Brandon Da CostaPART I - Delirious UndergroundPART II - Model Homes for ParanoiaPART I - DELIRIOUS UNDERGROUNDPART II - MODEL HOMES FOR PARANOIABrandon Joseph Da CostaB.A. (Architectural Design + Environmental Geography)Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree ofMaster of ArchitectureinThe Faculty of Applied ScienceThe University of British Columbia2019Committee Chair Blair Satterfield (PART II) Internal Joseph Watson (PART I + II) Thena Tak (PART I + II)External Daniel Irvine (PART II) A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T SDerek MavisFélix-Antoine Lalonde LavergneJosé Gottret MerkelJoshua SilvestreMicah LundVincent PerronZoli ChanBlair Satterfield [B.Sc; M.Arch]Joseph Watson [B.Arch; M.A. Theology; Ph.D ABD]Thena Tak [B.Arch; M.Arch]This project has undergone many twists and turns throughout the design process, and much of it couldn’t have been done without the help of those willing to bounce ideas off of, or go over drawings with. It would be ingenuine of me to claim the project my own, when in fact it is a conglomeration of the ideas spun between many friends, faculty, and family. I can’t thank you guys enough.D E D I C A T I O NI Dedicate this thesis to my cousin Denny Moniz. Who passed away in 2016. He would have loved this shit.“[In the underground] Nature provides only space” - Rosalind Williams [Notes on the Underground, p.4, 1990]P A R T I | Delirious UndergroundU - C N C P T | 0 1U - C N C P T | 0 2U - C N C P T | 0 3 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T SPART I | Delirious UndergroundINTRODUCTION | Moving Downward PRECEDENT | Inspiration From BelowTYPOLOGY | Axonometric ExplorationsOPERATIVE | Studies of Moving Under MAPPING | Underground World ProjectsLOCATION | Critical Studies of SiteCHECKPOINT | An Underground ArchitecturePART II | Model Homes for ParanoiaSITE | A Suburb of Southern CaliforniaPROJECT 01 | Being SafePROJECT 02 | Going off the RadarPROJECT 03 | Controlling the ClimatePROJECT 04 | Being Neighbourly PROJECT 05 | Building for FuturesPROJECT X° | Add OnsCHECKPOINT | A New Idea of Suburb09 19 - 2425 - 3839 - 116117 - 136137 - 144145 - 172173 - 176183191 - 198199 - 218219 - 236237 - 254255 - 272273 - 292293 - 304305 - 308 I N T R O D U C T I O N | Moving Downward The underground is a place of many interconnected things, both physical and metaphysical. Because of these interactions between the negative space of the underground and the multitude of programs that find their way into its constructs, it suggests that the underground is a hybrid of never just one way of operating, but many. This idea can be looked at in both context to nature, as a place that creates itself out of natural processes, but then finds itself as a shelter for living beings alike. Whereas this hybridity can be also artificial, like a metro station that becomes the office for buskers and street performers year round. This thesis will takle this multi-faceted language of the underground in the architectural discourse. It will look at precedents outlinining some of the aims of the study that will flow into a typology exploration broken down to various categories each with their own multiple modes of existence. Underground operations will also be explored that outline the connections to the underground made through the operative of moving downward. This will then branch to a mapping study setting the groundwork for a dossier toward a variety of places that operate differently in their unique underground conditions. This analysis will end with the proper knowledge to comfortably move into the Part II of the thesis with the aim of producing an underground architecture for the sake of the underground.A Delirious UndergroundUNDERGROUND /ˈəndərˌɡround/ | n.A group or movement organized secretly to work against an existing regime.Found below the surface of the ground.UNDERGROUND /ˈəndərˌɡround/ | adj.Act of operating below the surface of the ground.UNDERGROUND /ˈəndərˌɡround/ | v.In secrecy or concealment; in a hidden or obscure manner.UNDERGROUND /ˈəndərˌɡround/ | adv. “the French underground” “Underground parking garages” “Miners working underground” “We were recently obliged to underground three and a half miles of the Thorpe Marsh-Stalybridge line.”Definitions from the Oxford English Dictionary21This thesis begins at the root of the underground. It’s word. Also the departure point to begin to understand the underground as a multi-functional space. As Pike (2007) suggests “The history of the words themselves in English and in French - subterranean, underground, underworld, hell; souterrain, bas-fond, enfers, enfer - plots the convergence of the material and the metaphysical underground in the space of the nineteenth-century city” (p.03). Already the underground, not even as a material or space, merely a word, finds itself lost in translation. It can be a noun, adjective, verb, and / or adverb, all simultaneously embracing separate meanings, showcasing a type of hyper hybridity linked to the underground. Underground’s etymology divulges its origins as an act of investigation, or to learning, that is only historically preceeded by a prefixed word that combined itself with many other words to become much more than itself - again a hybrid. In many ways the understandings of the underground will in the pages to come find their way falling back to the ideas of the word resonanting in the spaces of the below, that are seen in many ways as shadow to the spaces of light above. The understanding of the word also sets the tone of ‘an underground for the sake of the underground’ by truly embracing the underground not only as a space, but as a culture, and a program - a true underground architecture, rooted out of the deliriousness of the whole.A Delirious Underground Cont.UNDERGROUND ETYMOLOGY To search into, to investigate; to learn. “And whan his freend the sothe gan vndirgrope Of this myscheef”UNDER’GROPE | v. In Old English, various secondary meanings of under- are represented by such verbs as under(be)ginnan to begin or attempt, underfón to receive, undergietan, -niman, -standan to understand, undersécan to investigate. Several of these survive in Middle English, as underfo, undergete, -nim, -stand, underseche; and a few more are added, as underfind, -grope, -take. In later examples the sense is usually that of (secret) investigation, as underfeel, -look, -search, -watch, or of unobserved action, as underhear. In addition to the verbs some agent-nouns occur, as under-dealer, -plotter, -puller.UNDER-prefix | v. Definitions from the Oxford English Dictionary23P R E C E D E N T | Inspiration From Below The Merida Underground project by matterdesign highlights one aim of this thesis, in its arc into Part II, that being its strategic implementation as a necessary space for the longevity of its location in Merida, that then also becomes something else entirely. In detail this project makes an infrastructural operation into the ground that acts as stormwater drainage for Merida, a necessary function for a place that is frequently flooded. However flooding must certainly not occur everyday, so the real inspiration of this project lies in its ‘after-use’. In fact Merida also suffers from a socondary problem, its streetscape does not allow for pedestrian access on a large proportion of roads, a proposterous design flaw at the pedestrian level that has social impacts on the city, not to mention its lack of livability only supplanted by frequent flood events. As such this intervention in simultaneity to flood retention acts as a pedestrian walk space, harnessing the many open courtyards surrounded in Merida as nodes that the underground is weaved between allowing for a pedestrian level below the streetscape with safe connections to multiple courtyard spaces around Merida. In this the underground takes on a hybrid function that allows it to not only act as a leisure space, but also as an infrastructure, not to mention the other possible programs that may find their way into the space under the streets in future.matterdesign | Merida UndergroundImages from http://www.matterdesignstudio.com/merida-underground/27The Roden Crater by James Turrell exhibits a naturally formed depression in the earth, generated by the extinction of a once active volcano in the San Francisco volcanic field out in Arizona. Here James Turrell continually digs into the crater, creating multiple artworks that celebrate the cosmos in all of its glory, ignited by the dark night of its place. He achieves these feats of artistic goal through architectural means, by creating spaces that allow for the enhancement of certain feelings at different points of the day, including depressions in the floor aligned with openings in the ceiling that point to a certain celestial alignment. Its location, in such a barren area also has implications on the experience that spectators will be induced by upon entering the site. It provides a sense of barren nature, and phenomenology that enhance the experience of the place and spaces within as one from the earth, provided for by the natural wonders of the planet to celebrate the wonders of other planets, solar systems, galaxies, and universes riddled throughout the cosmos. It is here that the Roden Crater finds its inspiration toward the thesis. It is a naturally formed underground space that in time was appropriated by an artist (James Turrell) to colonize its natural beuty for the justification of art, an unpredictable program in a once active volcano - a showcase of a multifunctional space of the underground.James Turrell | Roden CraterImages from http://rodencrater.com/29Tadao Ando’s Chichu Art Museum located on the Island of Naoshima, in the Kagawa Prefecture, Japan is an underground marvel who’s architectural might comes from its performance with light. Housing works of art from Claude Monet, Walter De Maria and James Turrell to name a few, required the building to meet rigorous standards in order to house each collection in a differed space that met specific lighting accomodations to best represent the various artwork within. For instance the project is divided into three zones - open, dark, and ambient. Within the ambient spaces are collections that need indirect light such as Claude Monet and Walter De Maria. While James Turrell on the other hand requires darker spaces to conduct his works of light. The open zones serve as spaces for circulation, contemplation and connection throughout the museum. As a solution for these requirements, Tadao thought it would be much simpler to encapsulate the entire building below ground, enabling him to truly harness sunlight from one point of awarenes - above, and responding to the movement of the sun through orientation of the architecture, its choices of material, and circulated program throughout the project. It is as much a project of light as it is a project of being underground.Tadao Ando | Chichu Art MuseumImages from http://http://benesse-artsite.jp/31The Underground Houses by Philippe Rahm explore an architectural construct that is closely climatized to the earth beneath its surface. The project developes itself from the flatness of the earth where both the heating and cooling are generated underground, extracted from the inert soil underground, giving the interiors of these houses an “earthy taste, a slightly brownish tone, and thermal quality from the heat that has been drawn out” (philipperahm.com). In this two-storey build, the air is brought in through a heat recovery system that aids to set the temperature of the air into the home, once it enters the house, the air sits in the lower level - an open space - to be tempered further, slowly heating as it rises, moving through various spaces, becoming more stale, and eventually leaving the home to re-enter the world above. Rahm says “the typology of the home is therefore re-evaluated as a function of the distribution of air in the house, from the cleanest to the most polluted spaces. This air quality is inhabited; movement about the house occurs as a function of the specific air quality desired. Migration occurs among differentiated air qualities. The ambition of this project is therefore to construct an architecture that maintains both physiological and sensual links with the terrain and with the soil; an architecture that is inscribed into the site and its geology. An architecture to be breathed.” (philipperahm.com)Philippe Rahm | Underground HousesImages from http://philipperahm.com/33Auguste Choisy, an architectural historian above all else, developed isometric drawings that focused on the social and material terms of buildings. Always more fascinated in the structures of ancient [and other] monuments led Auguste to formulate these type of upside-right axonometric perspectives, or ‘Worm’s Eye’ drawings that represented buildings from the ground up, literally. This approach to representation in the realm of architectural concept and discourse affirms itself as the antithesis to the above-down, ‘God’ view of the orthodox axonometric or isometric drawing, grounding an approach to architecture that favors the unseen, the kept secret, the hidden. When exploring vaulting the ‘Worm’s Eye’ focused on the ceiling vaults rather than the pillar or flying buttress in some cases; when looking at underground spaces, and aquaducts it favored the structure and connection rather than the aesthetic, and circulation. In layman’s terms, the traditional top-down axonometric/isometric knows its position and commands its view from above, while the bottom-up axonometric/isometric feels disorienting, yet provides constant moments of reveal in its focus. As such this type of bottom-up representation is fitting for this project, as the underground is very much a space to be discovered, and revealed; it is for many an unseen and unfamiliar space that can be dissorienting, but exciting to explore and unmask.Auguste Choisy | Graphical RepresentationsImages from http://representation3.com/35In the tail end of an era of war [Vietnam War at the time] the architect and city planner Oscar Newman, better known for his dreadful Defensible Space Theory, also developed in 1969 the bizarre and speculative possibility of clearing out, with nuclear explosions, a massive underground sphere beneath Manhattan designated the Underground City. This seemingly ludacris idea, harbored great thought and comprehensive precision, with the hollowed space being occupied by just a half of the volume, and a regular city constructed on a grid of streets and buildings, containing several levels of further underground spaces, and including giant “air filters” that reach out to the surface. Newman states that “Manhattan could have a half-dozen such atomic cities strung under the city proper, the real problem in an underground city would be the lack of views and fresh air, but it’s easy access to the surface and the fact that, even as things are, our air should be filtered, and what most of us see from our window’s is somebody else’s wall.” (Alison Sky and Michelle Stone. Unbuilt America. McGraw Hill, 1976, page 192).Oscar Newman | Underground CityImage