. Both languages are me, I could not exist outside of them. On a daily basis my brain switches from one language to the next, and with each switch I see the world from a different perspective.When I first moved to Vancouver, I found it challenging to suddenly have one part of me almost be suppressed. I was no longer surrounded by French signs or husky Quebecois accents. One side of me was excited to be introduced to a non-hybrid English world, but a part of me has always felt missing here. For this reason, I began to examine language in relation to identity and understand-ing of space, and the repercussions of losing or suppressing languages. I cannot imagine a world in which I do not speak French and English, who I am would cease to be. I can only imagine what it feels like to be one of the last speakers of a language, knowing what that will mean for your community and generations to come. My last name is Gagnon-Creeley;My mother, Denise Gagnon, is French-Canadian.My father, Michael Creeley, is Irish.Two names,two languages,my existence lies in two worlds.These two languages flow through me,and speak of,my history,my ancestors,my home,my identity.Mon nom de famille est Gagnon-Creeley;Ma mère, Denise Gagnon, est québécoise.Mon père, Michael Creeley, est irlandais.Deux noms,deux langues,j’existe dans deux mondes.Les deux langues font partie de moi.Elles parlent,de mon histoire,mes ancêtres,ma patrie,mon identité.6 7Problem StatementWe communicate with others everyday using words that describe and shape the way we perceive the world. The languages we speak inform our identity and our understanding of home and place. Could you imagine if suddenly you were no longer permitted to speak that language? How would that affect you and your relationship to your space? What if the new language you are forced to speak can no longer aptly describe what you see, hear and understand?Indigenous languages are currently on the decline and as a response, the United Nations has declared 2019 the International Year of Indigenous Languages. The United Nations Permanent forum on Indigenous Languages have noted that “more than half of the world’s languages will become extinct by 2100” (2018, para. 2), with many of these being Indigenous languages. Canada has experienced a loss of Indigenous languages, due to assimilation practices under the Indian Act, with 88 Indigenous languages being listed by UNESCO as being endangered (2010, interactive map). Indigenous language revitalization has been an important area of focus to help empower communities and individuals within Canada and has been listed as a key step to reconciliation (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015, 2). Languages are inherently tied to identity and understanding of space (Muehlebach: 2001, Errington: 2003,  Guardado: 2010, Eastman: 1985, Tuan: 1991). Linguists and anthropologists alike are concerned about what this rapid loss of indigenous languages will mean to communities in terms of identity and traditional knowledge about culture, history and the environment. If this knowledge is lost, we risk losing vital information about how our world operates. “When you lose a language, you lose a culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art. It’s like dropping a bomb on the Louvre.”  Ken Hale (as quoted in Davis, 2009, 5)8 9Thesis StatementThis project examines the idea that language is spatial, and that Indigenous languages are embedded with knowledge about local environments which are essential to preserve. This idea derives from the term ecolinguistics, which argues that “language plays a crucial role in the acquisition, accumulation, maintenance, and transmission of human knowledge concerning the natural environment and ways of interacting with it” (Romaine, 2007, 129). If we continue to lose Indigenous languages, it is an indication that we are also losing biodiversity and “the survival of knowledge that may be of use in the conservation of the world’s ecosystems” (Romaine, 2007, 129).Considering that Indigenous languages are so integral to developing an understanding of a local environment and culture, landscape architects can play a role in developing outdoor language revitalization programs with communities. The acquired knowledge on spatial design and ecology gives landscape architects a unique opportunity to assist with the development of outdoor spaces within communities that could foster a learning environment for ecolanguages. This research asks the questions:1) How can the qualities of a landscape be amplified to become a conducive space for re-learning a language that is so deeply embedded in place? 2) In what ways can landscape architecture enable place-based learning and help in efforts to revitalize language?I would like to examine how language and oral histories might be taught outside of a classroom setting, and work with the Haida community in developing a space for learning and absorbing the Haida language. I hope that this project will serve as a case study for how Indigenous communities in Canada can reclaim their ancestral lands, and how landscape architects can collaborate to include Indigenous commu-nities in the design process. “A language, of course, is not merely a set of grammatical rules or a vocabulary. It is a flash of the human spirit,the vehicle by which the soul of each particular culture comes into the material world. Every language is an old-growth forest of the mind, a watershed of thought, an ecosystem of spiritual possibilities.” (Davis, 2009, 3)10 11MethodologyThis research is split into four areas of investigation; the spatiality of language, landscapes of identity & memory, language revitalization, and finally the examination of one site in particular—the archipelago of Haida Gwaii.  The spatiality of language will be examined through the notion of ecolinguistics and its relation to biocultural diversity and the ethnosphere, followed by an analysis of why Indigenous languages are dying and the repercussions of this in terms of localized knowledge and identity. Finally, there will be a synthesis of current theories on the best practices of revitalization, in the hopes of developing an idea of how landscape architecture might be involved. The archipelago of Haida Gwaii (X̱aayda gwaay) will then be examined as an example of Canadian Indigenous land whose language, Haida (X̱aad kil), is endangered and is currently undergoing revitalization efforts. These areas of study, while first viewed separately, will have many intersections between one another, which will eventually inform a final design project. This design project will examine where language revitalization may be suited in the outdoor realm. More specifically I would like to work with the Haida community in developing a space or spaces for learning and absorbing the Haida language. I hope that this project will serve as a case study for how Indigenous communities can reclaim their ancestral lands, and how landscape architects can collaborate to include Indigenous communities in the design process.I have chosen Haida Gwaii as my site for multiple reasons. The first is that it is a community within Canada that is actively fighting against colonization; from fighting the extensive logging of sacred areas, to taking over the management of their ancient villages, to successfully renaming their land in the Haida language (it was named the Queen Charlotte Islands when Europeans discovered the land). Haida Gwaii is in a distinct situation in which it is an “isolated” language group—which means that linguists are unable to relate Haida to any other language in the world, it exists on its own. The language is endangered, with only 40 fluent speakers, most of whom are elders (Kaawaas & Bell, 2011). There has been an active effort to revitalize the language, through the development of dictionaries done through the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program which seeks to record speakers and catalogue as many words and conversations as possible. The language is also beginning to be taught in primary and secondary schools on the island, but there remains a gap in the community (mid-20s and baby boomers) who have not had access to learning the language but are be-ginning to do so. Here, I see the potential for developing a series of sites where language can be taught and learned in outdoor settings.  The overall research strategy is that of logical argumentation, as theories are being defined and relationships are being made between these theories. This strategy will be achieved firstly and primarily through a literature review. During the time of site analysis, ethnographic research will take place in the form of in-depth interviews. On-site interviews in Haida Gwaii with Haida elders involved in language revitalization efforts will be conducted to further understand the site and the spatiality of language and place in the Haida setting. Specific sites will be identified while conducting on-site interviews, as there will be questions regarding spaces within the communities or the islands at large that are of socio-cultural significance. I imagine that there will be a series of small-scale and large-scale sites to work with in the final design proj-ect. Once these sites have been identified I will catalogue these areas through photography and sketching. One Project BriefandandThree SiteIntroductionMethodologyProblem Statement Thesis Statement Two MethodologyLiterature ReviewDiscussionSpatiality of Language Language Loss RevitalizationLandscape as LanguageEcolinguisticsEthnosphereLandscapes of MemoryLandscapes of IdentityPlace-Based LearningLanguage PedagogySite ContextSite VisitHistory of Haida GwaiiHaida Language (Loss & Revival)andFour Design StrategiesInterpretive Strategy Site AnalysisInterviews Annotated SketchingPhotographySHIP & Xaay Kil Office Haida Gwaii School DistrictOn Teaching HaidaOn Teaching SpacesSignificant Haida SpacesPrecedent AnalysisVision SummaryandFive Design InterventionConceptual DesignDetail DesignFinal PresentationFinal BookletFigure 1:  Methodology12 13Projected Schedule Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.ProposalProject GoalsResearchLiterature ReviewEthics ProposalInterviewsSite AnalysisPrecedent AnalysisDesign ObjectivesDesign StrategiesConceptual DesignFinal Design January   Week 1: Introduction     Complete GP 1 Booklet    Week 2: Charrette     Complete GP 1 Booklet,            Schedule Interview Times    Week 3: Flock Crit     Site Mapping,            Language-Place-Activity Analysis,           Interview/Visit Prep    Week 4: Flock Crit     Site Visit to Haida Gwaii           Interview TranscriptionFebruary   Week 5        Transcription           Synthesis of Visit           Site Selection &            Analysis of Community-Identified Sites    Week 6: Flock Crit     Set Design Strategies & Program           Schematic Design    Week 7: Silent Review     Draft Plans, Sections & Perspectives    Week 8: Reading Week     Draft Plans, Sections & PerspectivesMarch   Week 9: Mid-Term Review    Draft Detail Drawings      Week 10       Refine Draft Plans, Sections, Perspectives    Week 11       Presentation Layout / Storyboarding           Modelling    Week 12: Flock CritApril    Week 13: Substantial Review    Week 14    Week 15: Final Review    Week 16: Booklets DueMay    Week Not Determined     Present to the Council of the Haida NationWinter Semester Work Plan 14 15Two | Discussion16 17On the Spatiality of LanguageIn their most basic form, languages serve to communicate between individuals, communities, plants, animals, organisms. Languages evolve with time, with each language revealing the complexities of history and society. While it is common-place to connect language to the evolution of a culture or society, its connection to ecology and space have seldomly been examined.  To a certain extent, all languages in some sort derive from their local environ-ments—and it can even be argued that the landscape was the original language for all humans as they were “the first human texts, read before the invention of other signs and symbols” (Spirn, 1998, 15). It is through interpreting the landscape that we learned how to survive and dwell in nature. And it is from there that words developed around direction, movement and descriptors (Spirn, 1998, p. 15). Most languages, especially those that would be characterized as Indigenous languag-es, continue to have strong ties to the land from which they derive. The words, sentences and way of speaking work to describe the intricacies of their world in ways that cannot be translated to any other language as the meaning and context will be lost. There is a disconnect of this phenomenon when we look at languages that have been far removed from their origins—with colonial languages such as English, French or Spanish being a prime example of this. Today English is considered to be the “universal” language—where you could travel to any part of the world and some form of communication can be conducted in English (Romaine, 2007, 119). But despite this accessibility to the language, not everything is necessarily translatable—especially when we speak to spatial descriptions of specific cultures or spaces.  