from http://socks-studio.com/37T Y P O L O G Y | Axonometric Explorations T Y P O L O G Y | N a t u r eThe typology studies begin with a look into phenomenological spaces created out of the processes of nature. Processes that create space in the underground, and by many means where nature carves out architecture. These spaces and places of the underworld will be looked at critically in the lens of hybridity that is the focus of this thesis. A focus underscored in each of the natural spaces in the succeeding pages.The cave is one of the spaces of the underground most called back to in many pieces of literature as the premier underground space, due to its link to the primitive man’s cave and a space of protection from the elements within its rock interior. However, this space is certainly rivaled by that of many other naturally formed underground spaces that can function in quite the same way. Interestingly in historical context it is well known that the cave is a natural construct that was then used by many creatures (including humans) for a place of solitude from the outside world, as previously suggested. This in itself already describes the hybrid nature of the cave as a space that nature did not necessarily intend to become habitat, rather surely the functional outcome of relief to a natural erosional process that just happened to be the right fit for many forms of life. Caves are further used today as places for exploration, tourism, and discovery, and only continue to be used in many different ways. It is the home of many different species of the animal kingdom (many nocturnal), and used quite regularly in pop culture as places of respite, secrecy, and protection - like the all too well known Bat-Cave. In many ways it is an exemplar typology for the aims of this thesis that focuses its multi-functioning structure through natural process.Cave43The grotto like the cave is another naturally formed rock outcropping due to the scraping, and erosional effects of various natural proccesses such as freeze-thaw, weathering, and outside intervention. However unlike the cave the grotto can also be an artificial construct, built in many garden landscapes through time out of inspiration from its naturally formed predecessor. In many ways the grotto holds hybrid value similar to that of the cave, as a natural space that was then assimilated by various forms of life into a habitat, a place to call home. Its interesting multi-use value however is found within its artificially inspired ‘other’ used in the beautification of landscape designs, and not to mention as a poolside feature for many extravagante parties. To think that a construct of the underground would inspire its proliferation - albeit un-natural form - as a tool in many ways for landscape designs in various French Formal, English, and Japanese style gardens to name a few. A space to be admired above ground yet one that originated from the depths below .Grotto45The crater takes the phenomenology of nature to new depths via its conception into the earth, which it carves itself into, and out of. There are two major processes of crater’s that are intended with the exploration of this drawing, being the processes of depression from an extinct / dying volcano, and also by subtraction from collision with the earth and a meteor - the latter seemingly more phenomenological than the former. Both craters, the volcanic crater (like Roden Crater) and the meteor created are formed by two distnct operations of moving into the ground that are at the heart of many cultures and sub-cultures of the day. For one the hybrid nature of the underground generated by the volcanic crater need not be as explored upon as its sister meteor crater due to the earlier precedent example of Roden Crater that proves a subculture that can form itself out of the bowels of such an underground architecture, in that case with artificial implementation. Rather the interest here then is focused on the meteor crater which almost instantaneously generates a site for science and research, with each carve into the earth being a chance at a new discovery. More-so these sites can become home to cultures of conspiracy that tend to try and explain such phenomenal events with falsified evidence usually linking the natural event to government projects. Non-the-less who knew such a detached space of the underground could find itself in the cultures of its time. Crater47The slot canyon - generated from the erosional capacities of rapidly flowing water through a gouge that continually increases its depth through erosion to become the slim lined canyon nature intended it to become. Like some of the previous naturally occuring undergrounds this type too, as a milti-programatic space becomes one of tourism on a daily basis (in most parts of the world), except during rapid flooding season when the canyon most surely expands a bit wider with the constant rush of water against its walls. It also becomes space for rock climbers and adventure seekers who want to discover what nature has to offer, let alone place of protection for many prey species that seek safety from their most usually larger predators. The underground in the slot canyon unlike the other preceeding types, is one that finds its beauty through the light of day, it is a type of naturally ocurring underground that is one of the most vibrant, lighting up in all kinds of red, orange, and yellow-ish hues that carry a sense of warmth throughout the depths of the canyon providing feelings of comfort and solace to its inhabitants that in many ways adds to the hybridity of this underground space since it naturally and unintentionally provides a feeling of belonging in a sub-terra space generated out of rushing water.Slot Canyon49The final natural space in this collection of underground typologies is given to arguably the first architects of the underground, yes to animals - small burrowing ones to be exact. The burrow like the origins of the word underground harnesses many connotations. For one, burrows come in many different shapes and sizes, in fact there really is no destinct shape, but more or less an unequally rounded sphere that can have many off-shooting trails leading to its nexus. The burrow can be used for storage by animals, such as a squirrel, that hides its nuts in the ground during the warmer seasons to ensure sustenance through the winter months. While it can also be a place for living, as a rabbit burrow, or home to many varieties of large spiders, amphibians, crestaceans... the list goes on. These ‘homes’ for such animal life is also charged with safety, these burrows are usually places to go to run from a predator that such prey species may frequently find above ground. It can also be a place of interaction between two species that find the same burrow or dig into the same location, or perhaps a site for thievery in the case of a critter stealing burrowed food, like nuts, if we take it back to the story of the squirrel. These multitude of happenings or programs occurring in and around the burrows are reasons enough how the tiny underground space of the burrow is undoubtedly a multi-faceted one at that.Burrow51Infrastructure plays to a large part of the underground, it is in many ways one of the most well recalled types of the spaces below our feet. If one ever mentions the underground, for the most part people will tend to remember a type of infrastructure running through the ground, like a pipe, or system in some manner. However these spaces of infrastructure surprisingly are places that have shown to become space for much more.T Y P O L O G Y | I n f r a s t r u c t u r eThe sewer is one of the more traditional types of the underground, and a staple of the world below, its something that is easily relatable to, because everyone in some sense uses the sewer, even if its not necessarilly up close and personal. However these sewer systems below our feet are hybrid to many differet programs within its channels than one may think. Although being built with the sole intention of channeling sewage waste out to a major filtration plant or body of water it also finds itself home to many pests, especially in the context of the city. Furthermore there is historical fact in the sewers as being a place for crime to slip under the watchful gaze of the law, in many respects to the times of prohibition when ‘moonshiners’ would make a run for the border, they would often have some kind of sewer connection to avoid the police (Hapgood, 1995). Sewers are also places that can be politically charged - take the Tijuana - Sandiego Border, it is a place of much strife that finds its underground sewer systems being utilized by the Mexican population in order to cross border into US territor (Admiraal + Antonia, 2018). Along with being a place of respite for many in Bogota, Columbia from their corrupt government, in this way the sewer can also become the house (Admiraal + Antonia, 2018).Sewer55The electrical man-hole is a space not many know about, most see man-holes and of course think of sewers, but in fact there are also man-holes for electricians. As the drawing may suggest these are spaces that are used to relay power in the form of electricity from a power source to neighboring buildings - at least in the context of the city to which these are usually located (Macaulay, 1976). On the other hand these are often spaces of security, hense why these spaces are so secretive or unknown to most people. Because of its important role of providing power to parts of the city, the municipal powers that be have to ensure that curious people cannot just find their way into these spaces, and so part of that startegy is to not share certain information with the public (ie: placing a banner nearby stating what it is, or its importantance), and also to label danger signs around as a place that can cause major harm, and so in that regard ‘enter at your own risk’. This duality between a space for providing power and masking it becomes the hybrid case for this underground construct that is the electrical man-hole.Electrical Man-Hole57The well is noticably one of the most infrastructural of all the typologies located under the banner of infrastructure. On the surface it is a place where one can draw drinking water from a water table deep within the earth. However on the other hand there is a deep historical power to the well as a builder of civilizations (Basso + Francesca, 2013). Like a Roman aquaduct, the well provides water to not just individuals but to villages, colonies, civlizations, its what powers mankind’s agricultural sustenance, and quenches the thirst of large amounts of people, yet in its simplest form it is just a relatively small puncture into the earth. A very humble design, but an incredibly fierce asset to any thriving nation. The multi-functionality in the underground of the well does not lie so much in its use as it does in its implication to the world above. Today water can be obtained in many varieties of ways, however some that still use the land rely on the traditional technology of the well, a large dependence on well technology can be found in parts of Arfica, where some communities crucially rely on wells to bring some drinkable water to the villages (Admiraal + Antonia, 2018).Well59The underground parking lot is known to be the reason for many metropolitan arguments over space finding as it tends to take up large quantities of area mostly in places that cannot afford the lack thereof. Politics aside, the parking lot, at least at the Macau Grand Prix in China becomes home to racing sport at certain points in time dedicating levels of underground parking for pit crew stations that work on the cars, in order to prep for the upcoming races, usually located so many kilometers away, above ground (Chen, 2012). From personal experience, underground parking can also transform into car meeting places, where car enthusiast will meet up and showcase their vehicles to a wide audience of people invested in car culture. Although these examples of hybrid functions of the underground parking infrastructure may seem to be legal for the most part as certain car meets/shows are usually known of by the governing body, it should not come as surprise that many of these events go under the radar and are illegal starting with trespassing. In fact these ‘meets’ usually end up with people racing with of course the potential dangers that come with it. In this regard the underground parking infrastructure generates not only space to keep ones vehicles but seems to harbor an heir for illegal activity in the context of the thing it was built for - cars. Parking61Metro stations like sewers are a type of underground infrastructure that people immediately come to recognize, with the exception of some that may enter the metro unconscience of the transition between above-ground and below-ground, but rather simply as a means of traversing the city on a daily basis - which happens when routine becomes ingrained in our everyday. Notably the metro as alluded to in the intro of this paper is not simply used as a place for travel or transportation as its underground infrastructure intended, but also becomes office to street vendors, buskers, vegabonds, and street performers that utilize the nexus hubs of transportation for personal monetary gain (Menear, 1985; Rewerski, 1995). Not to mention that in recent, these hubs of transportation have also been increasingly becoming open to ancillary retail, holding many well known restaurants, and shops to cater to the travelers moving through its hub, taking advantage of the massive amount of capital that moves through the metro on a daily schedule. On a morbid note it is also a place of death, suicides were a large problem in the subway that is slowly being dealt with in the addition of protective barriers between the track and the pedestrian. It would seem then that the dependence of the metro in modern society seems to establish it as a gate of many things, only increasing its multi-faceted use as an underground architecture.Metro63The catacombs are an underground infrastructure that operate to support the city above in some way shape or form. In the case of the Paris catacombs large quarries were strategically dug out in order to help build the city of Paris above (Pike, 2005). These quarries were extracted in a way that would continually support the groundwork above so that it did not collapse all the while extracting the optimal amount or quarry stone in order to make most use of the catacombs for the benefit of the world above. However the catacombs at least in context to Paris can fit into many different categories other than infrastructure in many ways as it also exists as one of the largest ossuaries, holding the remains of over six million people. In this regard Pike (2007) would suggets that the catacombs breed a sense of the ‘underworld’ in the Greek mythological sense, a place where the river styx flows with the souls of the damned, so too does the catacombs of Paris hold the spirits of the many remains stored in its walls. Additionally the catacombs are place to nomads, galavanters, adventurists, and explorers who seek out the depths of the Paris underworld through some of its most taxing routes in order to get a sense of fullfillment, and also simply as a means to hang out, and vandalize portions of the underground to leave a mark to be expressed and experienced for years to come (Archer, 2005).Catacombs65The underground highway can be a tricky typology to hammer down in relation to its multi-functionality as an underground space that becomes something more. since its function really becomes its only program, that being the means to travel from point A to point B in good time by avoiding certain troubles above. However, the human race has reached the age where underwater tunneling is capable, and as such does in fact add a hybrid nature to the underground highway - that being the idea of discovery. Just as an aquarium is a place to discover the life of the waters, now that experience can be provided by car through the underground highway pass, as a means to witness the ocean in an argubly more natural condition. Forcing a use out of the highway that can start to be generated out of discovery rather than just the idea of ‘getting somewhere’. This also opens up the possibility of thinking about underground travel in different ways. Elon Musk for one is harnessing the underground as a means of containment, allowing for a vacuum type transportation system designated ‘Hyper-Loop’, and has ideas of underground highways in Los Angeles that are curently in the works. Non-the-less the idea of experience in these places would need refinement, something that this typological study eludes to (BBC, 2016). Highway67The artificial typologies of the underground can also be categorized as a space for leisure. A place to hang out and relax, eat or drink, even shop or work out can be provided by the underground. After all, all one needs is space to afford that, and the underground molds itself out of space.T Y P O L O G Y | L e i s u r eMalls are especially a large part of the underground that seem to integrate themselves into the fabric of the below by way of transportation hubs, which seem to support the function of a mall adjacent to their transportational infrastructures. In China particular Shanghai the mall is a truly prolific typology that has made its way underground into many major parts of the country that centers around large nexiums of people (Golany, 1989). However because these spaces of the underground are usually integrated into transportaion hubs, the type of hybridity that appears is not unlike that of the Metro, where vegabonds stroll, and street buskers are hastily and continually on the prowl. It becomes then a place where the mall truly manifests the ‘underworld’ counterpart to the traditional above-ground mall because it invites all sorts of program that the more security heavy typical mall may not tolerate, in this providing a space for the ‘unwanted’ that only breeds more sub-cultures into the domain of the underground. Mall71Being at home is where most people would want to be on a regular basis, but how many people when they think about home have their minds set on the underground portion of the house - the basement or crawlspace. So many questions arise out of thoughts on the basement because everyone uses their basement in different ways, already generating mystery to the basement typology that is drawn out of its unknown contexts. However, questions arise such as what do you use a basement for? Which demographics use it in which ways? What is a basement? These questions lead to some answers that actually provide multi-functionality to the program of the domestic underground space that finds its place in the sub-cultures of the suburbs, as a strong context to many basement dwellings. Basements are indeed interesting because they can in relation to sub-culture become place for ‘band practice’, a video gamers paradise, a ‘man cave’, even a space for a garage and the celebration of automobile culture in some cases. All of these variants and more are celebrated in basements that tend to normalize these oddly ocuring ‘things that happen everyday’ when in fact these are unique cultures of suburban basements that one would have a hard time finding in the context of a city.Basement73Clubs vary in all kinds of types of program, some more illegal than others, others more secretive than some. However the real ‘magic’ of the underground club lies within its principles that make available experiences that one could not find anywhere else. These unique experiences are only supplanted by the night, which in many cases is the time of the day when the underground club scene opens its doors and comes alive. Some of the porgram that one can find here are drinking, karaoke, stand-up comedy, dining; to more risqué programs such as home to strip clubs, drag bars, dive bars and many more. Already then the underground club proves itself to be home to many types of program some more leftist than others. However the club is also a place of intense illegal activity that stretched itself back to the times of prohibition once again, where clubs known as Spekeasies found themselves designing their interiors with hidden doors to mask the interior facade from a hidden space dedicated for the selling and distribution of alcohol in the times of its illegality. Also, many bars and clubs are in operation through funding from a type of mafia group, be it Yakuza, Triads, Bratva, what have you that usually implement a dedicated space (typically in a back room) for the operations of their business (Marshall, 2007). The underground club in this sense becomes a space of things shown, but also hidden.Club75In recent travels to Japan it was surprisingly exciting to discover the amount of underground space used in many of Tokyo’s districts, especially their use of the underground for the prolific locations of restaurants along major streets, and even side alleys. Some underground restaurants more drastic than others in context to their depths in the earth, where in some cases the restaurant would be flights of stairs below the ground, while in other cases there was a gradual couple steps or so to enter into the tasteful space below street grade. These spaces would usually be small in proportion, perfect for a quick stop, but never one to dwell in for long periods of time. While in other locations in Tokyo, such as Shibuya where a more ‘elegant’ restaurant was situated in the ground, in some ways embracing its depth with materiality, and lighting effects, and in other ways still reflecting the great qualities of restaurants above or at grade. The hybrid nature here resonates with more historical accounts of the underground as a place ‘below’ or ‘under’ the world above, as a place where the poor find themselves, in a more figurative sense. However in Japan at least the underground restaurant inverts that idea of class hierarchy, possibly out of reaction to major densification, suggesting that the high class things be underground in many cases, almost protecting whats important by hiding, and also reinforcing itself from the frequent seismic activities of the area.Restaurant77The underground is also a place of defensive measures. A place to go out of protection from opposing forces, or natural events, it can even be protective in the event of securing information or containing something that holds much importantance or devastation to the world above. In this and other reasons, it is imperative to also study the underground in relation to its defensive measures.T Y P O L O G Y | D e f e n s i v eAlbeit one of the most historically charged spaces of the defensive underground and one that will be further studied in this thesis as an operation are the spaces of the trenches in the Great Wars, over the battles of trench warfare that dug its way through its fronting space of No Man’s Land toward, through, and in between enemy lines. These spaces would be home to a hell on earth, that no man should ever have to go through. A safe haven in the rain of bullets and the mist of blood spraying overhead, where its inhabitants always had to keep a keen eye on the precarious bends of the trench as an enemy onslaught of troops could be located in ambush. In this, one can find the muti-function of the trences, of a place to reluctantly call home, to many troops on the homefront who were forced to stay and fight in the trenches for months on end, sometimes never leaving the trenches for six months at a time (Kern, 2003). Its an ironic thing to attach to a place so focused on fear and death, but that became the domestic program of the trench, necessary to live with in order to survive the daily onslaught of war. Occassionally checking a watch for procedural times of the day when tasks needed doing, looking forward to the calm of night and fearing the potential outcomes of the next day (Kern, 2003) - this was the perverted norm of trench warfare, and in many ways the best outcome to a situation so filled with death and sorrow. Trench81During the cold war era a variety of bunkers and / or fallout shelters were being constructed in and around many homes, especially in suburbanized areas of the United States that capitalized on the ‘nuclear family’ and its pre-emptive strategy for surviving a potential nuclear attack from the Soviet Union of other places. These spaces for the most part were never used, as a bomb attack on the States never occurred, although some conspiracy theorists hold the bunkers value high still as a place of refuge for the end of times, as far as an apocalyptic narrative is concerned. The spaces of the bunker are also like the trenches, but more directly meant to be homes - domesticated spaces in the underground, that harnesses enough storage to pull a family through many months and even years, until the space above is once again safe to enter into. In a sense these are also spaces of fear, fear of the unkown and assurance of protection from that which is unpredictable. In Bilisht Albania, hundreds of thousands of bunkers were built during the cold war in secrecy, to an era led by paranoia. These bunkers now seem to have an afterlife filled by programs of museums, cafes, and more (Crevar, 2017; Admiraal + Antonia, 2018). Bomb Shelter83Another defensive underground project perhaps again the product of fear is the missile silo, used as a counter-defensive measure in the case of a missile strike on home soil, to be deployed for enemy missile interception, or counter attack. Like the fallout shelters, the missile silo too is a product of the cold war age, with regard to the American context. They built many of them sporadically throughout the entire country, in order to provide enough grounds to always have a back up missile in case of the destruction of a certain missile silo site, also due to the idea of these being intercontinental missiles, and so the more locations, the better the range of global targets outside of the US. However with the setting of the cold war era these sites, or at least many of them have found no use for the governemnt, only to the expense of taxpayers with the ongoing maintenance of these deep sites in the earth. Unexpectedly these sites are being bought by developer agencies who are transforming these spaces within the missile silo’s into apartments and in some cases luxury condominums meters below the earth (Goldberg, 2018). Who knew the cold war would reap such luxurious rewards, and that the product of fear would then become the space of respite. In this sense the hybrid nature of the underground missile silo holds a strong juxtaposition to its original intention that is interesting to note.Missile Silo85The underground in many ways is also a place for storage. A place to store information, food, merchandise, money refuse, secrets, defensive measures among many other things. Storage in these next few types showcase a variety of underground conditions with the sole objective of storing something, with of course a hybrid nature that begins to challenge and change the programs from which they come.T Y P O L O G Y | S t o r a g eThe warehouse is a general term for a large variety of types of warehousing from small back lots storage buildings to large superstructures that house thousands of different products for a larger audience of buyers. These buildings are often located in many different places around a bustling region that can affect its program depending on where it is located. If the warehouse is located in the suburbs or somewhere outside of the city it most often remains only as a warehouse building, and remains that as a program. However, when these places are located in the city is where these structures begin to take on interesting lives - in these cases the warehouses are usually smaller in size and interact socially in a way unprecedented by the creation of the warehouse as a place of storage. The hybridity of the underground warehouse comes in two ways. One, in its life it can become place of vandalism, of discovery, and adventure through its industrialist design, and invention that inspire others (usually at night) to trespass into the warehouse, defining a distinct space for counter-culture. While on the other hand the warehouse also holds an afterlife, in the case of it becoming abandoned, holding an unrenewed lease. In this situation many younger audiences seek a place to have a good time and when in the city will gravitate to these spaces. I will note here that these spaces do not need to be abandoned for other programs, but may also be rented out (Rewerski, 1995).Warehouse89If one finds themselves in a little known area in the United States of America called Tornado Alley it would be wise to look out into the farmlands for this next typology that may be hard to find given its nearly completely submerged form. The reason for this is because although the root cellar is a place for storage, it is also a place that happened to be perfect for evading large windstorms. The storage found here in the root cellar is typically product of the farm consisting of many different varieties of grain seeds that the land is depended on to provide, not to mention the farmer(s) who sustain their life from the land. In this sense the root cellar is the containment of yield stocks first and foremost, and finds itself underground due to the regulating temperature of the surrounding earth that encases its form. In this regard the root cellar although being a small intervention ends up becoming quite an important one for the purposes of the farm - an importance that will be elaborated on further in the succeeding chapter. As mentioned this form is suplanted as a place of safety not just of yield stock, but of human survival in cases of hurricanes and twisters that can wipe large plots of land clean from their soils with one pass through an area. It provides the necessary space apart from the farmhouse to hide in the case of a natural disaster, that could potentially become a temporary home in a significant event that ever forced one to remain within its confines.Root Cellar91The