Harrison writes, “what people pay attention to in the world, and what they name in the landscape, may be deeply influenced by the language they speak” (2007, 113).For instance, the Spanish and the English came upon the archipelago of Haida Gwaii in 1774 and 1778 respectively. Upon their arrival, English settlers set about renaming the islands to their language, and this meant either mis-translating what locals were saying in Haida, or simply renaming places after prominent English people of that time. As such, Haida Gwaii was known up until 2010 as the Queen Charlotte Islands. There is a huge discrepancy between the settler names (Figure 4) and their original names (Figure 5) in which entire meanings and understandings of place were lost in English. The Haida names for local spaces reflect where food grows or is sourced or places that hold important cultural meaning in their oral history. Comparatively, the English names in the same areas lack context entirely, negating any of the knowledge that was embedded in the Haida names. The English words that came instead embodied the colonial nature of the culture, in which places were renamed to either reference places that were familiar in England, or to reference notable British people of the time.  Ja.a xiii xyaangKwiid‘LaanasMaaganXu’aduusHlgihlaa ‘aalaaK’aal T’awts’iiXuuya Gandlaa6K’aanuuwaasXuuyaTluu GuhlanaaGaahllns Kun‘Waan KunKamdisNee Duu‘WaadanSgang.anTsaawanTsaawan KunTlaga GaawtlaasK’aayanglits’aawGad GaywaasGaaw KunTaas Kadlee2Talaasdawee1Yaagunn KunSgidliiHl’yaalangTaaw sdalee3Kadll duugasXyaangsyaan5Siigaay3 Nee KunHl’yaalangGaahll SgaagasGaawGaaw KaahliiKwiid SiiwaayJuuxiigandaaNee taas kadlee42  Sand Reef4  Grease Hill1  Way out Here5  Sand House Reef6  Flowing Across7  Raven’s RiverFigure 4: Haida Names of Northern Graham Island,  Haida GwaiiAdapted from the Council of the Haida Nation’s Ocean & Way of Life Map.The map was produced with Haida elders who went on a 2 week boating excursion in which they navigated the entire Haida Gwaii coast and recorded the Haida names for each place. These names are only a fraction of what was recorded.Tlldas3  Open Water   Historical SettlementJuuxiigandaaNee taas kadleeArgonaut HillMasset1Old MassetYakun PointHiellenNagdon HillDixon Entrance2Rose Spit3Hiellen RiverHecate Strait5Masset InletNorth BeachEast Beach2  Named after Captain George Dixon, who was the one who named the Queen Charlotte Islands after his vessel, the “Queen Charlotte”.3  Named after George Rose, a 17th century British MP, who was close friends with William Pitt, the then-Prime-Minister of Britain. McIntyre BayPort Clements4Drizzle LakePure LakeGraham Island61  While Masset is a Haida word, it refers to the general area in the north. The correct name for this area in Haida is Uttewas.4  Named after Captain George Henry Richards’ ship, the HMS Hecate.5  Named after Herb Clements, a local Canadian Member of Parliament who gave the community a wharf for naming the town after him.6  Named after Sir James Graham, 2nd Baronet, an 19th century British politician who oversaw the Royal Navy.Figure 5: English Names of Northern Graham Island,  Haida GwaiiInformation retrieved from the government of British Columbia’s Geographical Names Office 18 19EcolinguisticsThis relationship between space and language has been referred to by linguists as ecolinguistics. Most notably studied by Suzanne Romaine and Daniel Nettle, ecolinguistics refers to the relationship between languages and space, and how this shapes individual and communal perceptions of how the world works. Ecolinguis-tics also examines the relationship between how humans understand and treat the natural world; the farther removed from its origins, the more likely a language will lack context, an understanding and an appreciation of the natural world (Stibbe, 2015, 2).   As Stibbe writes, “it is through language that the natural world is men-tally reduced to objects or resources to be conquered, and it is through language that people can be encouraged to respect and care for the systems that support life” (2015, 2). For instance, languages such as English, French or Spanish are languag-es that derive from countries who colonized other lands far away from their ori-gins. While certain aspects of these colonizing languages may have adapted to the new land, the original meanings of certain words cannot capture the importance or meaning of the new spaces that they inhabit, leading to a disconnect with local knowledge. As such, examples of ecolinguistics are more predominant when looking at Indigenous languages. The word Indigenous can be defined as being so entrenched in a space “that you reflect its very entrails, its soul” (Cajete, 1994, 87). Ecolanguages are “highly adapted to their environments” (Romaine & Nettle, 2000, 44). Each language acts as an “interpreter” and the “collective memory” for a community, in which words and sounds are used to describe the importance of the land’s plants, animals and land forms (Harrison, 2007, 102). These words are specific to one place, one piece of land, one history, one environment. While some might be easily translatable to other languages, other words may lose their meaning entirely (Figure 3). When placed outside of the land from which they de-rive, some languages may no longer hold the same meaning. For instance, the Haida language has 30 distinct words to describe types of waves (Porter, 2017), while the English language has the one word—wave. This infers how the Haida have a very strong understanding of their local environment, especially in the context of marine life. The ocean was fundamental to the community’s worldview and as such, the language used to describe the marine life was extremely rich. These words cannot be translated or understood in the same way in English where we need to use entire sentences to describe the same experiences, connotations and meanings.It is for this reason that Indigenous language preservation is so important. Languages provide an “inventory of the items a culture talks about and has categorized in order to make sense of the world and to survive in a local ecosystem” (Romaine & Nettle, 2000, 60). Without this inventory, without these words, entire ecosystems become misunderstood and mismanaged. As we lose linguistic diversity, we also risklosing biodiversity (Romaine, 2007, 127; Maffi & Woodley, 2010, 11). As Indigenous languages are lost, local knowledge and a deeply embedded under-standing of place is lost. taayda.lagaadhlaluuwaay glaayiitl'aat'axung xuudgaayuuwahskiigaluu 'yuu dalaguungxagangtidal wavewave crashing against rockwavesplashing from wavesbig wavesshort breaking wavessplashing waves on beachcalm waveswavewaves smoking up Figure 7:  A comparison of the English word “wave” and 9 of the 30 Haida words for wave20 21On Language Loss Indigenous languages are declining at a rapid rate and make up the vast majority of linguistic diversity in the world (Romaine, 2007, 115). Roughly 80% of the world population speaks only 75 languages while the other 20% speak the other 6800known languages (Romaine, 2007, 118). It is estimated that roughly 60% to 90% of these languages will become extinct in the next 100 years (Romaine, 2007, 115) and that “the last speakers of probably half the world’s languages are alive today” (Romaine, 2007, 116). Linguists have noted a number of reasons for why this is happening, but the most prominent reasons are that of colonialism and globaliza-tion. As Europeans colonized other countries, colonial languages were forced onto communities as a tool of power and assimilation. As a defense mechanism, communities began hiding the language from the colonizers or would stop speaking it all together (Romaine & Nettle, 2000, 6). Further, as the industrial revolution began and people began to move to more urbanized areas in search of better economic conditions, individuals found more use in learning the more predominant or colonial language commonly used in the city rather than maintaining their native language (Maffi & Woodley, 2010, 4).  Within Canada, language loss has occurred with every Indigenous community. It is estimated that roughly 300 languages existed in North America pre-European contact, and that 170 exist today (Bringhurst, 2002, 10). Statistics Canada notes that there are over 60 Indigenous languages being spoken in Canadian homes today (2018). This loss can be entirely attributed to colonial practices of assimilation, in which Indigenous languages were vilified and Indigenous communities were forced to learn English. More specifically, the Indian Act introduced in the late 1800s was a tool for the Canadian government to exert power over Indigenous communities throughout Canada, in the hopes of eliminating their cultures entirely and have them integrate into Euro-Canadian ideals. The Indian Act used measures such as implementing the residential school system, re-naming individuals to have European names, forbidding traditional ceremonies, and the forbidding of speaking their native language (Joseph, 2015). The repercussions of this Act can be felt today and large parts of the Indian Act itself continues to exist and govern Canadian Indigenous communities.“We are speaking about a waterfall of destruction unprecedented in the history of our species. In our lifetime half of the voices of humanity are being silenced.” (Davis, 2009, 166)22 23Languages are integral to both an individual and collective identity. When languages die, so do the stories, traditions and information that were embedded in its words. We lose a unique perception of how the world operates--each language carries a specific meaning and context that when translated, “its complexity and richness of expression” risks being lost entirely (Romaine & Nettle, 2000, 12).  As languages die, entire histories die with them. Thousands of generations of history about how to properly manage and care for local environments are lost, and as a collective we lose sight of the meanings and importance of these spaces. As Dr. Gregory Cajete writes, “language is a reflection of how we organize and perceive the every language there are key words, phrases and metaphors that act as sign posts to the way we think about the world and ourselves.” (1994, 45).If languages are so inherently tied to a person’s understanding of space, it can be implied that a loss of a language would lead to a loss of understanding or attachment to the space from which the language originates, and by proxy a loss or misunderstanding of their identity. Words and language play a fundamental role in maintaining a sense of place as each lexicon speaks to myths and legends and of what can be interpreted in the landscape (Tuan, 1991, 691). Without the words to articulate it, the socio-cultural meanings behind land forms, flora and fauna become lost. “Landscapes are literature in the broadest sense”, in which each or-ganism has a story attached to it (Spirn, 1998, 48). In many Indigenous languages, the story of the life of a tree or flower is just as important as the story of a human’s life. It is this deeply rooted history that allows communities to feel attached to the natural world and the space as a whole (Spirn, 1998, 160). From a personal standpoint, this notion of connecting to place when you are exposed to a new language completely resonates with me. Prior to entering the landscape architecture program at UBC, I knew very little about plants. Walking through the forest was one big blur of green and brown, a beautiful blur, but a blur nonetheless. As I began to learn about the names and functions of trees and shrubs at school, the forest started to become much clearer. Individual trees and plants became immediately recognizable—I was becoming literate in forest knowledge. The unfamiliar became familiar because I could now see and understand the uniqueness of leaves, bark, moss and mushrooms. Through this new knowledge I then began to understand the relationships from one living thing to another. I had learned a new language, and I could read a new text and decipher individual elements of the world around me. On Landscapes of IdentityFigure 8: Author’s interpretation of the forest, before learning distinct names & understandings of ecosystems24 25One of the very specific types of knowledge that is lost when languages fade is local knowledge of flora and fauna, or rather “folk taxonomies” (Harrison, 2007, 48). Folk taxonomy is the naming of flora and fauna specific to one local environment, and the name often has larger cultural or historical connotations. Embedded in one word there can be references to a myth, a history or information about how to care or cultivate for the referenced living being. Unlike Western scientific taxonomy, there is something much more personal to this kind of naming system, in which each word provides more insight into the culture at large. As Tuan writes, “naming is power—the creative power to call something into being, to render the invisible visible, to impart a certain character to things” (1991, 688). For groups who were not nomadic, these words have often developed or evolved through thousands of years of observation of one specific place, allowing for a truly “sophisticated” definition of the intricacies of a local environment (Harrison, 2007, 48). Often these words will also reference the relationships between different living beings (Harrison, 2007, 48). If words such as these are lost and replaced with words from languages that are far-removed and unrelated to the land, this has large implications on how a community or individual relates to their land. It creates a system in which it is more difficult to feel attached to the environment around them. In many Indigenous languages, the relationship to the natural world is explicit. Language is where “the land itself is breathed into being by human consciousness” (Davis, 2009, 124). If these words and understandings about the connection between different living beings are lost in translation, eco-linguists warn that there will be issues in the future especially regarding the local environmental management of