storage of refuse is one type of storage most do not dwell upon, or even like to think about as it is filled with all sorts of disturbing smells and tastes that serve no place in the conscience mind except perhaps to be made joke of. In the case of the biogas plant the conscience mind is the only place that this site for storage finds itself, as its inception came about from the very conscience minds of scientists with the intention of generating a naturally occuring and renewable fuel source as supplement to fossil fuels. This underground intervention stores refuse and converts energy from the gases generated from the decomposing waste within its chambers. These spaces also operate as collection stations for fuel almost becoming a type of natural ‘gas station’ not yet used for public access, but with a trajectory that seems fitting for that purpose. The biogas plant also acts as an activist for clean energy advocated from the underground and a typology that in more ways than a few suggests the importance of the spaces below not only as a space for storing, but as a place for creating the necessities required by life above ground in the context to the more sustainably driven contemporary world.Biogas Plant93In most ways the laboratory is a place of storage, a place to produce findings and seek knowledge in research toward a certain goal. It is a place where large discoveries can be made, and where minor moves forward in the discourse of science can be enacted every day, in this respect it becomes more a place of education and learning than a place of storage. Be that as it may, once you place the laboratory underground it inevitably transforms into a place of storage as the move downward is a necessary driver in order to contain the contents within the lab in a more controlled environment provided by the underground. This also speaks to ideas of safety in containment, and the fact of it being underground as a means to aid in an unexpected event of a chemical explosion or possible disease spread that would be harder to escape through the enclosed structure. This also brings to light the hybridity of the laboratory as a space which can be hidden, or kept secret of as it hides itself underground in ways becoming a storage of information similar to the Lost Library of Ivan the Terrible in Moscow, Russia that was or is (no one knows if it exists anymore) a place with an extensive collection of literature collected through the years from ancient times (Marshall + Emblidge, 2007).Laboratory95Many interventions of the world below are acted out with economic means, which in many ways makes perfect sense. The underground is an expensive place to work within due to the vast amounts of energy required to dig downward and through solidity. One reason to get around this difficulty is if the goal or outcome of the expense comes with a great monetary gain. As will be seen with the next few typologies.T Y P O L O G Y | E c o n o m i cOperating as a space for the safe storage of monetary assets first and formost, the vault is a place that is used by banks worldwide that keeps one’s money and other goods in a safe located within another portion of the bank that only an authorized person can access. So already here there is a dialogue between safety and security, wrapped around the idea of economic means. The interesting point of departure with the vault begins with the nature of it becoming an underground space. As is widely known many banks are situated above ground, however most important banks store their vaults underground as architect Jon Soane’s Bank of England is exemplary of (Kligerman, 2015). In fact his design for the Bank of England was so heavy in its structure that it actually acted like a defensive skin that could protect the contents within the bank from cannon fire, easing the minds of the people with investments in the bank, knowing that their money is safe, and encouraging more to sign up with the Bank of England from others monetary institutions (Kligerman, 2015). Similarly this typology gets at the same ideas of defensive strategy that holds itself as a dormant program to the vault, only to be awakened in times of defensive measure, if at any time someone tries to break their way into the bank system and collect all the treasures that lay within. Vault99Mining is one of the operations underground with economics in mind at the forefront of its decision making for moving downward. Mines cost vast amounts of money and can provide some of the most extremely dangerous working conditions to a person, so why mine? The answer is simple, money. There are also nessessary reasons to mine such as requiring the certain levels of fossil fuels to run an economy dependent on them, but also to mine other materials that are duly used on a daily basis. In many ways it keeps the capitalist world running as it moves deeper and deeper to what some would say hell - the point when those limited resources run out. In this sense the mine becomes much more than the sum of its parts and a hybridity point that stretches out of more than its operative function of mining to a globally scaled model. Additional to this the mine is also historically a place of sickness and death, a place where sparrows would be sent into to test the purity of the air levels in order to judge whether the working conditions were sufficient for the daily miner. Mines are also places of massive devastation that will be elaborated on in the operative section of this thesis. There is also an afterlife to the mine where people go to discover the ruins of what once was and adventure into open pits to serve the adrenaline of those seeking excursion.Mine101In Singapore, Singapore is the context to which this typology comes from and is the site of its actual implementation at approximately 130 meters below the sea level. This project is the response of Singapore - one of the worlds leading fossil fuel exporters - to reserve surplus fossil fuels in the surface of the earth to be used in times of peak demand, as the current refinery atop the surface on Jurong Island will not be enough to provide the necessary demand of fossil fuels in the future. Although being this space meters below the earth generated out of fuel demand, and economic means to say the least, it is also a project that like the mine, and more so in the case of this type and project holds a hybrid nature of power, both political, and economical in the case of Singapore. For this project provides the small country with a vast resource that will in many ways be more depended on by the rest of the world securing their spot as a resoure powerhouse, and a central part of the economic world, needless to say the wealth of singapore will most certainly increase. The discourse of economics is runned in many ways parallel to power politics, this typology showcases the power of the underground that if harnessed can be provided to even the most miniscule regions like that of Singapore (Epstein, 2017).Oil Reserve103Time in the underground is something that constantly shifts like the sands of a vast desert, only to find itself through the unearthing of what was once below. It can also be found in the constructs of the underground that reveal a history and a memory of things that once were. Time in the underground is past, discovered through the present, that can inspire the future.T Y P O L O G Y | T e m p o r a l i t yOne of the more prominent types of underground one may think about in the realm of temporality is the archaeological dig. The type of underground that is unearthed in order to discover artifacts, and relics of the past that can provide a rich history of what once was, in the site of the dig. Known histories discovered from the underground are most notably the discovery of dinosaurs, and other extinct animals that once roamed the Earth like mammoths. Aside from biology, the archaeologial dig has also provided cultural information of the past to cities, and countries they belong - the world would be completely different without the findings of the underground. This typology brings up the preservational ability of the ground that can manage to store things over large periods of time in relatively well kept resolution, as the effects of soil erosion process around them, but arguably much more well kept than if left exposed to the environments, and certainly well stored, so to be able to call the artifacts to a certain location. This typology can also be taken and used as a tool for moving downward as Parlama and Stampolidis (2001) outline that in the construction of the Athens metro system, an archaeological approach would be taken in the process of digging the metro that would unearth artifacts of the area, these artifacts would then be displayed in the constructed metro stations so that each was a sort of library of its cultural past.Archaeological Dig107Crypts, or perhaps the existence of time as death in the underground can be interpreted in other forms too like a mausoleum which tends to be underground, or perhaps even in the form of an above ground artifact like a tombstone. The key here is that time in these underground constructs seems still, allowing an embrace toward death, toward the end, in a way that can connect the viewer to the deceased that no other place could. In this regard it also acts as a sort of gateway to the underworld (Pike, 2007). These types of existential connotations in these typed of morbid underground spaces also seems to drive in many ways a unique culture toward them that can inhibit many cultist rituals, that for the most part would be illegal in these spaces, as a final resting ground for the deceased. These types of relation to these spaces are further enhanced by the architectural moves, most notably of moving downward into the space to what many would associate with being closer to hell, demons, or the devil - the underworld of myth if you will. Crypt109This typology comes with inspiration from the 9/11 memorial located in Manhattan, New York. A cavity in the ground that celebrates the once towering sister building of the Twin Towers destroyed in a terrorist act against the United States. This typology differs in some ways from the others which all focused on a clear design for a purpose that seemed to find other meanings resonanting out of their spaces, in some cases with the help of time, but in the case of the monument memorial the design is so simple that it can only explain one thing - that being a depression in the ground. Simple, yes, but its this reluctance of form that allows the viewers to have nothing in their way of connecting with the people who lost their lives in the buildings. In the case of this memorial the goal was to achieve a ‘deeer’ program of the underground, maybe even if it was not a conscience act. However it is also a typology to represent other monuments scribed into the ground that speak to similar value, and like the archaeological dig, describes a certain point of time in the past, although more specific, that can be shared with the future.Monument Memorial111This final typology demarcating the unknown is a great closer to the axonometric typological studies that have been performed with lens to the hybridity of the underground. It will prove to provide a link between all the types that originate really from one place, that then from there explode into the variety of things that make up the underground in all of its parts. Not to say that they have all been explored here, because the underground is not unlike Lego, it can be assimilated to almost anything that exists above ground. The key here is that it can also be something more.T Y P O L O G Y | T h e U n k o w nHere lies the existence of the underground in its purest form, but also as what many unconsciously regard it as - an aggregated space below, condensed to a solid. Perhaps that is being too forgiving, as some do not think about the underground at all, hense an unkown. It is critical to understand in this thesis that this form of something, of nothing is the positive space of the underground that is the genesis to which nature carves out its caves and grottos, to which people build sewers and transportation services, to which restaurants and basements find leisure, to which safety is found in the trenches of wars fought, to which the root cellar and warehouse find storage, to which oil reserves and mines can economically thrive, to which time can be discovered. This is the origin that obtained the potential for the expansive uses of the underground that can be so easily taken for granted today, not to mention the hybrid value that comes out of each of those uses. The underground then is certainly a place of multi-functionality in program and form as it reveals itself in these studies to contain a domino effect of uses that continually find room to expand in these spaces of the underground. Where its above ground counterpart would renovate, break down, and change things to bend to the new use, the underground stays mostly similar embracing the change that finds itself below.Mystery | Subconscience115O P E R A T I V E | Studies Of Moving Under118From the typological studies probed in the preceeding section, a closer look at the operations of moving downward will be explored in this part of the study. It will focus on four distinct types of projects provided from the typology analysis, with detailed focus on their operations of implementation in both the temporal macroscale and temporal microscale. By this it will see how the operations of these projects - the sewer, root cellar, trench warfare, and mine create themselves over a large framework of time, slowly evolving and effecting the world anove at the temporal macroscale as the world above reciprocates an effect on the evolution of its underground. While also diagramming the individual operatives of moving downward within each unique project. In a way documenting a varierty of methods connected to the underground through mankind’s ability to move downwards, that will reveal a multi-functionality to these spaces below the surface only strengthened by the operations that create these uderground conditions.P R E F A C E | Underground Operationspre-underground sewer 1750 1850 1900 1950 20181900The sewer system in context to its time at the macro level is one that begins to impress upon the lives of the world above, changing it from what it would seem a condition in terms of environmental quality, similar to that of its time before implementation. In this sense the underground seems to work for the above ground in its operations. However this process was not so smooth as the diagram suggests - looking at the time between 1750 and 1850, the small implementation of early sewers in the forms of miniature trenches paved the way for improved sewer infrastructures, but at the time opened up the city to plague by disease. Improving the sewers a bit more by inserting them fully underground as shown between 1850 and 1900 kept certain pollution away from public perception, however it started to rot the city from the inside out or rather from the