these spaces, as the negation of the language could lead to a misunderstanding of the implicated ecologies (Romaine & Nettle, 2000, 51). At an individual level, there is concern that a loss of language could lead to “psychological and physical maladies” as for many Indigenous communities, the loss of language and sense of place essentially feels as though they are losing their soul (Cajete, 1994, 85). Observing the effects of the forced removal of Indigenous languages on North American communities, Cajete notes that “they withered like mountain flowers pulled from their mother soil” (1994, 85).An important aspect of the relationship between language and space is that of transmission. Many Indigenous communities have an oral culture, in which language is transmitted primarily through storytelling and communication with one another. The language and words are preserved in speech and through the act of refining and retelling stories from generation to generation. The word is the photograph, the journal entry, the map. Without speech or as Cajete refers to it “the breath” (1994, 42), language cannot remain alive and in a way the liveliness of a space ceases to exist in the same way that it did. This process of storytelling is also a way to socialize and ensure that all community members feel like they are a part of something, further bolstering “a people’s bond to place” (Tuan, 1991, 686).Figure 9: Author’s interpretation of the forest, after learning distinct names & understandings of ecosystems26 27Three | Approach28 29Inter-Generational TransmissionPlace-Based LearningLearning through “Doing”The Language Ecology  The language revitalization movement has been at the forefront of strategies to empower Indigenous communities and individuals. Revitalization efforts predom-inantly take the form of cataloging audio recordings and written transcriptions of the languages. While this is important, linguists and educators alike argue that these actions are important but risk seeing the languages as “artifacts” rather than living entities (Romaine, 2007, 126). What has been encouraged as a more effec-tive strategy instead is focusing on the transmission of the language within the communities from which they originate. The reason for this is that the language is essentially non-existent if no one is speaking it. Therefore, linguists believe that the focus should be on designing “language ecologies”, an idea that revolves around reinforcing the community’s “social environment and domains in which a language is used” (Romaine, 2007, 126). So, what does a healthy “language ecology” look like? Linguists and educators alike agree that language revitalization is most effective when it is taught:1) Within the place from which the language is based2) Through “intergenerational transmission” (Romaine, 2007, 122)3) Through “doing” (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006, 36)Figure 10: Design Strategy30 31Landscape as “Textbook”One of the principle strategies behind Indigenous education is the idea of using the landscape as “textbook” (Cajete, 1994, 91) where students are immersed in landscape. This kind of immersion connects a tribe to their place, “establishing their relationship to the land and the earth in their minds and hearts” (Cajete, 1994, 39). This idea is especially conducive when learning a new language, especially languages that are inherently tied to the natural world. An indoor classroom setting cannot allow for the words to come to life and make sense in the same way as experiencing the words outdoors (Figure 11). As we have discussed earlier, languages are vibrant and alive and adapt to specific contexts—languages cannot exist in the confinement of four walls. tlldagaaw tlldagaawklaagii klaagii hlk' inxahlk' inxaFigure 11: A comparison of learning in a classroom setting vs. learning in the landscape32 33Rediscovery ProgramThom HenleyLocationThe Rediscovery Program takes place in two camps on Haida Gwaii, ‘Laanaa DaaGang.nga (Swan Bay) in the South, and T’aalan Stl’ang (Lepas Bay) in the North. ContextIn the 1970s, there was a crisis among the youth of Haida Gwaii—who were dealing with substance abuse and violence. The community, with Thom Henley spearheading the project, started the Rediscovery Program. Indigenous and non-indigenous youth in the community were invited to T’aalan Stl’ang to develop relationships with nature that in turn would bolster feelings of self-worth and community amongst the youth. The program still exists today and has expanded to two sites on Haida Gwaii and 21 other sites in the province of British Columbia.ConceptThe sites are completely remote and have been built for stays that last 10-14 days. The camping sites are in the style of traditional Haida architecture (Figure 12). The site is quite basic to ensure that youth spend most of their time outdoors to encourage them “to notice their surroundings, and to become involved in the world around them” (Henley, 1989, 28). The activities range from making meals together to gathering food and hiking (Henley, 1989, 37). I am drawn to two ideas behind this program—the first being the idea of com-plete immersion in nature, free from distraction. This isolation from the rest of the world forces participants to be truly immersed and notice the nature around them. I also really appreciate how the program was developed with the community—most predominantly the Haida elders. This transmission of knowledge and learn-ing allowed for the entire community to be involved in the process and developed relationships between the youth and Elders that transcended the program (Henley, 1989, 34). The elders also advised on the types of activities and where specifically the activities should take space. In the design phase of this project I hope to consult community members is this regard, to determine suitable spaces to teach the language outdoors within and outside of the towns.  Figure 12: Swan Bay Rediscovery for Coast Funds, n.d., 13: Rediscovery Foundation, n.d., Design QualitiesConnection to LandImmersionSense of Community34 35Intergenerational Transmission An important aspect to teaching language is creating spaces that foster relationships between different generations. In Indigenous communities, elder input is vital as they are the generation within the community that carry the group’s memories, history and language. Romaine argues that the single-most effective way to ensure that a language lives, is through the transmission of knowledge between generations (Romaine, 2007, 122). How this might look may vary for any community, but this is an extremely important design consideration. How can a design be suitable and accommodate all generations?36 37Seljord and the LegendsFeste Landscape & Rintala Eggertsson ArchitectsLocationSeljord is a municipality East of Oslo, which is known for “rich oral tradition that is still very much alive”(Feste Landscape, n.d.). The design takes place along Seljord Lake.ContextIn 2008 the municipality was looking to revitalize tourism and development and wanted to highlight the legends and myths of the land. Seljord Lake has a vast oral history about a serpent living in the lake, where Feste describes the site as the place of“Seljord’s identity and soul” (Feste Landscape, n.d.). Throughout the years people say they have seen the serpent, even going so far as to provide their personal information and specific dates/times/locations to corroborate their stories. Feste Landscape describes this site as being significant not only for its natural beauty but for the embedded stories and tales and wanted to highlight this in their design.Concept “…a landscape of tales and legends.” (Feste Landscape, n.d.) The design includes an accessible trail, art installations and spaces that frame or give aerial views of the site. Rintala Eggertsson Architects designed the lookout spaces, while Feste designed the trails and art installations that tell stories of the myths on the site. The trails themselves are flat but quite winding, inviting the user to take their time and appreciate each element of the path. The paths are slightly above ground at times or are sometimes at the same level as the ground. The use of toned-down, natural colours and materials allow for the designs to blend and for the natural landscape to be highlighted.What I love about this project is that it highlights the natural & mythical landscape without dominating the scenery. The design moves are subtle and beautiful, leav-ing room for the user to become a wanderer. The site is also close enough to the town which allows for easy accessibility to all community members. There are a lot of opportunities for people to sit, and take the route slowly, which I think is very important for creating a space that accommodates all age groups. Figure 14: Feste Landscape. (n.d). Seljord and the legends. Retrieved from 15: Feste Landscape. (n.d). Seljord and the legends. Retrieved from 16: Feste Landscape. (n.d). Seljord and the legends. Retrieved from into Landscape  AccessibilityStorytellingDesired Design QualitiesComfort38 39The Act of “Doing” One of the unanimous concepts of ensuring language revitalization in communities is the idea of aligning language learning to specific activities (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006, 36). The physical act of doing something allows for students, young and old, to absorb the language better and to understand how the language can be applied to their everyday life. This way of teaching is already used in many indigenous communities but is still not as widely accepted in schooling and teaching systems, which still tend to refer to Westernized ideals of teaching in a classroom setting (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006, 37; (Cajete, 1994, 33).Cajete writes how it was through “day-to-day life experiences” that individuals would learn about traditions and languages and argues that we should continue to foster this kind of learning environment (Cajete, 1994, 33). In the context of ecolanguages which are so inherently tied to the land, it can be inferred that the teaching of the language would be well suited in an outdoor setting that had traditional activities tied to it. 40 41Edge of the Knife FilmCouncil of the Haida Nation, UBC School of Community & Regional PlanningContextIn 2012 the UBC School of Community and Regional Planning assisted in the creation of a Comprehensive Community Plan with the Council of the Haida Nation. One of the biggest priorities highlighted among community members was the need to revitalize the Haida language. There was also a strong need for job creation within the archipelago. This is where the idea of using “film as a catalyst” to both help revitalize the language and create new jobs came to fruition (Sander-cock, Moraes & Frantz, 2017, 656).ConceptBy viewing the film as a part of the community’s planning process, the film’s production thus implicated the entire community. From set design (Image 2) to direction, the community was fully involved in the production of the film. There was particular input by the community regarding the theme and script writing for the film.The community was first asked to submit ideas for Haida stories that they would like to see in a film. From there, workshops for writing scrips were provided in both Skidegate and Masset which preceded a script writing contest. The winners then worked with Dr. Leonie Sandercock and elders from both villages to develop a full script, which was then entirely translated by the elders. Community mem-bers were then cast for the roles—all of which were untrained actors who could not speak Haida. A two-week intensive language camp took place with the cast members and elders who are involved in teaching Haida on the island (Image 3). There are two concepts that I am drawn to as I move to the design phase of my project—intergenerational collaboration and the importance of local involvement in every step of the process. It is essential that whatever I design for the community uses materials that can be locally sourced, and that community members can play a role in both its design, construction and maintenance. Figure 17: Glen Kugelstadt for CBC News, Nov. 2, 2017, 18: Ruth Fremson for the New York Times, Jun. 11, 2017, 19: Ruth Fremson for the New York Times, Jun. 11, 2017, ResourcesCommunity EngagementDesired Design Qualities42 43LocationCape Disappointment State Park is locat-ed where the Columbia River ends and the Pacific Ocean meets and is on Kathlamet (Chinook) territory. Maya Lin’s installation takes place in a small portion of the site, near Waikiki Beach.Context The Confluence Project is a series of 7 land art installations that take place along the Co-lumbia River, which is the divider between Oregon and Washington. It was also the main passage route for Lewis and Clark, 2 explor-ers who in 1806 successfully attempted to find a water route from St-Louis, MI to the Pacific Ocean. This project wanted to high-light the history of the expedition, the history of the land and the First Nations communi-ties who inhabit it, while also “giving visi-tors an immediate and powerful connection back to the land” (Maya Lin Studios, n.d.).Maya Lin Studios’ art installations span 15, 000 acres aligning the Columbia River, each connecting to history, culture and environ-ment. Of these land art installations, the one that is most prominent and most pertinent to my study is the series of installations at Cape Disappointment State Park. Cape Dis-appointment Park was the final point in the Lewis & Clark Expedition, as it is here that they reached the Pacific Ocean. ConceptMaya Lin Studio created a series of func-tional art pieces that highlight the history and ecology of the site—including a trail, a boardwalk, the cedar circle, a fish-cleaning table and a viewing platform. Within each of these elements there are passages inscribed into pathways from either the expedition or from Chinook traditional songs. The part of the design which I find most fas-cinating and most pertinent is the fish-clean-ing table. The table is made of basalt and in-scribed with a Chinook story that “tells the story of the interdependence of the Chinook people and the Columbia River’s salmon” (Confluence Project, n.d.). The table also in-cludes a basin and a hose for cleaning. It is a piece of art that also integrates contempo-rary and historical First Nations culture and is sensitive to the location.Maya Lin’s design feels sensitive to the com-munities involved and are simple in design. There has been some critique particularly in First Nations publications, who feel that there could have been more done to include the First Nations communities throughout the project as a whole (Daehnke, 2012). That being said, I think there is value in the idea of designing spaces as small as a fishing basin that can be functional and tell a story at the same time.  