bottom up. In context to the city of London, which went through a similar evolution of its sewer system originating with the cleaning of the Thames river, ended up being effected by the pollution of water wells receiving runoff of refuse from the newly imposed underground system that ignited the great cholera outbreak of the city (Ackroyd, 2012; Howson, 1995). This then sparked a reaction from the world above back into the underground for improvements which paved the way for the clean city people know and love today. In this there is a hybrid evolution of the underground created out of dialogue with the world above.O P E R A T I O N | SewerTemporal Macroscale121 122pre-operation~ 1 week ~ 4 weeks ~ 8 weeks ~ 10 weeks operative completion~ 12 weeks~ 8 weeks The microscaled time of the construction of the sewer system at least in the operation of a portion of the sewer displayed in diagram, is put togeher in about thirteen to fourteen weeks time. It makes its way down starting from the locational selection of where the sewer will be placed. From here the necessary safety precautions are laid out along the sides of the road to make sure no one falls into the large cavity that will be the sewer. Initial steel column forms are hammered into the adjoining sides marking the boundary of the operation - this takes up to about four weeks. Moving on froom this is a careful process of digging downward while laying the boardwork lining between the steel columns creating a retaining wall to protect the workers from collapse of the structure. This continues for another few weeks until the ideal subsurface level is reached and the foundations of the sewer can be laid. Concrete formwork is now introduced for the construction of the sewer tunnel (in some cases brickwork) and then the cavity of the tunnel is finally backfilled with soil and the sewer section is complete. Keep in mind this is one of many ways of constructing this type of large access sewer, other sewer systems can be laid with pipe in the ground that is not as much of an extensive process, among other ways of operating the construction of the sewer.O P E R A T I O N | SewerTemporal Microscale123 124pre-root cellar 1800 1900 1920 1970 2018The root cellar on a macroscale is one that has aided in the evolution of the growth of the farm over relatively short periods of time. It begins its journey after the implementation of the farm on a large patch of natural landscape in the beginning of the 20th century with the onset of the industrial revolution. What dedicated agriculturalists were noticing was the unprecedented nature of the farm that was too sensitive to climatic events naturally occurring sporadically throughout the year, in many cases wiping out the vegetation stock and leaving unfulfilled patches in the crop that the farmer just could not afford. As such the invention of the root cellar enabled the safe protection of yield by storing the necessary stock via seeds or other into the root cellar. This enabled farms to not be so hindered to natural climatic events, both strengthening and growing the farm over the decades to follow. Now, these winds and destructive weather patterns relative to the location of the farm also generated a second use out of the root cellar as a place of refuge during intense storms, in this case not only keeping the yield safe but also the yielder. In this the root cellar also harnesses a defensive program on the farm in all aspects of the word, truly capitalizing on the multi-funtionality of the underground.O P E R A T I O N | Root CellarTemporal Macroscale125 126pre-operation ~ 1 day ~ 4 days ~ 10 days ~ 12 days operative completionAt the microscale the root cellar is a small scale underground structure unlike that of the sewer, and so the construction of the cellar is intuitively enacted over a much smaller timeframe than that of larger scale projects. Built between only a few pairs of hands the construction process begins with marking out the border of the project, placing the necessary safety precautions around the site. Once the border line is drawn digging can commence usually starting with a larger depth cut out of the border. From there digging continues with the construction of a wooden retaining wall and stairs to move down into the site. After about four days a foundation can be prepped and laid making sure to set the anchors for structural beams within the concrete forms. Once the concrete is laid out the structural beams can be erected along with the traditionally masonry walls and mortar to make permanent of the temporary retaining wall. The final step is to run cross beams across the completed bearing walls topped with a fitted roof and hatch door to seal the space. Typically these spaces are below the ground at a spot near the main farmhouse, but can be also located at the sides of farm houses and barnes as a connection to a basement condition separate from the rest of the house.O P E R A T I O N | Root CellarTemporal Microscale127 128pre-1900 1920 1940 1960 2000 2018The Great Wars (World War I + World War II) of the 20th century were home to sites of great tragedy, tribulation, and triumph. They were also sites of trench warfare, a form of battle that shapes the landscape itself through the operation of trenching via man-power into a relatively flat landscape in order to create a sunken level in the battlefield to avoid enemy fire (Kern, 2003). In many repects the trenches were a hell unlike no other, with the occassional unprecedented gas bombs that forced troops into no man’s land usually to death, and the necessity to sleep with legs out of dugouts in order to be pulled out in case of a trench collapse. The trenches over time became this underground form built out of defensive necessity that then over the many months of dwelling in them transformed into homes for the battalions of troops that relied on the trenches everyday as their best chance to stay alive (Kern, 2003; Cohen, 2011). Kern (2003) describes the trenches as a tool in creating the cubist war, inspired by the impressed trench linework into the landscape noticable from above, explaining that life in the trenches also contained a disjointed experience between space and time where its occupants dwelled in the trenches so long that their sense of time skewed as all their experience revolved around the space of the narrow trenches (Kern, 2003). Interestingly the trenches in recent years are places of tourism, where the trench and its history are spaces of spectation.O P E R A T I O N | Trench WarfareTemporal Macroscale129 130pre-operation ~ 6 hours ~ 12 hours ~ 18 hours ~ 24 hours operative completionThe operation of the trenches in warfare is one of the most intriguing operatives of the underground in the different modes of moving down that are studied. In most cases because there is a strategy to it that takes its course over a twenty-four hour period, an operation not just of a simple dig, but one wrapped up in fear, hostility, and agony. Upon entering an open field troops need to immediately start constructing the trench, all the while under enemy fire, making it a process of digging interjected by stretched pauses of ‘duck and covering’ in the act of counter-fire. Usually in the first few hours of digging many troops will be undoubtedly be injured and many others will unfortunately die. Moving forward into dusk is when a good trench can be man-powered into the ground prividing a base level of protection, making available a comfortable opportunity for counter fire. Into night is when most digging can occur as the battle for the most part subsides with the darkness of the battlefield. The dawn now has a more sophisticated dig with portions of the trench as dug-outs for resting. In the final hours of a potential twenty-four hour period more materials are laid along the trench to reinforce the walls, along with sewage depressions laid with wooden planks to avoid the causes of trench-foot.O P E R A T I O N | Trench WarfareTemporal Microscale131 132pre-mine 1800 1920 1990 2000 post-mineAt the macroscale the operation of the mine is a process of degradation - moving away from nature, and regeneration - moving back to nature. Of course as noted there are economic means inscribed ino the typology of the mines, but more so as an operation that brings devastation and destruction to the landscapes it encounters, or in some ways conflicts with. Usually placing the origin of its operation in a pristine and remote place, there is immediately a deforestation that occurs leading to types of mining over time that in the 1800’s to early 1900’s focused on pick-axe’d digs into the side of mountains (in many cases) that would only be expanded on with man-power alone similar to the trenches. Moving forward into time the destruction of the landscape only increased with the fossil fuel powered engines of mining machines, making deforestation more comprehensive and mining digs increasingly more devastating, such as strip mining used in the process of mining coal. By the late 20th century into the 21st century mining technologies are even that much more sophisticated that the degradation on the landscape is just unprecedented, leaving a mark in the earth that will not grow back to the way it was even in generations time. In fact the usual consensus is to fill the ‘open wound’ with water post mining operations so that it seems as if the land is untouched, a lie to people of to avoid the awareness of the devastating operation mining has on the land.O P E R A T I O N | MineTemporal Macroscale133 134pre-operation ~ 3 months ~ 6 months ~ 8 months ~ 12 months ~ 13 monthsThe operative of mines in the context to the 21st century is quite straightforward and is a process usually undergone by heavy machinery. In some cases although devastating for sure, the initial phase of the mining operation is to locate the site best fit for such a destructive process, tending to be the one with the richest depository of minerals. Once selected a team of surveyors and arborists are usually sent in to claim the flora that can be used in the production of other things, so that the trees are not just knocked down without cause, decreasing the total amount of devastation in the area by a marginal degree. Once this process is complete the mining companies wipe out all parts of the forest that are in its way clearing the land to begin mining operatives. In the case of strip mining digging rigs are set up at the top of the hills (usually strip mining occurs on hillsides) and terrace the hill toward the bottom of the incline. Once the hillside has been stripped, further mining can be induced on the land through big rig machinery, and man-power, both digging traversally into the hillside, and further down into the landscape. This is a process that tries to bear all the fruits of its labor, leaving none left for the land to which it once belonged.O P E R A T I O N | Root CellarTemporal Microscale135 136M A P P I N G | Underground World Projects138The following exercise is one of the shorter studies, but fruitful in the research of this thesis that is necessary subsequent to the analysis of underground operations, as a move to begin visualizing locations of underground projects around the globe and their relationships to their unique contexts. This study will provide a wide angle view of the underground that is fundamental in revealing projects that have been completed to inspire the work heading into Part II of this thesis. All the while understanding areas that seem to contain more importance than others in the relation to their number and variety of underground projects, that will allow a cross-referencing of location, project and context in leading toward the final step of this Part I study. This study also serves as a way to find deeper meaning in the ideas of the underground at the scale of the world, in culture, language, and politics. Understanding more of how the world sees the underground, will provide more insight into how much gravity the concept weaves itself not only in peoples, but in history, and will no doubt more solidify the point that underground is a hybrid thing, whatever that thing may be.P R E F A C E | Project / Precedent MappingImage from Apollo 17 Spacecraft ‘The Blue Marble’, December 7, 1972139undergroundondergrondsnëntokësorստորգետնյաyeraltılurpekoметропод земятаsubterranisuttaterrapodzemljepodzemíunderjordisksubteramaa allsa ilalim ng lupamaanalainensouterrainbaixo terraunter Tageυπόγειοςanba tèkarkashin kasama laloföld alattneðanjarðarn'okpurualabawah tanahfaoi thalamhmetropolitanalemahжерастыbinerdîжер астындаsub terrapazemespo žemeënnerierdeschпод земјаambanin'ny tanybawah tanahtaħt l-artraroгазар доорjordiskmobisapod ziemiąsubterrâneoпод землейlalo o lalofon talamhпод земљомpasi pevhupodzemípodzemljedhulka hoostiisaka tlas'a lefatšesubterráneojero taneuhchini ya ardhiunderjordiskaзеризаминyeraltıпід землеюer osti suvlaringầmdan ddaearûndergrûnskngaphantsi komhlabaipamongaphansi komhlabaتحت الارضভূগর্ভস্থ地下ભૂગર્ભתת קרקעיभूमिगत地下ಭೂಗತ지하철ഭൂഗർഭभूमिगतभूमिगतځمکیزیرزمینیਧਰਤੀ ਹੇਠਾਂ, ਲੁਕ ਜਾਣਾزير زمينநிலத்தடிభూగర్భزیر زمینונטערערדSubteranmerēti wisit’imway aaw kyamits’iskveshanow kraom deitaidinbhūgataTıdintaht al'ardstorgetnyaBhūgarbhasthamietropod zemyataDìxiàypógeiosBhūgarbhabhoomigatChikaBhūgatajerastıjihacheoljer astındapod zemjabhūgarbhaBhūmigatagazar doorBhūmigataDharatī hēṭhāṁ, luka jāṇāpod zemleypod zemljomzerizaminīNilattaṭiBhūgarbhapid zemleyuuntererdENGLISH,BOSNIAN,CEBUANO,GALICIAN + HMONGJAPANESEPORTUGUESERUSSIANPUNJABILATINSIMOANROMANIANSCOTTISH GELICSERBIANSHONASINDHISINHALASLOVENIANSLOVAKFRENCHSOMALISOUTHERN SOTOSPANISHSUNDANESESWAHILISWEDISHTAJIKTAMILTELUGATHAITURKISHUKRANIANURDUUZBEKVIETNAMESEWELSHWESTERN FRISIANXHOSAYIDDISHYORUBAZULULUXEMBOURGISHLITHUANIANLATVIANLAOKYRGYZKURDISHKOREANKHMERKAZAKHKANNADAJAVANESEINDONESIANIRISHITALIANIGBOICELANDICHUNGARIANHINDIHEBREWHAWAIIANHAUSAHAITIAN CREOLEGUJARATIGEORGIANGERMANGREEKFINNISHESTONIANFILIPINOESPERANTODANISHAFRIKAANS + DUTCHCZECHCROATIANCORSICANCHINESECATALANBURMESEBULGARIANBELARUSIANBASQUEBANGLAAZERBAIJANIARMENIANARABICAMHARICALBANIANPASHTOPERSIANPOLISHNYANJANORWEGIANNEPALIMARATHIMONGOLIANMAORIMALTESEMALAYALAMMALAYMALAGASYMACEDONIANGALICIANHyperpolyglot / Multilingual UndergroundsPhonetic translations From Google TranslateUsing Google as a way to help understand the translations of the word underground was a fun and interesting task that discovered truths of the underground that could only be told liguistically. For instance, the Belarusian translation of underground is ‘метро’ pronounced ‘mietro’ literally referring to the metro system similar to the Italian word for underground ‘metropolitana’ with understandably the same reference, which inherently is underground. While in other languages like Swedish ‘underjordiska’ could mean ‘under earth - or soil’ directly relating itself to the structure of what is below our feets. Interestingy the majority of the word’s understandings are as the anglisized understanding of ‘underground’, which biases the idea of the place below over any particular infrastructure of the underground, or