Confluence Project: Cape Disappointment State ParkMaya Lin StudiosImage 1: Andrew Brahe for PDX Monthly, May 19, 2009, 2: Maya Lin Studios, Confluence Project, n.d., 3: Nansen Malin for Seaview Life, February 16, 2015, MaterialsIntegrated into LandscapeFunctional DesignDesired Design Qualities44 45Four | Site46 47“The Islands at the Edge of the World”The archipelago of Haida Gwaii is the agglomeration of up to 150 islands in Northern British Columbia. So north, that on a clear day you can see Alaska from Rose Spit, Haida Gwaii’s northernmost point. So west, that the next closest piece of land would be Japan. The islands are completely remote from the rest of the world. If you were trying to get there from Vancouver, you either need to drive 17 hours to Prince Rupert and take an 8-hour ferry ride, or you can take a daily plane from YVR airport.  Name a direction on the island, and each is completely unique from the other. The west is known as being rocky and rugged, and fairly difficult to access by land and water. As the islands lie along the continental shelf, it means that the waves can be at one moment completely calm, and in the next moment extremely tumultuous. The landscape on the west coast of Haida Gwaii is completely different from the other parts with deep fjords and steep mountains known as the Queen Charlotte mountain range. The South, particularly Moresby Island (the second largest island of the archipelago), also has its share of mountains, fjords and lush old growth forests. Much of this land is preserved as national park land, with a number of abandoned villages nestled along the shoreline. Known as the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, the land is protected by the Canadian government but guarded by the Haida. Watchmen live months at a time on the land and ensure that the land is properly cared for (Parks Canada, 2018). The North, also known as Graham Island, is where most people inhabit. Graham Island is the largest island of the archipelago. The major highway known as Highway 16 connects 6 of the 7 towns on the islands, namely Old Masset, Masset, Port Clements and Tlell in the North as well as Skidegate and Queen Charlotte City in the South. The East is known for being much flatter than the rest. With many beaches, sand dunes and bogs, this part of the islands contrasts significantly to the rugged mountains and lush forests of the rest. This area is particularly known for Naikoon Provincial Park which makes up the majority of the Eastern site. Within Naikoon Park lies Tow Hill and Rose Spit which hold important spiritual significance to the community. The latter, is where the Dixon Entrance and Hecate Straight meet, and where the origin story of the Haida (Raven and the First Men) is said to have taken place. Xaayda Gwaay Haida Gwaiicəsna  əm VancouverCoast Salish, Nuu-chah-nulth, Kwakwaka’wakw TerritoryVancouver IslandKaien Prince RupertAani AlaskaSiigaay Dixon EntranceTang.Gwan Pacific OceanSiigaay Hecate Strait1: 3, 000, 000 Satellite imagery retrieved from Earthstar SIO?48 49GaauuOld Masset / MassetHlGaagilda SkidegateK’il LlnagaaySandspitDaajing.giids Queen Charlotte CityTl’laal Llnagaay TlellGaauu Kaahlii Masset InletGaauu Kaahlii Llnagaay Port ClementsGwaii Haanas National Park“Islands of the People”As mentioned previously, the islands were known until 2010 as the Queen Charlotte Islands, named after the HMS Queen Charlotte, which was the first British ship to come upon the archipelago. The ship was named after the sovereign queen of the time, Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz who was married to King George III, neither of whom visited the islands. Renamed on June 10th, 2010 to Haida Gwaii which translates to “Islands of the People”, this move was monumental for the community. It was a symbolic act of reclaiming the land and their language. The original inhabitants of the islands are the Haida, who today make up roughly half of the population on the islands (Statistics Canada, 2018). The islands were once home to nearly 300 villages, but due to assimilation policies and European diseases, today there are two reservations on the islands; Skidegate and Old Masset. While both have their own village councils and individual organizations for events, education and governance, both work under the umbrella of the Council of the Haida Nation. Established in 1973, the Council of the Haida Nation is the main governing body of the islands and the water surrounding the islands.   The two official languages under the Haida Nation are English and Haida language, also written as X̱aad kil or X̱aayda Kil. Haida is considered to be an isolate language as linguists cannot trace the language to any other language that exists. The language is also endangered, with only 40 fluent speakers, most of whom are elders (Kaawaas & Bell, 2011). Revitalization of Haida is considered to be one of the priorities of the Nation (Council of the Haida Nation, 2018), and they are actively supporting community organizations such as the Skidegated Haida Immersion Program and the Old Masset X̱aad kil Office.1: 1, 500, 000 Satellite imagery retrieved from Earthstar SIOFerry route to Prince RupertNee KunRose SpitSiigaay Dixon EntranceTang.Gwan Pacific OceanSiigaay Hecate Strait50 51A Brief History of the HaidaThe history of the Haida goes in tandem with the evolution of the Haida language. As such, this timeline examines how historical events have affected language and vice versa.25, 000 to 30, 000 (Sandercock, Moraes & Frantz, 2017, 656)580 (Sandercock, Moraes & Frantz, 2017, 656)4,761 (Statisitcs Canada, 2008)Haida Population11 000 B.C 1700 1800 1900 20001774 Juan Pérez, a Spanish colonizer, is the first European to reach the islands.1787 Haida Gwaii is surveyed by Captain George Dixon of the HMS Queen Charlotte, the islands are thus named after his vessel.Pre-Colonial 1794The Haida begin trading sea otter pelts with the British and Americans.1851The islands are named the Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands by the British Colonial Office1862European-transmitted diseases affect the Haida population, with severe outbreaks of tuberculosis & smallpox. Entire vilages are abandoned such as Ninstints (pictured below).1876The Indian Act is introduced. The act is used as a tool of power and assimilation against Indigenous communities. Some of the laws that are enacted include the creation of the reservation system, the prohibition of communities from speaking their native languages and making potlaches and other governmental-community events illegal. 1905John Swanton, an American anthropolo-gist, travels to the islands and is drawn to the Haida language. Working with 2 elders, Gandl & Skaay, Swanton transcribes  word for word their stories. He manages to collect over 5000 pages of notes written in Haida (Bringhurst, 2002, 13).1973The Council of the Haida Nation is formed.1998The Skidegate Haida Immersion Program was created as an effort to revitalize the language. It was SHIP’s intent that the organiza-tion be "everything that residen-tial school wasn't" (CHN, 2018). The program originally had 18 fluent speakers, today there are 9 whose average age is 80 years old. The program teaches students of all ages, has recorded over 240 CDs and has published a glossary of 11, 000 words.2016Haida Gwaii School District 50 adopts a language curriculum to provide language lessons from kindergarten to high school.1920WWII increases the demand for lumber. The forest industry becomes the largest employer on the islands. (Horwood, 2016, 8).The Haida origin story refers to Raven finding the first men in a clam shell and coaxing them to get out of the shell.The Haida originate from 2 distinct clans, the ravens & the eagles.Water was vital to the Haida way of life. They are known for being extremely skilled and knowledgeable about marine life. There are records of the Haida travelling as far as California with their canoes.Homes, built of cedar, always faced the water. Totem poles were at the center of the homes, with carvings of animals and natural phenomena that demonstrated a family’s lineage.There were an estimated 300 villages on the islands pre-colonization, shown with red dots to the right. Those that remained after European illnesses & Canadian assimilation practices are highlighted in yellow.52 53Figure 26: Emilee Gilpin for The National Observer, Feb. 23, 2018, retrieved from Visit I felt that community engagement was critical for this design project. After ethical review from the University of British Columbia’s Research Ethics Board and the Haida Nation (Appendices A &B), I flew to Haida Gwaii in January 2019 to learn first-hand about language revitalization efforts within the community. I had two goals in mind—to immerse myself with the land as much as possible, and to learn from the community—in particular those who were teaching Haida.Over the course of the week I had the opportunity to learn from two groups; the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program and School District 50. In and out of these experiences I also heard from multiple individuals who I ran into along the way.The lovely but sometimes stressful thing about Haida Gwaii, is that you can try to plan as much as possible and yet things will go unplanned. So, while I had a few interviews lined up before setting foot on the island, I eventually had many casual conversations with community members that helped me shape ideas about spaces for teaching Haida.My first group meeting was in the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program, which is a language revitalization program that has existed in Skidegate since 1998. There are 20 elders who go into this center every day, from 9am to 5pm, and they transcribe, translate and dictate Haida all day. They are language warriors, and their efforts can be attributed to why we can see Haida in the schools, on street signs, and in a massive glossary that was given to every home. Their efforts have been so vital to the community that 9 of these elders recently received honorary degrees from Vancouver Island University (Haida Nation, 2019).The Skidegate Haida Immersion Program (SHIP) is set up in a traditional longhouse. When you enter the building there are a series of tables lined in a rectangle  (Figure 25). There are designated spaces at each of these tables for an elder or a language learner, much like office space. Each space has its own pile of books or documents they may be translating. Each table is lined with microphones and headphones for the elders to record and listen. 54 55I presented my work to date to the elders and explained why I was on Haida Gwaii and the intentions behind this research project. The elders listened but remained silent for the most part, which many community members afterwards explained to me is a very normal response. SHIP gets a lot of research requests and it is often difficult to discern which research projects are best suited to their goals. After I presented it was organized that I have a one-on-one interview with one of the el-ders, Yaahldaaju (Gary Russ). Yaahldaaju was extremely passionate in the way that he spoke about the language and his experiences learning and using it. In particular, he shared a story about be-ing involved in the Lyell Island protests and how Haida was used as code that only the protesters could understand. He has been a part of SHIP since its beginnings as a two-week intensive language program.When I asked him in particular about the spaces he taught in, responded that “ev-erywhere is a teachable space” (Personal Interview, 2019). He explained to me that in particular he teaches Haida to his children and grandchildren, and that the best way to teach them was “through doing”—harvesting, fishing, cooking. He often brings his grandchildren on road trips to other parts of the island so that they can learn the language and traditional life skills. Figure 27: Entrance to SHIP.  