make-up of it - in a sense a more generalized term. Understanding how the word is used seems to reveal culture and history, as in Belarus and Italy as places that celebrate their metro systems, or the idea of a metro by using that particular word when referring even to the sub-stratta, or other languages that show a preference to the soil. Certainly the languages must have much more detailed words specific to certain types of underground references, but at least at the surface level this much can be discerned. A Multilingual World of Underground Understandings141ORIGINSLABOURDWELLINGREFUSEMEMORYUNDERGROUND PROJECT TYPESGHOSTSFEARSECURITYRESISTANCERENDERINGEXPOSUREEDGESFUTURESINTERSECTIONSPLACESSvaldbard Stockholm St. Petersburg MoscowFinnmarkBerlinAntwerpParisIstanbulGaza StripCairo Derinkuyu AthensBilishtPlovdivSofia Geneva Alps NaplesRomeBresciaViennaBratislava PragueMaastrictManchesterLiverpoolBrightonOxford LondonWiltshireNottinghamEdinburghCape TownSydney Coober Pedy Melbourne TokyoPyongyangBeijing Xi’anShanghaiDelhiKinmen Islands HouaphanhHong Kong Matsu Islands San FranciscoLos AngelesTonopah Las VegasYumaFlagstaffTijuana + San Diego TorontoNew York CityPhiladelphiaWashingtonChicagoMontrealMexico CityBogotaPotosiBuenos AiresSantiagoOdessaSeattleNORTH KOREAPYONGYANG, NORTH KOREAPyongyang MetroNORWAYSVALDBARD, NORWAYGlobal Seed VaultFINNMARK, NORWAYAndersgrotta Bomb SheltersPALESTINIAN AUTHORITYGAZA STRIP, PALESTINIAN AUTHORITYGaza Warfare TunnelsRUSSIASAINT PETERSBURG, RUSSIAMetroMOSCOW, RUSSIALost library of Ivan the Terrible; Metro-2 [government transport network]; Moscow’s Secret RiverSCOTLANDEDINBURGH, SCOTLANDMedievel VaultsSLOVAKIABRATISLAVA, SLOVAKIAAbandoned MetroSOUTH AFRICACAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICAPrestwich Memorial-Golden Acre [Shopping Centre]SWEDENSTOCKHOLM, SWEDENAtomic Bomb Defences - Pionen BunkerSWITZERLANDGENEVA, SWITZERLANDTunnels of CERN [European Organization for Nuclear Research]ALPS, SWITZERLANDNational RedoubtTURKEYDERINKUYU, TURKEY - deepest subterranean cityISTANBUL, TURKEYBasilica CisternUKRAINEODESSA, UKRAINEOdessa CatacombsUNITED ARAB EMIRATESDUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATESDubai MetroUNITED STATES OF AMERICANEW YORK CITY, USANYC Sewers LOS ANGELES, USALevitated MassSEATTLE, USAUndergroundWASHINGTON [DC], USACHICAGO, USALower Wacker DriveFLAGSTAFF, USARoden Crater [Volcanic Cinder Cone]YUMA, USAJoint Tunnel Test Range [Arizona]SAN FRANCISCO, USATONOPAH, USAYucca Mountain Nuclear StorageLAS VEGAS, USAFlood ChannelsPHILADELPHIA, USABroad Street SubwayTIJUANA, MEXICO + SAN DIEGO, USABorderCITIES AND THEIR UNDERGROUND ARCHITECTURESALBANIABILISHT, ALBANIABunkersARGENTINABUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINABuenos Aires SubteAUSTRALIASYDNEY, AUSTRALIAMELBOURNE, AUSTRALIAMelbourne DrainsCOOBER PEDY, AUSTRALIA - (white man in a hole [Kupa-piti]) Opal Mining HomesAUSTRIAVIENNA, AUSTRIAVienna’s SewersBELGIUMANTWERP, BELGIUMPre-MetroBULGARIAPLOVDIV, BULGARIAPlovdiv Seismological LabSOFIA, BULGARIAMetro StationBOLIVIAPOTOSI, BOLIVIACandelaria Silver Mine; Cerro RicoCANADATORONTO, CANADAYork Metro Extension; Path SystemCHILESANTIAGO, CHILEMetroCHINABEIJING, CHINAXI’AN, CHINATerra Cotta Soldiers;KINMEN AND MATSU ISLANDS, CHINAUnderground Cities of Kinmen and MatsuHONG KONG, CHINAHong Kong Data CentresSHANGHAI, CHINAShanghai Civil Defence Shelters COLOMBIABOGOTA, COLOMBIAZipaquira’s ‘Cathedral’ SewersCZECHIAPRAGUE, CZECHIAUnderground Theatre [Orpheus in the Air Raid Shelter] ENGLANDBRIGHTON, ENGLANDBrighton SewersOXFORD, ENGLANDPrison TunnelsNOTTINGHAM, ENGLANDCaves [man-made caves]MANCHESTER, ENGLANDThe Irk Culvert WILTSHIRE, ENGLANDBurlington - Secret CityLONDON, ENGLANDVictorian Catacombs World War II BunkersLIVERPOOL, ENGLANDWilliamson Tunnels EGYPTCAIRO, EGYPTMetroFRANCEPARIS, FRANCESewersGERMANYBERLIN, GERMANYS-Bahn + U-Bahn TunnelsGREECEATHENS, GREECEMetro Museums INDIANEW DELHI, INDIAChawri Bazar StationITALYBRESCIA, ITALYBuried WaterwaysROME, ITALYCloaca Maxima; NAPLES, ITALYFontanelle CemeteryJAPANTOKYO, JAPANTokyo Chikatetsu [Underground Railway]LAOSHOUAPHANH, LAOSHidden City of ViengxayMEXICOMEXICO CITY, MEXICONETHERLANDSMAASTRICT, NETHERLANDSSint Petersburg TunnelsSewersAbandoned London Underground Berlin’s Water TowerChristian and Karen Boros Collection Bunker Cape Town TunnelsMetroPeople’s Square StationRuienEarthquake MitigationCatacombsBunker TunnelsAtlantic Avenue TunnelSaw Mill RiverGrand Central Terminal Air Raid SheltersDubai Underground Space Finding 143 144L O C A T I O N | Critical Studies of SiteIn the final act of Delirious Underground Part I a critical locational analysis of four separate locations will be studied in order to get a sense of implementation based on place, that can be broken down into geographical information, context, culture, et cetera. The site selection process focuses on four major zones of landscape each drastically differet from the other - being the arctic, desert, suburbia, and metropolitan. These locations provide two different possible solutions to an architecture of the underground that focuses on areas of vastness such as in the desert and arctic, and an underground implementation that is ingrained within more densified culture as in the suburbs and metropolitan. Within each of these drastic geographies a series of locations will be internally studied, and the one with most resonance and excitement toward the goals of this thesis will be chosen and studied in a dossier collection to follow.P R E F A C E | Dossiers147D E S E R T | Rub’al-Khali ‘The Empty Quarter’Location : latitude: 21.0953° N, longitude: 48.7190° E Size : 250 000 mi2Terrain : 610 miles long, and 310 miles wide. 800 metres high in the Southwest to ~ sea level in the Northeast. Covered with sand dunes up to 250 metres high that are interspersed with gravel and gypsum plains. Its large abundance of feldspar (rock forming minerals) abundant in the sand, often appears as a reddish-orange in color.Climate : Approximately 100mm of rainfall with some areas only receiving 30 - 40mm. Consistent patterns of daytime high heat, and night time freezes. The region as a whole is classified as ‘hyper-arid’ with a mean relative humidity of about 52% in January and 15% in June-July. Daily maximum temperatures average 47°C (117°F) in July and August, reaching peaks of 51°C (124°F). The daily minimum average is 12°C (54°F) in January and February, although frosts have been recorded. (World Weather and Climate Information, 2018)Culture : The space of the desert in Western Asia covers most of the Arabic Peninsula, as such it engulfs much of Yemen, Oman, the Persian Gulf, Jordan and Iraq. In this regard popular or the mainstream culture finds itself at the peripheries, with a culture of oil bordering the inner desert from the coastal cities. However if one ventures far enough into the sandy abyss of the Rub’al-Khali they will undoubtedly find a sub-culture of nomadic peoples that traverse the sands, sometimes up to 6 months at a time, living only on camel’s milk. It becomes a place where time moves slower and majestics more noticed, like how a 1/2 hour of rain fall can sustain certain plant life for up to 2-3 years. It becomes a place of game where traditional ‘camel droppings’ can be hashed out in the sand, or in quieter times a place for poetry to be recited. It also harbours a culture of fear to which one must always treat a man in the distance as hostile, supporting the carriage of weapons such as a rifle. It is only in the desert that a man can find absolute freedom.Images obtained from ‘Google Earth’Hardship : Lack of food and water in the desert makes traversing it a limited effort by only those with the experience and/or courage to cross it. There are also constant raiders from other nomadic groups that can leave you for dead. The sun and the wind can burn the skin in seconds if precaution is not taken, let alone exhaustion from the heat. Information from the Encylopaedia Britannica, 2017149Rub’al-Khali - Broad Scale | Image from ‘https://www.videoblocks.com/video/flight-above-desert-rub-al-khali-at-saudi-arabia-red-sands-and-blue-sky-horizon-line-nature-empty-space-for-text-rbumlaxhzjcneexul’Rub’al-Khali As Seen From Space | Image from ‘http://versesofuniverse.blogspot.com/2013/06/bukit-bukit-pasir-rub-al-khali.html’Rub’al-Khali At the Ground Level | Image from ‘https://www.britannica.com/topic/family-law/images-videos/media/201326/158983’Rub’al-Khali | In ContextIn the first analysis of the dossiers - the Rub’al-Khali desert, one finds a location with the largest challenge of the site being its awesome boundlessness. Focusing on the nomadic tribes of the desert is one of the main contexts to which this esquisse is in many ways almost forced to respond to, but non-the less excitingly so. Its underground form suggests a space that can be hidden from other nomadic peoples from different tribes that will not be provided the opportunity of stealing camels and other goods due to the hidden nature of the design. This hidden design is enhanced in using the surrounding context of the shifting sand above as its advantage to completely cover the tops of these bunker like forms. Additional to this it uses the sand as a flooring material providing comfort in the space, while making available sand for games of camel droppings, and providing a space for food, water, and camel storage. An outcome here important to note is that it creates itself out of this culture of the desert that actually tends to normalize the sort of ‘underground’ nomadic culture of Arabia rather than maintain it as a sort of spectacle, thus forcing the hybrid nature of the underground to the point where it no longer generates multiple programs as the earlier typology studies have taught.Rub’al-Khali | Esquisse153A R C T I C | Spitsbergen ‘Pointed Mountains’Location : latitude: 78.45° N, longitude: 16.00° E Size : 14 546 mi2Terrain : As its name describes, the terrain of Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svaldbar archipelago in Norway is characteristic of its mountainous geology. However it is also a polar region and in turn made up of a variety of glaciers and fjords that shape the matrix of its landscape.Climate : Sitting at a high latitude Spitsbergen has average summer temperatures of ~ 4°C to 6°C and January averages at −12°C to −16°C. The North Atlantic Current moderates Spitsbergens’s temperatures, particularly during winter, giving it up to 20°C higher winter temperatures than other places at that latitude. Whereas the sheltered fjord areas between mountains provide about 2°C lower summer temperatures and 3°C higher winter temperatures. (World Weather and Climate Information, 2018)Culture : Although its origins were to operate as a whaling base in the 17th + 18th centuries this has ended. Since then an administrative hub of Svaldbar was erected in Longyearbyen establishing itself out of the economy of coal mining. Although the area is still seen as a corporate town, as much of it is still provided for by various mining companies, there is a growing research and tourism sector that the archipelago is slowly depending on more in order to gradually stop mining operations throughout the land. What is interesting with this place 78° in the North is that it locates its 2642 (2012) person community in one of the most inhospitable places on the planet, and because of the immense scale difference from people to landscape area, there is an unmarked border that drives a neo-primitive culture of anyone leaving the confines of the modern community to the desolate arctic landscape of potential danger.Images obtained from ‘Google Earth’Hardship : The cold and lack of light at certain times of the year make it hard to traverse the terrain, and make the process of enacting every day tasks more difficult. There is also frequent avalanches in the region that have caused housing collapses, especially in the major town of Longyearbyen.Information from the Encylopaedia Britannica, 2017Spitsbergen Mountains | Image from ‘http://www.planetary.org/blogs/guest-blogs/svalbard_2009.html’Ice Sheet - Glacial Pond | Image from ‘https://global.hurtigruten.com/destinations/svalbard/spitsbergen-polar-bears-and-arctic-adventure-b/’Culture at the Ground Level | Image from ‘https://en.visitsvalbard.com/’Spitsbergen | In ContextThe next location analysis is in the arctic in a place called Spitsbergen, in Svaldbard as described at the onset of this dossier. Linked to the desert study as one of two possible solutions to Part II, it similarly experiences the same challenges that faced the Rub’al-Khali. Like the desert of sand this desert of snow finds itself in a remote place that tends to force a sub-culture (that is really just the culture of the place) into the location, so that the project can start to be generated by holistically underground means in both its form and program, but as suggested is not quite there yet. This forced ‘sub-culture’ or ‘underground’ culture is a reaction to the absense of culture in the region that would require a project in either the desert or arctic to generate its own sub-culture out of the architecture, rather than the architecture becoming the hub of hybrid program, again going back to the typology studies, and reflecting what was so successful about those ad their relationshi to the etymology of the underground. One thing successful about this idea, is that the architecture is generated first out of necessary means, in this case providing relief from the cold into its igloo inspired form dug into the side of a mountain, the idea of generating the underground form out of necessity may come back as a good place to start designing. Spitsbergen | Esquisse159S U B U R B I A | Santa Ana Canyon ‘Promised Land for Migrating Americans’Location : latitude: 33.745571° N, longitude: -117.867836° W Size : 27.5 mi2 (300 000 population)Terrain : Santa Ana is the fourth most densely populated place in the United States with a population of ~ 300,000 people at 12,471 people per sq. mile. It is located in Southern California, next to the Santa Ana River, approximately 10 miles from the coastline. 27.3 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.90%) is water. Of the land, a moderate portion of it is apart of the canyon of Santa Ana.Climate : Hot semi-arid climate, with hot, dry summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall. From June to September the average daytime high is 28.3°C and a nighttime low of 17.2°C. In the winter, the average daytime high is 21.1°C and a nighttime low of 8.9°C. Rainfall averages about 345mm per year, most of which falls from November through April. (World Weather and Climate Information, 2018)Culture : The area concentrated around the Santa Ana Canyon, California falls within the realm of suburbia. A place where families invest their future, and kids roam free. It is a place that provides the openness of the rural with the luxuries of the urban, hence sub-urban. However, deeper within this sprawling matrix of ‘cookie cutter’ homes, far beyond the cultures of face value is a place of ambient silence, where what some would say the ‘true cultures’ of the suburbs can begin to be found. Either indoors through the sounds of basement bands, or rebel parties, perhaps the clashing of sounds from a screen immersing a gamers paradise. Taking a closer look at the happenings outside will reveal sub-cultures of street racing, of youth adventure, and countercultures of drug dealings and ganag warfare. All of a sudden this silent place becomes one of mystery and tension only those who belong to it can begin to understand, and those aquainted with it to mis-judge.Images obtained from ‘Google Earth’Hardship : This specific region within the Orange County is notorious for annual landslides, forest fires and with it overbearing smoke outbursts. Additional to this the area suffers from an effect designated the ‘Devil’s Wind’ or the Santa Ana’s as some residents prefer, which is an immense pressure of hot, dry air pushed through the surrounding canyon from the nearby desert that has the power to blow over trees and fan bush fires as it carries hot ash along its gust. It has been the cause of house fires killing residents who have stayed in their homes ‘past the point of no return’. Oddly its surge seems to generate perfect surf winds through oppositional force against the direction of the waves.Information from the Encylopaedia Britannica, 2017Major Interconnecting Highway - Broad Scale | Image from ‘https://www.flickr.com/photos/ocarchives/6838413523’Santa Ana Canyon | Image from ‘https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/330310953897640968/?lp=true’Suburbia Street Level | Image from ‘https://www.countryliving.com/life/kids-pets/g4906/things-60s-kids-did-that-would-horrify-us-now/?slide=13’Santa Ana Canyon | In ContextThe first of the second possible solutions to an architecture of the underground that focuses itself in the more populated suburb and city is that of the Santa Ana Canyon, a suburb in California, just outside of Los Angeles. It takes cues from the arctic study that centres its design around necessary means, in this case as a defensive to a matrix of natural events such as frequent earthquakes, flash fires, and the Devil Wind’s mentioned in the analysis previous. This way it allows itself to be built in and around the suburbs with potential to interlink one underground refuge space to another. It is a space that also attempts to celebrate the sub-cultures of the suburban underground albeit basement culture of bands, video games, and partying, to name a few, including hinting at the celebration of the automobile as a thing of counter-culture in the suburbs centered on illegal street racing and car meet ups. The failure here is that although it invites these subcultures into the space below the suburbs, harnessing a hybridity to the underground in its differentiation between form and use, it too begins to normalize the cultures it wants to celebrate, ridding these ‘underground’ cultures of their sub-cultural contexts, which this thesis in Part II seeks to stimulate in some way without hindering.Santa Ana Canyon | Esquisse165M E T R O P O L I S | Tōkyō-to (Tokyo) ‘The East Capital’Location : latitude: 35.6895° N, longitude: 139.6917° E Size : 844.80 mi2 (9.2 million population)Terrain : The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 56 miles East to West and 16 miles North to South. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 meters. Chiba Prefecture borders it to the East, Yamanashi to the West, Kanagawa to the South, and Saitama to the North.Climate : Tokyo lies in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with hot, humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, averaging 26.4°C, and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2°C. Annual rainfall averages nearly 1530 mm, with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.Tokyo also often experiences typhoons every year, though few are strong. (World Weather and Climate Information, 2018)Culture : Tracing far back in history, Japan is vibrant with a culture originating with villages fortified by clans, that in time made up the metropolis it is today celebrating various garden and street festivals, along with major shrine events and theatre performances, not to mention their love of cuisine. It is also a very dense place, both in its population, and also its architecture by proxy. Culminating in The overtaking of alleyways to accommodate the needs of the metropole. As such it is inherently a place that quite explicity reveals a culture of finding space, yet may be hidden under all the advertisements that seem to swallow the foreign visitor whole. This search for space garnishes the culture of the city by sprouting an ‘underground scene’ rivaled by few cities around the globe, generating perpetual sub-cultures that grow out of these spaces, finding light, only to make way for the new cultural wave of the next generation. Images obtained from ‘Google Earth’Hardship : Tokyo is near the boundary of three tectonic plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with resonance. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people.Information from the Encylopaedia Britannica, 2017Tokyo - Broad Scale | Image from ‘https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo’Tokyo Alleyway | Image from ‘httpsjw-webmagazine.com5-best-areas-to-drink-in-tokyo-8134a46e133’In Shinjuku - Image from Brandon Da CostaTōkyō-to | In ContextThis final esquisse and second example to the following possible locational solution of an underground architecture is located in Tokyo, Japan as answer to the metropolitan question of the underground in the context to the goals of this thesis. Here it too successfully creates itself as a countermeasure to the persistent problems of typhoons and earthquakes that have hit the island country as a whole. Using seismic bearings, and sewage channels on the periphery of its form ensures that the structure can withstand even multiple climatic weather events simultaneously. It also successfully becomes a space not to celebrate the ‘cultures of the underground, but in fact invite these sub-cultures to use the space as a street below the street, therefore stimulating the right amount of hybridity in its underground design that in essence opens up potential to many more programs that will find their way into this space. One failure of this idea, though is its competition with other underground constructs, a consequense of the location being extremely densified and thus a place who’s undergrounds are already in high use. In this regard it would be wise to combine these successful ideas of an architecture of the underground into the location of suburbia, since it holds much opportunity and originality within its depths.Tōkyō-to | Esquisse171C H E C K P O I N T | An Underground Architecture0m .5m 1m 2mThe culmination of this research in Part I has been fruitful in surfacing a trajectory for Part II outlined in the precedent studies, that in many ways set traction for the subsequent research in the typology studies, introducing the underground as a multi-functional space that holds more substance to its program than deliriously believed. This then led to an operational study, again outlining a hybrid narrative through the multiple ‘happenings’ occuring around each operation through time. A mapping exercise carved the way to understanding enough underground projects to begin implementing ones with the notions of this study instilled in it, in two possible solutions, one focusing on barren space - the desert and arctic, while the other in populated space - suburbia and the metropolitan. Generating a few ideas toward the possible execution of Part II all the while learning about what it would mean implementing an underground structure in the given regions. Leading to the conclusion that an underground architecture for the sake of the underground, is capable through mankind’s purest connection to the subterra - the operation of moving under. However this operation must focus on necessity, that drives its program in subtle ways so to harbor sub-cultures of the place that find their way naturally into these spaces. Thus, celebrating ‘underground’ cultures in an underground construct, without the normalization of the former - a true expression of underground architecture.An Architecture of the Underground175B A S E B A L L O F ‘ T H O M A S E . ’ A P r i m a r y S o u r c e o f I n s p i r a t i o n T h r o u g h o u t P a r t I I“I say let the world go to hell, but I should always have my tea” - Fyodor Dostoyevsky [Notes from the Underground, p.156, 1864]P A R T I I | Model Homes for ParanoiaContinuing this analysis of the underground into the world of suburbia, there are first a few transitional items that must be explained in the preceeding pages as the underground leap into part two takes a few turns. The first is to know that the analysis into suburbia is fueled by realistic speculation. Whereas the suburbs will be studied in a way that does not assume an entire fiction, but plays with what is currently understood of the single family suburb and grapples a fiction around that understanding, suggesting that the overall study could be put into practice, or in other words the analysis is not unrealistic to the point where it couldn’t be done today, in fact it can be (and of course that is one unspecified constraint on the study of the project). The second is to know that the ‘real’ culture of the suburbs in the context of the project are interpreted to be a collection of under-worlds. That is to say that every house has a different occupant [assuming clones still do not exist] and as such a different life, and each is hidden in varying ways.Suburb of the Collective Under-World185Underground in the suburbs could not be a spontaneous world underneath suburbia, it could not be this dystopic place that exists in a dystopic era, it could not be some type of connection underneath each house using basements as a catalyst or any other type of large-scale connectivity or other interweaving architecture spun under the ‘burbs. I mean it could be, they all could be, but it would not be playing with the realities of single family suburbia that exist here, right now, at this moment...currently 2019, nor the study constraints put forth.In this case the question remains, with these constraints how does one move underground? The answer lies in the word. Translated from a physical understanding, to a more philosophical one. Underground in the suburbs is no longer about the abstraction of moving down, but rather operating at the scale of the neighborhood, its cultures, and lifestyles, which all originate in many respects at the level of the individual. Paranoia is something that effects everyone, especially in the single family suburb, each and everyone’s fears drives a lifestyle that is at a separate level to the world above - in suburbia this is the under-world, and the catalyst driving each project.Paranoia in the Suburbs187With paranoia as the gateway connecting the single family suburb with the under-world there then becomes many varieties of ways to move ‘downward’. In fact now down can also become behind, or inside, all variations of hidden vs revealed or concealed that operate at the autonomy of the individual. These ‘under-worlds’ all exist today, and is an understanding of the suburbs that in part drives this project. When someone hides something from their neighbor, peeps outside their front window, parks their car in their garage, sets up cameras around their house, or hell even has a ‘man-cave’, these are all operations of paranoia that run off of ideas of fear, conformity, trust or other, but the point is they all exist today. The ‘R’ rated version of this intuitive understanding would be to aknowledge that there are those who practice illegal and obscure activity within their walls, like dealing drugs, serial killing, operating as a dominatrix, or hosting orgies to name a few. Although this research operates within the ‘PG’ zone of this, it does understand the intentions of clients who may see certain spaces as an opportunity for ‘other’ activities, differing from the ones being suggested, but everyone is invited, and that is kind of the point.As Above So Below, Behind, Inside...189S I T E | A Suburb of Southern California...The suburb is, to a large extent, about conformity, production, consumption, and amenity.The fabric of the suburb has long been associated with sameness and homogeneity. As in architecture, through the aesthetic of the ‘cookie cutter’ house development neighborhood, or culturally unvarying through the ‘do as your neighbor does’ mentality that seems to streamline suburbia into a context of seemingly infinite monotony.As cities evolve their populations change, driven by mobility, speculation, and desire. Though this is true in urban centers. It is also true in the suburb. Considered the first mass produced suburb, Levittown was originally planned as a project for postwar housing in the 1940’s by the developers Levitt & Sons, that Lewis Mumford described as a “uniform environment from which escape is impossible” (Galyean, 2019). Although grimm, the field of the suburbs has evolved to something more encompassing of an urban strategy, though Mumford’s point arguably still hold’s up to this day in many given contexts.Suburbia193In suburbia there is also an interesting friction between the consolation of quantifiability that the suburb was designed to provide and the innate human need to measure oneself against one’s neighbor. Recent shifts in the suburb have challenged their bucolic design. Focus moves away from simple amenity like granite countertops, lighting fixtures, and crown molding, toward a variety of infringing external forces. New and terrifying normals like climate change, resource scarcity, and upward pressure of population growth and mobility challenge the conceptual construct of the suburb. These external forces then also generate more of a necessity toward adaptation and change in a condition that wants so much to remain the same as it has always been. These new adaptations become the ‘new thing’ in the neighborhood, some hidden, and some exposed [in due times], but they will allow the conformity to the neighborhood that homeowners aspire to, even if it is for reasons other than trying to fit in. The only question on everyone’s minds will be if they are keeping up with the Jones’s.Keeping Up With the Jones’s195It is in the gaps of the terrifying normal that this project operates. Model Homes for Paranoia accepts the single family house as a typology, and the suburban neighborhood as a critical urban form. More specifically that which is situated in the region of Southern California, and uses these 20th century inventions as the bearing of speculation and critique. This project explores the under-world of the single family suburb through individual paranoic structures of the neighborhood catalyzed from infringing realities that necessitate architectural change in a place already operating in many ways out of paranoia. It sees the envelope of the single family house