Photo taken by author, Jan. 30, 2019On the same day I met with Joanne Yovanovich, the superintendent and Haida curriculum coordinator for Haida Gwaii School District 50. She gave me amazing insight into what the school district has done in terms of Haida language education, and also connected me with some of her language teachers, who she referred to as “the language keepers”. The schools have mandatory Haida lessons at least once a week, from elementary school to secondary school. She explained to me how the language is taught in written and oral form, and that field trips are an integral part to the learning expe-rience.After speaking with Joanne as well as Joan Moody (Haida language keeper at Sk’aadgaa Naay Elementary School) & Debi Laughlin (Gidgalang Kuuyas Naay Secondary School), I noticed a pattern between all of their comments. There were struggles with timing, access and resources. For instance, the 90 minutes allotted per week of Haida lessons means that the language keepers do not have much time to spend with students, and so going outside to teach has become a quite challeng-ing task. As Joan mentioned to me during her interview “can’t take them out as much as we used to” (Moody, Personal Interview, 2019). Further, the spaces that teachers would like to take their students out to teach can oftentimes be difficult to access—for instance the organization of cars or boats are sometimes needed which may be difficult during a weekday, and Highway 16 can often act as a physical barrier especially in Skidegate and Queen Charlotte City.Figure 28: Dii Gway - Haida Bingo. Photo taken by author, Feb. 1, 201956 57ChiinaSalmon, herring, halibutWhat: Fishing, processing fishWhen: Season-dependentMaterials: Boat, basin, table, fish netK’yuudangPacific razor clam, butter clam, horse clamWhat: Clam diggingWhen: Tide-dependent (low tide is best)Materials: Car, bucket, shovel, table, jarsK’ust’aanDungeness crab, pea crab, red king crab, spider crabWhat: Crab fishingWhen: Tide-dependentMaterials: Boat, crab net, table stove, potKaydWestern red cedar, Yellow cedar, Western Hemlock, Sitka spruceWhat: Harvesting (weaving, food, medicine)When: Season-dependentMaterials: Small axe, carving knifeKwawhlhalArgilite What: Harvesting & CarvingWhen: Season-dependentMaterials: Small axe, carving knifeGiaahlgalangdaCultural ExcursionsWhat: StorytellingWhen: Year roundMaterials: Boat, car, table, signage, seatingGaanSalmonberry, soapberry, blueberry, cranberry, cloudberry, elderberry, gooseberry, salal, kinnickinnick, thimbleberry What: Harvesting (food & medicine)When: Season-dependentMaterials: Basket, tableWhere Haida is Taught“Language shouldn’t be taught in a box.” (Debi Laughlin, Personal Interview, 2019)After speaking with the language keepers and elders from SHIP, it became abundantly clear that access needed to be addressed. But before I could do that, I needed to first determine where and how exactly language is taught within and outside of the community. To begin, I started by listing the primary actions that educators focused on in their teachings (Figure 28). I wanted to first determine what actions do they focus on to teach and what they need in order to teach these activities. The activities were almost entirely centered around harvesting and processing traditional food, but there were also activities centered around weaving, carving and storytelling.From there I began to map out where each of these activities take place, in both the communities of Skidegate – Queen Charlotte City (Figure 29), and Old Masset – Masset (Figure 30). I also began to determine harvesting times on the islands in relation to the school year (Figure 31). It is important to note that these spaces for teaching are not exclusive, and that there are likely many more spaces within and outside the community that language is taught. This is merely one snapshot of how language is related to these communities, and the research I have started in this project could be extended into much larger, more complex maps.Figure 29: Analysis of specific actions that relate to the teaching of Haida58 5911   Sk'aadgaa Naay   Elementary School2   Sk'aadgaa Naay Ḵayd   Elementary School Forest3   Ḵayd   Community Forest4   Hlgaa Ḵ’aayhllna   Balance Rock5   HlGaagilda Xaayda Kil Naay   Skidegate Haida Immersion Program6   Hiit’aGan.iina Kuuyas Naay    Skidegate Youth Center7   Naagudgiikyagans   Skidegate Community Hall8  Naang.a Naay   George Brown Recreation Centre9   K’aaga Gagawaay   First Beach10 Guuhlga Siiwaay K’yuu   Spirit Lake Trail11 Ḵay Llnagaay   Haida Heritage Center12 Gawyaa   Skidegate Inlet13 Gidgalang Kuuyas Naay   Secondary School14 Gidgalang Kuuyas Naay Ḵayd   Secondary School Forest15 Nansgaa   Mud Flats2 3 456781091112141315 Where Language is Taught Locally - SouthHighway 16Figure 30: Where language is taught in Skidegate - Queen Charlotte City60 611     Taas Ḵadlaa   Sand Reef2     Xaad Kil Office  Haida Language Office3     Old Masset Youth Center 4     Chief Mathews     Elementary School 5     Old Masset Community Hall6     Ḵayd    Community Forest7     Tluu Xaada Naay Longhouse     Christian White’s Carving Shed8     Tahayghen    Elementary School9     Gudangaay Tlaats’gaa Naay   Secondary School10    Delkatla   Wildlife Sanctuary11   Gaauu Kaahlii    Masset Inlet   Where Language is Taught Locally - North12 43 58 91011676Highway 16 62 63K’ing.Gad                                                                SpringHgildgun K’ah KungHgildgun KungTaan KungTaaGaaw KungTaan ChaaGan K’aadii KungKalga KungSk’aagii Kung Chiina KungGaan Gaalangsdll KungK’aan K’yah KungTaaxid KungXiid KungLaughing Geese Moon (March)Geese Moon (April)Planting Moon (May)Raw Berry Moon (June) Berries Ripen Moon (July)Salmon Moon (August)Dog Salmon Moon (September) Cold Moon (October)Bear Hibernate Moon (November) Snow Moon (December)Bear Moon (January) Goose Moon (February)Sing. GadTaanuud K’inGad                                                              Winter                                                                 Summer                                                          FallK’aaxuusdaT’aaxwiiDaawxuusdaK’aadxuusdaTang.Gwan Siiway Guu Ga Taa is isNorthEastWestSouthOcean Food Taaxid          Sockeye Salmon         Taaxid          Sockeye Salmon      SGyuudang          Seaweed               Siigaay        Seabird                Xuud         SealHuuga gii kildan     Spider CrabIinang            HerringK’aaxada gii xaw       DogshXaaguu     Halibut                               Skaynang    Lincod                                      T’aal    Flounder                                    Sgan     Snapper                              Skil         Black CodGaabu      Scallops                  Taaxaw     Mussels                     Gawduwal Barnacles                      Gayda      Needle Fish                          K’yuu        Clam                    Sgyaal    Cockles                        Naw     Octopus                  Gaalahlyan    Abalone              Guuding.ngaay    Urchin                  T’aa     Chiton                  Giinuu    Sea CucumberK’uust’an    Dungeness Crab             Daawxuusa huugagaay       Box Crab                GuudagiiGayd        Prawns/ShrimpFigure 32: Ocean Harvest Chart, Adapted from Council of the Haida Nation’s Ocean Way of Life (2011), retrieved from 65Five | Stories66 67giiahlGalang Gas ga (story time)This final chapter focusses on the series of stories that were presented at the final graduate project presentation. The stories, as you will begin to notice, are not linear—there is no timeline, or one thread or theme that connects them all together. These stories are tangled and complicated. Some are about my own life while others are about a world that exists a million miles away from where I come from. A world that took everything I thought I knew and turned it upside down, inside out and sideways. A world where I was forced to face all of my insecurities, fears, hopes and dreams and mold them into the future that I want to see as an individual, as a Canadian, and as a landscape architect. Stories are central in Haida culture. They teach language, teach life lessons, make you laught or cry. Throughout my visit to Haida Gwaii, I learned about so many stories that existed on the land. Some were commonly known to all, while others were deeply personal. In order to begin to understand the intricacies of these stories to the land, I began to collect stories and relate them to the landscape from which they grew out of. Figure 32 illustrates these ideas. While I would have loved to have recorded all of the stories I possibly could and design for each of them, I have instead decided to focus on 9.hlk’inxa      forestgandlaay      river nee kun      duneklaagi      coasttaaw      tow hilljiigwaay      oceank’wii s’aaga      bogtlldagaaw     mountainsFigure 33: Haida Landscapes and their Stories68 69uncededThis entire project, while it has looked primarily at Indigenous languages, also explores our relationship to land as Canadian landscape architects. Land, that is complex and difficult to describe or attribute to. Land, that is often stolen and unacknowledged.I think that as Canadian landscape architects it is vital that as a minimum, we acknowledge the land that we are on. Our profession literally deals with shaping the land and acknowledging a past and a future, it is imperative that this is done with awareness and acknowledgement of who we are, where we are from, and un-derstanding our relationship as settlers in Canada.The first step towards this, is to start with your story and to acknowledge where you come from and why you are here. And so, it is first necessary that I acknowledge that this project was developed, designed and presented on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Musqueam, Squamish and T’sleil Waututh people. I would like to thank these Nations for allowing me to be a visitor on their lands and for allowing me to learn in Vancouver for the last 3 years.I would also like to acknowledge that my project could not ex-ist without the consultation of the Haida Nation and I would like to thank them for allowing me to do research on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Haida Nation.70 71GaauuHlgaagilda  Nee kun (Rose Spit)Taaw (Tow Hill)HlGaa K’aayhllna  (Balance Rock)K’aaga Gagawaay  (First Beach)Guuhlga Siiwaay  (Spirit Lake)Kay Llnagaay (Haida Heritage Center)gina ‘waadluuxan gud kwaagid (everything is connected)After hearing from the community, it was determined that access was one of the primary difficulties that educators faced in getting out into the land. Highway 16 became increasingly the increasingly apparent spine to the book that connected everyone and everything. There are a million and one stories that can be found along this highway. Each connecting one more person to this varied landscape.On this one highway, you can access the towns, the origin story, the forest, the bogs, the inlet, the mountains and the beaches. This one route, or spine that connects all of these communities to one another. And it is here where we can begin to see how to tie in all of the stories that hold knowledge about the land and the people. Like a thread, the highway can be seen as a space where language might able to be integrated into an entire system or “language ecology.”In this project I look at 6 sites specifically, but it is important to note that these sites are not exclusive…there are many more spaces that the community uses and values. Figure 34: The thread & the 6 storiesFigure 35 (following page): Map of Haida Gwaii demonstrating where language is taught and the 6 stories in relation to the archipelago72 73ChiinaSalmon, herring, halibutWhat: Fishing, processing fishWhen: Season-dependentMaterials: Boat, basin, table, fish netK’yuudangPacific razor clam, butter clam, horse clamWhat: Clam diggingWhen: Tide-dependent (low tide is best)Materials: Car, bucket, shovel, table, jarsK’ust’aanDungeness crab, pea crab, red king crab, spider crabWhat: Crab fishingWhen: Tide-dependentMaterials: Boat, crab net, table stove, cooking potKaydWestern red cedar, Yellow cedar, Western Hemlock, Sitka spruceWhat: Harvesting (weaving, food, medicine)When: Season-dependentMaterials: Small axe, carving knifeKwawhlhalArgilite What: Harvesting & CarvingWhen: Season-dependentMaterials: Small axe, carving knifeGiaahlgalangdaCultural ExcursionsWhat: StorytellingWhen: Year roundMaterials: Boat, car, table, signage, seatingGaanSalmonberry, soapberry, blueberry, cranberry, cloudberry, elderberry, gooseberry, salal, kinnickinnick, thimbleberry What: Harvesting (food & medicine)When: Season-dependentMaterials: Basket, tableWhere Language is TaughtGaauuJa.a xiii xyaangKwiid‘LaanasMaaganXu’aduusHlgihlaa ‘aalaaK’aal T’awts’iiXuuya GandlaaK’aanuuwaasXuuyaTluu GuhlanaaGaahllns Kun‘Waan KunKamdisNee Duu‘WaadanSgang.anTsaawanTsaawan KunTlaga GaawtlaasK’aayanglits’aawGad GaywaasGaaw KunTaas KadleeTalaasdaweeYaagunn KunSgidliiTaaw sdaleeKadll duugasXyaangsyaanSiigaayNee KunHl’yaalangGaahll SgaagasGaawGaaw KaahliiKwiid SiiwaayJuuxiigandaaNee taas kadleeTlall KunTlall Lam’aay Sk’aay Daxwaa Daxwaa Kun Hlgaa Gaat’as  Hlgaayxa  K’yaluu Hlgaas Tl’lna Ts’iinuu HldaaysHlgaagilda  HlgaaxidKayGuuhlgaYaagunXaana Daajing.giidsGasinsGawjaawsXaaynaXuutuuXaaying.ngaGa TaaTllgaduuYaagun SiiwaayGaadagas SgwaanansDllgaangaK’iijisDa’ulgaay‘Laaginda XyuuTanguuXang GanJiinang.ngaSkaats ‘ints’iiJiingasiiGawyaa   Ts’ii T’aanaaStyuuGuudalKya’aawGidsJihluu KunTaajiiChaahl’uuKaa.nuu ‘Laana HildansChaal’ungChaal’uu KaahliiGaysinaGwaay St’ahGinda KunGandll KunsK’aasT’aat’uuK’aang GwaayKuuna KunSaahldangkunGadMaaminTsiijJuus KaahliiTaaw SdangDaatlamanAawan SuweeLaana.angsalsYahguu KadleeDiinanHlkyuu KaahliiSuut’ SuweeGadga’iinansNaasduuGaat’angaasSk’iiluuSgud KunAhluuAhluu KaahliiXuusuuKayy KaahliiTaaw KaahliiGalgamAayanAayan SuweeJuu Ts’agasTii.aanXunannK’wii TlageeNeedan SuweeSasgaTiiTl’ak’aaTl’iiduusda GagadeeSkut’algangKundaalsXwa.aduu KunKilsaaGawd.unsKeht’aKwaa Sk’udts’uwaasK’iisKay KadleeYaa Stl’angTs’aahlDaadansTaa KunYaak’uK’ayandaas KunT’aaam Stl’angK’yuusdaYaatsTl’aas KunJaalanK’iinaa KunKwaa