as its one design constraint, to remain conformed to the rest of the streetscape, in a neighborhood fictionally existing amongst other homes that operate much in the same way. Everything within, behind, and under the house are ‘up for grabs’ as long as for the most part the house remains spectatingly normative.The Terrifying Normal197P R O J E C T 0 1 | Being SafeLet me introduce you to the Safe House. Do you ever feel like you just don’t quite fit in to the rest of the neighborhood? Well now is a good chance to invest in a house equipped with space that can keep your deepest desires, interests, possessions, and secrets hidden from public view, and all wrapped in the guise of a beautiful mid-century modern that will leave your Californian neighbors speechless. It comes with two separate circulations, one open to the public, and one open fully to the private that circulate around a center space that is the safe zone of the house. In here it is modelled as a stepped room to reflect the possibility of increasing depth if need be, however it can also be flat if desire permits. This central unit is quite flexible in program. It can be used to store prized artifacts, paintings, books, jewlry or what have you. It can also be used to operate as a religious space for those that are apart of a religious minority in the neighborhood and may be afraid to reveal that. The space also comes with a hideaway door to ensure no uninvited guests. Safe House201 2020m 01m 02m 04mSAFE HOUSE | ElevationsFRONT ELEVATIONSIDE ELEVATION2030m 01m 02m 04mSAFE HOUSE | Plan 01 [Space Open to Public]2050m 01m 02m 04mSAFE HOUSE | Plan 02 [Space Open to Private]207SAFE HOUSE | Axonometric [Worm’s Eye]209HIDDEN SAFE SPACEHYPER-NORMATIVE CONFORMITY[Most interior and exterior]CENTER SPACE UNSEEN AND OFF THE RECORD IN SQUARE FOOTAGE [Imperceived space from guests]NORMATIVE CIRCULATION OCCURS AROUND THE HIDDEN CENTER ZONECENTRAL SPACE USESAFE ZONE OCCURS INSIDE OF THE NORMATIVE PROGRAM, AND IS QUAINT IN ITS CIRCULATIONSAFE HOUSE | Diagrams211SPACE FOR ART OF ALL KINDS / ARTIST STUDIO / PRIZED ARTWORKSPLACE OF WORSHIP FOR RELIGIOUS MINORITIES IN THE LOCAL AREA / A PLACE OF RETREATLIBRARY FOR PRECIOUS COLLECTIONS / STORAGE AREA FOR PRICELESS ARTIFACTS0m 0.1m 0.3mSAFE HOUSE | Hydraulic Door Detail [Hidden Door]213FLOOR CONNECTIONHYDRAULICAIR GAPTYPICAL WALL CONSTRUCTIONType: Hydraulic HideawaysCONCRETEFLOOR ASSEMBLYBASEBOARD[Portion ofassembly]DRYWALL2 x 4 [Vertical]2 x 4 [Horizontal]SAFE HOUSE | Paranoic Transparency 2150m 01m 02m 04mSAFE HOUSE | Section SAFE ROOM EQUIPPED WITH HIDDEN ENTRANCEP R O J E C T 0 2 | Going off the RadarIn an age of satellites and signals wouldn’t you want to ensure the privacy of your living? I know I would. Luckily for us there is the Off the Radar House.Set up as a normal house on the street, its innerworkings are much more ‘suited’ to operate against the surveillance era. Behind its craftsman house exterior hides a billboard structure decoying as a normal house - frontage, sides, and back. However the real house begins in the garage. As far as circulation goes, one can enter the home by driving into the garage and accessing the stairs to the sub-terra suite, completely uncaptured by Google surveillance technology or other. On top of this the basement is veiled with a faraday cage to make sure that unwanted signals will not penetrate into the home. In fact the structure on the top level acts as a second faraday cage, so if one was not enough, now you can have two layers of signal stoppage to your home. How’s that for being off the radar?Off The Radar House221 2220m 01m 02m 04mOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | ElevationsFRONT ELEVATIONSIDE ELEVATION2230m 01m 02m 04mOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Plan 01 [Decoy]2250m 01m 02m 04mOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Plan 02 [Underground]227OFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Axonometric [Worm’s Eye]229BASEMENT SUBSTRUCTURE[Faraday Cage]INTERNAL STRUCTURE[Billboardconstruction]HOME ENTRANCE[Hidden from most surveillance]ELEVATION FACADE[Conformity toStreetscape]0m 0.1m 0.3mOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Billboard Detail231CONCRETE ANCHORINGFLOOR TO PANELTRANSITIONANCHOR PLATE TO CONCRETEANCHOR BOLT TO BOARD FRAMELIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FRAMINGTYPICAL FACADE CONSTRUCTIONType: BillboardPLATE CONNECTION‘X’ BRACINGBEAM PLATEOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Paranoic Transparency2330m 01m 02m 04mOFF THE RADAR HOUSE | Section FARADAY CAGE FOR SATELLITE SECURITY[Space below open to multiple configurations]P R O J E C T 0 3 | Controlling the ClimateLive in a climatically unsafe area? Well have no fear because the Climate Control House has your back no matter what the natural event.Equipped with all the necessities of everyday living on the main level, its real attributes are hidden inside the walls and beneath the home. Its walls are fortified with concrete sandwiching fire-retardant insulation, so you no longer have to worry about your house blowing away in the event of a hurricane, or tornado. Fires are also no problem with the fortified exterior walls, in fact the home comes with the necessary attachments to clad the house in whatever seems fitting, allowing the house to not appear as a conrete building but rather a ‘normal’ house on the block. Immune to earthquakes, the house utilizes flat seismic isolators at its base in order to ‘slip and slide’ in the event of tectonic tremors. These isolators are also rigged with hydraulics so that in the event of a flood the home can simply elevate itself above the ground with the help of the water through buoyant pressure. For this house, disaster is just another ordinary day.Climate Control House239 2400m 01m 02m 04mCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | ElevationsFRONT ELEVATIONSIDE ELEVATION2410m 01m 02m 04mCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Plan 01 [Main Level]2430m 01m 02m 04mCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Plan 02 [Basement Level]245CLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Axonometric [Worm’s Eye]247PLACEMENT WITHIN THE SUB-STRATAFLOOD WATER CATCHMENTFLAT SEISMIC ISOLATORS+ BEDDINGLOWER LEVEL RATION STORAGEHYPER-NORMATIVE CONFORMITY0m 0.1m 0.3mCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Wind and Fire Resistant Wall Detail249WATER STOP[For the forgiving days]INTERIOR INSULATIONTYPICALFIRESCREEN[Meant toburn]FIRE RETARDANTINSULATIONCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Paranoic Transparency2510m 01m 02m 04mCLIMATE CONTROL HOUSE | Section BASEMENT SPACE [Becomes first floor in the event of a flood]AQUATIC INFRASTRUCTURE [Able to support building load when no water]P R O J E C T 0 4 | Being NeighbourlyAre you part of an extended family? If you are, hell even if you are not, this house is the perfect house for you.This house is set up like any other contemporary duplex home, only with the sleight variance of housing two programmatically different friendly neighbors. On the one side is the space for single family living, quite regular and really the side of the home that completes the ‘normalized’ look of the house overall, and at a much cheaper price point than a fully detached home located somewhere similar. On the opposite side provides the capability for large occupancy living, be it extended family, commune, or any other type of shared living. The partition wall is such that the large occupancy side is well equipped to handle a large resonance of sound so that the single family side is undisturbed by their neighbor. Again luckily for the side of the many, their living is further masked by the normalcy of their neighbor. One side incentivises a cheaper cost of single family living while the other side cloaks typically unwanted large occupancy living - it just screams a friendly neighbor.Friendly Neighbor House257 2580m 01m 02m 04mFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | ElevationsFRONT ELEVATIONSIDE ELEVATION2590m 01m 02m 04mFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Plan 01 [Main Level]2610m 01m 02m 04mFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Plan 02 [Upper Level]263FRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Axonometric [Worm’s Eye]265SPLIT SIDES - A: LOW OCCUPANCYB: HIGH OCCUPANCYHIDDEN PROGRAM WITHINSHARED DINING EXPERIENCESINGLE FAMILY DININGGARAGE ON BOTH SIDESLARGE BEDROOM SPACESHYPER-NORMATIVEEXTERIOR0m 0.1m 0.3mFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Duplex Party Wall / Partition Detail267WALL BUILT FOR SOUND SUPPRESSION AND DIVISION. MORE COMPOUNDED ON BUSIER SIDE OF THE DUPLEX FOR INCREASED SOUND MITIGATION, LESS COMPOUNDED ON THE SIDE OF LOWER OCCUPANCY12.5 MM SOUND SHIELDPLASTER BOARD2 x 4’s SPACED ON 2x6 BASE CROSSINSTALLED FOR MAXIMUM ACOUSTICAL SUPPRESSION20 MM SOUND PLANKCONCRETE CENTRE WALL[FIREPROOF - SOUND MITIGATING]RESILIENT BARS[CAN USE Z-GIRTS]SOUND PROOF MATACOUSTICAL ROCK WOOL INSULATION[FIRE RETARDANT APPLICATION]FRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Paranoic Transparency2690m 01m 02m 04mFRIENDLY NEIGHBOR HOUSE | Section SIDE B: HIGH OCCUPANCY [COMMUNE; RENTAL UNITS]SIDE A: LOW OCCUPPANCY [SINGLE FAMILY; BACHELOR]P R O J E C T 0 5 | Building for FuturesAfraid of buying a house only to lose it to crazy things like inflation and gentrification? The Futures House has you covered from today to tomorrow.Operating as a quaint house above ground, this home is affordable, and inexpensive to run, and live off of, functionally its form is already economically feasible. Now this home comes with an elevator in the back, along with a separate hoist for perpetual underground expansion. This can be used over time incurring affordable costs when need be to either expand private space, or increase privately owned public space to renters perhaps, that can live in spaces provided below the home above at rediculously low rates, but in so doing helping to continue to finance the original home. All this as a pre-emptive response to combat the economic struggle against property taxes, home inflation rates, and gentrification that forces many buyers out of an area that they fell in love with for so many years, well not in this home. Oh, did I mention that all of its underground spaces are completely off the record?Futures House275 2760m 01m 02m 04mFUTURES HOUSE | ElevationsFRONT ELEVATIONSIDE ELEVATION2770m 01m 02m 04mFUTURES HOUSE | Plan 01 [Main Level]279AAA0m 01m 02m 04mFUTURES HOUSE | Plan 02 [Underground]2810m 01m 02m 04mFUTURES HOUSE | Plan 03 [Expansion - Typical]283B BBHOIST SECTIONFUTURES HOUSE | Axonometric [Worm’s Eye]285HYPER-NORMATIVE CONFORMITY [The house itself is quaint ensuring its disquise]B1 - BASEMENT PLAN A [Hidden Program - this level is typical to be added space to homeowner]CONTINUOUS ADDITIONS OF SQUARE FOOTAGE BELOW HOMEFUTURES HOUSE | Expansion Diagram287B1 - LEISURE / RENTAL SPACE[Can expand to maximize usecapacity]MAIN UNIT - AFFORDABLEB2 - CONTINUEDEXPANSION FOR PERSONAL SPACEOR RENTAL UNITB3 - B° - CONTINUED EXPASION AVAILABLE IF NEED BEEVERY LEVEL CAN BEUSED FOR PERSONALUSE OR A MEANS OFFINANCIAL SECURITY.IN EITHER INSTANCETHE ADDITIONAL SQUARE FOOTAGE WILLBE ‘OFF THE GRID’ ENSURING THE LOT ABOVE TO REMAIN AFFORDABLE AS LONG AS THE OWNER DESIRESBASEMENT PLAN ADIGGING HOIST BUILT ADJACENT TO HOUSE ALLOWING THE CONTINUED DEPTH INCREASE AS NEED BEFUTURES HOUSE | Paranoic Transparency2890m 01m 02m 04mFUTURES HOUSE | Section SECTION B-BBP R O J E C T X ° | Add OnsIf the houses above did not have enough of what you were looking for, perhaps some of these additional spaces can provide the extra bit of security one could hope for.Set up by a necessity of seen versus unseen, the following add on items to the home are displayed ‘raw’ as pieces to add to a garden, side yard, or backyard, even installed inside of the home for additional safety and security. The final section pins these items together in an arbitrary setting to discover one potential operation between the objects in a site at their most extreme uses. For instance the bush can operate in this matrix of other bushes with an underground space that connects to the home, or it can simply be just the one contained space, which can be entered or exited from the top. The application of each add on is to the discretion of the buyer.Hopefully these add on items meet further needs if need be.Additional Inclinations2950m 0.1m 0.3mADD ONS | Bush Peeper297ANCHOR BOLTPLANT MESHSTEEL FRAMEAND SUPPORTSROTATER HATCHSNOOP SLIDERSLIDER STOP0m 0.1m 0.3mADD ONS | Hedge Peeper299ANCHOR BOLTPLANT MESHSTEEL FRAMEAND SUPPORTSSLIDER STOPHEDGE ENTRYSNOOP SLIDER0m 0.1m 0.3mADD ONS | Periscope Retrofit [Fireshoot Installation]301MAGNIFYING LENS[3 TIER MAGNIFICATION]CONVEX LENS REFRACTORTRIANGULAR IMAGE REFLECTORFULL 360° PANORAMIC CAPABILITIESCONVEX ADJUSTMENT LENSSTEEL PIPING DEVICE UNITOUTLOOK LENS0m 01m 02m 04mADD ON - ARBITRARY HOUSE WITH COMPONENTS | Section PERISCOPE DETAIL HEDGE DETAIL BUSH DETAILC H E C K P O I N T | A New Idea of SuburbIt should be noted that the suburbs, as has been painted here, are not so simple. Neighborhoods are different, and vary from one block to the next, and not every house would have some type of ‘implementation’ as suggested in this fictionally posed neighborhood. Rather realistically one house in every, or every other block could operate as instrumented. Each of these houses critically challenges the status quo in a context that seems too paranoid to realize its own potential. Model Homes for Paranoia provides a way of reevaluating the single family lot to more cater to the autonomy of the resident through external factors, and in so doing generating a subversion to the generic architectural language of suburbia through its under-world. The suburbs do not have to be this place associated with sameness, and homogeneity, but rather with personality, individuality, and uniqueness. A place to go to, and a place one can call home. The beginning of a new paradigm in single family living, and it sits in the realm of suburbia.An Unexpected Paradigm of Suburbia307B I B L I O G R A P H Y | Sources Accessed| Admiraal, Han, and Antonia Cornaro. Underground Spaces Unveiled: Planning and Creating the Cities of the Future. ICE Publishing, 2018.| Ackroyd, Peter. London Under. Vintage Books, 2012.| Ammon, Francesca Russello. Bulldozer: Demolition and Clearance of the Postwar Landscape. Yale University Press, 2016.| Anagnostou, G. (Ed.), Ehrbar, H. (Ed.). (2013). Underground. The Way to the Future. London: CRC Press.| Archer, Caroline, and Parré Alexandre. Paris Underground. Mark Batty, 2005.| Ascher, Kate. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Penguin, 2007.| Barrar, Wayne. Reviewing, Subterra: a photographic study investigating adaptation and commodification in selected locations. Southerly, vol. 65, no. 3, 2005, p. 119+| Basso, Patrizia, and Francesca Ghedini. 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Delirious underground : Part I Da Costa, Brandon 2019
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