K’iiyaasKangHlgaawan KunK’uu’laanasNuuTlaga Gii Gagangs XaaDis.tlansSgwaaganMiiyaa KunWilaa K’ungyiilangYaanGaadangS’guhljuu KunKyaawanTs’aahlK’aa K’anaK’ay K’idaadsHlgundii KunGaada Kungawaay Skil GiiwaayGaw Galang K’iidNiisiiStan Sinaats KunGid Gang  Kayd Gaw Gaaw  Hlk’aytl’in Gasals KunKaysuunTluu Kaahlgajldas KunJuu GawgaTs’uu Guus GawgaGw DaanKaayjuuK’il KunK’ilSkiinaK’aasdaK’aasda SiiwaayGaagiiGulGawu KunsK’ayxada K’ayxadaYaawgasTl’lxingas Gas GiidsK’aalang.iid Hltaalan KunGwii GwulHlgyaadsXilts’iiXang Gw Ts’iisgii Gw Gw DaaGaawKiijaGawsGawGa GaadagasGaaying GwDaa’a GwAstaana GwK’aaxada Gw Gandll K‘in Gw Kuuniisii XawKingts’ii Gw Kalging Gw JiilinjaawsGawdasJuu K’yuuKin.giiSt’iitgaYahguu ‘LaanasGuusgiiS Gil JinKing.giiK’uust’an KSGaalgasSk’aagiiT’amdalGawGa JingsHlGaa TllGuhGa SuuTlldaGaaw HllGaagaGawxaasisXiina Gw Gaaduu Gw K’una Gw GaaydiiKiiga KunKaaganda KunJihl Kaananang KunJil K’aana KunNaagasXilTaajiiSaawSdaasSkay KunGanhlaansSaanawaay KunKii Ga’uu KunHiilang KunNang SdinsTaada Sdl’lnTs’aansKlaagiiNawdasGwaay.iiT’iis KunXud XildaStl’ln.Ga GwTaaGun NaayGw Ts’ihlda Kilgii GwGangxid GwGuud Kaajii GwSk’ihljaaw Kun Kay GwGw Gud GiijigidsGaay.yas GawdagasSGang GwJaa’adaay HlGaaK’insiGidXaa Ts’ihlda KunDlaayas KunGan GanKaayjuutl’lxaGawGajingKaayjuuKaayjuu KunGaayduXyuu dawKan Laas KunKints’ii K’iidXuudaay SuuGuunaGaw Tl’aadJiidawaayKiiga SuuSk’in Gaadll‘Laana XaawaNang’a Gw Xaagyah Skaajaaws KunSt’aa K’ii‘Laana DaaGang.ngaGaduuChiina GawGa KunTlldaGaaw KunsSGwaay Kun Gw SGwaay KunSGaadaSk’iinaGayK’iidGwaayahT’aanuuT’aang.allSk’udasHlk’yahT’iis Kun Tllga KunK’aadasGuuK’aadasGuu SiiwaayKid HlGaajiiaawK’ang.GuuXuud Ts’iixwaasHlGaadllnTllgang XangHlgayK’uunaTs’uu’iidGaw’inaTaa SuuTllga HaanaT’aahldiiSah ‘LaanaChiina DaanaayK’yaalXulGaawsK’aasda Kunts’ii DiinalIitl’lgas KunKyaajiiKunxalasJiigwah Gw Da’uhlK’uuna Gw T’ awts’ii Guula Gw Gw XiiGaaw  K’ing Gw HlkinulTs’iiGugiigaGw XillaKaayjuut KunGaahlandaay ‘LaaKay Gaws KunGawGa JinsHlgidGun SuuStan Hlaay KunTaan St’aay KunNang Xiinga.nga ‘Yuwans KunKil Sdiihl GawGaGa SindasSing.gaGuu’ll GwAaganguuGaldang.NgaKwah KujuusTs’uunaDiinaGal HlgiljingGaats’ iGundaayNeedanK’ust’aan GyuweeSk’aawatsXuuj GahlDuwang KunTaanaaNee kun (Rose Spit)Taaw (Tow Hill)HlGaa K’aayhllna  (Balance Rock)Hltaalan Gw S Gaana Gw K’aaga Gagawaay  (First Beach)Guuhlga Siiwaay  (Spirit Lake)Kay Llnagaay (Haida Heritage Center)74 75Figure 36: Model of the Archipelago of Haida Gwaii, CNC on Yellow Cedar Figure 37: Artifacts from the archipelago76 77nee kun (rose spit)At the beginning of this thread, we visit nee kun, also known as Rose Spit.This is the place where the first Haida were found, hiding fearfully in a clam shell. They were found by Raven, a creature known to be curious and playful, who coaxed them to leave the shell to “join him in his wonderful world”. At first the humans were afraid but curious and made their way out of the shell to become the first Haida.When you reach this spit, which takes a bit of a hike to get to, it isn’t hard to be-lieve that you are absolutely somewhere special. It is a point where two bodies of water meet, and it feels as though the world is somehow defying all of the laws that it gave itself. How can waves crash into each other?  How can the sky be complete-ly dark and moody in one moment and then so hopeful in the next?This story has always resonated with me because I think it is also a metaphor for human nature and our inherent fear of the unknown. There are so many parallels that I can draw between this story and my own as I have begun this journey to become a landscape architect. There are days where I am in that shell completely avoiding the world because I don’t understand it, there are days where I am in the shell with my head poking out and letting my insecurities of failure keep me from leaving the shell, and there are days when I feel like I have the strength to get out of there and move forward.  (Top to bottom)Figure 38: Hiking Nee Kun, Author’s Photograph, May 2018Figure 39: Bill Reid’s sculpture, Raven & the First Men. Author’s Photograph, March 2019Figure 40: Reaching the end of Nee Kun, Author’s Photograph, May 201878 79taaw (tow hill)Our next stop is Tow Hill. A fantastic space that defies the flatness it is surrounded by. The hill is named taaw, who once lived in juus kaahli in the South with his brother. His mother would feed them dogfish but taaw felt like he wasn’t getting enough. So he decided to leave juus kahli and made his way up the Massset inlet to Masset and then found a new home East beside the Hiellen River to where we can see him today. Taaw and his brother have a rivalry too where his brother sends things his way to attach and Taaw turns them to stone. For instance, his brother once sent him a whale who you can still see breaching today.This space is exhibits a wide range of emotions and it is what I adore about it. From blasting winds at the top of Taaw, to excitement as the stone whale breaches, to immense calm as you enter the quiet forest that is nestled in between more active spaces, you are forced to face the extremes of the islands. Figure 41: Top of Taaw, Author’s Photograph, January 2019    Figure 42: Pathway in the forest of Taaw, Author’s Photograph,  January 2019  Figure 43: A moment of silence in the forest of Taaw,  January 2019   Figure 44: At the base of Taaw,  January 201980 81guuhlGa siiwaay  (spirit lake mountain)This site was chosen, more as an ode to the forests of Haida Gwaii, because there is something special about them. Within these forests are culturally modified trees from hundreds of yers ago and moss so thick that it absorbs all the sound and it feels as though it holds everyones secrets. You feel completely anew walking amongst these trees and breathing in the fresh air. I have always struggle to articulate what is so special about these forests, and so I think it is best to share this passage from Lucy Bell’s dissertation Xaad Kilang T’alang Dagwiieehldang - Strengthening Our Haida Voice:“And then there’s a way to learn to be become invisible. You lay in the ground, usually in the muskeg where there’s moss and you stop thinking. You stop thinking when it’s clear, you can hear the earth breathe; you know you’re invisible. We used to play that as kids. It was all taught to us to go down inside. To find that strength inside so you could sense the presence of the ancestors. In the forest, we have to meditate and pray. Where we go to pick medicines and berry pick, I offer tobacco to mother earth, especially when I’m getting cedar. I can hear the trees swaying and sometimes I know it is the ancestors. It’s giving your eyes, ears and heart over to the ancestors. It doesn’t happen enough, that connection. We went into the forest and had to be with a tree, we had to leave our stuff, put it in the moss, not hidden but for the wind to take it away.”(Top to bottom)Figure 45: Forest along the Cape Fife trail, Author’s Photograph, January 2019  Figure 46: Culturally modified tree along the Golden Spruce Trail, Author’s Photograph,  January 2019Figure 47: Moss & mycellium along the Cape Fife Trail, Author’s Photograph, May 2018   82 83hlGaa k’aayhllna  (balance rock)what a curious placea rock that stands on its ownwithout a care in the worldwith no history or story about its lifeas though it has balanced on its ownsince the dawn of timeBalance Rock sits at the edge of Skidegate. It has no history, no scientific explanation, it just is. There are many recent stories of people trying to topple down the rock, and yet it still stands today.This space is also home to clams. Teachers from the elementary school frequently bring their students to this area, to both marvel at balance rock and to teach the students about how to dig for Pacific Razor clams during low tide.Figure 48: Balance Rock, Author’s Photograph, January 2019  84 85jiidalda  (building tumble down)they build wallsbut didn’tthey realizethat walls can breakand from that rubblewe make goldThe coast along Skidegate was once the front yard for the community that lived there. Facing the water, greeting the waves and the whales stood longhouses that housed the village. Instead of cars at the front door, there were canoes. Instead of cut green grass, basket grass and eel grass would rustle in the wind. The villages were built to fit into the grooves of the coast, they were related to the ocean.Figure 49: Skidegate in the late 1800s, from George F. Macdonald’s Haida Monumental Art (1983), pp. 41Figure 50 (next page): Skidegate in the late 1800s, from George F. Macdonald’s Haida Monumental Art (1983), pp. 17 86 8788 89What we see today on the coast is terribly different.In a clear attempt to exert power and disregard what the Haida lifestyle once was, the Canadian government created the reservation system and forced those who had survived the small pox epidemic to be constrained to the boundaries of one area on their land. But the government didn’t just delineate where the Haida were allowed to be, they also did everything in their power to forcibly remove the community from the way that they had always lived.Today First Road continues to line the coast, and houses line up against it. But the road is in front of the house. As you walk towards the coast, you come upon another obstacle—retaining walls. Poorly done retaining walls that at times make absolutely no sense. One elder mentioned in the Haida Gwaii Observer that  “I also heard about how you could walk to the beach and harvest clams –until the rocks were moved.”For a community who lived on the beach, they can no longer access the beach.So what would happen if we were to take away those walls and help to rebuild a space that people will want to go to. A space where people can reconnect to the coast?I have titled this project jiidalda which translates to “building tumbling down” because my aspiration is just that. This deisgn examines how the coast might be reclaimed for the community, primarily through the re-use and re-deisgn of these walls that stand in the way.Figure 51: Traditional relationship of Haida housing to the ocean in Skidegate Figure 52: Current relationship of Haida housing to the ocean in Skidegate   Figure 53: Construction diagram of wall take-down & re-use90 91I              i              d                       k              u              u              n              i              i              s              i              i                       a              s              i              i                       i              d                     g              i              i                       i              s              d              a                       g              a              nX              a              a              y              d              a              G              a                            G              w              a              a              y              .              y              a              a              y               G              a              a              g              a              n              u              u                            i              i              d                            x              a              y              n              a              n              g              a                            g              a              .T              l              l              g              a              a              y                            a              d                            s              i              i              g              a              a              y                            G              a              n                            t              ’              a              l              a              n              g                            a              a              x              a              n              a              a              d  y              a              h              g              u              u              d              a              n              g              .                                          A              d                            K              y              a              a              n              a              n              gT              l              l              y              a              h              d              a              K              ’              a              a              h              l              i              nK              u              u              n              a              s              i              iH                       l                       g                       a                       a                       x                       i                       d                                              l                       l                       n                       a                       g                       a                       a                       yG              i              n              a                            ‘w              a              a              d              l              u              u              x              a              n                            g              u              d                             k              w              a              a              g              i              dTawk’ii daanaay (a place to plant)Suuga (a place to gather)GiiahlGalang ga (storytelling)Jingu (sitting by the fire)NaagudgiikyagansSkidegate Community HallHiit’aGan.iina Kuuyas NaaySkidegate Youth CenterHlGaagilda Xaayda Kil NaaySkidegate Haida Immersion ProgramNaang.a NaayGeorge Brown Recreation CenterGuuhlGa SiiwaaySpirit Lake Mountaint       l       ’       a       y       u       w       a       a       yh              l             k              i              n              x              ak       l       a       a       g       i       iT        'a       m                   G      a      n      d         l      a      a      yk       l       a       a       g       i       iIitl’lxid  Kiiwaay (Second Ave) S       G       i       i       d       a       g       i       d       s       HlGaagilda  Kiiwaay (Front Street)    Guudang.ngaay 'Laa HlGaa K'iiwaay (Third Ave)1:1000Gud gii ḵaawk’ihl (sharing food) Step 3: Circular SpacesCircles are a recurring pattern in Haida culture. You can see this in their traditional dances, the spatizliation of their potlaches and ceremonies in which the community gathers around something in the middle, and we can see this in their interpretation of time through the moon and life cycles of living beings.Inspired by Margie Ruddick who takes the old and turns it into something new, I propose a series of circular divets into the re-graded landscape. The concrete that has been broken up can be used to line these circles and willow would be planted in tandem with the concrete in the hopes that the willow one day overtakes and breaks it down while reinforcing the walls of the circles.Step 2: The WallThe current concrete retaining walls get torn down and the area is re-graded to a form similar to what it once was. Step 1: AccessA graded path goes along the entire coast of Skidegate and connects to a larger hiking island-wide path. Because of how tall the walls can get, this space is generally only be accessed by able-bodied individu-als, and it is very difficult for elders to make their way down to the water. This design focusses specifically on connecting the area between the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program and the Skidegate Youth Center. Each circle has theme/action:- Eating- Storytelling- Gather / Connect- Preparing food- Gardening- Play92 93Figure 54: Perspective, Storytelling Circle at the Skidegate Waterfront, 1:50 94 95xanjuu gii  (many travels)the canoe has lived a long lifeit has journeyed to waters far & wideswam with whalesvisited old friendsand newand before its journeys on the waterit was once a treenot just any treethis tree had a destiny to go on adventures that the other trees could never imagineFigure 49: Skidegate in the late 1800s, from George F. Macdonald’s Haida Monumental Art (1983), pp. 41Figure 50 (next page): Skidegate in the late 1800s, from George F. Macdonald’s Haida Monumental Art (1983), pp. 17 The coast at the Haida museum is one of the most dynamic spaces I have had the plea-sure of witnessing. It is a space where it feels as though nature is bending the rules and playing games with you. There are days where you can witness a whale breaching. There are days when the horizon line disappears, and the sea and sky have become their own entity. There are days where the sky is moody and the clouds dance with the mountains. The Haida museum is also an incredible space. Replicating a traditional Haida village, Kay llnagay has become a hub for the community to gather and learn about their cul-ture. The museum is set up into a series of rooms, each with their own name. There is no Haida word for room, so instead each space becomes a house…”house for storing things”, “house for eating”, “house for performing” (Figure 56). Figure 56: Section of the Haida Heritage CenterFigure 57: Diagram of a typical Haida Canoe, adapted from Tluuwaay ‘WaadluxanL Mathematical Adventures, School District 50Figure 58 (next page): Site Plan, Haida Heritage Center96 97k              u              u              k              w              a              k              a              a                                          g              u              n              g              t              l              '              a              a              g              u              ux              u              u              d              g              a              a              y              u              u              w              a              h                                                                       l              l              w              a t              l              a              a              j              a              n              gg              i              n              a                            ‘w              a              a              d             l              u              u             x              a              n                           g             u              d                             k              w              a              a              g              i              d     k             l              u              u                     ḵ              a               a               s              a              ḵ              a              a              d              l              l                 l               u               u               w               a               a               y                                                                            g               u               u               n               g               x               a               g               a               n               g  t              a              a               y               d               a               .               l               a                                   s             k             i              i              g               ag              a              a              y              u              w              a              a              y                      g              l              a               a              y               i              il               u               u               'y               u               u                              d               a               l               a                                                                                                         g               a               a               d               h               l               a                                                                                          t               l               'a               a               t               'a               x               u               n               g   K     a     y          K     u     n1:1000t       l       ’       a       y       u       w       a       a       yx       a       n       j       u       u               g       i       ik       l       a       a       g       i       ih              l             k              i              n              x              ag              u              u               h              l              g               a s            i             i              w               a                a                yk               ’             y              u                uHaida Heritage CenterKay Llnagaay98 99What intrigued me the most were the Carving House and First Canoe House, as both spaces were designed to house traditional Haida canoes. I found it so interesting that the canoes have homes indoors, and yet when they are brought out to the water in front of the museum, their path is not obvious.In fact the outdoor space of the museum is not designed in a way that convinces visitors to exit the building and venture outdoors. Thus the goal behind this site was to bring people to the “front yard” of the Haida museum; to allow people to look back at the traditional layout of space and really understand its relationship to the land and the water. The language educators who I spoke with also mentioned a few times how the Haida Heritage Center is an extremely important place to bring students, however it can be challenging to bring them outdoors as the weather can be quite temperamental.This intervention is designed in the hopes that teachers and students can remain outdoors, while having optimal views of the ocean and the Haida Heritage Center. Made to resemble a whale, which are known to come and visit the area on a regualr basis, the canoe dock sits in front of the Canoe House. Long enough to accomodate even the largest of Haida Canoes, the dock provides a space to easily get in and out of a canoe. It also provides a space for sheltered story telling where students can daydream about new and old worlds. Figure 59: Long Section of the canoe dockFigure 60: Plan of the canoe dockFigure 61: Section of the canoe dockFigure 62 (following page): Perspective of site, mythological creatures adapted from the Haida Nation’s Ocean Way of Life Poster100 101102 103Final Notes  (to be continued)The focus on turning each space into a story was central to my project, and as such I felt that my final presentation needed to reflect this storytelling aspect. The intent was to have those in attendance to sit in a circle and be forced to interact in the presentation in a way that we don’t usually do in an academic setting. I wanted to shift the language of my project to something that could be accessible and engaging to everyone in attendance. I think that this is something that could be reflected on more in the field, how do we make these conversations more accessible? How do we get more people outside of our field involved and interested in design? I struggled with this project in many ways, because I was tackling really complex issues of how we design in a way that decolonizes and works towards reconciliation. There aren’t any answers out there about how to do this, and this is an attempt in that direction. I anticipate that this will be a lifelong journey of learning and un-learning, and I very much look forward to it. What I know for sure is that my role in all of this, is to use the knowledge I have acquired through my training in landscape architecture, to facilitate and fulfill what a community wants and needs. This project is by no means complete, the next steps of this project involve returning to the Haida Nation and presenting the current stage of this work. These proposals are not set, and if the community is interested, that these projects will go through many more iterations based on what the community feels is appropriate for them.  I am excited to see what comes next.104 105Six | References & Appendix106 107Battiste, M. (1998). Enabling the autumn seed: Toward a decolonized approach to aboriginal knowledge, language, and education. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 22(1), pp. 16-27. Bedard, J. A. (2011). “To show respect: Haida Language Family”. In Jisgang Nika Collison, & Steedman, S. (Eds.), That which makes us Haida, pp. 21-22. Skidegate, BC: Haida Gwaii Museum Press.Bringhurst, R. (1999). A Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and their World. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre.Bringhurst, R. (2002). The tree of meaning and the work of ecological linguistics. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 7(2), pp. 9-22. Retrieved from Open Journal Systems.Cajete, G. (1994). Look to the Mountain: An Ecology of Indigenous Education. Durango, CO: Kivaki Press.Confluence Project. (2006). Cape Disappointment Park. Retrieved from, J. (2012). Reflections on the Conflu-ence Project: Assimilation, sustainability, and the perils of a shared heritage. American Indian Quarterly, 36(4): 503-524., W. (2009). The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. Toronto, ON: House of Anansi Press Inc. Davis, W. (2011). “Foreword”. In Jisgang Nika Collison, & Steedman, S. (Eds.), That which makes us Haida, pp. 11-13. Skidegate, BC: Haida Gwaii Museum Press.Eastman, C. (1985). Establishing social identity through language use. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 4(1), pp. 1-20.Errington, J. (2003). Getting language rights: The rhetorics of language endangerment and loss. American Anthropologist, 105(4), pp. 723-732. Feste Landscape. (n.d). Seljord and the legends. Retrieved from, A. & Prokos, A. H. (2016). The Interview: From Formal to Postmodern. New York, NY: Routledge.Gill, I. (2009). All that we say is ours: Guujaaw and the Reawakening of the Haida Nation. Van-couver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre. Gilpin, E. (Apr. 12, 2018). Breathing new life into languages of the land. National Observer. Retrieved from, E. (2018, Apr. 25). The Haida language is here to stay. National Observer. Retrieved from, M. (2010). Heritage language devel-opment: Preserving a mythic past or envisioning the future of Canadian identity?. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 9(5), pp. 329-346. doi: 10.1080/15348458.2010.517699Harrison, D. K. (2007). When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World’s Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Henley, T. (1989). Rediscovery: Ancient Path-ways – New Directions. Vancouver, BC: West-ern Canada Wilderness Committee.Horwood, D. (2016). Haida Gwaii: A Guide to BC’s Islands of the People. Vancouver, BC: Heritage House Publishing Company. Joseph, Bob. (2015, Jun. 2). “21 Things You May Not Have Known About The Indian Act.” Indigenous Corporate Training. Retrieved from, S. & Bell, L. “Our unique language”. In Jisgang Nika Collison, & Steedman, S. (Eds.), That which makes us Haida, pp. 21-22. Skidegate, BC: Haida Gwaii Museum Press.ReferencesLomawaima, K. T., & McCarty, T. L. (2006). “To remain an Indian”: Lessons in democracy from a century of Native American education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Macdonald, G. F. (1989) Chiefs of the Sea and Sky. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.MacDonald, G. F. (1990). Ninstints: Haida World Heritage Site. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.Maya Lin Studio. (n.d.). Confluence Project. Retrieved from, L. & Woodley, E. (2010). Biocultural diversity conservation: A global sourcebook. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.Musgrave, S. (2015). A Taste of Haida Gwaii: Food Gathering and Feasting at the Edge of the World. Vancouver, BC: Whitecap Books.N.A. (2018). Haida Watchmen. Parks Canada. Retrieved from, C. (2017, Jun. 11). Reviving a lost language of Canada through film. New York Times. Retrieved from, S. (2007). Preserving endangered languages. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(1–2), pp. 115–132. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00004.xRomaine, S. & Nettle, D. (2000). Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World’s Languages. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Sandercock, L, Moraes, D. & Frantz, J. (2017). Film as a catalyst for Indigenous community development. Planning Theory & Practice,18(4), pp. 656-659. doi:10.1080/14649357.2017.1380961Spirn, A. W. (1998). The Language of Landscape. Dexter, MI: Thomson-Shore Inc.Statistics Canada. (2018, Jul. 27). “Aboriginal Languages Canada”. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from, H. (1984). Cedar. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre.Stibbe, A. (2015). Ecolinguistics: Language, Ecology and the Stories We Live By. New York, NY: Routledge. Swanton, J. R. (1905). Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida. New York, NY: AMS Press.Telnes, T. & Marit Christenson, G. Seljord and the legends-Norway: Lakeside-specific instal-lations connect modern architecture and local traditions. Topos, 74, 32-34.Tilley, S. A. (2016). Doing Respectful Research: Power, Privilege and Passion. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Can-ada. (2015). Truth and Reconciliation Com-mission of Canada: Calls to Action. Retrieved from, Y-F. (1991). Language and the making of place: A narrative-descriptive approach. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81(4), pp. 684-696. UNESCO. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Lan-guages in Danger. Retrieved from Nations Permanent forum on Indigenous Languages. (2018). Indigenous Languages Back-grounder. Retrieved from, C. (2010, Nov. 25). We gathered to say Haw’aa. The Tyee. Retrieved from, J. Shaping the Future on Haida Gwaii: Life Beyond Settler Colonialism. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.108 109The University of British ColumbiaOffice of Research ServicesBehavioural Research Ethics BoardSuite 102, 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL - MINIMAL RISKPRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: INSTITUTION / DEPARTMENT: UBC BREB NUMBER:Cynthia Girling UBC/Applied Science/School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture H18-02742INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUT:Institution SiteUBC Vancouver (excludes UBC Hospital)Other locations where the research will be conducted:[REDACTED]CO-INVESTIGATOR(S):MICHELLE GAGNON-CREELEY SPONSORING AGENCIES:N/A PROJECT TITLE:Language & Landscape: The role of landscape architecture in indigenous language revitalization – Haida Gwaii, BC CERTIFICATE EXPIRY DATE:  November 29, 2019DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS APPROVAL: DATE APPROVED:November 29, 2018Document Name Version DateProtocol:Research Proposal 2 November 28, 2018Consent Forms:Consent Form 2 November 22, 2018Questionnaire, Questionnaire Cover Letter, Tests:Guiding Interview Questions - Haida Gwaii School District 50 N/A November 7, 2018Guiding Interview Questions - Skidegate Haida Immersion Program & the Xaad Kil Office N/A November 7, 2018Letter of Initial Contact:Initial Contact - Haida Gwaii School District 50 2 November 22, 2018Initial Contact - Xaad Kil Office 2 November 22, 2018Initial Contact - Skidegate Haida Immersion Program 2 November 22, 2018Other Documents:Council of the Haida Nation Research Application 3 November 28, 2018The application for ethical review and the document(s) listed above have been reviewed and the procedures were found to be acceptable on ethical grounds for research involving human subjects.This study has been approved either by the full Behavioural REB or byAppendix AUBC Ethics Certificate of Approvalan authorized delegated reviewer Appendix BResearch Application Approval - Council of the Haida Nation1/11/2019 Gmail - Research Request - Michelle Gagnon-Creeley - UBC 1/1[EMAIL MESSAGE REDACTED]110 111  Re: Research Study: Language & Landscape: The role of landscape architecture in indigenous language revitalization – Haida Gwaii, BC  The following are a list of sample questions that may be asked to guide the interview;  On Teaching Haida 1. How long have you been teaching Haida? 2. What is the average amount of time in a week that students learn Haida?  3. Are there ever intensive courses given on the language? 4. How long is a typical lesson? 5. What types of resources or facilities do you rely on to help teach the language? (Chalkboard, seating, desks, projector, etc.)  On Teaching Spaces 1. Describe to me the spaces where Haida is currently being taught. 2. In what ways are these spaces helpful for teaching and learning the language?  3. In what ways could these spaces be improved? 4. Do teachings ever take place outdoors?  5. Are there any instances where teaching would be better suited to an outdoor setting? 6. Do you feel that teaching outdoors is helpful for students to understand the language? 7. Is weather ever an influence on if you will be teaching outdoors? 8. If you do teach outdoors, are there any resources or facilities that you need to help with your teaching? (Rain protection, seating, waterproof materials, etc.) 9. Could lessons be taught while walking along a trail? Do students need to be sitting? 10. Are there any places outdoors where you like to teach? 11. Are there any spaces on the islands or in Skidegate/Old Masset where you wish you could take students to teach language outdoors? 12. Are there any spaces on the islands or in Skidegate/Old Masset that you hold a strong personal connection to? Appendix CInterview Questions - Haida Gwaii School District 50Appendix DInterview Questions - Skide    gate Haida Immersion Program & the X̱aad Kil Office In Old Masset  Re: Research Study: Language & Landscape: The role of landscape architecture in indigenous language revitalization – Haida Gwaii, BC  The following are a list of sample questions that may be asked to guide the interview;  On Teaching Haida 1. How long have you been teaching Haida? 2. What is the average time commitment for students?  3. What are the general commitments for students? Are there students who visit on a regular basis? 4. Are there ever intensive courses given? 5. Are students taught individually or in a group setting? 6. How long is a typical class or lesson? 7. Do classes typically take place in the evening or during the day? 8. Do classes take place more in the summer months or the winter months? 9. What types of resources or facilities do you rely on to help teach? (Chalkboard, seating, desks, projector, etc.)  On Teaching Spaces 1. Describe to me the spaces where Haida is currently being taught. 2. In what ways are these spaces helpful for teaching and learning the language?  3. In what ways could these spaces be improved? 4. Do teachings ever take place outdoors?  5. Are there any instances where teaching would be better suited to an outdoor setting? 6. Do you feel that teaching outdoors is helpful for students to understand the language? 7. Is weather ever an influence on if you will be teaching outdoors? 8. If you do teach outdoors, are there any resources or facilities that you need to help with your teaching? (Rain protection, seating, waterproof materials, etc.) 9. Could lessons be taught while walking along a trail? Do students need to be sitting? 10. Are there any places outdoors where you like to teach? 11. Are there any spaces on the islands or in Skidegate/Old Masset where you wish you could take students to teach language outdoors? 12. Are there any spaces on the islands or in Skidegate/Old Masset that you hold a strong personal connection to? 112 113 H18-02742  Version Date: November 22, 2018    Page 1 of 2     OPTIONAL PARTICIPANT INFORMATION AND CONSENT FORM Language & Landscape: The role of landscape architecture in indigenous language revitalization – Haida Gwaii,BC  Purpose You are invited to participate in one-on-one interviews about your opinions on the Haida language and its relation to the local environment as well as spaces for teaching language outdoors. By speaking about your role in the language revitalization movement, and your experiences and opinions about spaces where you teach Haida, you can help with the production of a semi-public document consisting of written and visual information produced by the primary researcher & designer, Michelle Gagnon-Creeley. The final production of visual information will be given back to the community.  This study will be conducted with the consent of the Council of the Haida Nation. Michelle Gagnon-Creeley, the primary researcher, is a graduate student in the Master of Landscape Architecture program at the University of British Columbia and can be reached by phone at  or via e-mail at The study will be supervised by the principal investigator Cynthia Girling, a landscape architecture professor at the University of British Columbia and can be contacted at (604) 822-0438 or via e-mail at  What will happen during the conversation? The interviewer, Michelle Gagnon-Creeley, will ask you about your experiences with Haida language revitalization— role in the language revitalization movement, the relationship of the Haida language to the local environment, what kinds of spaces is the language currently being taught and if these spaces are helpful for learning Haida. The researcher will also ask about if there are any outdoor spaces of importance in your community or on the Graham island where language lessons could be taught. The researcher will visit these sites of significance and observe them through photography and on-site sketching.  You are free to bring any documented information (visual or written) to assist with speaking about these experiences. The interview will last about 30-45 minutes and will be audio-recorded.   Voluntary Participation You are in full control of your participation in this conversation. You can change your mind about your involvement at any point. If after the conversation, you decide that you would not like your interview used to produce written and visual information, feel free to contact the primary researcher, Michelle Gagnon-Creeley, to retract your consent.  Anonymity Your name will remain confidential in the reference list of community member involvement. You have the choice to have your name identified or not in the interview, and you may change your mind on this at any point. The researcher will send you the transcript of the interview once it has been completed so you can confirm its final content. At that point, you would be able to make any changes – or withdraw your comments completely if you decide you’d prefer not to be quoted at all in the final paper.  Confidentiality and Disposal of Data Consent forms will be kept in a locked briefcase until they will be scanned and secured on a password-protected, encrypted USB key. All transcribed audio-recordings of the interviews will be kept on this password-protected, encrypted USB key. The USB key will be stored in the locked office of the Appendix EConsent Form   H18-02742  Version Date: November 22, 2018    Page 2 of 2    Principal investigator, Cynthia Girling, at UBC for 5 years once digitized. Original forms will be destroyed.  This study will build on knowledge about language and place-based learning in Indigenous communities. You are being invited because you have knowledge about the Haida language and your experiences with teaching Haida.   Sharing the Study Your participation will help the researcher develop ideas about how teaching language in outdoor spaces. Your participation will assist the researcher with the production of a research document and a hypothetical design proposal comprised of a written analysis, maps, diagrams and other imagery. The research will not result in a journal publication. The research will be documented in a private, self-published report and will not be publicly accessible. This document will be given to the Council of the Haida Nation, the Skidegate Haida Immersion Program, the X̱aad Kil Office and School District 50 Haida Gwaii to be used at their discretion.   The information could also be used in the following ways; • Presentation to the community • Presentation for the School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at UBC  If you wish to receive a personal digital copy of the results, please contact the primary researcher.  Contacts If you have any questions regarding this study you may contact Michelle Gagnon-Creeley, the primary researcher at , or by e-mail at or Cynthia Girling, the Principal research supervisor at  If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598 or if long distance e-mail or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.  Your signature below indicates that you understand the above conditions of participation in this study and that you have been able to have any questions answered by the primary researcher.      __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Name of Participant Signature Date  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items